Popular Science Monthly/Volume 33/July 1888/Literary Notices

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International Law. By Leone Levi. New York: D. Appleton & Co. ("International Scientific Series," No. LX.) Pp. 346. Price, $1.60.

The author's purpose in undertaking this work was to reduce to a code the leading principles of the law of nations, in order, by the diffusion of knowledge and by furnishing a collection of well-established rules on the subject, to prevent disputes and facilitate a resort to international arbitration. Attempts at codification had been made by David Dudley Field and Bluntschli, but their works did not include the positive portion of the law—that resulting from treaties and conventions. Copious summaries of these documents, so far as they bear on the subject of the work, are given in the book. Prof. Levi, who died on the 7th of May last, was eminently fitted for this work. A student of commercial law and of economical statistics all his life, and professor of the former subject in King's College, London, he was regarded as the foremost authority in the world in the statistics of commerce, so that in preparing this manual he was working in a field which he had long cultivated assiduously and with eminent success. The work consists of two parts. The first part concerns the general subject of international law, and includes a chapter on its nature and authority , a review of the progress of international relations from ancient times to the present, with epoch-marks at the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, and the Congress of Vienna, 1815; and a survey of the political condition and present international relations of the chief states of the world, each in its order. The second part contains "Materials for a Code of International Law," with chapters on the "Constitution and Sovereignty of the State"; "Frontiers"; "The State and its Subjects"; "Rights and Duties of the State"; "Equality of States"; "The Sea and Ships"; "International Intercourse"; and "Treaties." The last title is followed by summaries of the treaty-clauses concerning the various subjects of public and private interest coming within the purview of international law, each under its separate heading. These summaries are followed by discussions of "Private International Law," "Means for the Prevention of War," "War and its Effects," and "Neutrality." In the appendix are given the declarations of the powers and regulations on the abolition of the slave-trade, the free navigation of rivers, rank between diplomatic agents, maritime law, and the Treaty of Washington.

Modern Theories of Chemistry. By Dr. Lothar Meyer. Translated from the fifth German edition, by P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc., and W. Carleton Williams, B.Sc. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 587. Price, $5.50.

Messrs. Bedson and Williams have done a good service for English-speaking chemists in making this valuable work more accessible than it was in the German edition. Meyer's "Modern Theories of Chemistry" has undergone considerable modifications, due to the changing aspect of the science since the first edition was published in 1864. As the book now stands, it is an account of the latest developments of the hypotheses upon which chemical work is being carried on. In the last two editions the author has, "by the introduction of the more important empirical data, sought to make the theoretical conclusions arrived at by their aid easier to follow, and the causes leading to their foundation clearer." The first of the three divisons of the treatise deals with the characteristics of the chemical atoms. The author begins by stating briefly the necessity for holding the atomic theory, and for a knowledge of the atomic weights, and proceeds to discuss the determination of these weights from vapor-densities, from the specific heat of solids, and by means of isomorphism. He then takes up the relations between the properties of elements and their atomic weights, which have led to the grouping known as Mendelejeff's classification. The second part of the work is devoted to the statistics of the atoms, and in this division are discussed forms of combination of the atoms, the law of atomic linking, and valency. In the third division is treated the dynamics of the atoms, or the doctrine of chemical change. Separate chapters of this section are devoted to chemical change produced by mechanical disturbance and by the action of light, to heat and electricity as causes and as effects of chemical change, to the influence of mass in chemical action, and to the stability of chemical compounds. The author considers that the influence of mass has been too little regarded by chemists, but that its importance is being more and more recognized. He expects great progress soon to be made in the direction of chemical mechanics, pointed out by Berthollet at the beginning of this century. Throughout the volume he shows much solicitude that theories shall be recognized as valuable aids to chemical research, but shall not be formed too hastily, nor trusted too implicitly.

Forms of Animal Life. By George Rolleston, D. M., F. R. S. Second edition, revised and enlarged by W. Hatchett Jackson, M. A. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 32 + 937. Price, $9.

