Revolutionary War Drill Manual

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Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States
by Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).



In CONGRESS, 29th March, 1779

CONGRESS judging it of the greatest importance to prescribe some invariable rules for the order and discipline of the troops, especially for the purpose of introducing an uniformity in their formations and maneuvers, and in the service of the camp:

ORDERED, that the following regulations be observed by all the troops of the United States, and that all general and other officers cause the same to be executed with all possible exactness.

By Order, JOHN JAY, President

Attest. Charles Thompson, Secretary




REGULATIONS, &c.



CHAPTER I

OF THE ACCOUTREMENTS OF THE OFFICERS, NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS, AND SOLDIERS

The arms and accoutrements of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers, should be uniform throughout. The officers who exercise their functions on horseback, are to be armed with swords, the platoon officers with swords and espontoons, the non-commissioned officers with swords, firelocks, and bayonets, and soldiers with firelocks and bayonets.




CHAPTER II

OBJECTS WITH WHICH OFFICERS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS SHOULD BE ACQUAINTED

The officers and non-commissioned officers of each regiment, are to be perfectly acquainted with the manual exercise, marchings and firings, that they may be able to instruct their soldiers when necessary; they must also be acquainted with dress, discipline, and police of troops, and with every thing that relates to the service.

The commanding officers of each regiment is to be answerable for the general instruction of the regiment, and is to exercise, or cause to be exercised, the officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers, whenever he thinks proper.




CHAPTER III

OF THE FORMATION OF A COMPANY

A company is to be formed in two ranks, at one pace distance, with the tallest men in the rear, and both ranks sized, with the shortest men of each in the center. A company thus drawn up is to be divided into two sections or platoons; the captain to take post on the right of the first platoon, covered by a sergeant; the lieutenant on the right of the second platoon, also covered by a sergeant; the ensign four paces behind the center of the company; the first sergeant two paces behind the centre of the first platoon, and the eldest corporal two paces behind the second platoon; the other two corporals are to be on the flanks of the front rank.




CHAPTER IV

OF THE FORMATION OF A REGIMENT

A Regiment is to consist of eight companies, which are to be posted in the following order from right to left.

First Captain’s

Colonel’s

Fourth Captain’s

Major’s

Third Captain’s

Lieutenant colonel’s

Fifth captain’s

Second captain’s

For the greater facility in maneuvering, each regiment consisting of more than one hundred and sixty files, is to be formed in two battalions (fig. 2), with an interval of twenty paces between them, and one color posted in the center of each battalion; the colonel fifteen paces before the center of the first battalion; the lieutenant-colonel fifteen paces before the center of the second battalion; the major fifteen paces behind the interval of the two battalions; the adjutant two paces from the major; the drum and fife major two paces behind the center of the first battalion; their places behind the second battalion being supplied by a drum and fife; and the other drums and fifes equally divided on the wings of each battalion.

When a regiment is reduced to one hundred and sixty files, it is to be formed in one battalion, with both colours in the centre; the colonel sixteen paces before the colours; the lieutenant colonel eight paces behind the colonel; the major fifteen paces behind the centre of the battalion, having the adjutant at his side; the drum and fife major two paces behind the centre of the battalion; and the drums and fifes equally divided on the wings.

Every battalion, whether it compose the whole, or only half of a regiment, is to be divided into four divisions and eight platoons; no platoon to consist of less than ten files; so that a regiment consisting of less than eighty files cannot form battalions, but must be incorporated with some other, or employed on detachment.

In case of absence of any field officer, his place is to be filled by the officer next in rank in the regiment; and in order that the officers may remain with their respective companies, if any company officer is absent, his place shall be supplied by the officer next in rank in the same company; but should it happen that a company is left without an officer, the colonel or commanding officer may order an officer of another company to take the command, as well for the exercise as for the discipline and police of the company in camp.

When the light company is with the regiment it must be formed twenty paces on the right on the parade, but must not interfere with the exercise of the battalion, but exercise by itself; and when the light infantry are embodied, every four companies will form a battalion, and exercise in the same manner as the battalion in the line.




CHAPTER V

OF THE INSTRUCTION OF RECRUITS

The commanding officers of each company is charged with the instruction of his recruits; and as that is a service that requires not only experience, but a patience and temper not met with in every officer, he is to make choice of an officer, sergeant, and one or two corporals of his company, who, being approved of by the colonel, are to attend particularly to that business: but in case of the arrival of a great number of recruits, every officer without distinction is to be employed on that service. The commanding officer of each regiment will fix on some place for the exercise of his recruits, where himself or some field officer must attend, to overlook their instruction.

The recruits must be taken singly, and first taught to put on their accoutrements, and carry themselves properly.

The position of a Soldier without Arms.

He is to stand straight and firm upon his legs, with the head turned to the right so far as to bring the left eye over the waistcoat buttons; the heels two inches apart; the toes turned out; the belly drawn in a little, but without constraint; the breast a little projected; the shoulders square to the front, and kept back; and the hands hanging down the sides, with the palms close to the thighs.

Attention!

At this word the soldier must be silent, stand firm and steady, moving neither hand nor foot, (except as ordered) but attend carefully to the words of command.

This attention of the soldier must be observed in the strictest manner, till he receives the word

Rest!

At which he may refresh himself, by moving his hands or feet; but must not then sit down or quit his place, unless permitted so to do.

Attention! To the Left- Dress!

At this word the soldier turns his head briskly to the left, so as to bring his right eye in the direction of his waistcoat buttons.

To the Right- Dress!

The soldier dresses again to the right, as before.

The recruit must then be taught

The Facings.

To the Right- Face! Two Motions

1st Turn briskly on both heels to the right, lifting up the toes a little, and describing the quarter circle.

2nd Bring back the right foot to its proper position, without stamping.

To the Left- Face! Two Motions

1st Turn to the left as before to the right.

2d. Bring up the right foot to its proper position.

To the Right about, - Face! Three Motions

1st. Step back with the right foot, bring the buckle opposite the left heel, at the same time seizing the cartridge box with the right hand.

2nd. Turn briskly on both heels, and describe half a circle.

3d. Bring back the right foot, at the same time quitting the cartridge-box.

When the recruit is sufficiently expert in the foregoing points, he must be taught the different steps.

The Common Step

Is two feet, and about seventy-five in a minute.

To the Front, - March!

The soldier steps off with his left foot, and marches a free, easy and natural step, without altering the position of his body or head, taking care to preserve a proper balance, and not cross his legs, but to march without constraints in every sort of ground: the officer must march sometimes in his front and sometimes at his side, in order to join example to precept.

Halt!

At this word the soldier stops short, on the foot then advanced, immediately bringing up the other, without stamping.

The Quick Step

Is also two feet, but about one hundred and twenty in a minute, and is performed on the same principle as the other.

The recruits having been exercised singly, till they have a proper carriage, and are well grounded in the different steps; the officer will then take three men, and placing them in one rank, exercise them in the different steps, and teach them

The March by Files

Which, being of great importance, must be carefully attended to; observing that the soldier carries his body more forward than in the front march, and that he does not increase the distance from his file-leader.

The Oblique Step

Must then be practiced, both in the quick and common time.

In marching obliquely to the right, the soldier steps obliquely with the right foot, bringing up the left, and placing the heel directly before the toes of the right foot, and the contrary when marching to the left; at the same time observing to keep the shoulders square to the front, especially that the shoulder opposed to the side they march to does not project, and that the files keep close.

The recruits being thus far instructed, must be again taken separately, and taught

The Position of a Soldier under Arms.

In this position the soldier is to stand straight and firm upon his legs, with the heels two inches apart, the toes a little turned out, the belly drawn in a little without constraint, the breast a little projected; the shoulders square to the front, and kept back; and the hands hanging down the sides, with the palms close to the thigh, the left elbow not turned out from the body, the firelock carried on the left shoulder, at such a height that the guard will be just under the left breast, the fore-finger and thumb before the swell of the butt, the three last fingers under the butt, the flat of the butt against the hip bone, and pressed so as the firelock may be felt against the left side, and stand before the hollow of the shoulder, neither leaning towards the head nor from it, the barrel almost perpendicular. When exercising, he is to be very exact in counting a second of time between each motion.


THE MANUAL EXERCISE

I. Poise- Firelock! Two motions.

1st With your left hand turn the firelock briskly, bringing the lock to the front, at the same instant seize it with the right hand just below the lock, keeping the piece perpendicular.

2d. With a quick motion bring up the firelock from the shoulder directly before the face, and seize it with the left hand just above the lock, so that the little finger may rest upon the feather spring, and the thumb lie on the stock; the left hand must be of an equal height with the eyes.


II. Cock- Firelock! Two motions

1st Turn the barrel opposite to your face, and place your thumb upon the cock, raising the elbow square at this motion.

2d. Cock the firelock by drawing down your elbow, immediately placing your thumb upon the breech-pin, and the fingers under the guard.


III. Take Aim! One motion

Step back about six inches with the right foot, bring the left toe to the front; at the same time drop the muzzle, and bring up the butt end of the firelock against your right shoulder; place the left hand forward on the swell of the stock, and the fore-finger of the right hand before the trigger; sinking the muzzle a little below a level, and with the right eye looking along the barrel.


IV. Fire! One motion.

Pull the trigger briskly, and immediately after bringing up the right foot, come to the priming position, placing the heels even, with the right toe pointing the right, the lock opposite the right breast, the muzzle directly to the front and as high as the hat, the left hand just forward of the feather spring, holding the piece firm and steady; and at the same time seize the cock with the fore-finger and thumb of the right hand, the back of the hand turned up.


V. Half-Cock- Firelock! One motion.

Half bend the cock briskly, bringing down the elbow to the butt of the firelock.


VI. Handle- Cartridge! One motion.

Bring your right hand short round to your pouch, flapping it hard, seize the cartridge, and bring it with a quick motion to your mouth, bite the top off down to the powder, covering it instantly with your thumb, and bring the hand as low as the chin, with the elbow down.


VII. Prime! One motion.

Shake the powder into the pan, and covering the cartridge again, place the three last fingers behind the hammer, with the elbow up.


VIII. Shut- Pan! Two motions

1st. Shut your pan briskly, bringing down the elbow to the butt of the firelock, holding the cartridge fast in your hand.

2d. Turn the piece nimbly round before you to the loading position, with the lock to the front, and the muzzle at the height of the chin, bringing the right hand up under the muzzle; both feet being kept fast in this motion.


IX. Charge with Cartridge! Two motions.

1st. Turn up your hand and put the cartridge into the muzzle, shaking the powder into the barrel.

2d. Turning the stock a little towards you, place your right hand closed, with a quick and strong motion, upon the butt of the rammer, the thumb upwards, and the elbow down.


X. Draw- Rammer! Two motions.

1st. Draw your rammer with a quick motion half-out, seizing it instantly at the muzzle back-handed.

2d. Draw it quite out, turn it, and enter it into the muzzle.


XI. Ram down- Cartridge! One motion

Ram the cartridge well down the barrel, and instantly recovering and seizing the rammer back-handed by the middle, draw it quite out, turn it, and enter it as far as the lower pipe, placing at the same time the edge of the hand on the butt-end of the rammer, with the fingers extended.


XII. Return- Rammer! One motion.

Thrust the rammer home, and instantly bring up the piece with the left hand to the shoulder, seizing it at the same time with the right hand under the cock, keeping the left hand at the swell, and turning the body square to the front.


XIII. Shoulder- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. Bring down the left hand, placing it strong upon the butt.

2d. With a quick motion bring the right hand down by your side.


XIV. Order- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. Sink the firelock with the left hand as low as possible, without constraint, and at the same time bringing up the right hand, seize the firelock at the left shoulder.

2d. Quit the firelock with the left hand, and with the right bring it down the right side, the butt on the ground, even with the toes of the right foot, the thumb of the right hand lying along the barrel, and the muzzle being kept at a little distance from the body.


XV. Ground- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. With the right hand turn the firelock, bringing the lock to the rear, and instantly stepping forward with the left foot a large pace, lay the piece on the ground, the barrel in a direct line from the front to rear, placing the left hand on the knee to support the body, the head held up, the right hand and left heel in a line, and the right knee brought almost to the ground.

2d. Quit the firelock, raise yourself up, and bring back the left foot to its former position.


XVI. Take up- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. Step forward with the left foot, sink the body, and come to the position described in the first motion of grounding.

2d. Raise up yourself and firelock, stepping back again with the left foot, and as soon as the piece is perpendicular, turn the barrel behind, thus coming to the order.


XVII. Shoulder- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. Bring the firelock to the left shoulder, throwing it up a little, and catching it below the tail pipe, and instantly seize it with the left hand at the butt.

2d. With a quick motion bring the right hand down by your side.


XVIII. Secure- Firelock! three motions.

1st. Bring the right hand briskly, and place it under the cock.

2d. Quit the butt with the left hand, and seize the firelock at the swell, bringing the arm close down upon the lock, the right hand being kept fast in this motion, and the piece upright.

3d. Quitting the piece with your right hand, bring it down by your side, at the same time with your left hand throw the muzzle directly forward, bringing it within about one foot of the ground, and the butt close up behind the left shoulder, holding the left hand in a line with the waist belt, and with that arm covering the lock.


XIX Shoulder- Firelock! Three motions.

1sr. Bring the firelock up to the shoulder, seizing it with the right hand under the cock.

2d. Bring the left hand down strong upon the burr.

3d. Bring the right hand down by your side.


