Sanskrit Grammar/Appendix

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Sanskrit Grammar by William Dwight Whitney
Appendix

APPENDIX.

A. The following text is given (as proposed above, 3) in order to illustrate by an example the variety of Sanskrit type in use. It is given twice over, and a transliteration into European letters follows. The text is a fable extracted from the first book of the Hitopadeça.

The Hunter, Deer, Boar, and Jackal.
Sanskrittextsample1.jpg

Sanskrittextsample2.jpg

āsīt kalyāṇakaṭakavāstavyo bhāiravo nāma vyādhaḥ. sa cāi ’kadā māṅsalubdhaḥ san dhanur ādāya vindhyāṭavīmadhyaṁ gataḥ. tatra tena mṛga eko vyāpāditaḥ. mṛgam ādāya gachatā tena ghorākṛtiḥ sūkaro dṛṣṭaḥ. tatas tena mṛgam bhūmāu nidhāya sūkaraḥ çareṇa hataḥ. sūkareṇā ’py āgatya pralayaghanaghoragarjanaṁ kṛtvā sa vyādho muṣkadeçe hataç chinnadruma iva papāta. yataḥ:

jalam agniṁ viṣaṁ çastraṁ kṣudvyādhī patanaṁ gireḥ,

nimittaṁ kiṁcid āsādya dehī prāṇāir vimucyate.

atrāntare dīrgharāvo nāma jambukaḥ paribhramann āhārārthī tān mṛtān mṛgavyādhasūkarān apaçyat. ālokyā ’cintayad asāu: aho bhāgyam. mahad bhojyaṁ samupasthitam. athavā:

acintitāni duḥkhāni yathāi ’va ”yānti dehinām,

sukhāny api tathā manye dāívam atrā ’tiricyate.

bhavatu; eṣām māṅsāir māsatrayaṁ samadhikam bhojanam me bhavisyati. tataḥ prathamabubhuksāyāṁ tāvad imāni svādūni māṅsāni vihāya kodaṇḍāṭanīlagnaṁ snāyubandhaṁ khādāmī ’ty uktvā tathā ’karot. tataç chinne snāyubandhe drutam utpatitena dhanuṣā hṛdi bhinnaḥ sa dīrgharāvaḥ pañcatvaṁ gatah. ato ’ham bravīmi:

kartavyaḥ saṁcayo nityaṁ kartavyo nā ’tisaṁcayaḥ;

atisaṁcayadoṣeṇa dhanuṣā jambuko hataḥ.

B. The following text is given in order to illustrate by a sufficient example the usual method of marking accent, as described above (87). In the manuscripts, the accent-signs are almost invariably added in red ink. The text is a hymn extracted from the tenth or last book of the Rig-Veda; it is regarded by the tradition as uttered by Vāc voice (i. e. the Word or Logos).

Hymn (X. 125) from the Rig-Veda.

अ॒हं रु॒द्रेभि॒र्वसु॑भिश्चराम्य॒हमा॑दि॒त्यैरु॒त वि॒श्वदे॑वैः ।

अ॒हं मि॒त्रावरु॑णो॒भा बि॑भर्म्य॒हमि॑न्द्रा॒ग्नी अ॒हम॒श्विनो॒भा ॥१॥

अ॒हं सोम॑माह॒नसं॑ बिभर्म्य॒हं त्वष्टा॑रमु॒त पू॒षणं॒ भग॑म् ।

अ॒हं द॑धामि॒ द्रवि॑णं ह॒विष्म॑ते सुप्रा॒व्ये॒३॒॑ यज॑मानाय सुन्व॒ते ॥२॥

अ॒हं राष्ट्री॑ सं॒गम॑नी॒ वसू॑नां चिकि॒तुषी॑ प्रथ॒मा य॒ज्ञिया॑नाम् ।

तां मा॑ दे॒वा व्य॑दधुः पुरु॒त्रा भूरि॑स्थात्रां॒ भूर्या॑वे॒शय॑न्तीम् ॥३॥

मया॒ सो अन्न॑मत्ति॒ यो वि॒पश्य॑ति॒ यः प्राणि॑ति॒ य ईं॑ शृ॒णोत्यु॒क्तम् ।

अ॒म॒न्तवो॒ मां त उप॑ क्षियन्ति श्रु॒धि श्रु॑त श्रद्धि॒वं ते॑ वदामि ॥४॥

अ॒हमे॒व स्व॒यमि॒दं व॑दामि॒ जुष्टं॑ दे॒वेभि॑रु॒त मानु॑षेभिः ।

यं का॒मये॒ तंत॑मु॒ग्रं कृ॑णोमि तं ब्र॒ह्माणं॒ तमृषिं॒ तं सु॑मे॒धाम् ॥५॥

अ॒हं रु॒द्राय॒ धनु॒रा त॑नोमि ब्रह्म॒द्विषे॒ शर॑वे॒ हन्त॒वा उ॑ ।

अ॒हं जना॑य स॒मदं॑ कृणोम्य॒हं द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी आ वि॑वेश ॥६॥