This comprehensive treatise is described on the title page as a manual of comparative anatomy, with descriptions of selected types; and the distinctive character of the book, as the late Prof. Rolleston wrote in his preface to the first edition, seventeen years ago, "consists in its attempting so to combine the concrete facts of zoötomy with the outlines of systematic classification as to enable the student to put them for himself into their natural relations of foundation and superstructure." The present edition of the work was begun by the author in 1879, the rewriting of several portions being Intrusted to Prof. Jackson, whom Prof. Rolleston further requested to complete the revision in case he was prevented from doing it himself, and this his death made necessary. The book consists of three sections, the first consisting of descriptions of prepared types, which include the rat and rabbit as types of mammals, the pigeon, ringed snake, frog, perch, and a representative of each of fourteen other classes. The second section comprises descriptions of fourteen plates, four of which are taken from the specimens described in the first part of the work, five others are from specimens of the same animals as described in the first part, but prepared differently, and there are five plates which relate to animals or groups not described before. The remaining two thirds of the volume is devoted to a general account of the animal kingdom, which has a brief classification appended to each class or group, and a bibliography of the most important and recent authorities, which will in most cases give the names of all other accounts worth reading. The two latter features are additions which Prof. Rolleston desired to be made in this edition, and the third chief item of his plan was to enlarge the descriptions of the preparations and accounts of the various classes of animals, and bring them up to the standard of contemporary knowledge. All this has been carried out by Prof. Jackson, though the great length of time which has elapsed since the publication of the first edition has brought with it so many and such vast changes in comparative anatomy that great labor and consequent delay became inevitable.

A Critical History of Sunday Legislation from 321 to 1888 a. d. By A. H. Lewis, D. D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 279. Price, $1.25.

Dr. Lewis has had occasion to make extensive studies of the Sunday question and its history, and particularly of the substitution in the Christian Church of the first day for the original Sabbath of the seventh day. The fruits of these studies are partly embodied in polemical works which he baa written in maintenance of the doctrines and practice of the seventh-day Christians; but outside of arguments and above them are facts in the form of official documents, civil and ecclesiastical, representing different periods of the history of the Church, that help to show how the prevailing notions and usages regarding Sunday have grown up and been fortified, and are, therefore, of general interest. These facts, which are established by full quotations from the original rescripts, are held to illustrate the real nature of the Sunday question of to-day, and to be fitted to guide to a way of dealing with it; for, the author says, "Every effort to remodel existing Sunday legislation, or to forecast its future, must be made in the light of the past." From the setting forth of the compilation, Dr. Lewis draws the conclusion that the first Sunday legislation was the product of that pagan conception of the Romans which made religion a department of the state. It appears in the form of an edict by Constantine as Pontifex Maximus, a. d. 321, ordering the observance of "the venerable day of the sun," in which no reference is made to Christianity. The first designation of this day of the sun as "the Lord's Day" appears sixty-five years later, or in a. d. 386, in connection with the mention of pagan and imperial holidays "baptized with new names and slightly modified. . . . During the middle ages Sunday legislation took on a more Judaistic type, under the plea of analogy, whereby civil authorities claimed the right to legislate in religious matters, after the manner of the Jewish theocracy." The Continental Reformation made little change in the civil legislation on the subject. The early Anglo-Saxon laws were historically, and therefore, probably, logically, the product of the middle age legislation of the "Holy Roman Empire." "The English laws are an expansion of the Saxon, and the American are a transcript of the English." Thus the author believes that he traces a historic continuity in the legislation from paganism till to-day. "In the Sunday legislation of the Roman Empire, the religious element was subordinate to the civil. In the middle ages, under Cromwell, and during our colonial period, the Church was practically supreme." Any claim that Sunday legislation is not based on religious ground "is contradicted by the facts of all the centuries. Every Sunday law sprang from a religious sentiment"; originally pagan, then gradually modified by the interweaving of the Christian idea of commemorating Christ's resurrection; then in the middle ages making a substitution of Sunday for the Sabbath of the Jewish theocracy. The historical review concludes with analyses of the Sunday laws of the several United States. While argument on Sunday legislation is not intended, the bearing of the book is against it as not being a function of political government; except so far as to preserve civil order, and particularly to repress the liquor traffic on the day, the leisure of which gives so many opportunities for rioting and criminality.