XX. Fix- Bayonet! Three motions.

1st and 2d motion the same as the two first motions of the secure.

3d. Quitting the piece with your right hand, sink it with your left down the left side, as far as may be without constraint, at the same time seize the bayonet with the right hand, down to the stock, and pressing in the piece to the hollow of the shoulder.


XXI. Shoulder- Firelock! Three motions.

1st. Quitting the piece with the right hand, with the left bring it up to the shoulder, and seize it again with the right hand under the cock, as in the second motion of the secure.

2d. Bring the left hand down strong upon the butt.

3d. Bring the right hand down by your side.


XXII. Present- Arms! Three motions.

1st and 2d motions the same as in coming to the poise.

3d. Step briskly back with your right foot, placing it a hand’s breadth distant from your left heel, at the same time bring down the firelock as quick as possible to the rest, sinking it as far down before your left knee as your right hand will permit without constraint, holding the right hand under the guard, with the fingers extended, and drawing in the piece with the left hand till the barrel is perpendicular; during this motion you quit the piece with the left hand, and instantly seize it again just below the tail-pipe.


XXIII. Shoulder- Firelock! Two motions.

1st Lift up your right foot and place it by your left, at the same time bring the firelock to your left shoulder, and seize the butt-end with the left hand, coming to the position of the first motion of the secure.

2d. Bring the right hand down by your side.


XXIV. Charge- Bayonet! Two motions

1st The same as the first motion of the secure.

2d. Bring the butt of the firelock under the right arm, letting the piece fall down strong on the palm of the left hand, which receives it at the swell, the muzzle pointing directly to the front, the butt pressed with the arm against the side; the front rank holding their pieces horizontally, and the rear rank the muzzles of theirs so high as to clear the heads of the front rank, both ranks keeping their feet fast.


XXV. Shoulder- Firelock! Two motions.

1st. Bring up the piece smartly to a shoulder, seizing the butt with the left hand.

2d. Bring the right hand down by your side.


XXVI. Advance- Arms! Four motions.

1st and 2d same as the two first motions of the poise.

3d. Bring the firelock down to the right side, with the right hand as low as it will admit without constraint, flipping up the left hand at the time to the swell, and instantly shifting the position of the right hand, take the guard between the thumb and forefinger, and bring the three last fingers under the cock, with the barrel to the rear.

4th Quit the firelock with the left hand, bringing it down by your side.


XXVII. Shoulder- Firelock! Four motions.

1st Bring up the left hand, and seize the firelock at the swell; instantly shifting the right hand to its former position.

2d. Come smartly up to a poise.

3d and 4th. Shoulder.


Explanation of the Priming and Loading, as performed in Firings.

Prime and Load! Fifteen motions.

1st. Come to the recover, throwing up your firelock, with a smart spring of the left hand, directly before the left breast, and turning the barrel inwards, at the same moment catch it with the right hand below the lock, and instantly bringing up the left hand, with a rapid motion, seize the piece close above the lock, the little finger touching the feather spring; the left hand to be at an equal height with the eyes, the butt of the firelock close to the left breast, but not pressed, and the barrel perpendicular.

2d Bring the firelock down with a brisk motion to the priming position, as directed in the 4th word of command, instantly placing the thumb of the right hand against the face of the steel, the fingers clenched, and the elbow a little turned out, that the wrist may be clear of the cock.

3d. Open the pan by throwing back the steel with a strong motion of the right arm, keeping the firelock steady in the left hand.

4th Handle cartridge.

5th Prime.

6th Shut pan.

7th Cast about.

8th and 9th Load.

10th and 11th Draw Rammer.

12th Ram down cartridge.

13th Return Rammer.

14th and 15th Shoulder.

N.B. The motion of recover, coming down to the priming position, and opening the pan, to be done in the usual time, the motions of handling the cartridge to shutting the pan, to be done as quickly as possible; when the pans are shut, make a small pause, and cast about together; then the loading and shouldering motions are to be done as quick as possible.


Position of each Rank in the Firings

Front Rank! Make ready! One motion.

Spring the firelock briskly to a recover, as soon as the left hand seizes the firelock above the lock, the right elbow is to be nimbly raised a little, placing the thumb of that hand upon the cock, the fingers open by the plate of the lock, and as quick as possible cock the piece, by dropping the elbow, and forcing down the cock with the thumb, immediately seizing the firelock with the right hand, close under the lock; the piece to be held in this manner perpendicular, opposite the left side of the face, the body kept straight, and as full to the front as possible, and the head held up, looking well to the right.

Take Aim! Fire!

As explained before.

Rear rank! Make ready! One motion.

Recover and cock as before directed, at the same time stepping about six inches to the right, so as to place yourself opposite the interval of the front rank.

Take Aim! Fire!

As explained before.


The recruits being thus far instructed, the officer must take twelve men, and placing them in one rank, teach them to dress to the right and left; to do which the soldier must observe to feel the man on that side he dresses to, without crowding him, and to advance or retire, till he can just discover the breast of the second man from him, taking care not to stoop, but to keep his head and body upright.

When they can dress pretty well, they must be taught to wheel as follows:

To the Right- Wheel!

At this word of command the men turn their heads briskly to the left, except the left hand man.

March!

The whole step off, observing to feel the hand they wheel to, without crowding; the right hand man serving as a pivot for the rest to turn on, gains no ground, but turns on his heel; the officer will march on the flank, and when the wheeling is finished, command,

Halt!

On which the whole stop short on the foot then forward, bringing up the other foot, and dressing to the right.

To the Left- Wheel!

The whole to continue to look to the right, except the right hand man, who looks to the left.

March!

As explained before.

N.B. The wheelings must first be taught in the common step, and then practiced in the quick step.

When the recruits have practiced the forgoing exercises, till they are sufficiently expert, they must be sent to exercise with their company.




CHAPTER VI.

THE EXERCISE OF THE COMPANY.


ARTICLE I. OF THE OPENING THE RANKS

Rear Rank! Take- distance!

March!

The rear rank steps back four paces, and dresses by the right; the officers at the same time advancing eight paces to the front, and dressing in a line; the sergeants who covered the officers, take their places in the front rank; the non-commissioned officers who were in the rear, remain there, stepping back four paces behind the rear rank.

Rear Rank! Close to the Front!

The officers face to the company.

March!

The rear rank closes to within a common pace, or two feet; and the officers return to their former posts.


ARTICLE II.

OF THE FIRINGS.

The captain will divide his company into two more sections, and teach them the fire by platoons, as directed in Chapter XIII (Articles 1,2)

The officers must give the words of command with a loud and distinct voice; observe that the soldiers step off, and place their feet, as directed in the manual exercise; and that they level their pieces at the proper height; for which purpose they must be accustomed always to take sight at some object.

The officer will often command, As you were! to accustom the soldier not to fire till he receives the word of command.

In all exercises in detail, the men will use a piece of wood, instead of a flint; and each soldier should have six pieces of wood, in the form of cartridges, which the sergeant must see taken out of the pieces when the exercise is finished.

When the company exercises with powder, the captain will inspect the company, and see that all the cartridges not used, are returned.


ARTICLE III.

OF THE MARCH.

In marching to the front, the men must be accustomed to dress to the center, which they will have to do when exercising in the battalion; and for this purpose a sergeant must be placed six paces in front of the center, who will take some object in front to serve as a direction for him to march straight forward; and the men must look inwards, and regulate their march by him. The captain must exercise his company in different sorts of ground; and when by the badness of the ground, or any other accident, the soldier loses his step, he must immediately take it again from the sergeant in the center. The officers must not suffer the least inattention, but punish every man guilty of it.

The Oblique March

Must be practiced both in the quick and common step, agreeably to the instructions already given.

The March by Files

Is as important as difficult. In performing it, the officers must be attentive that the soldiers bend their bodies a little forward, and do not open their files.

The leading file will be conducted by the officer; who will post himself for that purpose on its left, when they march by the right, and the contrary when they march by the left.

The Counter March

NOTE: This march must never be executed by larger portions of a battalion than platoons.

Caution.

Take Care to counter march from the Right, by Platoons!

To the Right- face! March!

The whole facing to the right, each platoon wheels by files to the right about; and when the right hand file gets on the ground where the left stood, the officer orders,

Halt! To the Left,- Face! And the company will be formed with their front changed.


ARTICLE 4.

OF WHEELINGS

The captain will exercise his company in wheeling entire, and by sections or platoons, both in the common and quick step, taking care that the men in the rear rank incline a little to the right or left, according to the hand they wheel to, so as always to cover exactly their file-leaders.


ARTICLE 5.

OF BREAKING OFF, AND FORMING BY THE OBLIQUE STEP.

The captain having divided his company in two sections will give the word

Sections! Break off!

Upon which the section on the right inclines by the oblique step to the left, and that on the left, following the former, inclines to the right, till they cover each other, when they march forward.

Form Company!

The first section inclines to the right, shortening its step, and the second to the left, lengthening its step, till they are uncovered, when both march forward, and form in a line.

Two more companies may be joined to perform the company exercise, when they have been sufficiently exercised by single companies, but not till then; the inattention of the soldiers, and difficulty of introducing them, increasing in proportion to their numbers.




CHAPTER VII

EXERCISE OF A BATTALION.

When a battalion parades for exercise, it is to be formed, and the officers posted, agreeably to the instructions already given in the third and fourth chapters.

The battalion being formed, it is then to perform the manual exercise, and the wheelings, marches, maneuvers and firings described in this and the following chapters, of such of them as shall be ordered.

N.B. When a battalion performs the firings, the six center files, (viz. three on each side the colors) are not to fire, but remain as a reserve for the colors; and the officers of the two center platoons are to warn them accordingly.

The battalion will wheel by divisions or platoons, by word of command from the officer commanding:

By {Platoons/Divisions!} To the {Right/Left} Wheel!

March!

When the battalion wheels, the platoons are conducted by the officers commanding them; the supernumeraries remaining in the rear of their respective platoons.

The colors take post between the fourth and fifth platoons.

The wheeling finished, each officer commanding a platoon of division, commands:

Halt! Dress to the Right!

And posts himself before the center, the sergeant who covered him taking his place on the right.

Forward- March!

The whole step off, and follow the leading division or platoon; the officer who conducts the column receiving his directions from the commanding officer. When the battalion wheels to the right, the left flank of the platoons must dress in a line with each other, and the contrary when they wheel to the left.

Battalion! Halt!

By Platoons! To the Left, - Wheel!

March!

The wheeling finished, each officer commanding a platoon or division orders:

Halt! Dress to the Right!

Dresses his platoon, and takes post in the interval, the battalion being now formed in a line.




CHAPTER VIII.

OF THE POINTS OF VIEW

The use of these is a most essential part in the maneuvers, which, without them, cannot be executed with facility of precision. They are usually some distant objects (the most conspicuous that can be found) chosen by the commanding officer, to determine the direction of his line, which otherwise would be mere hazard.

The commanding officer having determined on the direction of his line, and his points of view BC, sends out two officers, DE, to seek two intermediate points in the same line; the officer E advances; when D finds him in a direct line between himself and the point of view B, he advances, taking care to keep E always between him and point B, which he must do by making him signals to advance or retire; when E finds D in the direct line between him and C, he makes him the signal to halt, and they will find themselves in the intermediate points DE.




CHAPTER IX.

OF THE FORMATION AND DISPLAYING OF COLUMNS, WITH THE METHOD OF CHANGING FRONTS.


ARTICLE I.

THE CLOSE COLUMN FORMED ON THE GROUND BY THE RIGHT, THE RIGHT FRONT.

Caution by the commanding officer.

Take Care to form Column by Platoon by the Right; the Right Front!

To the Right,- Face!

The whole face to the right, except the right platoon; at the same time the leading file of each platoon breaks off, in order to march in the rear of its preceding platoon.

March!

The whole step off with the quick step, each platoon marching close in the rear of that preceding it, to its place in the columns. The officers commanding platoons, when they perceive their leading file dressed with that of the platoons already formed, command

Halt! Front! Dress!

And the platoon fronts and dresses to the right.


ARTICLE II.

DISPLAY OF A COLUMN FORMED BY THE RIGHT, THE RIGHT FRONT.

Caution by the Commanding Officer.

Take Care to display column to the Left!

The officers commanding platoons go to the left, in order to conduct them.

To the Left- Face!

The whole face to the left, except the front platoon.

March!

The platoons faced, step off, and march obliquely to their places in the line; when the second platoon has gained its proper distance, its officer commands:

Halt! Front! To the Right- Dress!

Dresses his platoon with that already formed, and takes his post on the right: the other platoons form in the same manner.


ARTICLE 3.

THE CLOSE COLUMN FORMED ON THE GROUND BY THE LEFT, THE LEFT FRONT

This is formed in the same manner as the proceeding column, only facing and marching to the left instead of the right. The officers will conduct their platoons, and having dressed them, return to their posts on the right.


ARTICLE 4.

DISPLAY OF A COLUMN FORMED BY THE LEFT, THE LEFT FRONT.

This column is usually displayed to the right, on the same principles as the column formed to the right is displayed to the left.


ARTICLE 5.

THE CLOSE COLUMN FORMED ON THE CENTER, OR FIFTH PLATOON, THE RIGHT IN FRONT.

Caution Take Care to form column on the fifth Platoon, the Right in Front!

To the Right and Left,- Face!

The fifth platoon stands fast; the others face to the center; the officers post themselves at the head of their platoons, and break off; and on receiving the word

March!

conduct them to their posts in the column; the four platoons on the right forming in the front, and the three platoons on the left forming in the rear of the fifth platoon.

