Popular Science Monthly/Volume 47/June 1895/Editor's Table
THE GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGY.
WHEN in the seventies Prof. J. H. Gilmore introduced the study of anthropology into the curriculum of the University of Rochester he was probably the only instructor in the subject in America. Since then the science has made rapid progress. Agencies for its dissemination and the aid and encouragement of its students have greatly multiplied, so that to-day the science of Man is taught by specialists, and holds a prominent place in many of our leading educational institutions. Among these are the universities at Toronto, Worcester, Chicago, Cambridge, Philadelphia, Lewiston (Bucknell), and Washington (Columbian). Besides these, as Chamberlain has recently shown, teachers, mainly occupied with some other subject, also give instruction in anthropology at Yale, Leland Stanford, Western Reserve, Indiana, Oberlin,
Dartmouth, Bowdoin, Wisconsin, Brown, Illinois, City of New York, Johns Hopkins, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vassar, Cornell, Lake Forest, Vermont, Kansas, Tufts, Minnesota, Michigan, and Ohio. To this considerable list should certainly be added Wellesley, and probably Union and Mississippi. The list grows, and only a few days since the University of California was announced to introduce anthropology among its subjects for teaching. At most if not all of the institutions where special teachers are engaged in the work there are laboratories for research and practice, and at least beginnings of museums. This is great progress for twenty years, and much more may be expected during the next decade. A subject so important must rapidly force itself into all the prominent institutions of higher learning.
The university instruction reaches 2 66
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��but a small part of the community, but the interest in anthropology ex- tends far outside of the classroom. Courses of public lectures are aston- ishingly well attended. Prof. Put- nam at Cambridge, Dr. Brinton at Philadelphia, Prof. Starr at Chau- tauqua, at New York, and at Chicago have with others for some years past spoken to thousands and have helped to kindle a wide public in- terest in the subject. To-day the great peripatetic Associations for the Advancement of Science Ameri- can, Australian, British, French all have their Section of Anthropology. Many know what a battle had to be fought in at least one of these asso- ciations for recognition of the new- comer. To-day it is not only pres- ent, it dominates. No other section of the American Association draws to its public meetings as does this one; nor is it surpassed in the number of important papers presented. In the popular magazines of the day a con- stantly increasing amount of space is given to papers in some one or other division of the science. In the various science series a full share of volumes are anthropological. Thus, it has been noticed that in the Con- temporary Science Series nearly all the volumes are devoted to the science of man, and every one has observed the great number of valu- able works in this field in the Inter- national Scientific Series. And just now, apparently in response to a demand, two other series have been started, the one devoted to anthro- pology generally, while the other deals with that importaut subdi- vision of the science which makes the criminal the special object of study.
Museums of ethnography and archaeology increase. In no part of the world are they quite wanting. The Museum of Gizeh in Egypt is superb, for study; that at Tiflis in
��the Caucasus is rich ; at La Plata in the Argentine Confederation is a vigorous young institution, with a good anthropological department ; at many of the small capitals of Mexican States are choice series of antiquities. In this matter the United States lags somewhat ; but at Boston (Cambridge), Salem, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, Davenport, St. Louis, and San Francisco are collections of significance which are open to the public. The last comer in this group is the Field-Columbian Museum at Chicago, with an excellent depart- ment in anthropology under the curatorship of Prof. Holmes.
Anthropological societies are not numerous in America. Work in some direction is done in connection w T ith State and local historical so- cieties and State academies of sci- ence. Such local societies as the New York, Chicago, and Davenport Academies of Science have Ethno- logical Sections. Specific Anthro- pological Societies exist at Washing- ton and New York. The Anthro- pological Society of Washington publishes an official organ of value. The Woman's Anthropological So- ciety in the same city has been ac- tive. Interesting societies, including study and social features, are those at Yonkers, N. Y., and at Brook- ville, Ind., both of which have had l'egular meetings at short intervals for several seasons. Of societies which devote themselves to a sin- gle phase of work, there are many, among the most intei*esting of which are the folklore societies. The American Folklore Society meets annually and at various places, but its branches at Montreal, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, New Or- leans, etc. hold regular meetings at stated times. The Chicago Folk- lore Society now the International Folklore Association holds month-
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��ly meetings, and has branch societies in Minnesota and Tennessee.
The governmental work in an- thropology can not he well overesti- mated. The National Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, the Army Medical Museum, and the Bureau of American Ethnology are doing much by displays, lectures, publica- tions, and field work. Of field work by outside organizations more than ever before goes on. The Peabody Museum Exploration in Honduras, the Bandelier Expedition to South America, the Mexican work of the American Museum of Natural His- tory and other organizations, the Armour Expedition to Yucatan, and the Hemenway Exploration in the Southwest testify a widespread in- terest.
There is no question, then, of interest and activity. These are world-wide, and steadily increasing. The real need now is direction of this interest to the best end. It is necessary to so organize and sys- tematize efforts in each department, and in the whole field, that the man of ordinary intelligence may know the meaning of the movement, and come in touch with it profitably. Helps are not entirely lacking. There are journals the American Anthro- pologist, American Antiquarian, Archaeologist, American Journal of Folklore these show the trend. Dr. Brinton's Current Notes in An- thropology in " Science " are help- fully directive. Dr. Fletcher's Quar- terly Bibliography in the American Anthropologist, and Prof. Mason's Annual Summary of Progress in Anthropology throughout the World (published by the United States National Museum), keep read- ers informed of recent literature. With these aids the student has but to select his held. First of all, how- ever, he will do well to read a few good books of a general kind. De
��Quatrefages'sNatural History of Man, and The Human Species, Brinton's Races and Peoples, Tylor's Anthro- pology, Early History of Mankind, and Primitive Culture, are useful. Some of these are by no means re- cent works, but they will not soon be replaced.
��CONCLUSION OF BE. WHITE'S NEW CHAPTERS.
Our readers who have followed with interest Dr. Andrew D. White's papers on the Warfare of Science and that they are many is amply proved by the constant stream of in- quiries as to the publication of the series in book form which we receive will be pleased to learn that the last division of the subject is now completed. As already announced, The Warfare of Science is to be published as a volume. While this final division is running through the Monthly, the author will con- tinue his careful revision of the pre- ceding portions, already well ad- vanced, and by the time the last installment ajmears the printer will probably have begun putting the first part into book form. In his earlier chapters Dr. White has shown how theologians have been forced step by step to yield the domination which they asserted in astronomy, meteor- ology, medicine, and other fields out- side their own province. He is now about to trace the advance from fan- tastic errors to more rational views which the spread of the scientific mode of thinking has compelled them to make in theology itself. This advance has been brought about not so much by direct action on the part of science as by the disposition which science has aroused in men to use their reasoning powers on all matters that are presented to them. The consequence has been that dog- matism and mysticism in preaching and teaching have found fewer and
�� � fewer listeners, while the most intellectual ecclesiastics, feeling the same influence, have shrunk from the dogmatic and mystical extravagances of their predecessors.