Principles and Practice of Morality. By Ezekiel Gilman Robinson. Boston: De Silver, Rogers & Co. Pp. 264. Price, $1.50.

This treatise is designed as a text-book, and has grown out of the lectures which the author—who is President of Brown University—has given to his classes in ethics, when no existing text-book was found sufficient for the occasion. Ethical theories have been modified to a marked degree by the exhaustive discussions to which they have been subjected in recent years; and the resultant changes do not pass unobserved in the treatise, but are kept in mind when not formally referred to. Yet existing controversies are touched upon only so far as is necessary for the elucidation or defense of the positions here taken. Distinction is made between the science and the philosophy of ethics, the former being regarded as that which teaches what is moral, the latter as illustrating why it is moral. This brings up the consideration of the sources of moral obligation, or, as the author expresses it, with some originality of language, "the origin of the feeling of oughtness," to which considerable prominence is given, and in the discussion of which may be found the central point of Dr. Robinson's theory. The later theories on this subject—designated as the Hegelian, which makes the standard one of general contemporary recognition, or conventional; the evolutionary, which supposes it to have been developed or evolved; and the historical, which assumes it to be the fruit of experience—are declared insufficient to account for it. While the last two theories may explain how moral laws and their sanction became known, neither of them goes to their origin; neither explains the imperativeness with which recognized moral law speaks to the human heart. Likewise, no final reason for the enforcement of moral obligation can be found in a Supreme Will, or in the beneficent ends which may be regarded as resulting from actions, or in the egoistic principles, whether rationalist, {esthetic, or sentimental, as are implied in other theories. The real ground of moral obligation is held to lie in the eternal nature of God—"in the immutable moral nature of the Supreme Personal Being who is the original and archetype of all human beings." Of the three parts into which the body of the book is divided, the first is devoted to the ascertainment and distribution of fundamental principles; the second to a discussion of those principles, under the general heading of "Theoretic Morality"; and the third to practical morality.

The Manual Training School. By C. M. Woodward, Ph. D. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 366. Price, $2.

No one can read Prof. Woodward's book without getting from it an interest in the aims of the manual training schools of America, a belief in their methods, and a respect for their results. The author, who has been director of the Manual Training School of Washington University, in St. Louis, since its organization in 1880, naturally has most to tell about the history and experience of that institution, but he gives much information also about manual training schools of other cities in this country, and similar schools which he has visited abroad. He describes the fittings and tools which the workshops should have, also many suitable exercises in drawing, in bench-work, turning, and carving in wood, and in forging, foundry-work, and machine-shop work, all of which is illustrated with sketches and drawings. The St. Louis school is too young to have much of a record in the success of its graduates in their life-callings, many of them at the time of writing of this book being still students in higher institutions; but the director has collected enough replies to a circular letter to show that those graduates who have been employed beside young men without such training have generally taken higher positions and pay, while their capableness has disposed their employers to prefer such graduates over other applicants for employment. Several addresses given by the author at various times and places, and dealing with special features of the subject, are incorporated in this volume. The closing chapter and the appendices contain plans of the buildings occupied by the schools of St. Louis and Toledo, the courses of study in those schools, and suggestions in regard to administration.

Artistic Modern Houses at Low Cost, by R. W. Shoppell (Co-operative Building Association, New York, 25 cents), gives sixty designs, with plans, etc., including those designs the general types of which have pleased the largest number of customers, selected from the other books published by the Association. The estimates of cost range from $650 to $3,875; and the publishers guarantee that the actual cost of construction in each case shall be covered by the estimates which they are prepared to furnish, with detailed plans and specifications.