When this column is to be formed with the left in front, the four platoons on the right form in the rear, and the three on the left form in front.

In all formations and displaying, the officers whose platoons march by the left, so soon as they have dressed their platoons in line or column, return to their posts on the right.


ARTICLE 6.

DISPLAY OF A COLUMN HAVING THE RIGHT IN FRONT, FROM THE CENTER, OR FIFTH PLATOON.

Caution Take Care to display Column from the Center!

At this caution the officer of the platoon in front posts a sergeant on each flank of it, who are to remain there till the platoon on which the column displays, has taken its post in the line, when they retire along the rear of the battalion to their platoon.

To the Right and Left- Face!

The four front platoons face to the right, the fifth stands fast, and the sixth, seventh and eighth face to the left.

March!

The four platoons of the right march to the right, the first platoon taking care to march straight towards the point of view; so soon as the fourth has unmasked the fifth, its officer commands,

Halt! Front! March!

And it marches up to its post in the line; the third and second platoon, as soon as they have respectively gained their distances, proceed in the same manner; and then the first halts and dresses with them; the fifth platoon in the mean time marches to its post between the two sergeants; and the three platoons of the left form by marching obliquely to their posts in the line, as before explained.


ARTICLE 7

THE CLOSE COLUMN FORMED BY THE RIGHT, THE RIGHT IN FRONT, DISPLAYED TO THE RIGHT.

When a column is formed by the right, and the nature of the ground will not permit its being displayed to the left, it may be displayed to the right in the following manner:

Caution.

Take Care to display Column to the Right!

The two sergeants are to be posted, as before, on the flanks of the front platoon.

To the Right- Face!

The eighth platoon stands fast, the rest face to the right, and march, the first platoon keeping the line; so soon as the eighth platoon is unmasked, it marches forward to its post between the two sergeants of the first platoon, left there for that purpose; the seventh platoon, having gained its distance, halts, fronts and marches up to its ground; the other platoons proceed in the same manner, as explained in the display from the center.


ARTICLE 8

THE CLOSE COLUMN FORMED BY THE LEFT, THE LEFT IN FRONT, DISPLAYED TO THE LEFT.

This is performed on the same principles as the display of the column in the seventh article.

A column formed either by the right, left or center, may, according to the ground, or any other circumstance, be displayed on any particular platoon, on the principles before explained.


ARTICLE 9.

OPEN COLUMNS

Are formed by wheeling to the right or left by platoons; and, when indispensably necessary, by marching the platoon by files, in the following manner:

Caution

Take care to form open Columns by the Right!

To the Right,- Face!

The right platoon stands fast, the rest face to the right, and break off to the rear.

March!

Each platoon marches to its place in the column, the officers taking care to preserve the proper distances between their platoons.

Open columns may in the same manner be formed by the left, center, of any particular platoon, the officers taking care to preserve their proper distances.

Open columns are formed again in line, either by wheeling by platoons, or by closing columns and displaying, as explained in the articles on close columns.

If the commanding officer chooses to close the open column, he will command

Close- column! March!

On which the platoons march by the quick step, and close to within two paces of each other; when the commanding officer of platoons successively command

Halt! Dress to the Right!

And the column is closed.

When the commanding officers chooses to open a close column, he commands

Open- column!

On which the front platoon advances, followed by the others successively, as fast as they have their distances. The different manners or forming and displaying columns being the basis of all maneuvers, require the greatest attention of both officers and men in the execution. The officers must by frequent practice learn to judge of distances with the greatest exactness; as an augmentation or diminution of the proper distance between the platoons, is attended with much confusion in forming a line. They must also be very careful not to advance beyond the line, in forming battalion, but dress their platoons carefully with the points of view.


ARTICLE 10

OF CHANGING THE FRONT OF A LINE

The changing the front of a platoon, division, or even a battalion, may be performed by a simple wheeling; that of a brigade must be performed by first forming the open column, then marching it into the direction required, and forming the line. If it be necessary to change the front of a line consisting of more than a brigade, the simplest and surest method is to form close columns, either by brigades or battalions, march them to the direction required, and display.




CHAPTER X

OF THE MARCH OF COLUMNS

The march of columns is an operation so often repeated, and of so much consequence, that it must be considered as an essential article in the instruction of both officers and men.


ARTICLE 1.

THE MARCH OF AN OPEN COLUMN.

Column! March! The whole column must always begin to march, and halt, at the same time, and only by order of the commanding officer. After the first twenty paces he should command

Support- Arms!

When the men may march more at their ease, but keeping their files close. Before the column halts, he should command

Carry- Arms! Column! Halt!

Dress to the Right!

When marching in open column, the officer commanding will often form battalion, by wheeling to the right or left, in order to see if the officers have preserved the proper distances between the platoons.


ARTICLE 2

COLUMNS CHANGING THE DIRECTION OF THEIR MARCH.

When a close column is obliged to change the direction of its march, the front platoon must not wheel round on its flank, but advance in a direction more or less circular, according to the depth of the columns, that the other platoons may follow.

An open column changes the direction of its march by wheeling the front platoons, the others following; in doing which, the officers commanding platoons must be particularly careful that their platoons wheel on the same ground with the front platoon; for which purpose a sergeant should be left to mark the pivot on which they are to wheel.


ARTICLE 3.

PASSAGE OF A DEFILE BY A COLUMN.

A column on its march coming to a defile, which obliges it to diminish its front, the officer commanding the first platoon commands

Break off!

On which the those files which cannot pass, break off, face inwards, and follow their platoons by files, and as the defile narrows or widens more files will break off, or join the platoon: The succeeding platoons proceed in the same manner.

If the defile is difficult or long, so soon as the front have passed and gained sufficient ground, they will halt till the whole have passed and formed, when they will continue the march.


ARTICLE 4

A COLUMN CROSSING A PLAIN, LIABLE TO BE ATTACKED BY CAVALRY.

When the commanding officer thinks himself in danger of being attacked by cavalry, he must close the column, and on their approach, halt and face outwards; the front platoon standing fast, the rear platoon going to the right about, and the others facing outwards from their centers.

In case of attack, the two first ranks keep up a smart running fire, beginning as well as ending by a signal from the drum. The soldiers must be told, that under these circumstances, their safety depends wholly on their courage; the cavalry being only to be dreaded when the infantry cease to resist them. When the column is to continue its march, the officer commands

Column! To the Front,- Face! March!

The platoons face to the front, and march.


ARTICLE 5

A COLUMN MARCHING BY ITS FLANK.

Column! To the {Right/Left} Face!

If the column marches by the left, the officers go to the left of their respective platoons.

March!

The column marches, dressing by the right.

Column! Halt! Front!

The column faces to the front.




CHAPTER XI

OF THE MARCH IN THE LINE


ARTICLE I.

THE MARCH TO THE FRONT

Battalion! Forward!

At this caution the ensign with the colors advances six paces; the sergeant who covered him taking his place. The whole are to dress by the colors. The commandant of the battalion will be posted two paces in front of the colors, and will give the ensign an object to serve as a direction for him to march straight forward.

March!

The ensign who carries the colors will be careful to march straight to the object given him by the colonel; to do which, he must fix on some intermediate object.

If many battalions are in the line, the ensigns must dress by the ensign of the center; if only two, they will dress by each other. They must be very careful not to advance beyond the battalion they are to dress by, it being much easier to advance than to fall back.

Should the battalion by any cause be hindered from advancing in line with the rest, the ensign of that battalion must drop his colors, as a signal to the other battalions (who might otherwise stop to dress by them) not to conform to their movements; the colors to be raised again when the battalion has advanced to its post in the line.

The commanding officer of each battalion must be careful that his men dress and keep their files close, and to preserve the proper distances between his own battalion and those on his flanks; and when he finds that he is too near the one or the other he must command

Obliquely- To the {Right/Left!

When the battalion will march by the oblique step, as ordered, till they have recovered their distance, and receive the command

Forward!

Upon which the battalion will march forward, and the ensign take a new object to march to.

If the distance is augmented or diminished only two or three paces, the commanding officer will order the colors to incline a little, and then march forward; the battalion conforming to their movement.

The officers commanding platoons will continually have an eye over them, immediately remedying any defect, carefully dressing with the center, and keeping step with the colors.

The officers in the rear must take care of the second rank, remedying any defect in a low voice, and with as little noise as possible.

The soldier must not advance out of the rank the shoulder opposite the side he dresses to; he must not crowd his right or left hand man, but give way to the pressure of the center, and resist that of the wings; he must have his eyes continually fixed on the colors, turning his head more or less, in proportion to his distance from them.

Battalion! Halt!

The whole stop short on the feet then advanced.

Dress to the Right!

The men dress to the right, and the colors fall back into the ranks.


ARTICLE 2

OF THE CHARGE WITH BAYONETS

The line marching, the commanding officer, on approaching the enemy, commands

March! March!

On which the whole advance by the quick step.

Charge- Bayonet!

The line charge their bayonets, and quicken their step; the drums beat the long roll; and the officers and men must take care to dress to the center, and not crowd or open their files.

Battalion! Slow Step!

The battalion fall into the slow step, and carry their arms.

Halt! Dress to the Right!

The battalion halts and dresses to the right.


ARTICLE 3.

METHOD OF PASSING ANY OBSTACLE IN FRONT OF A LINE.

When an obstacle presents itself before any division, platoon, or number of files, the officer commanding the platoons, &c. commands

Break off!

On which the files obstructed face outwards from their center, and follow by files the platoons on their right and left; if the platoons on the wings are obstructed, they will face inwards, and follow in the same manner.

In proportion as the ground permits, the files will march up to their places in front, dress, and take step with the colors.


ARTICLE 4

PASSAGE OF A DEFILE IN FRONT, BY PLATOONS

A battalion marching and meeting with a bridge or defile, over or through which not more than the front of a division can pass at a time, the commanding officer orders

Halt!

And then to the two platoons before whom the defile presents itself

March!

On which they pass the defile in one division. As soon as those two platoons have marched, the commanding officer orders

To the Right and Left- Face!

The platoons on the right face to the left, and those on the left side face to the right.

March!

They march till they join, fronting the defile; when the commanding officer of the two platoons commands

Halt! Front! March!

And they pass the defile; the rest following in the same manner. As soon as the front division has passed, it will halt; and the other divisions, as fast as they arrive in the rear, face outwards, and march by files till they come to their proper places in battalion; when the officers commanding the platoon order

Halt! Front! Dress!

And the platoons dress in line with those already formed.


ARTICLE 5.

PASSAGE OF A DEFILE IN FRONT, BY FILES

If the defile will not permit more than four files to pass, the four files before which the defile presents itself enter without any word of command; the rest face inwards, and follow them; the whole marching through by files.

As soon as the files which first entered, have passed, they halt; the others, as fast as they pass, marching to their places in battalion.


ARTICLE 6.

OF THE MARCH IN RETREAT

Battalion! To the right about- Face!

The whole face to the right about; the officers keeping their posts.

Forward- March!

The colors advance six paces, and the whole step off, dressing by them.

The passage of any obstacle in retreat, is the same as in the march to the front.


ARTICLE 7.

PASSAGE OF A DEFILE IN RETREAT, BY PLATOONS.

If it is at any time necessary to pass a defile in the rear, in presence of an enemy, the line must march as near as possible to the defile; when the commanding officer orders

To the Front- Face!

From the Wings- By Platoons- Pass the Defile in the Rear!

The two platoons on the wings face outwards.

March!

The two platoons wheel by files, and march along the rear of the battalion to the entrance of the defile; where joining, their officers command

Halt! To the {Right/Left} Face!

The platoon of the right wing faces to the left; the other platoon faces to the right; and both pass in one division; the other platoons following in the same manner, except those of the center.

When all have entered but the two center platoons, that on the right faces to the right about, and marches twenty paces into the defile; when the officer commands

Halt! To the Right about- Face!

The officer of the other platoon, when he sees them faced, will retire in the same manner; and having passed twenty paces beyond the platoon halted in the defile, comes also to the right about; they continuing in this manner to cover each other’s retreat till they have passed, when they face to the front, and cover the defile.

The three platoons of the right wing wheel to the left; those of the left wing wheel to the right; and having gained their proper distances, the commanding officer orders

Halt! - Platoons!

To the Right and Left, - Wheel! March!

The right wing wheels to the left, and the left to the right; which forms the battalion. If the defile should present itself behind any other part of the battalion, the platoons farthest off must always retreat first; and if the defile becomes narrower than at the entrance, the platoons must double behind each other.


ARTICLE 8

PASSAGE OF A DEFILE IN RETREAT, BY FILES.

This maneuver is performed in the same manner as the preceding, except that, instead of forming at the entrance, the platoons pass by files; and having passed, face to the right and left, march till they have their proper distances, and then wheel and form battalion.

The passage of defiles may be executed at first in the common step, for the introduction of the troops; in service, always in the quick step.

The passage of defiles being difficult in presence of an enemy, the officers must be particularly careful to keep the files closed; to be quick in giving the words of command; and not lose any time in the execution.

The maneuver should always be covered by troops posted on each side the defile, and on every advantageous piece of ground that presents itself, to annoy and keep back the enemy.


ARTICLE 9

METHOD OF PASSING THE FRONT LINE TO THE REAR.

The second line, if not already formed in columns, will immediately, on perceiving the first line retire, form in that order by brigades or battalions; and the first line having passed the intervals between the columns, the second line will display; or, if too closely pressed by the enemy, attack in columns the flanks of the battalion which pursue, thereby giving time for the first line to form and take a new position.




