Sanskrit Grammar/Sanskrit Index

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Sanskrit Grammar by William Dwight Whitney
Sanskrit Index

SANSKRIT INDEX.


The references in both Indexes are to paragraphs. In this one, many abbreviations are used; but it is believed that they will be found self-explaining. For example, "pron." is pronunciation; "euph." points out anything relating to phonetic form or euphonic combination; "pres.", to present-system; "int." is intensive; "des." is desiderative; and so on. A prefixed hyphen denotes a suffix; one appended, a prefix.

a, pron. etc., 19–22, combination with following vowel, 126, 127; loss of initial after e and o, 135, 175 a; resulting accent, 135 a; not liable to guṇa, 235 a; lightened to i or u, 249; lost in weakened syllable, 253.

a, as union-vowel in tense-inflection, 621 c, 631.

-a, primy, 1148; scdry, 1208, 1209; -a in -aka, 1181; — a-stems, dcln, 326–34; from rdcl ā-st., 333, 354; in compsn, 1270, 1287 a.

a- or an-, negative, 1121 a–c; in compsn, 1283 ff., 1288 a, 1304 a, b.

-aka, prmy, 1181; aka-stems sometimes govern accus., 271 c; scdry, 1222 j, k.

-aki, see 1221 b.

akṣ, pf., 788.

akṣara, 8.

akṣán, ákṣi, 343 f, 431.

aghoṣa, 34 b.

ac or añc, pf., 788 b; pple, 956 b, 967 c; stems ending with, 407–10.

-aj, 219 a, 383 k. 5.

añc, see ac.

añj, euph., 219 a; pres., 694, 687; pf., 788; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

-aṇḍa, 1201 a.

-at, 383 k. 3 — and see -ant.

-ata, see 1176 e.

-ati, see 1157 g.

-atu, see 1161 d.

-atnu, see 1196 c.

-atra, see 1185 e.

-atha, see 1163 c.

-athu, see 1164.

ad, impf., 621 c; caus., 1042 g.

-ad, 383 k. 4.

adhi, loss of initial, 1087 a.

adhika, in odd numbers, 477 a, 478 b.

an, euph., 192 b; pres., 631.

-an, 1160.

an-, see a-.

-ana, 1150; stems in compan, 1271, 1296 b.

anaḍváh, euph., 224 b; dcln, 404.

-anā, 1150.

-ani, 1159.

-anī, 1150.

-anīya, 962, 965, 1215 b.

anu, changed to ānu after an-, 1087 b.

-anu, see 1162 c.

anudātta, 81.

anudāttatara, 90 c.

anunāsika, 36 a, 73 a.

anuvrata, with accus., 272.

anuṣṭúbh, euph., 151 d.

anusvāra, pron. etc., 70–3; transliteration, 73 c.

anehás, dcln, 419.

-ant or -at, of pples, 534, 1172; their dcln, 443 ff.

-anta, 1209 d.

antaḥsthā, 31, 51 a.

antara, in compsn, 1302 i.

-anti, see 1221 c.

anyá, dcln, 523.

ap or āp, dcln, 151 e, 393.

api, loss of initial, 1087 a.

-abha, 1199.

abhinihita-circumflex, 84 e.

am, pres., 634; aor., 862.

-am, infln. in, 970 a; gerund, 995.

-amā, see 1166 b.

-aye, infln. in, 970 f, 975 b.

-ara, see 1188 d.

arí, dcln, 343 g.

-aru, see 1192 a.

arth, so-called, 104 b, 1056, 1067.

artha, in compsn, 1302 h.

aryamán, dcln, 426 a.

árvan, árvant, 455.

arh, pres., 613; pf., 788; aor., 862; desid., 1029 b.

-ala, see 1189 b.

alpaprāṇa, 37 d.

av, aor., 838, 908; pple, 954 e; inf., 968 e; ya-ger'd, 992 c.

ava, loss of initial, 1087 a.

-ava, see 1190 a.

avagraha, 16.

avadhīr, so-called, 104 b.

avayáj, avayā́, 406.

avyayībhāva, 1111 d, 1313.

attain, pf., 788; aor., 834 b, 837–9, 847; fut., 936 c; inf., 968 d.

eat, pf., 803 a des., 1029 b, 1031; caus., 1042 n.

as be, pres., 636, 621 e; pf., 800 m; in periphr. conjn, 1070–2, 1073 d; in ppial periphr. phrases, 1075 d; in cmpd conjn, 1093, 1094.

as throw, pres., 761 c ; aor., 847; pple, 956 e; inf., 968 c.

as final, euph. treatment of, 175; exceptional cases, 176.

-as, 1151; dcln of stems in, 411 ff,; as-stems in compsn, 1278, 1296 b, 1298 b.

-as, infln. in, 970 a, 971.

asán, ásṛj, 398, 432.

-asi, 1198.

ásṛj, euph., 219: and see asán.

-ase, infln. in, 970 c, 973 a.

asthán, ásthi, 343 i, 431.

-asna, see 1195 a.

-asnu, see 1994 d.

ah say, pf., 801 a.

ah connect (?), 788 a.