The Drainage of a House, by William Paul Gerhard, C. E. (Boston, Rand-Avery Company), embodies in a neat pocket pamphlet of fifteen pages a summary of the objects to be sought, and the general principles to be observed in providing for drainage and the removal and disposal of all waste waters from the house.

Four prizes were offered by Mr. Henry Lomb, of Rochester, N. Y., several months ago, through the American Public Health Association, for as many "best" essays on designated subjects relative to the health of families, school-children, and workmen. The essays to which the prizes were awarded have been published by the Association in separate pamphlets, at ten and five cents each, and together, in a bound volume, thoroughly indexed, at fifty cents. They are Healthy Homes and Foods for the Working-Classes, by Victor C. Vaughan, M. D., in which are considered the location, adaptation to it, arrangement, heating and ventilation, water-supply and disposal of waste, care, and all other points about the house in which questions of health may be involved, and discussions of the value and healthfulness of the various animal and vegetable foods.—The Sanitary Conditions and Necessities of School-Houses and School-Life, by D. F. Lincoln M. D., in which the various features of school-house construction are considered from the point of their bearing on the health of pupils, and the care of the eyes, seats, desks, and positions, physical training, and the effects of school-life and school-work on the nervous system are especially considered.—Disinfection and Individual Prophylaxis against Infectious Diseases, by George M. Sternberg, M. D., U. S. Army; and The Preventable Causes of Diseases, Injury, and Death in American Manufactories and Workshops, and the best Means and Appliances for preventing and avoiding them, by George H. Ireland. These essays are written from the practical point of view, and for the purpose of being read and acted upon by plain men, with style and matter well adapted to that object. They are published by Irving A. Watson, Secretary of the American Public Health Association, Concord, N. H., and the American News Company, New York.

In the Practical Lessons in the Use of English for Primary and Grammar Schools, by Mary F. Hyde (D. C. Heath & Co.), instruction in composition is expected to be begun in the third year primary. The scheme of the lessons is intended to be progressive, and to involve constant practice in the correct use of all the parts of speech, the placing of the words in their proper relations, and the right employment of the usual punctuation-marks. The aim has been to lead the pupil to see for himself, to direct his attention to the use of language as the expression of thought, and to teach him to avoid errors by being trained from the first to use correct forms—not by placing before him incorrect forms for correction. These purposes are well brought out. The study is not confined to detached sentences, but passages from good writers are also introduced.

We have already commended the cumulative method of teaching languages of Prof. Adolphe Dreyspring. In the First German Reader, on this method (New York, D. Appleton & Co., 70 cents), the author has constructed a narrative presenting the varied activities of childhood in plain, simple, and facile language, with rapid succession of interesting and critical events, and the additional attractions of frequent, simple, but expressive outline illustrations. The motto of the cumulative system, "Repetition the mother of studies," is faithfully adhered to. The style of the narrative is flowing and pure, the vocabulary is limited, and every effort has been made by the author to compose a book which young students will like, and to make the road to knowledge as free from difficulties as possible.

The practical part of the Geography for Schools, by Alfred Hughes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England; Macmillan & Co., New York, 50 cents), is based on the results of several years' experience at the Manchester Grammar-School. It consists chiefly in the inclusion of problems to be worked out by the pupil, which depend largely upon reference to the atlas and the use of common mathematical knowledge. The problems involve questions of latitude and longitude, distances on the earth's surface, the rotation of the earth, the apparent movements of the fixed stars and of the sun, the seasons, altitudes of the sun, length of day and night, movements of the earth, length of shadows, etc. The constant references to the atlas required are found useful in promoting the knowledge of descriptive geography.

Robert Seide's work on Industrial Instruction, which has been translated by Margaret K. Smith (Heath, 80 cents), is a defense of manual training against objections raised against it in the Synod of the Canton of Zurich, in 1882 and 1884. The author maintains that industrial instruction has "a great educational value; a significant mental and physical disciplining power; and a dee preaching social and moralizing influence."