CHAPTER XII.

OF THE DISPOSITION OF THE FIELD-PIECES ATTACHED TO THE BRIGADES.

The field-pieces attached to the different brigades must always remain with them, encamping on their right, unless the quartermaster general thinks proper to place them on any advantageous piece of ground in front.

When the army marches by the right, the field-pieces must march at the head of their respective brigades; when it marches by the left, they follow in the rear, unless circumstances determine the general to order otherwise; but, whether they march in front, center or rear of their brigades, they must always march between the battalions, and never between the platoons.

In maneuvering they must also follow their brigades, performing the maneuvers and evolutions with them; observing that, when the close column is formed, they must always proceed to the flank of the column opposed to that side their brigade is to display to; and on the columns displaying, they follow the first division of their brigade; and when that halts and forms, the field-pieces immediately take their posts on its right.




CHAPTER XIII

OF THE FIRINGS

When the troops are to exercise with powder, the officers must carefully inspect the arms and cartridge boxes, and take away all the cartridges with ball.

The first part of the general will be the signal for all firing to cease; on the beating of which the officers and non-commissioned officers must see that their platoons cease firing, load and shoulder as quick as possible. The commanding officer will continue the signal till he sees that the men have loaded and shouldered.


ARTICLE I.

FIRING BY BATTALION

Caution

Take Care to Fire by Battalion!

Battalion! Make ready! Take Aim! Fire!

If there be more than one battalion to fire, they are to do it in succession from right to left; but after the first round, the odd battalion fire so soon as the respective battalions on their left begin to shoulder; and the even battalions fire when the respective battalions on their right begin to shoulder.


ARTICLE 2.

FIRING BY DIVISIONS AND PLATOONS

Caution.

Take care to fire by Divisions!

Division! Make ready! Take aim! Fire!

They fire in the same order as is prescribed for battalions in Article I.

The firing by platoons is also executed in the same order in the wings of the battalion, beginning with the right of each: that is, the first and fifth platoons give the first fire, the second and sixth the second fire, the third and seventh the third fire, and the fourth and eighth the fourth fire; after which they fire as before prescribed.


ARTICLE 3.

FIRING ADVANCING.

The battalion advancing receives the word

Battalion! Halt!

Take care to fire by Divisions!

They fire as before.


ARTICLE 4.

FIRING RETREATING

When a battalion is obliged to retire, it must march as long as possible; but if pressed by the enemy and obliged to make use of its fire, the commanding officer will order,

Battalion! Halt!

To the Right about- Face!

And fire by battalion, division, or platoon, as before directed.




CHAPTER XIV

OF THE MARCH OF AN ARMY OR CORPS

The greatest attention on the part of the officers is necessary at all times, but more particularly on the march: the soldiers being then permitted to march at their ease, with the ranks and files open, without the greatest care, these get confounded one with another; and if suddenly attacked, instead of being able to form immediately in order of battle, the whole line is thrown into the utmost confusion.

The order of the march of an army being given, the adjutant general will appoint the field officers for the advanced and rear guards, and issue order to the brigade majors to have ready their respective quotas of other officers and men for the advanced guard, which will consist of the number necessary for the guards of the new camp. These, together with a pioneer of each company, and a sergeant from the regiment to conduct them, must be warned the evening before.

At the beating of the general, the troops are immediately to strike their tents, and load the waggons, which must then fall into the line of march for the baggage.

At this signal also all general and staff officers guards, and those of the commissaries, must return to their respective regiments.

At the beating of the assembly, the troops will assemble, and be formed in battalion on their respective parades.

The guards ordered, must then be conducted by the brigade majors, or adjutants of the day, to the rendezvous appointed for the advanced guard, where the field officers warned for that duty, will form them in battalions, or other corps, according to their strength, and divide them regularly into divisions and platoons. The officer commanding the advanced guard, must take care to have a guide with him, and to get every necessary information about the road.

The camp guards must at the same time retire to the rendezvous appointed for the rear guard, where they must be formed in the same manner.

At the same time also the quartermasters and pioneers of each battalion must assemble on the ground appointed for the advanced guard, where one of the deputies of the quartermaster general must form them in platoons, in the same order as their respective battalions march in the column.

Each detachment will be conducted by its quartermaster, who must be answerable that it marches in the order prescribed; and the quartermasters of brigades will conduct those of their respective brigades, and be answerable for their behavior.

The signal for marching being given, the whole will wheel by platoons or sections, as shall be ordered, and begin the march.

The advanced guard will march at a difference from the main body proportioned to its strength, having a patrol advanced; and must never enter any defile, wood &c. without having first examined it, to avoid falling into an ambuscade.

The pioneers are to march behind the advanced guard, and must repair the roads, that the column may be obliged to file off as little as possible.

The advanced guard, besides its patrols in front, must have flank guard, composed of a file from each platoon, and commanded by an officer, or non-commissioned officer, to march at the distance of one hundred paces on the flank, and keep up with the head of the advanced guard.

If it be necessary to have a flank guard on each side, a file must be sent from the other flank of each platoon to compose it; and as this service is fatiguing, the men should be relieved every hour. The like flank guards are to be detached from each battalion, in the column.

For the greater convenience of the soldiers, the ranks must be opened to half distance during the march.

When the column meets with a defile, or any obstacle, the commanding officer must stop till the column has passed it, taking care that they pass in as great order and as quick as possible; and when one half have marched through, he must command the front to halt, till the whole have passed and formed, when he will continue the march.

When a column crosses a road that leads to the enemy, the patrols or guards on the flanks of the first battalion must form on the road, and halt till the patrols of the next battalion come up, which must do the same: the others proceed in the same manner, till the whole have passed.

When the commanding officer thinks proper to halt on the march, immediately on the columns halting, the advanced, flank and rear guards must form a chain of sentinels, to prevent the soldiers from straggling; and all necessaries, as wood, water &c. must be fetched by detachments, as in camp.

On the beating the long roll, the whole are to form and continue the march.

On the march no orders are to communicated by calling out, but must be sent by the adjutants from regiment to regiment. The signals for halting, marching slower and quicker, must be given by the beat of drum (see chapter XXI).

The commanding officer of the advanced guard being informed by the quartermaster general, of his deputy, of the ground the troops are to encamp on, will go a head and reconnoiter it; and immediately on the arrival of the advanced guard, post his guards and sentinels as directed in Chapter XXII.

March by Sections of Four

The roads being very often too narrow to admit the front of a platoon, and the troops being therefore continually obliged to break off, which fatigues the men; to prevent this, when the road is not sufficiently large throughout, the battalions may be divided into sections in the following manner: Each platoon is to be told off into sections of four files; if there remain three files, they form a section; if two files, or less, they form one rank. At the word,

By sections of Four!

To the Right- Wheel! March!

They wheel by fours and march, the second rank of each section taking two paces distance from the front rank. The officers commanding platoons take post on the left of their first section; but on the right, if the sections wheel to the left. The file-closers fall in on the flanks.

The officers must take great care that the distance of two paces, and no more, is kept between the ranks. At the word,

Halt!

The front rank of each section stops short and the second rank closes up, which gives the proper distance between the sections; and by wheeling to the right or left the line is formed: or if the commanding officer chooses, he may form platoons by the oblique step.

If a column be already on the march by platoons, and the road becomes too narrow and inconvenient to continue in that order, it may be formed into sections of four, in the following manner:

Caution by the commanding officer:

Take Care to break off by Sections of Four!

Upon which the officers commanding platoons tell them off as before, but without halting.

At the word

Sections of Four! Break off!

The sections on the right of each platoon incline by the oblique step to the left; and those on the left of each platoon, following the former, incline to the right, till they all cover; when they march forward, opening the ranks as before directed. If the number of sections in a platoon be uneven, that in the center is to march straight forward; the sections on the right inclining to the left, and covering it in front; and those on the left inclining to the right, and covering it in the rear.




CHAPTER XV.

OF THE BAGGAGE ON A MARCH

The inconvenience arising to an army from having to great a number of wagons, must be evident to every officer; and it is expected, that for the future each officer will curtail his baggage as much as possible.

The order of march for the army will always determine that for baggage; and, whatever place it may occupy in the line of march, the wagons must always follow in the same order as their respective regiments.

The quartermaster general, or his deputy, will give the order of march for the baggage, and the commander in chief will order an escort, to be commanded by a field officer, according to its strength.

An officer of each battalion must be appointed to superintend the striking of the tents, and loading the wagons: he must see that the tents are properly tied up; that no provisions or other articles are packed in them; and that the tent poles are tied in a bundle by themselves: he must not suffer the wagons to be overloaded, or any thing put into them but what is allowed; and when the wagons are loaded, he must send them with the quartermaster sergeant to the rendezvous of the brigade. The sergeant is to remain with the baggage of his regiment, to see that the wagons follow in order; and if a wagon breaks down, it must be put out of the line, that it may not impede the march of the rest.

Each regiment will furnish a non-commissioned officer to conduct the sick and lame who are not able to march with their regiments. These men are to repair, at the beating of the general, to the rendezvous appointed, where a sufficient number of empty wagons will be ordered to attend for the reception of their knapsacks, and their arms if necessary. A surgeon of each brigade is to attend the sick belonging to it.

The commanding officer of each battalion will inspect the sick before they are sent from the battalion, in order that none may be sent but those who are really incapable of marching with their regiments. And the officers commanding the escort will be answerable that no soldiers are permitted to march with the baggage on any pretense whatever, except the quartermaster sergeant of each regiment, as before directed.

No wagons are to be permitted to go between the battalions or brigades, except the ammunition wagons.

The wagons of the park, and others, are to be conducted agreeably to the foregoing direction, and the necessary officers furnished to keep order on the march.




CHAPTER XVI.

THE MANNER OF LAYING OUT A CAMP, WITH THE ORDER OF ENCAMPMENT

When the quartermasters arrive on the ground where the troops are to encamp, the quartermaster general having fixed his line of encampment, will conduct them along the line, and give each brigade quartermaster the ground necessary for his brigade.

The quartermasters of the regiments will then have their ground given them by the brigade quartermasters, and will mark out the place for each company and tent, and for the kitchens etc. etc. as described in the following order:

Order of Encampment

The infantry will on all occasions encamp by battalions, as they are formed in the order of battle.

The front of the camp will occupy the same extent of ground as the troops when formed; and the intervals between the battalions will be twenty paces, with an addition of eight paces for every piece of cannon a battalion may have.

The quartermaster of each regiment shall be answerable that he demands no more ground than is necessary for the number of men he has actually with the regiment, allowing two feet for each file, exclusive of the officers, and adding sixteen feet for the intervals between the platoons. He is also to be answerable that no more tents are pitched than are absolutely necessary, allowing one tent for the non-commissioned officers of each company, and one for every six men, including the drums and fifes.

The tents of the non-commissioned officers and privates are to be pitched in two ranks, with an interval of six paces between the ranks, and two feet between each tent: the tents of the non-commissioned officers to be in the front rank, on the right of their companies, in the right wing, and on the left in the left wing of the battalion. Nine feet front are to be allowed for each tent with its interval, and twenty feet in the center of the battalion for the adjutant; but when a regiment forms two battalions, the adjutant is to encamp with the first battalion, the sergeant major supplying his place in the second.

The captains and subalterns tents are to be in one line, twenty feet from the rear of the mens tents; the captain in the right wing opposite the right of their respective companies, and the subalterns opposite the left; and the contrary in the left wing.

The field officers tents are to be in one line, thirty feet from the line of the officers; the colonels opposite the center; the lieutenant colonel’s on the right; and the major’s on the left. But if the regiment forms two battalions, the colonel encamps behind the center of the first battalion; the lieutenant colonel behind the second battalion; and the major behind the interval between the two battalions.

The surgeon, paymaster and quartermaster, encamp in one line, with the front of their tents in a line with the rear of the field officers tents; the surgeon on the right, the paymaster on the left, and the quartermaster in the center.

The kitchens are to be dug behind their respective companies, forty feet from the field officers tents. The sutler’s tents are to be between the kitchens.

The horses and wagons are to be placed in the line, twenty feet behind the kitchens.

The drums of each battalion are to be piled six paces in front of the adjutant’s tent, and the colors planted before them.

The camp guards are to be three hundred paces in front of the first line, and the same distance in the rear of the second line.

The quarter guard is to be forty feet from the wagons, opposite the interval between the two battalions who furnish it.

The sinks of the first line are to be three hundred feet in front, and those of the second line the same distance in the rear of the camp.

The commanding officers of regiments are to be answerable that no tents are pitched out of the line of encampment on any account whatever, except for the regimental hospital.

The ground being marked out, the quartermasters will leave the pioneers, and go to meet their regiments, conduct them to their ground, and inform the colonel where they are to go for their necessaries.




CHAPTER XVII.

THE MANNER OF ENTERING CAMP.

The head of the column arriving at the entrance of the camp, the commanding officer of the first battalion will command

Carry- Arms!

On which the men carry their arms, and the drums beat a march; and the officers will see that their platoons have their proper distances, close the ranks and files, and each dress the flank on which his platoon is to wheel, with the same flank of the platoon preceding. The other battalions observe the same directions, and keep their proper distances from each other.

The general or officer commanding must take great care to march the troops in a direct line along the front of the camp, and at such a distance as to give sufficient room for the largest platoons to march clear of the line of tents.

