San Tzu Ching/Appendix 4

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San Tzu Ching by Wang Yinglin, translated by Herbert Allen Giles
Appendix 4

APPENDIX IV.


[The following 24 lines form the continuation sanctioned, and possibly written, by 賀興思 Ho Hsing-ssŭ.]


254a.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } The Liao Tartars and the Chin Tartars
Liao2 3 chin1
Liao with Chin

Liao see line 254A.

see line 87.

Chin see line 66.


254b.

\scriptstyle{

\left.

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\right\}\, } all took the Imperial title.
Chieh1 ch'êng1 ti4
All style ruler

Chieh see line 250.

Ch'êng see line 186.

Ti see line 180.


254c.

\scriptstyle{

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\begin{matrix}
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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } The Yüans (Mongols) destroyed the Chin Tartars,
Yüan2 mieh4 chin1
Yüan extinguish chin

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Mien see line 245.

Chin see line 66.


254d.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } and put an end to the House of Sung.
Chüeh2 sung4 shih4
End sung generations

Chüeh is composed of 糸 ssŭ silk as radical, with 刀 tao knife over an obsolete word for half a tally. Its original meaning was to cut silk in two. [The radical 色 colour is a corruption of 人 jen man over the half tally.]

Sung see line 227.

Shih see line 177.


254e.

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\right\}\, } They governed the Middle Kingdom,
Li4 chung1 kuo2
Govern middle State

Li is composed of 水 shui water as radical and 位 wei a seat, an official post. It is often written 莅 .

Chung see line 64.

Kuo see line 155.


254f.

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\right\}\, } and also the wild tribes of the north and west;
Chien1 jung2 ti2
Together jung ti

Chien see line 212.

Jung see line 254J.

Ti is here used for 狄 ti, which is composed of 犬 ch'üan dog as radical, with an abbreviation of 亦 i also as phonetic. The barbarians in question were thought to have descended from dogs. See line 254J.


254g.

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\right\}\, } after ninety years
Chiu3 shih2 nien2
Nine ten years

Chiu see line 33.

Shih see line 45.

Nien see line 221. [A round number; see 254g.]


254h.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } their mandate was exhausted.
Kuo2 tsu4 fei4
State prosperity fail

Kuo see line 155.

Tsu is composed of 示 shih divine manifestation as radical, with 乍 (line 123) as phonetic.

Fei is composed of the obsolete radical 广 yen a shelter, with 發 (line 293) as phonetic. It originally meant a falling house.


254i.

\scriptstyle{

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\begin{matrix}
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\right\}\, } Then T'ai Tsu arose,
T'ai4 tsu3 hsing1
Extreme ancestor arise

T'ai see line 254K.

Tsu see line 89.

Hsing see line 215.


254j.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } his dynasty being known as Ta Ming.
Kuo2 ta4 ming2
State great bright

Kuo see line 155.

Ta see line 127.

Ming see line 110. [The famous founder of the Ming dynasty raised himself to the throne from the obscure position of a tender of cattle; hence he is sometimes spoken of as the Beggar King, and also as the Golden Youth. He was for a time a novice in a Buddhist temple, and altogether led a very chequered life.]


254k.

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\right\}\, } He took as his year-title Hung Wu,
Hao4 hung2 wu3
Style vast military

Hao see line 137.

Hung is composed of 水 shui water as radical, with 共 kung (line 100) as phonetic. It originally meant an inundation (line 187).

Wu see line 189.


254l.

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\right\}\, } and fixed his capital at Chin-ling (Nanking).
Tu1 chin1 ling2
Capital gold tombs

Tu see line 230.

Chin see line 66.

Ling see line 230.


254m.

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\right\}\, } At length, under the Emperor Ch'êng Tsu,
Tai4 ch'êng2 tsu3
Reach complete ancestor

Tai see line 235.

Ch'êng see line 26.

Tsu see line 89. [Reigned A.D. 1399—1424, and better known by his year-title 永樂 Yung Lo.]


254n.

\scriptstyle{

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\begin{matrix}
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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } a move was made to the Swallow City (Peking).
Ch'ien1 yen1 ching1
Move swallow capital

Ch'ien see line 6.

Yen see line 13.

Ching see line 254O. [The capital was transferred from Nanking to Peking in 1421.]