Slips of Tongue and Pen, by J. H. Long (Appleton, 60 cents), is a convenient little manual, which points out many common errors of speech and writing, explains the appropriate uses of words often confused, and includes suggestions on composition and notes on punctuation. The matter is arranged more attractively than in the regular style of reference-books, and illustrations are given of both the correct and the incorrect uses of the words treated.

The pamphlet on Seminary Libraries and University Extension, by Herbert B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins University (N. Murray, 25 cents), gives an account of the German practice, which is spreading among American universities, of making special collections of books for the use of students in special branches of study. It contains also a short paper advocating the extension of the system to public reference libraries, in connection with courses of lectures, and another describing the similar practice arising in England under the name of university extension.

Mr. Edward Potts's monograph on FreshWater Sponges (Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences) has been prepared for the purpose of describing genera and species, mostly North American, that have been discovered since the publication of Mr. Coates's "Description and Classification" (London) in 1881; to give the results of the examination of the character and variations of already known North American species, and for use as a book of reference on all "good" species. The author further hopes to revive, among lovers of Nature, the appreciation of the existence of sponges in our fresh waters; and to show how to find, collect, classify, and preserve them.

Skeleton Notes upon Inorganic Chemistry, by P. de P. Ricketts and S. H. Russell (John Wiley & Sons, New York), is a book of blanks for preserving notes of lectures, experiments, or studies. The present volume is labeled Part I, and is devoted to the non-metallic elements. A definite number of pages is allotted to each element, the section being preceded by a table giving the ascertained constants and properties of the element, its applications, and its principal binary compounds.

Of the Course of Lectures on Electricity by George Forbes (Longmans, Green & Co., London and New York, $1.60), five were delivered in 1886 before the London Society of Arts, and the sixth—which shows the applications of the general principles to one department of practical engineering—was delivered at the Electrical Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1884. The lectures were intended to meet the desires of an intelligent audience, ignorant of electrical science, but anxious to obtain sufficient knowledge to enable them to follow the progress now being made in it; and the attempt is made to present in clear language the fundamental facts governing electrical phenomena in such a manner as will leave the reader nothing to unlearn.

In Loomis's Contributions to Meteorology Reviewed (K. Kittredge, Ann Arbor, Mich., 50 cents), H. Helm Clayton has compiled a summary of the series of papers which Prof. Loomis has published in the "American Journal of Science and Arts," and which are collectively pronounced "one of the best pieces of work in inductive meteorology of the present age." This summary, covering the chief results of the discussions, is intended for those persons who have not access to the papers in their complete form.

The Conferencias Filosóficas, or Philosophical Lectures; second series, Psychology, of Enrique José Varona (Havana), comprises a series of thirty lectures which were given in the Academy of Medical, Physical, and Natural Sciences of Havana in 1880 and 1881, and have been already printed in various numbers of the "Revista de Cuba." The opening lectures explain the general principles and foundations of the science, and the importance of the phenomena of movement to its study. They are followed by discussions of the various corporal senses in their order, and then by their relations and qualities of sensation and perception, memory, representation, association, imagination, the emotions and sentiments, the processes of determining and acting, suggestions respecting classification, and a bibliography.

Prof. Balfour Stewart and W. W. H. Gee have undertaken a series of small books on Practical Physics, of which vol. I. Electricity and Magnetism (Macmillan, 60 cents), has already been issued. This volume is based on the one devoted to the same subject in the "Elementary Lessons in Practical Physics" by the same authors. It is a laboratory manual, consisting largely of simple experiments and measurements in electrostatics, magnetism, and current electricity, the principles of which are at the same time explained to the student. In order to make the book complete in itself, a chapter is inserted describing the use of scales, calipers, wire gauges, the balance, etc. In the appendix will be found plans of certain school laboratories, a list of apparatus, tools, and materials, and other information that should be of value to the teacher. The book is designed for schools and the junior students of colleges, and is intended to facilitate the employment of practical physics as a training for the mind.