As the battalions respectively arrive in front of their ground, they halt, from the battalion, (dressing with the right) and order or support their arms.

The adjutants immediately turn out the piquets that they may have been ordered, form them in front of their respective battalions, and send them to the rendezvous appointed.

The piquets being sent off, the commanding officers of battalions command their men to pile their arms, and dismiss them to pitch their tents.

As soon as a company have pitched their tents, the captains parade them, and they fetch in their arms.

The tents of the battalion being all pitched, the adjutant will form the detachments for necessaries, and send them off.

In the mean time the commanding officer of the battalion, having examined the ground, will, if necessary, order out a party to open the communications on the right and left; in front for the troops, and in the rear for the baggage.




CHAPTER XVIII.

NECESSARY REGULATIONS FOR PRESERVING ORDER AND CLEANLINESS IN THE CAMP.

When a regiment enters a camp, the field officers must take care that the encampment is pitched regularly; that the sinks and kitchens are immediately dug in their proper places; and that no tents are pitched in any part of the camp contrary to the order prescribed.

At least one officer of a company must remain on the parade to see that the tents are pitched regularly on the ground marked out.

The tents should be marked with the name of each regiment and company, to prevent their being lost or exchanged, and the tents of each company numbered; and each non-commissioned officer should have a list of the tents, with the mens names belonging to each.

The utensils belonging to the tents are to be carried alternately by the men; and the non-commissioned officers of the squads are to be answerable that they are not lost or spoiled.

Whenever a regiment is to remain more than one night on the same ground, the soldiers must be obliged to cut a small trench round their tents, to carry off the rain; but great care must be taken they do not throw the dirt up against the tents.

One officer of a company must every day visit the tents; see that they are kept clean; that every utensil belonging to them is in proper order; and that no bones or other filth be in or near them: and when the weather is fine, should order them to be struck about two hours at noon, and the straw and bedding well aired.

The soldiers should not be permitted to eat in their tents, except in bad weather; and an officer of a company must often visit the messes; see that the provision is good and well cooked; that the men of one tent mess together; and that the provision is not sold or disposed of for liquor.

A subaltern, four non-commissioned officers and a drummer must every day be appointed for the police of each battalion, who are on no account to be absent during the time they are on duty.

The officer of the police is to make a general inspection into the cleanliness of the camp, not suffer fire to be made any where but in the kitchens, and cause all dirt to be immediately removed, and either burnt or buried. He is to be present at all distributions in the regiment, and to form and send off all detachments for necessaries.

In case the adjutant is obliged to be absent, the officer of the police is to do his duty till his return; and for that purpose he must attend at the adjutant’s tent, to be ready to receive and distribute orders that may come for the regiment.

The drummer of the police must attend constantly at the adjutant’s tent, to be ready at all times to communicate the necessary signals; nor must he be absent himself on any account during the twenty four hours, without leaving another drummer to supply his place till his return, nor then, without leave from the adjutant.

When any of the men want water, they must apply to the officer of the police, who will order the drum to beat the necessary signal; on which all who want water must immediately parade with their canteens before the colors, where the officer of the police will form and send them off under the care of two non-commissioned officers of the police, who are to be answerable that they bring back the whole detachment, and that no excesses are committed whilst they are out. Wood and all other necessaries must be fetched in the same manner. Except in case of necessity, not more than one detachment is to be out at a time.

The quartermaster must be answerable that the parade and environs of the encampment of a regiment are kept clean; that the sinks are filled up, and new ones dug every four days, and oftener in warm weather; and if any horse or other animal dies near the regiment, he must cause it to be carried at least a half mile from camp, and buried.

The place where the cattle are killed must be at least fifty paces in the rear of the wagons; and the entrails and other filth immediately buried; for which the commissaries are to be answerable.

The quartermaster general must take care that all dead animals, and every other nuisance in the environs of the camp, be removed.

No non-commissioned officer or soldier shall be permitted to pass the chain of sentinels round the camp, without permission in writing from the commanding officer of his regiment or battalion; which permission shall be dated the same day, and shall, on the return of the person to whom it was granted, be delivered to the adjutant, who is to return it to the colonel or commanding officer with his report.

Every detachment not conducted by a commissioned officer, shall have written permission from a field officer, or officer commanding a regiment, or the officer of the police if it be a detachment going for necessaries; without which they are not be permitted to pass the chain.

All officers whatever are to make it a point of duty to stop every non-commissioned officer or soldier they meet without the chain, and examine his pass; and if he has not a sufficient pass, or having one is committing an excess, the officer must conduct him to the nearest guard, from whence he must be sent with his crime, to his regiment.

The sentinel before the colors must have orders, in case he hears any alarm in camp, or at the advanced posts, to acquaint the adjutant with it; who will inform the commanding officer of the battalion, or order an alarm beat, if the case requires it.




CHAPTER XIX.

OF ROLL-CALLS.

The rolls shall be called in each battalion at troop and retreat beating, at which times the men are to parade with their arms; and at the beating of reveille, and at noon, the commanding officers of companies shall cause the rolls of their respective companies to be called, the men parading for that purpose without arms, and to be detained no loner than is necessary to call the roll.

The non-commissioned officers are to visit their respective squads a quarter of an hour after tattoo beating; see that they are all present and retired to rest; and make their report to the commanding officer of the company.

No non-commissioned officer of soldier is to be absent from roll-call without permission from the commanding officer of the company.

No commissioned officer is to be absent from roll-call without permission from the commanding officer of the regiment.




CHAPTER XX.

OF THE INSPECTION OF MEN, THEIR DRESS, NECESSARIES, ARMS ACCOUTREMENTS, AND AMMUNITION.

The oftener the soldiers are under the inspection of their officers the better; for which reason every morning at troop beating they must inspect into the dress of their men; see that their clothes are whole and put on properly; their hands and faces washed clean; their hair combed; their accoutrements properly fixed, and every article about them in the greatest order. Those who are guilty of repeated neglects in these particulars are to be confined and punished. - The field officers must pay attention to this object, taking proper notice of those companies where visible neglect appears, and publicly applauding those who are remarkable for their good appearance.

Every day the commanding officers of companies must examine their men’s arms and ammunition, and see that they are clean and in good order. (see chapter XXIII)

That the men may always appear clean on the parade, and as means of preserving their health, the non-commissioned officers are to see that they wash their hands and faces every day, and oftener when necessary. And when any river is nigh, and the season favorable, the men shall bathe themselves as frequently as possible, the commanding officers of each battalion sending them by small detachments successively, under the care of a non-commissioned officer; but on no account must the men be permitted to bathe when just come off a march, at least till they have reposed long enough to get cool.

Every Saturday morning the captains are to make a general inspection of their companies, and examine into the state of the men’s necessaries, observing that they agree in quantity with what is specified in the company book; and that every article is the man’s who shews it: For which purpose, and to discover theft, every man’s things should be marked; if any thing is deficient, strict inquiry must be made into the cause of it; and should it appear to be lost, pledged, sold or exchanged, the offender must be severely punished.

That the men may not be improperly burdened and fatigued, the captains are not to suffer them to carry any thing which is either useless or unnecessary.




CHAPTER XXI.

OF THE DIFFERENT BEATS OF THE DRUM.

The different daily beats shall begin on the right, and be instantly followed by the whole army; to facilitate which, the drummer’s call shall be beat by the drums of the police, a quarter of an hour before the time of beating, when the drummers will assemble before the colors of their respective battalions; and as soon as the beat begins on the right, it is to be immediately taken up by the whole army, the drummers beating along the front of their respective battalions, from the center to the right, from thence to the left, and back again to the center, where they finish.

The different beats and signals are to be as follows:

The General is to be beat only when the whole are to march, and is the signal to strike the tents, and prepare to march.

The Assembly is the signal to repair to the colors.

The March for the whole to move.

The Reveille is beat at day-break, and is the signal for the soldiers to rise, and the centuries to leave off challenging.

The Troop assembles the soldiers together, for the purpose of calling the roll and inspecting the men for duty.

The Retreat is beat at sun-set, for calling the roll, warning the men for duty, and reading the orders of the day.

The Tattoo is for the soldiers to repair to their tents, where they must remain till reveille beating next morning.

To Arms is the signal for getting under arms in case of alarm.

The Parley is to desire conference with the enemy.


The Signals

Adjutant’s call- first part of the troop.

First Sergeant’s call- one roll and three flams.

All non-commissioned officers call- two rolls and five flams.

To go for wood- poing stroke and ten-stroke roll.

Water- two strokes and one flam.

Provisions- roast beef.

Front to halt- two flams from right to left, and a full drag with the right, a left hand flam and a right hand full drag.

For the front to advance quicker- the long march.

To march slower- the taps.

For the drummers- the drummers call.

For a fatigue party- the pioneers march.

For the church call- the parley.

The drummers will practice a hundred paces in front of the battalion, at the hours fixed by the adjutant general; and any drummer found beating at any other time (except ordered) shall be punished.




CHAPTER XXII.

OF THE SERVICE OF THE GUARDS


ARTICLE I.

OF THE DIFFERENT GUARDS, WITH THEIR USE.

The different guards of the army will consist of

1st Out post and piquet guards.

2d. Camp and quarter guards.

3d. General and staff officers guards.

The piquet guards are formed by detachments from the line, and are posted at the avenues of the camp, in such numbers as the general commanding thinks necessary for the security of the camp.

The camp and quarter guards are for the better security of the camp, as wall as for preserving good order and discipline.

Every battalion will furnish a camp and quarter guard between them, to consist of

For Camp Guard:

1 subaltern

1 Sergeant

1 Corporal

1 Drummer

27 Privates

For Quarter Guard

1 Corporal

9 Privates

The camp guard of the front line is to be posted three hundred paces in front of it, and that of the second line the same distance in the rear of the second line, each opposite the interval of the two battalions who furnish it.

Each guard will post nine sentinels, viz. one before the guard, two on the right and two on the left; these five sentinels, with those from the other battalions, forming a chain in front and rear of the camp; the sixth and seventh sentinels before the colors; and the eighth and ninth before the tents of the commanding officers of the two battalions.

In order to complete the chain of sentinels round the camp, the adjutant general will order two flank guards from the line, to consist of a commissioned officer, and as men as are necessary to form a chain on the flanks.

The intention of the camp guards being to form a chain of sentinels round the camp, in order to prevent improper persons entering, or the soldiers going out of camp, the commanding officers of brigades will add to, or diminish them, so as to answer the above purpose.

The quarter guard is to be posted twenty paces in the rear of the line of wagons, and will furnish three sentinels; viz. one at the guard, and one behind each battalion.

The guards of the general and other officers will be as follows:

A Major general will have

1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 20 privates


A brigadier general

1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 12 privates


Quartermaster general (as such)

1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 12 privates


Adjutant general

1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 12 privates


Commissary general

1 corporal, 6 privates


Paymaster general

1 corporal, 6 privates


Auditors

1 corporal, 6 privates


Judge advocate general

1 corporal, 3 privates


Muster-general

1 corporal, 3 privates


Clothier general

1 corporal, 3 privates


Brigade commissary, general hospital, provost guard

(according to circumstances)

Any additional guard to the quartermaster, commissary, or clothier general, will be determined by the stores they may have in possession.

The different guards are all to mount at one hour, to be regulated by the commanding officer for the time being.

The camp and quarter guards are to parade before the interval of their battalions, where they will be formed by the adjutant who furnishes the officer, and immediately sent off to their respective posts.

The guard of a major general is to be furnished from his own division, each brigade furnishing it by turns; it is to be formed by the major of brigade, and sent from the brigade parade.

The guard of a brigadier general is to be furnished by his own brigade, and formed and sent from the brigade parade by the major of the brigade. The brigade commissary’s guard is to be furnished in the same manner.

The other guards being composed of detachments from the line by brigades, each detachment is formed on the brigade parade by the major of brigade, and sent with an adjutant to the grand parade.

All guards (except those which are honorary) should ordinarily be of force proportioned to the number of sentinels required, allowing three relieves for each post.


ARTICLE 2

OF THE GRAND PARADE

As soon as a detachment arrives on the grand parade, the officers having dressed the ranks commands:

Order- Firelocks!

And then takes post eight paces in front of his detachment; the non-commissioned officers fall two paces into the rear, except one who remains on the right of every detachment. Each detachment takes post on the left of that preceding it, and is examined by the brigade major to the day as it arrives.

When the whole are assembled, the adjutant of the day dresses the line, counts the files from right to left, and takes post on the right.

The brigade major then commands:

Attention! Shoulder- Firelock! Support- Arms!

Officers and Non-commissioned Officers!

To the Center- March!

The officers then march to the center and form themselves, according to seniority, in one rank, sixteen paces in front of the guards; the non-commissioned officers advance and form two ranks, four paces in the rear of the officers, and with the same distance between their ranks.

The brigade major then appoints the officers and non-commissioned officers to their posts. (chart in manuscript)

The non-commissioned officers are posted thus: A sergeant on the right of each platoon, and one on the left of the whole; the rest as file-closers equally divided to each platoon.

Whilst this is doing, the adjutant divides the guard into eight platoons, leaving proper intervals between the platoons for the officers who are to command them.

The brigade major having appointed the officers, and the battalion being divided, he commands,

Officers and Non-commissioned Officers!

To your Posts!

The officers and non-commissioned officers face outwards from the center.

March!

They go directly to their posts in the battalion.

The brigade major then advances to the general officer of the day, informs him that the battalion is formed, and takes his directions relative to the exercise.