254o.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } There were seventeen reigns in all,
Shih2 ch'i1 shih4
Ten seven generation

Shih see line 45.

Ch'i see line 84.

Shih see line 177.


254p.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } down to and including Ch'ung Chêng.
Chih4 ch'ung2 chêng1
Reach eminent auspicious

Chih see line 94.

Ch'ung see line 254Q.

Chêng see line 254Q.

254q.

\scriptstyle{

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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } The hold on the people was relaxed,
Ch'üan2 yen1 ssŭ4
Power extend loose

Ch'üan is composed of 木 mu tree or wood as radical, with an obsolete word meaning small goblet and pronounced kuan as phonetic.

Yen is composed of 大 ta great as radical, with 申 shên to extend as phonetic. One of its original meanings was to open out.

Ssŭ is composed of 長 ch'ang long as radical, with 隶 tai (line 235), here read shih, as phonetic. [The Rev. J. Doolittle gave the following translation of this line:—"The crafty eunuchs caused a revolt." But 奄 and 閹 do not appear to have been used interchangeably, each having a separate entry in the Shuo Wên.]


254r.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } and rebels sprang up thick as forests.
K'ou4 ju2 lin2
Rebels like forests

K'ou is composed of 攴 p'u to tap as radical, and 完 wan to finish. It originally meant violent, and has been explained as referring to the completion of a gang or force previous to issuing forth. It is now classed under radical 宀 mien shelter, roof.

Ju see line 133.

Lin is composed of two 木 mu trees, and is an obvious ideogram.


254s.

\scriptstyle{

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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } Then came Li Ch'uang,
Chih4 li2 ch'uang3
Reach li ch'uang

Chih see line 94.

Li is composed of 木 mu tree as radical over 子 tzŭ child as phonetic. It means plum, but is here a surname.

Ch'uang is composed of 門 men a, door as radical, and 馬 ma a horse, q.d. a horse rushing out, bursting forth, etc., but is here a name taken by the rebel 李自成 Li Tzŭ-ch'eng, to whose sedition the fall of the Ming dynasty was mostly due.


254t.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } and the Imperial regalia were destroyed.
Shên2 chi'i4 fên2
Divine utensil burn

Shên see line 325.

Ch'i see line 26.

Fên is composed of 火 huo fire as radical below 林 lin a forest (see 254r) as phonetic. [This line refers to the looting of the palace when Li Ch'uang captured and temporarily held Peking.]


254u.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } The founder of the Ch'ing or Pure dynasty
Ch'ing1 t'ai4 tsu3
Pure extreme ancestor

Ch'ing is composed of 水 shui water as radical, with 青 ch'ing the colour of nature as phonetic. See line 84.

T'ai see 254K.

Tsu see line 89. [The T'ai Tsu in this line is the Manchu chieftain Nurhachu, A.D. 1559–1626, who was the real founder of the present dynasty, though he never mounted the throne.]


254v.

\scriptstyle{

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\right\}\, } responded to the glorious summons;
Ying4 ching3 ming4
Respond glorious order

Ying see line 64.

Ching is composed of 日 jih sun as radical, with 京 ching city as phonetic; q.d. the sun shining on a city.

Ming is composed of 口 k'ou mouth, its old radical, with 令 ling a command (see 271) as phonetic. It is also commonly used in the sense of destiny, as being the command or will of God.

254w.

\scriptstyle{

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\begin{matrix}
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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } he tranquillised the four corners (N.S.E. and W.),
Ching4 ssŭ4 fang1
Quiet four square

Ching is composed of 立 li to establish as radical, with 青 ch'ing the colour of nature as phonetic. See lines 84, 254u.

Ssŭ see line 37.

Fang see line 14.


254x.

\scriptstyle{

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\begin{matrix}
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\end{matrix}

\right\}\, } and achieved the final settlement of the empire.
K'o4 ta4 ting4
Achieve great settle

K'o is regarded as a picture of a man carving wood in a house, and originally meant to bear on the shoulders. It is now classed under radical 儿, No. 10.

Ta see line 127.

Ting is composed of 宀 mien roof or shelter as radical, with 正 chêng (line 326) as phonetic. [Mr. Doolittle translated this line "so that prosperity prevailed," which seems to be somewhat off the line of thought.]