Under the title The Child and Nature, a book has been issued by Alex. E. Frye (Bay State Publishing Co., Hyde Park, Mass.), setting forth a method of teaching geography in which sand-modeling is an important feature. The author maintains that pupils should be led to regard the land areas as possessing not only length and breadth, but also the very important dimension of height, "which divides the surface into the great slopes that form the river-basins, determine rainfall and drainage, distribute soil as food for plants, and thus prepare the earth to become the home of man." He advises that the study begin with modeling the district about the school-house, and shows by illustrative lessons and lists of questions how ideas of the forces acting upon land and water, of the plant-and animal life, and of human occupations and interests in the vicinity, may be developed. As the next step he puts the study of the earth's surface as a whole, "first, because the globe is the simplest whole; and, second, because the globe study alone can lead to those relations to heat, winds, and rainfall which enable the pupil to take the next step in the science." The continents, he says, should be studied later as parts of the globe structure. As with the district, he shows how the subjects of forces, life, and man are to be taught in the department of foreign geography.

Three Kingdoms: a Handbook of the Agassiz Association, by Harlan H. Ballard (Writers' Publishing Co., New York, 75 cents), was written "to serve instead of a personal reply to the inquiries concerning the Agassiz Association." It comprises first an account of the organization, whose object is to aid young people in the collection, study, and preserving of natural objects and facts; then directions for organizing a chapter of the Association and a plan of work. In the following chapters are given suggestions for work with plants, insects, birds and their eggs, minerals, and archaeological specimens. Exchanging specimens, books to read, taking notes, more about the Association, and various hints and helps, occupy the remaining chapters.

The first of a series of "Nature Readers," with the title Sea-side and Way-side, has been written by Julia McNair Wright (Heath, 25 cents). It is intended for children who are beginning to read, and consists of descriptions in simple language of the structure and habits of insects and shell-fish, its peculiar aim being to interest the child in natural objects while he is learning to read.

Profs. Oscar Oldberg and John H. Long have published A Laboratory Manual of Chemistry (W. T. Keener, $3.50), for students of medicine and pharmacy. As described in the preface, "it contains experiments intended to familiarize the student with the properties of the principal elements, lessons in synthetical chemistry, a systematic course in qualitative analysis, examples in quantitative determinations, including the official methods of assay for a few important drugs, and a short chapter on the chemical and microscopical examination of urine." An appendix contains lists of apparatus and reagents, and tables of weights, solubilities, etc. The volume is illustrated with figures of apparatus, and plates showing the appearance of various crystals, corpuscles, casts, etc.

Photography applied to Surveying, by Lieutenant Henry A. Reed, U. S. A. (Wiley, $2.50), is a treatise on a subject on which little seems to have been yet published outside of France. The author, having been strongly impressed with the value of photography in his own practice, has prepared an account of the method for the use of surveyors in this country. He describes the instruments and materials required, and the mode of procedure, in the methods by plane perspectives, cylindric and radial perspectives, and gives an account of telescopic and balloon photography. He states as the advantages of photographic surveying that the field-work may be performed with great rapidity, and with an economy of men and material unattainable by other means; there is no fear of having omitted some important point, and no occasion for rejecting doubtful observations; the plotting presents no difficulties, and abundant means of checking results are afforded. The volume is a thin quarto, and is illustrated with fifty-eight cuts and a photographic map.

Dr. C. W. Dulles's little manual on Accidents and Emergencies (Blakiston, 75 cents) has reached a third edition. It has been revised and enlarged, and new illustrations have been added. The aim of this book is not to take the place of calling a physician or surgeon, but to fill up with helpful action the interval before skilled assistance arrives. It contains information which every one is liable to have a sudden need for during the present season of travel and more or less dangerous sports.

From the same publishers comes the sixth American edition of Dr. T. H. Tanner's Memoranda on Poisons (75 cents), which has been revised by Henry Leffmann, M. D. Obsolete portions of the text have been omitted, and some new matters of importance have been added. The toxicology of poisonous food has been rewritten. This manual is for the medical practitioner, and contains, besides directions for the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning, also a statement of his duties with reference to obtaining information for a judicial inquiry.