The general of the day will usually order the manual exercise to be performed, and some maneuvers, such as he thinks proper; the major of brigade of the day giving the words of command.

The exercise being finished, the major of brigade commands,

Order- Firelocks!

The drums then beat from right to left of the parade, and passing behind the officers of the day, take post on their left.

The major of brigade then orders,

Shoulder- Firelocks! Support- Arms!

Officers and Non-commissioned Officers!

To the Center- March!

They advance as before to the center, and the brigade major appoints them to their respective guards, takes the name of the officer commanding each guard, and gives him the parole and countersign. The adjutant having in the mean time told off the guards, and divided them into platoons, the brigade major then commands,

Officers and Non-commissioned Officers!

To your Posts! March!

The officers going to their respective posts.

The brigade major then commands,

Present-Arms!

And advancing to the general, acquaints him that the guards are formed; and on receiving his orders to march them off, he commands,

Shoulder- Firelock!

By Platoons! To the Right- Wheel! March!

The whole wheel, and march by the general, the officers saluting him as they pass; and when the whole have passed, they wheel off and march to their respective posts.


ARTICLE 3.

OF RELIEVING GUARDS AND SENTINELS

The guards in camp will be relieved every 24-hours. The guards without the limits of the camp will ordinarily be relieved in the same manner; but this must depend on their distances from camp, and other circumstances, which may sometimes require their continuing on duty for several days. In this case they must be previously notified to provide themselves accordingly.

The guards are to march in the greatest order to their respective posts, marching by platoons, whenever the roads will permit.

When the new guard approaches the post, they carry their arms; and the officer of the old guard, having his guard paraded, on the approach of the new guard, commands,

Present- Arms!

And his guard presents their arms.

The new guard marches past the old guard, and takes post three or four paces on its right (both guards fronting towards the enemy;) and the officer command,

Present- Arms!

And the new guard presents their arms.

The two officers then approach each other, and the relieving officer takes his orders from the relieved. Both officers then return to their guards, and commands,

Shoulder- Firelocks!

Non-commissioned Officers! Forward- March!

The sergeant of the new guard then tells off as many sentinels as are necessary; and the corporal of the new guard, conducted by a corporal of the old guard, relieves the sentinels, beginning by the guard house.

When the sentinel sees the relief approach, he presents his arms, and the corporal halting his relief at six paces distance, commands,

Present- Arms!

Recover- Arms!

This last command is only for the sentinel relieving, and the one to be relieved; the former immediately approaching with the corporal, and having received his orders from the old sentry, takes his place; and the sentry relieved marches into the ranks, placing himself on the left of the rear rank.

Front- Face!

Both sentries face to the front. The corporal then orders,

Shoulder- Firelocks! Support- Arms!

March!

And the relief proceeds in the same manner till the whole are relieved.

If the sentries are numerous, the sergeants are to be employed as well as the corporals in relieving them.

When the corporal returns with the old sentinels, he leads them before the old guard, and dismisses them to their ranks.

The officer of the old guard then forms his guard in the same manner as when he mounted, and marches them in order to camp.

As soon as he arrives in the camp, he halts, forms the men of the different brigades together, and sends them to their respective brigades, conducted by a non-commissioned officer, of careful soldier.

When the old guard march off, the new guard present their arms, till they are gone, then shoulder, face to the left, and take the place of the old guard.

The officer then orders a non-commissioned officer to take down the names of the guard, in the following manner (Chart with rows signifying Post Numbers, and columns signifying hours they go on)

Suppose the guard to consist of twenty-four men, and to furnish eight sentinels, they are divided into three relieves, and the posts being numbered (beginning always with the guardhouse) each man’s name is put down against the number of the post he will always stand sentry at during the guard, by which means an officer knows what particular man was at any post during any hour of the day or night.

The relief of sentries is always to be marched in the greatest order, and with supported arms, the corporal often looking back to observe the conduct of the men; and if an officer approaches, his is to order his men to handle their arms, supporting them again when he has passed.

The corporals are to be answerable that the sentries, when relieving, perform their motions with the greatest spirit and exactness.

A corporal who is detected in having the insolence to suffer sentries to relieve each other, without his being present, shall, as well as the sentry so relieved, be severely punished.


ARTICLE 4.

INSTRUCTIONS TO OFFICERS ON GUARD.

On the vigilance of the officer depends not only the safety of his guard, but that of the whole army.

As it is highly necessary an officer should have some knowledge of his situation, he must, immediately after relieving the old guard, visit the sentinels, and examine the ground round his post; and if he thinks the sentries not sufficient to secure him from a surprise, he is at liberty to place more, acquainting therewith the general or field officer of the day who visits his post; but without their leave he is not to alter any that are already posted. He must cause the roads leading to the enemy and to the next posts to be well reconnoitered by an officer of the guard, or for want of one, by an intelligent non-commissioned officer and some faithful men, inform himself of every thing necessary for his security, and use every possible precaution against a surprise. He must permit no stranger to enter his post, nor suffer his men to talk with him. If a suspicious person, or a deserter from the enemy approaches, he must stop him and send him to head-quarters, or to a superior officer. He must on no account suffer the soldiers to pull off their accoutrements, of straggle more than twenty paces from the guard; and if water or any other necessaries are wanted for the guard, they must be sent for by a non-commissioned officer and some men (with their arms if at an outpost) on no account suffering a soldier to go by himself; but never whilst the sentinels are relieving. He must examine every relief before it is sent off; see that their arms are loaded and in order, and that the men are acquainted with their duty; and if by any accident a man should get the least disguised with liquor, he must on no account be suffered to go on sentry.

At relief the guard must parade, and the roll be called; and during the night (and when near the enemy, during the day) the guard must remain under arms till the relief returns.

During the day the men may be permitted to rest themselves as much as is consistent with the safety of the guard; but in the night, no man must be suffered to lay down or sleep on any account, but have his arms constantly in his hands, and be ready to fall in on the least alarm.

Between every relief the sentries must be visited by a non-commissioned officer and a file of men; and, when more than one officer is on guard, as often as possible by an officer. A patrol also must be frequently sent on the roads leading to the enemy.

During the day, the sentinels on the outposts must stop every party of men, whether armed or not, till they have been examined by the officer of the guard.

As soon as it is dark, the countersign must be given to the sentinels of the piquets and advanced posts, after which they are to challenge all that approach them; and if any person, after being ordered to stand, should continue to approach or attempt to escape, the sentry, after challenging him three times, must fire on him.

The sentinels of the interior guards of the camp will receive the countersign, and begin to challenge, at such hours as shall be determined in orders, according to circumstances.

A sentinel, on perceiving any person approach, must challenge briskly, and never suffer more than one to advance, till he has the countersign given him; if the person challenged has not the countersign, the sentry must call the sergeant of the guard, and keep the person at a little distance from his post, till the sergeant comes to examine him.

Whenever a sentry on an out-post perceives more than three men approach, he must order them to stand, and immediately pass the word for the sergeant of the guard; the officer of the guard must immediately parade his guard, and send a sergeant with a party of men to examine the party: The non-commissioned officer must order the commanding officer of the party advance, and conduct him to the officer of the guard; who, in case he is unacquainted with his person, and does not choose to trust either his clothing or to his knowledge of the countersign, must demand his passport, and examine him strictly; and if convinced of his belonging to the army, must let him pass.

If a sentry, on challenging, is answered relief, patrol, or round, he must in that case order the sergeant or corporal to advance with the countersign; and if he is then assured of their being the relief, &c. he may suffer them to advance.

A sentinel must take the greatest care not to be surprised; he must never suffer the person who advances to give the countersign, to approach within reach of his arms, and always charge with his bayonet.

The officers who mount the camp guards must give orders to their sentries not to suffer any person to pass in or out of camp, except one of the guards, nor then till the officer of the guard has examined him.

In case one of the guard deserts, the officer must immediately change the countersign, and send notice thereof to the general of the day; who is to communicate the same to the other guards, and the adjutant general.

As soon as the officer of the guard discovers the approach of the enemy, he must immediately send notice to the nearest general officer, call in the sentries, and put himself in the best position of defense. If attacked on his post, he will defend it to the utmost of his power, nor retreat, unless compelled by a superior force; and even then he must retire in the greatest order, keeping a fire on the enemy, whose superiority, however great, can never justify a guard’s retiring in disorder. Should the enemy pursue the guard into camp, the officer must take care to retire through the intervals of the battalions, and forming in the rear of the line, wait for further orders.

When an officer is posted at a bridge, defile, or any work, with orders to maintain it, he must defend himself to the last extremity, however superior the force of the enemy may be, as it is to be supposed that the general who gave those orders will reinforce him, or order him to retire whenever he thinks it proper.

An officer must never throw in the whole of his fire at once; for which reason every guard is to be divided into two or more divisions of platoons; the eldest officer taking post on the right of the first platoon, the next eldest on the right of the second platoon, and the third on the left of the whole; the non-commissioned officers cover the officers; the drum is to be on the right of the captain, and the sentinel one pace advanced of the drum. If the guard consists of no more than twelve men, it forms in one rank.


ARTICLE 5.

METHOD OF GOING AND RECEIVING THE GRAND ROUNDS

The general and field officers of the day will visit the several guards during the day, as often and at such hours as they judge proper.

When the sentry before the guard perceives the officer of the day, he will call to the guard to turn out; and the guard, being paraded, on the approach of the officer of the day present their arms.

The officers of the day will examine the guard; see that none are absent; that their arms and accoutrements are in order; that the officers and non-commissioned officers are acquainted with their duty; and that the sentinels are properly posted and have received proper orders.

Not only the officers of the day, but all general officers are at liberty to visit the guards and make the same examination.

The officers of the guard shall give the parole to the officer of the day, if demanded.

During the night, the officers of the day will go the grand rounds.

When the officer of the day arrives at the guard from whence he intends to begin his rounds, he will make himself known as such by giving the officer of the guard the parole. - He will then order the guard under arms, and having examined it, demand an escort of a sergeant and two men, and proceed to the next post.

When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, they will answer, Grand rounds! and the sentry will reply, Stand grand rounds! Advance sergeant with countersign! Upon which the sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry, Advance, rounds! and present his arms till they have passed.

When the sentry before the guard challenges, and is answered Grand rounds! He will reply, Stand grand rounds! Turn out the guard! Grand rounds! Upon the sentinel’s calling, the guard is to be turned out and drawn up in good order, with shouldered arms, the officer taking their posts. The officer commanding the guard will then order a sergeant and two men to advance towards the round and challenge. When the sergeant of the guard comes within ten paces of the rounds, he is to halt and challenge briskly. The sergeant of the rounds is to answer Grand rounds! The sergeant of the guard replies Stand grand rounds! Advance sergeant with the countersign! and orders his men to present their arms. The sergeant of the rounds advances alone, and giving the countersign, returns to his rounds; and the sergeant of the guard calls to his officer, The countersign is right! On which the officer of the guard calls Advance rounds! The officer of the rounds then advances alone, and on his approach the guard present their arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of the guard immediately to the officer (who keeps his post on the right) and gives him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort, and demanding a new one, proceeds in the same manner to the other guards.


ARTICLE 6.

HONORS DUE FROM GUARDS TO GENERAL OFFICERS AND OTHERS

To the commander in chief: All guards turn out with presented arms; the drums beat a march, the officers salute.

To major generals: They turn out with presented arms, and beat two ruffles.

To brigadier generals: They turn out with presented arms, and beat one ruffle.

To officers of the day: They turn out with presented arms, and beat according to their rank.

Except from these rules a general officer’s guard, which turns out and pays honors only to officers of superior rank to the general whose guard it is.

To colonels: Their own quarter guards turn out once a day with presented arms; after which they only turn out with ordered arms.

To lieutenant-colonels: Their own quarter guards turn out once a day with shouldered arms; after which they only turn out and stand by their arms.

To majors: Their own quarter guards turn once a day with ordered arms; at all other times they stand by their arms.

When a lieutenant colonel or major commands a regiment, the quarter guard is to pay him the same honors as are ordered to a colonel.

All sentries present their arms to general officers, and to the field officers of their own regiments; to all other commissioned officers they stand with shouldered arms.

The president of congress, all governors in their own states, and committees of congress at the army, shall have the same honors paid them as the commander in chief.

When a detachment with arms passes before the guard, the guard shall be under arms, and the drums of both beat a march.

When a detachment without arms passes, the guard shall turn out and stand by their arms.

After dark no honors are to be paid; and when near the enemy, no honors are to be paid with the drum.




CHAPTER XXIII

OF THE ARMS AND AMMUNITION, WITH THE METHODS FOR PRESERVING THEM.

The preservation of the arms and ammunition is an object that requires the greatest attention. Commanding officers and regiments must be answerable for those of their regiments, and captains for their respective companies.

And officer of a company must every morning at roll-call inspect minutely into the state of the men’s arms, accoutrements and ammunition; and if it shall appear that the soldier has sold or through carelessness lost or damaged any part of them, he must be confined and punished, and stoppages made of his pay as hereafter mentioned: For which purpose such officer shall certify to the commanding officer of the regiment the names of the delinquents, and the losses or damages which shall appear of their arms, ammunition or accoutrements; and the commanding officer, after due examination, shall order stoppages to be made for whatever shall appear to have been sold, lost or damaged as aforesaid. The stoppages to be as follows:

For a firelock, sixteen dollars

A bayonet, two dollars

A ram-rod, one dollar

A cartridge box, four dollars

A bayonet belt, one dollar

A scabbard, two thirds of a dollar

A cartridge, one sixth of a dollar

A flint, one twentieth of a dollar

A gun-worm, one fourth of a dollar

A screwdriver, one twelfth of a dollar

And for arms, accoutrements, and ammunition damaged, such sums as the repairs shall cost the states, to be estimated by the brigade conductor, or, when a corps is detached, by such persons as its commanding officer shall appoint for that purpose; provided that such stoppages do not exceed one half the delinquent’s pay monthly.