अ॒हं सु॑वे पि॒तर॑मस्य मू॒र्धन्मम॒ योनि॑र॒प्स्व१॒॑न्तः स॑मु॒द्रे ।

ततो॒ वि ति॑ष्ठे॒ भुव॒नानु॒ विश्वो॒तामूं द्यां व॒र्ष्मणोप॑ स्पृशामि ॥७॥

अ॒हमे॒व वात॑ इव॒ प्र वा॑म्या॒रभ॑माणा॒ भुव॑नानि॒ विश्वा॑ ।

प॒रो दि॒वा प॒र ए॒ना पृ॑थि॒व्यैताव॑ती महि॒ना सं ब॑भूव ॥८॥

aháṁ rudrébhir vásubhiç carāmy ahám ādityāír utá viçvádevāiḥ, ahám mitrā́váruṇo ’bhā́ bibharmy ahám indrāgnī́ ahám açvíno ’bhā́. 1.

aháṁ sómam āhanásam bibharmy aháṁ tváṣṭāram utá pūṣáṇam bhágam, aháṁ dadhāmi dráviṇaṁ havíṣmate suprāvyè yájamānāya sunvaté. 2.

aháṁ rā́ṣṭrī saṁgámanī vásūnāṁ cikitúṣī prathamā́ yajñíyānām, tā́m mā devā́vy àdadhuḥ purutrā́ bhū́risthātrām bhū́ry āveçáyantīm. 3.

máyā só ánnam atti yó vipáçyati yáḥ prā́ṇiti yá īṁ çṛṇóty uktám, amantávo mā́ṁ tá úpa kṁiyanti çrudhí çruta çraddhiváṁ te vadāmi. 4.

ahám evá svayám idáṁ vadāmi juṣṭaṁ devébhir utá mā́nuṣebhiḥ, yáṁ kāmáye táṁ-tam ugráṁ kṛṇomi tám brahmā́ṇaṁ tám ṛ́ṣiṁ táṁ sumedhā́m. 5.

aháṁ rudrā́ya dhánur ā́ tanomi brahmadvíṣe çárave hántavā́ u, aháṁ jánāya samádaṁ kṛṇomy aháṁ dyā́vāpṛthivī́ ā́ viveça. 6.

aháṁ suve pitáram asya mūrdhán máma yónir apsv àntáḥ samudré, táto ví tiṣṭhe bhúvanā́ ’nu víçvo ’tā́ ’mū́ṁ dyā́ṁ varṣmáṇó ’pa spṛçāmi. 7.

ahám evá vā́ta iva prá vāmy ārábhamāṇā bhúvanāni víçvā, paró divā́ pará enā́ pṛthivyāí ’tā́vatī mahinā́ sám babhūva. 8.

C. On the next page is given, in systematic arrangement, a synopsis of all the modes and tenses recognized as normally to be made from every root in its primary conjugation, for the two common roots bhū be and kṛ make (only the precative middle and periphrastic future middle are bracketed, as never really occurring). Added, in each case, are the most important of the verbal nouns and adjectives, the only ones which it is needful to give as part of every verb-system.

bhū be. Present-system. Perfect-system. Aorist-system. Future-systems.
Active:
Indic. bhávāmi babhū́va bhaviṣyā́mi bhavitā́smi
Opt. bháveyam bhūyā́sam
Impv. bhávāni
Pple. bhávant babhūvā́ṅs bhaviṣyánt
Augm.-Pret. ábhavam ábhūvam ábhaviṣyam
Middle:
Indic. bháve babhūvé bhaviṣyé [bhavitā́he]
Opt. bháveya [bhaviṣīyá]
Impv. bhávāi
Pple. bhávamāna babhūvāná bhaviṣyámāṇa
Augm.-Pret. ábhave ábhaviṣi
Pass. pple bhūtá; — Infin. bhávitum; — Gerunds bhūtvā́, -bhū́ya.
kṛ make.
Active:
Indic. karómi cakā́ra kariṣyā́mi kartā́smi
Opt. kuryā́m kriyā́sam
Impv. karávāṇi
Pple. kurvánt cakṛvā́ṅs kariṣyánt
Augm.-Pret. ákaravam ákārṣam ákariṣyam
Middle:
Indic. kurvé cakré kariṣyé [kartā́he]
Opt. kurvīyá [kṛṣīyá]
Impv. karávāi
Pple. kurvāṇá cakrāṇá kariṣyámāṇa
Augm.-Pret. ákurvi ákṛṣi
Pass.pple kṛtá; — Infin. kártum; — Gerunds kṛtvā́, -kṛ́tya.