Mr. F. B. Goddard has written three pamphlets for the guidance of the householder, dealing with Furniture and the Art of Furnishing, Marketing, and Grocer's Goods (Tradesman's Publishing Co., New York, each 20 cents). They are full of practical information in regard to qualities, imitations, prices, uses, and care of the various goods and supplies described, which will save the inexperienced buyer many times the cost of the pamphlets.

The Story of New York, by Elbridge S. Brooks (Lothrop, $1.50), is the first volume in "The Story of the States" series. It aims to give the reader an acquaintance with its field, by presenting to him the stages of growth through which the State of New York has passed. The progress of the average citizen through the changes of over two hundred years is represented by the story of a hypothetical Knickerbocker family, which is woven in with the historical data. The author has been more solicitous to make a readable book than to crowd a great number of facts into a small space, and is much aided in this respect by the many illustrations.

The negro literature of our Southern plantations has been increased by a volume of Negro Myths from the Georgia Coast, which have been recorded by Charles C. Jones, Jr. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., $1). The stories of the negroes in the swamp region of Georgia and the Carolinas have a character of their own, differing from those in vogue among the negroes of middle Georgia, which have been recounted by Mr. Joel Chandler Harris. The stories of this collection are short, and are told in vernacular. A glossary is appended to the volume.



Agassiz. Alexander. Three Cruises of the U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer Blake. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 2 vols. Pp. 314 and '220. $8.

Allen, John H., Brooklyn, N. Y. The Spanish-American Reciprocity Treaty. Pp. 21.—Decline of American Shipping. Pp. 18.

Barnard, F. P. Strongbow's Conquest of Ireland. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 209. 75 cents.

Bell, Alexander Melville. World-English: the Universal Language. New York: N. D. C. Hodges. Pp. 29. 25 cents.

Buchanan, Rachel. A Débutante in New York Society. D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 363. $1.25.

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Trade Values of Fertilizers. Pp. 8.

Cooke, Rose Terry. Poems. New York: William S. Gottsberger. Pp. 412. $1.50.

Dowling, Richard. Ignorant Essays. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 195. 25 cents.

Drift, The, of the Age. New York: American News Company. Pp. 33. 10 cents.

Dwyer, Charles R., Fort Wayne, Ind. Science in Secondary Schools. Pp. 14.

Eaton, A. W. The Heart of the Creeds. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 200. $1.

Galloway, Robert. The Fundamental Principles of Chemistry. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 3()4.

Goode, G. Brown. American Fishes. New York: Standard Book Company. Pp. 496.

Gray, Asa. Synoptical Flora of North America. The Gamopetalæ. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 494.

Halsted. Byron D., Ames. Iowa. Bulletin from the Botanical Department, Iowa State Agricultural College. 1888. Pp. US.

Heath, D. C. & Co., Boston. "Old South Leaflets," Nos 1 to 13. Pp. 12 to 20 each. 5 cents each. $3 per hundred.

Henderson, J. F., Atlanta, Ga. Crop Report of Georgia for May, etc. Pp. 31.

Hill. G. A., Lessons in Geometry. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp 182.

Hodges. N. D. C. "The Puzzler," May, 1888. No. 4. Seven plates, 10 cents, $1.20 a year,

Hutton, Rev. W. H. Simon de Montfort and his Time. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 186. 75 cents.

Hyde, Mary F. Practical Lessons in the Use of English. Book II. D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 226.

Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. Pilot Coast-Chart for May. Single sheet.

James, U. P., and Joseph F., Oxford, Ohio. Monticuliporoid Corals of the Cincinnati Group. Pp. 32, with Plates.

Kerr. Norman. Inebriety. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 415. $3.

Laing, S. Agnosticism and Christianity. London: Watts & Co. Pp. 31.