It is highly essential to the services that the ammunition should be at all times kept complete; for which purpose, as often as necessary, a return is to be made by each company of the number of cartridges deficient, to the quartermaster, that he may make out a general one for the regiment, to be signed by the commanding officers of the regiments and brigade, and no time lost in supplying the deficiency. The like care is to be taken that all deficiencies of arms and accoutrements are supplied without loss of time.

All arms, accoutrements and ammunition unfit for service, are to be carefully preserved and sent by the commanding officer of each company to the regimental quartermaster, who shall deliver the same to the brigade conductor, they respectively giving receipts for what they receive. The arms, accoutrements and ammunition of the sick and others, when delivered up, are to be taken care of in the same manner. Before the cartridge boxes are put in the arm-chests, the cartridges must be taken out, to prevent any loss or accident.

A conductor shall be appointed to each brigade, who shall have under his immediate care and direction a traveling forge and five or six armourers, an ammunition wagon, and a wagon with an arm-chest for each battalion, each chest to hold twenty-five arms, to receive the arms and accoutrements wanting repair, or of the men sick or absent; and when the arms delivered in by a battalion shall exceed the above number, the surplus shall be sent to the commissary of military stores.

The brigade conductor shall issue no ammunition but by order of the commanding officer of the brigade; but may receive and deliver the arms and accoutrements of each battalion, by order of its commanding officer.

The ammunition wagon shall contain twenty thousand cartridges; and in order to keep the same complete, the conductor shall, as deficiencies arise, apply to the field commissary, or one of his deputies, for a supply, or otherwise for the necessary material of cartridges, and to the major of the brigade for men to make them up under the direction of the conductor; and for this purpose the brigade major shall order out a party of the most careful soldiers.

The non-commissioned officers of each company will be provided with gun-worms; and every day, at the noon roll-call of the company, those men who have returned from duty are to bring their arms and have their charges drawn; the first sergeant to receive the powder and ball, and deliver the same to the quartermaster.




CHAPTER XXIV

OF THE TREATMENT OF THE SICK

There is nothing which gains an officer the love of his soldiers more than his care of them under the distress of sickness; it is then he has the power of exerting his humanity in providing them every comfortable necessary, and making their situation as agreeable as possible.

Two or three tents should be set apart in every regiment for the reception of such sick as cannot be sent to the general hospital, or whose cases may not require it. And every company shall be constantly furnished with two sacks, to be filled occasionally with straw, and serve as beds for the sick. These sacks to be provided in the same manner as clothing for the troops, and finally issued by the regimental clothier to the captain of each company, who shall be answerable for the same.

When a soldier dies, or is dismissed the hospital, the straw he lay on is to be burnt, and the bedding well washed and aired before another is permitted to use it.

The sergeants and corporals shall every morning at roll-call give a return of the sick of their respective squads to the first sergeant, who must make out one for the company, and lose no time in delivering it to the surgeon, who will immediately visit them, and order such as he thinks proper to the regimental hospital; such whose cases require their being sent to the general hospital, he is to report immediately to the surgeon general, or principal surgeon attending the army.

Once every week (and oftener when required) the surgeon will deliver the commanding officer of the regiment a return of the sick of the regiment, with their disorders, distinguishing those in the regimental hospital from those out of it.

When a soldier is sent to the hospital, the non-commissioned officer of his squad shall deliver up his arms and accoutrements to the commanding officer of the company, that they may be deposited in the regimental arm-chest.

When a soldier has been sick, he must not be put on duty till he has recovered sufficient strength, of which the surgeon should be judge.

The surgeons are to remain with their regiments as well on a march as in camp, that in case of sudden accidents they may be at hand to apply the proper remedies.




CHAPTER XXV.

OF REVIEWS


ARTICLE 1.

OF REVIEWS OF PARADE.

When a battalion is received, it must be drawn up in the following manner:

The ranks at four paces distance from each other; the colors advanced four paces from the center; the colonel twelve paces before the colors; the lieutenant colonel four paces behind the colonel; the major on the right of the battalion in the line of officers; the adjutant behind the center; the officers commanding platoons eight paces before their intervals; the other officers on the same line equally divided in front of their respective platoons; the sergeants who covered officers take their places in the front rank of their platoons; the other non-commissioned officers who were in the rear, remain there, falling back four paces behind the rear rank; and the drummers and fifers are equally divided on the wings of the battalion, dressing with the front rank. The general officer who is to review them being within thirty paces of the battalion, the colonel orders,

Battalion! Present- Arms!

On which the men present their arms, and the drums on the right wing salute him according to his rank; the officers and colors salute him as he passes in front of the battalion; and on his arriving at the left, the drums beat the same as on the right.

The colonel then commands

Shoulder- Firelocks!

And when the general has advanced to the front,

Rear Rank! Close the Front!

On which the officers face to their platoons.

March!

The rear rank closes to the front, and the officers stepping off at the same time, those commanding platoons take their posts in the front rank, and the others go through the intervals to their posts in the rear.

The colonel then commands

Battalion! By Platoons! To the Right- Wheel! March!

The whole wheel by platoons to the right, and march by the general; the colonel at the head of the battalion, with the major behind him, followed by the drums of the right wing; the adjutant on the left of the fifth platoon; and the lieutenant colonel in the rear preceded by the drums of the left wing.

The officers and colors salute when within eight paces of the general; and the colonel having saluted, advances to him.

The battalion having marched to its ground and formed, the general orders such exercise and maneuvers as he thinks proper.


ARTICLE 2.

OF REVIEWS OF INSPECTION

For a review of inspection the battalion must not be told off in platoons, but remain in companies, at open order; the drums and fifes on the right, and the ensigns with the colors in front of their respective companies.

The inspector begins with a general review, passing along the front of the battalion from right to left, accompanied by the field and staff officers. The general review over, the colonel commands

Rear Rank! Close to the Front! March!

The rear rank closes to the front, the officers remaining in front.

By Companies! To the Right- Wheel! March!

Each company wheels to the right; the captains then open their ranks, and order

Non-commissioned Officers! To the Front- March!

The officers take post four paces, and the non-commissioned officers two paces, in front of their companies.

The whole then order their firelocks by word of command from their captains, except the first company, where the inspection begins; when the first company has been inspected, they order their firelocks, and the next company shoulders; the others proceed in the same manner till the whole are inspected.

The field and staff officers accompany the inspector while he inspects the companies; and when the inspection is over, the colonel forms the battalion, and causes it to perform any exercise or maneuvers the inspector thinks proper to order.


INSTRUCTIONS


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COMMANDANT OF A REGIMENT

The state having entrusted him with the care of a regiment, his greatest ambition should be to have it at all times and in every respect as complete as possible: To do which, he should pay great attention to the following objects:

The preservation of the soldiers health should be his first and greatest care; and that depends in a great measure on their cleanliness and manner of living, he must have a watchful eye over the officers of companies, that they pay the necessary attention to their men in those respects.

The only means of keeping the soldiers in order is, to have them continually under the eyes of their superiors; for which reason the commandant should use the utmost of severity to prevent their straggling from their companies, and never suffer them to leave their regiment without being under the care of a non-commissioned officer, except in cases of necessity. And in order to prevent any man’s being absent from the regiment without his knowledge, he must often count the files, and see that they agree with the returns delivered him, strictly obliging every man returned fit for duty to appear under arms on all occasions; and if any are missing, he must oblige the commanding officer of the company to account for their absence. In a word, the commandant ought to know upon what duty and where every man of his regiment is. To these points the other field officers must also pay attention.

The choice of non-commissioned officers is also an object of the greatest importance: the order and discipline of a regiment depends so much upon their behavior, that too much care cannot be taken in preferring none to that trust but those who by their merit and good conduct are entitled to it. Honesty, sobriety, and a remarkable attention to every point of duty, with a neatness in their dress, are indispensable requisites; a spirit to command respect and obedience from the men, an expertness in performing every part of the exercise, and an ability to teach it, are absolutely necessary; nor can a sergeant or corporal be said to be qualified who does not write and read in a tolerable manner.

Once every month the commandant should make a general inspection of his regiment, examine into the state of the men, their arms, ammunition, accoutrements, necessaries, camp utensils, and everything belonging to the regiment, obliging the commanding officers of companies to account strictly for all deficiencies.

He should also once every month assemble the field officers and eldest captain, to hold a council of administration; in which should be examined the books of several companies, the paymaster and quartermaster, to see that all receipts and deliveries are entered in proper order, and the affairs of the regiment dully administered.

All returns of the regiment being signed by the commanding officer, he should examine them with the greatest care before he suffers them to go out of his hands.

The commandant must always march and encamp with his regiment; nor must he permit any officer to lodge out of camp, or in a house, except in case of sickness.

On a march he must keep his regiment together as much as possible, and not suffer the officers to leave their platoons without his permission; nor permit any of them, on any pretense whatsoever, to mount on horseback.- There is no fatigue the soldiers go through that the officers should not share; and on all occasions they should set them examples of patience and perseverance.

When a regiment is on a march, the commandant will order a sergeant and fix men into the rear, to bring up all stragglers; and the sergeant on his arrival in camp or quarters, must make his report to him.

In a word, the commanding officer of a regiment must preserve the strictest discipline and order in his corps, obliging every officer to a strict performance of his duty, without relaxing in the smallest point; punishing impartially the faults that are committed, without distinction of rank or service.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MAJOR.

The major is particularly charged with the discipline, arms, accoutrements, clothing, and generally, with the whole interior management and economy of the regiment. He must have a watchful eye over the officers, and oblige them to do their duty on every occasion; he must often cause them to be exercised in his presence, and instruct them how to command their platoons and preserve their distances.

He must endeavor to make his regiment perform their exercise and maneuvers with the greatest vivacity and precision, examine often the state of the different companies, making the captains answer for any deficiencies he may perceive, and reporting the same to the colonel.

He must pay the greatest attention to have all orders executed with the strictest punctuality, so far as respects his regiment; and should every week examine the adjutant’s quartermaster’s books, and see that all returns, orders and other matters, the objects of their respective duties, are regularly entered.

He must cause to be kept a regimental book, wherein should be entered the name and rank of every officer, the date of his commission, and the time he joined the regiment; the name and description of every non-commissioned officer and soldier, his trade or occupation, the place of his birth and usual residence, where, when and for what term he was enlisted; discharges, furloughs, and courts martial, copies of all returns, and every casualty that happens in the regiment.

He must be at all times well acquainted with the strength of his regiment and brigade, and the details of the army, and see that his regiment furnishes no more than its proportion for duty.

He must often inspect the detachments for duty furnished by his regiment, see that they are complete in every respect, and formed agreeably to the regulations.

On a march he must often ride along the flanks of his regiment, see that the platoons march in order, and keep their proper distances.

When the regiment is detached, he will post the guards ordered by the colonel, often visit them, examine whether the officers, non-commissioned officers and sentinels are acquainted with their duty, and give them the necessary instructions.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ADJUTANT

The adjutant is to be chosen from among the subalterns, the field officers taking care to nominate one the most intelligent and best acquainted with the service.

He must keep an exact detail of the duty of the officers and non-commissioned officers of his regiment, taking care to regulate his roster in such a manner as not to have too many officers or non-commissioned officers of the same company on duty at the same time.

He must keep a book, in which he must every day take the general and other orders, and shew them to the commanding officer of the regiment, who having added those he thinks necessary for the regiment, the adjutant must assemble the first sergeants of the companies, make them copy the orders, and give them their details for the next day.

He must attend the parade at the turning out of all guards or detachments, inspect their dress, arms, accoutrements and ammunition, form them into platoons or sections, and conduct them to the general or brigade parade.

When the regiment parades for duty of exercise, he must count it off, and divide it into divisions and platoons, and carry the orders of the colonel where necessary.

The adjutant is to receive no orders but from the field officers and officer commanding a battalion.

On a march he must ride along the flanks of the regiment, to see that regularity is observed, and must pay attention to the sergeant in the rear, that he brings up all stragglers.

On the arrival of the regiment in camp, his first care is to form and send off the guards; and when the tents are pitched, he must immediately order out the necessary number of fatigue men to dig the vaults or sinks, and open communications where necessary. He will then form the detachments for wood, water and other necessities.

He must be constantly with the regiment, ready to receive and execute any orders that may come; nor must he go from his tent without leaving an officer to do his duty, or directions where he may be found.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE QUARTER-MASTER

The quartermaster, being charged with encamping and quartering the regiment, should be at all times acquainted with its strength, that he may require no more ground than is necessary, nor have more tents pitched than the number prescribed; for both which he is accountable.

He must inform the regiment where to fetch their wood, water and other necessaries, and where to pasture the horses.

He must instruct the quartermaster sergeant and pioneers in the manner of laying out the camp, agreeably to the order prescribed in the regulations.

He is answerable for the cleanliness of the camp, and that the soldiers make no fire any where but in the kitchens.

When the army marches, he must conduct the pioneers to the place appointed, and order the quarter-master sergeant to take charge of the baggage.

He is to make out all returns for the camp equipage, arms, accoutrements, ammunition, provisions and forage, and receive and distribute them to the regiment, taking the necessary vouchers for the delivery, and entering all receipts and deliveries in a book kept by him for that purpose.

He must pay particular attention to the preservation of the camp equipage, cause the necessary repairs to be done when wanting, and return every thing unfit for use to the stores from which he drew them.

The preservation of the arms, accoutrements and ammunition is of such essential importance, that he must be strictly attentive to have those of the sick, of the men on furlough, discharged, or detached on command without arms, taken care of and deposited with the brigade conductor, as directed in the regulations.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CAPTAIN

A captain cannot be too careful of the company the state has committed to his charge. He must pay the greatest attention to the health of his men, their discipline, arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothes and necessaries.

His first object should be, to gain the love of his men, by treating them with every possible kindness and humanity, enquiring into their complaints, and when well founded, seeing them redressed. He should know every man of his company by name and character. He should often visit those who are sick, speak tenderly to them, see that the public provision, whether of medicine or diet, is duly administered, and procure them besides such comforts and conveniencies as are in his power. The attachment that arises from this kind of attention to the sick and wounded, is almost inconceivable; it will moreover be the means of preserving the lives of many valuable men.

He must divide his company into four squads, placing each under the particular care of a non-commissioned officers, who is to be answerable for the dress and behavior of the men of his squad. He must be very particular in the daily and weekly inspections of his men, causing all deficiencies to be immediately supplied; and when he discovered any irregularity in the dress or conduct of any soldier, he must not only punish him, but the non-commissioned officer to whose squad he belongs.

He must keep a strict eye over the conduct of the non-commissioned officers; oblige them to do their duty with the greatest exactness; and use every possible means to keep up a proper subordination between them and the soldiers: For which reason he must never rudely reprimand them in presence of the men, but at all times treat them with proper respect.

He must pay the utmost attention to every thing which contributes to the health of the men, and oblige them to keep themselves and every thing belonging to them in the greatest cleanliness and order. He must never suffer a man who has any infectious disorder to remain in the company, but send him immediately to the hospital, or other place provided for the reception of such patients, to prevent the spreading of the infection. And when any man is sick, or otherwise unfit for duty, or absent, he must see that his arms and accoutrements are properly taken care of, agreeably to the regulations prescribed.

He must keep a book, in which must be entered the name and description of every non-commissioned officer and soldier of his company; his trade or occupation; the place of his birth and usual residence; where, when and for what term he enlisted; discharges, furloughs, copies of all returns, and every casualty that happens in the company. He must also keep an account of all arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, necessaries and camp equipage delivered his company, that on inspecting it he may be able to discover any deficiencies.

When the company arrive at their quarters after a march, he must not dismiss them till the guards are ordered out, and (if cantoned) the billets distributed, which must be as near together as possible; and he must strictly prohibit his men from vexing the inhabitants, and cause to be punished any that offend in that respect.

He must acquaint them with the hours of roll-call and going for provisions, with their alarm post, and the hour of march in the morning.

If the company make any stay in a place, he must, previous to their marching, inspect into their condition, examine their knapsacks, and see that they carry nothing but what is allowed, it being a material object to prevent the soldier loading himself with unnecessary baggage.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE LIEUTENANT.

The lieutenant, in the absence of the captain, commands the company, and should therefore make himself acquainted with the duties of that station; he must also be perfectly acquainted with the duties of the non-commissioned officers and soldiers, and see them performed with the greatest exactness.

He should endeavor to gain the love of his men, by his attention to every thing which may contribute to their health and convenience. He should often visit them at different hours; inspect into their manner of living; see that their provisions are good and well cooked, and as far as possible oblige them to take their meals at regulated hours. He should pay attention to their complaints, and when well founded, endeavor to get them redressed; but discourage them from complaining on every frivolous occasion.

He must not suffer the soldiers to be ill treated by the non-commissioned officers through malevolence, or from any pique or resentment; but must at the same time be careful that a proper degree of subordination is kept up between them.

Although no officer should be ignorant of the service of the guards, yet it particularly behooves the lieutenant to be perfectly acquainted with that duty; he being oftener than any other officer entrusted with command of the guard- a trust of the highest importance, on the faithful execution of which the safety of an army depends; and in which the officer has frequent opportunities to distinguish himself by his judgment, vigilance and bravery.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ENSIGN

The ensign is in particular manner charged with the cleanliness of the men, to which he must pay the greatest attention.

When the company parades, and whilst the captain and lieutenant are examining the arms and accoutrements, the ensign must inspect the dress of the soldiers, observing whether they are clean, and every thing about them in the best order possible, and duly noticing any who in these respects are deficient.

He must be very attentive to the conduct of the non-commissioned officers, observing that they do their duty with the greatest exactness; that they support a proper authority, and at the same time do not ill treat the men through any pique or resentment.

As there are only two colors to a regiment, the ensigns must carry them by turns, being warned for that service by the adjutant. When on that duty, they should consider the importance of the trust reposed in them; and when in action, resolve not to part with the colors but with their lives. As it is by them the battalion dresses when marching in line, they should be very careful to keep a regular step, and by frequent practice accustom themselves to the march straight forward to any given object.


INSTRUCTION FOR THE SERGEANT MAJOR.

The sergeant major, being at the head of the non-commissioned officers, must pay the greatest attention to their conduct and behavior, never conniving at the least irregularity committed by them or the soldiers, from both whom he must exact the most implicit obedience. He should be well acquainted with the interior management and discipline of the regiment, and the manner of keeping rosters and forming details. He must always attend the parade, be very expert in counting off the battalion, and in every other business of the adjutant, to whom is an assistant.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE QUARTERMASTER SERGEANT

He is the assistant to the quartermaster of the regiment, and in his absence is to do his duty, unless an officer be specially appointed for that purpose: He should therefore acquaint himself with all the duties of the quartermaster before mentioned. When the army marches, he must see the tents properly packed and loaded, and go with the baggage, see that the waggoners commit no disorders, and that nothing is lost out of the wagons.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FIRST SERGEANT OF A COMPANY.

The soldier having acquired that degree of confidence of his officers as to be appointed first sergeant of the company, should consider the importance of his office; that the discipline of the company, the conduct of the men, their exactness in obeying orders, and the regularity of their manners, will in a great measure depend on his vigilance.

He should be intimately acquainted with the character of every soldier of the company, and should take great pains to impress upon their minds the indispensable necessity of the strictest obedience, as the foundation of order and regularity.

He will keep the details of the company, and never warn a man out of his turn, unless particularly ordered so to do.

He must take the daily orders in a book kept by him for that purpose, and shew them to his officers.

He must every morning make a report to the captain of the state of the company, in the form prescribed; and at the same time acquaint him with any thing material that may have happened in the company since the preceding report.

He must parade all guards and detachments furnished by his company, examine their arms, ammunition, accoutrements, dress, before he carries them to the parade; and if any man appears unfit, he must supply his place with another, and have the defaulter punished: For this purpose he must always warn a man or two more than ordered, to serve as a reserve, who, if not wanted, will return to their companies.

He will keep the company book (under the inspection of the captain) in which he will enter the name and description of every non-commissioned officer and soldier, his trade or occupation, the place of his birth and usual residence, where, when and for what term he was enlisted; the bounty paid him; the arms, ammunition, accoutrements, clothing and necessaries delivered him, with their marks and numbers, and the times when delivered; also copies of all returns, furloughs, discharges, and every casualty that happens in the company.

When each soldier shall be provided with a small book, the first sergeant is to enter therein the soldier’s name, a copy of his enlistment, the bounty paid him, the arms, accoutrements, clothing and necessaries delivered him, with their marks and numbers: For this purpose he must be present at all distributions in his company; and as often as arms, clothing &c. are delivered, he must enter them in the soldier’s as well as the company’s book.

The first sergeant is not to go on any duty, unless with the whole company; but is to be always in camp or quarters, to answer any call that may be made.

He is never to lead a platoon or section, but is always to be a file-closer in the formation of the company, his duty being in the company like the adjutant’s in the regiment.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE SERGEANTS AND CORPORALS

It being on the non-commissioned officers that the discipline and order of the company in a great measure depend, they cannot be too circumspect in their behavior towards the men, by treating them with mildness, and at the same time obliging every one to do his duty. By avoiding too great familiarity with the men, they will not only gain their love and confidence but be treated with a proper respect; whereas by a contrary conduct they forfeit all regard, and their authority becomes despised.

Each sergeant and corporal will be in a particular manner answerable for the squad committed to his care. He must pay particular attention to their conduct in every respect; that they keep themselves and their arms always clean; that they have their effects always ready, and put where they can get them immediately, even in the dark, without confusion; and on every fine day he must oblige them to air their effects.

When a man of his squad is warned for duty, he must examine him before he carries him to the parade, obliging him to take all his effects with him, unless when specially ordered to the contrary.

In teaching the recruits, they must exercise all their patience, by no means abusing them, but treating them with mildness, and not expect too much precision in the first lessons, punishing those only who are willfully negligent.

They must suppress all quarrels and disputes in the company; and where other means fail, must use their authority in confining the offender.

They should teach the soldiers of their squad how to dress with a soldier-like air, how to clean their arms, accoutrements &c. and how to mount and dismount their firelocks; for which purpose each non-commissioned officer should always be provided with a turnscrew, and suffer no soldier to take his arms to pieces without his permission.

On a march the non-commissioned officers must preserve order and regularity, and suffer no man to leave the ranks without permission of the officer commanding the platoon.

A corporal must teach the sentinels to challenge briskly, and every thing else they are to do in their different situations; and when he relieves them, he must make them deliver the orders distinctly.

When a guard is relieved, the non-commissioned officers take the orders from those whom they relieve; when sent to visit the sentries, they should reconnoiter the roads they are to patrol in the night, that they may not lose themselves. They must make their patrol with the greatest silence and attention, and where necessary, send a faithful soldier ahead to look out. If they meet a detachment of the enemy stronger than their own, they must retreat in order to their own posts. In the night they must stop all strangers that approach. They must not suffer their men to make the least noise with their arms or accoutrements, and every now and then stop and listen. On their return from patrolling, they must report to the officer what they have seen or heard.

When a non-commissioned officer is a file-closer in action, he must take care to keep the ranks and files properly closed, and when too much crowded, make them incline from the center. When the files of this platoon are disordered by the loss of men, he must exert himself to dress and complete them afresh, with the utmost expedition. He must keep the greatest silence in the ranks, see that the men load well and quick, and take good aim. He will do all in his power to encourage the soldiers, and use the most vigorous means to prevent any from leaving the ranks, unless wounded.


INSTRUCTION FOR THE PRIVATE SOLDIER

The recruit having received his necessaries, should in the first place learn to dress himself with a soldier-like air. To place his effects properly in his knapsack, so as to carry them with ease and convenience; how to salute his officers when he meets them; to clean his arms, wash his linen and cook his provisions. He should early accustom himself to dress in the night; and for that purpose always have his effects in his knapsack, and that placed where he can put his hand on it in a moment, that in case of alarm he may repair with the greatest alertness to the parade.

When learning to march, he must take the greatest pains to acquire a firm step and proper balance, practicing himself at all his leisure hours. He must accustom himself to the greatest steadiness under arms, to pay attention to the commands of his officers, and exercise himself continually with his firelock, in order to acquire vivacity in his motions. He must acquaint himself with the usual beats and signals of the drum, and instantly obey them.

When in the ranks, he must always learn the names of his right and left hand men and file-leader, that he may be able to find his place readily in case of separation. He must cover his file-leader and dress well in his rank, which he may be assured of doing when he can just perceive the breast of the third man from him. Having joined his company, he must no longer consider himself as a recruit, but as a soldier; and whenever he is ordered under arms, must appear well dressed, with his arms, and accoutrements clean and in good order, and his knapsack, blanket &c. ready to throw on his back in case he should be ordered to take them.

When warned for guard, he must appear as neat as possible, carry all his effects with him, and even when on sentry must have them at his back. He must receive the orders from the sentry he relieves; and when placed before the guardhouse, he must inform the corporal of all that approach, and suffer no one to enter until examined; if he is posted at a distance from the guard, he will march there in order, have the orders well explained to him by the corporal, learn which is the nearest post between him and the guard, in case he should be obliged to retire, or have any thing to communicate, and what he is to do in case of alarm; or if in a town, in case of fire and any disturbance. He will never go more than twenty paces from his post; and if in a retired place, or in the night, suffer no one to approach within ten paces of him.

A sentinel must never rest upon his arms, but keep walking on his post. He must never suffer himself to be relieved but by his corporal; challenge briskly in the night, and stop those who have not the countersign; and if any will not answer to the third challenge, or having been stopped should attempt to escape, he may fire on them.

When on patrol, he must observe the strictest silence, nor make the least noise with his arms or accoutrements.

In action he will pay the greatest attention to the commands of his officers, level well, and not throw away his fire; take particular care to keep his rank and file, incline to that side he dresses to, and encourage his comrades to do their duty.

When ordered to march, he must not charge himself with any unnecessary baggage; he will march at his ease, without however leaving his rank or file; he should drink as seldom as possible, and never stop but when necessity obliges him; in which case he must ask leave of the commanding officer of the platoon.

When arrived at camp or quarters, he must clean his arms, prepare his bed, and go for necessaries, taking nothing without leave, nor committing any kind of excess.

He must always have a stopper for the muzzle of his gun in case of rain, and when on a march; at which time he will unfix his bayonet.