áhan, áhar, áhas, 430.


ā, pron. etc., 19, 22; combination of final, 126, 127; elision of initial, 135 d; vṛddhi of a, 236 ff.; lightened to ī or i, 250; to a, 250 c; in pres, 661–6, 761 f, g; in aor., 884; in pple, 954 c; in des., 1028 d.

ā́, with ablative, 293 c, 983 a.

-ā, 1149.

ā-stems, dcln, 347 ff.

-āka, see 1181 d.

-āku, see 1181 d.

-ātu, see 1161 d.

ātman, used reflexively, 514 a.

ātmane padam, 529.

ādi, ādika, ādya, in compsn, 1302 d.

-āna, in pples, 584, 1175; used instead of māna, 741 a, 752 e, 1043 f; -āna in other derivatives, 1175 a.

-ānī, see 1223 b.

-ānu, see 1162 c.

ānunāsikya, 36 a.

āp, 1087 f; pf., 783 d; aor., 847, 862; des., 1030.

ābhā, in compsn, 1302 i.

ām, impv. 3d sing, in, 618.

āmreḍita, 1260 d.

-āyana, 1219.

-āyī, 1220.

-āyya, 966 c, 1051 f, 1218.

-āra, see 1188 d, 1226 b.

-āru, see 1192 a.

-āla, see 1227 a, 1245 l.

-ālu, see. 1192 b, 1227 b.

ās, pres., 619 c, 628; inf., 968 d; periph. pf., 1071 c; in ppial periph. phrases, 1075 c.

ā́s, āsán, āsyà, 398 b, 432.

ās final, euph. treatment of, 177.


i, pron. etc., 19, 20, 22; i and y, 55; combinations of final, 126, 129, 797 f; with preceding a-vowel, 127; from ya, 252, 784 c, 769, 922 b, 954 b; cases of loss before y, 233 a.

i, union-vowel, 254, 555 b; in pres., 630, 631, 634, 640; in pf., 796–8, 803; in aor., 876 b, 877; in fut., 934, 935, 943; in pple, 956; in infln., 968; in des., 1031.

i-stems, dcln, 335 ff.; from rdcl ī-st., 354; in compsn, 1276, 1287 c; sometimes govern accus., 271 f.

i go, pf., 783 b, 801 d; fut, 935 a; ya-ger'd, 992 a, c; int., 1002 e, 1021 b; caus., 1042 l; in ppial periphr. phrases, 994 e, 1075 a; periphr. conj., 1071 f; irreg. comb. with prefixes, 1087 c; in compd conjn, 1092 b.

i (in, inv) send, 716 a.

-i, prmy, 1155; scdry, 1221.

-ika, prmy, 1186 c; scdry, 1222 j, l.

-ika, fem. to -aka, 1181 c, 1222 i.

ich, 608 b, 753 b.

-ij, 219 a, 383 k. 5.

-it, 383 k. 3; advbl, 1109 a.

-ita, 1176 a, b, d.

íti, uses of, 1102 a–c; peculiar construction with, 268 b; abbrev'd to ti, 1102 d.

-iti, see 1157 g.

-itu, see 1161 c.

-itnu, see 1196.

-itra, see 1185 e.

idh or indh, euph., 160 c; aor., 836, 837, 840 b.

in (or inv), 699 b, 709, 716 a, 749 b.

-in, 1183, 1230; in-stems, dcln, 438 ff.; in compsn, 1275, 1287 e; sometimes govern accus., 271 b; used participially, 960 b.

-ina, see 1177 b, 1209 c, 1223 f.

ínakṣa, 1029 c.

-ineya, see 1216 d.

inv, see in.

-ibha, see 1199 a.

-ima, 1224 a.

-iman, see 1168 i–k.

iy in euph. comb'n from an i-vowel, a, e, d, 352 b.

-iya, 1214.

iyakva, 1029 c.

íyant, dcln, 451.

ir-stems, dcln, 392.

ira, see 1188 e, 1226 b.

irajya, iradha, 1021 a.

il, caus., 1042 b.

-ila, see 1189 b, 1227 a.

iva, euph., 1102.

-iva, see 1190 a.

-ivas, see 1173 b.

iṣ desire, pres., 608 b, 753 b; inf., 968 d; desid., 1029 b.

iṣ send, caus., 1042 b.

-iṣa, see 1197 b.

-iṣṭha, 467–70, 1184.

-iṣṇu, 1194.

-is, 1153; is-stems, dcln, 411 ff.


ī, pron. etc., 19, 20, 22; combinations of final, 126, 129, 797 f; with preceding a-vowel, 127; circumflexed, 128; uncombinable in dual etc., 138; ī as final of stem in verbal compsn, 1093, 1094.

ī, union-vowel, 254; in tense-inflection, 555 b, c; of pres., 632–4; of impf., 621, 631–4; of s-aor., 880 b, 888–91; of int., 1004 ff.; ī for i, 900 b, 935 a, 968 d, f.

ī-stems, dcln, 347 ff.

-ī, 1156; to i before added sfx, 471 b, 1203 d, 1237 c, 1239 b; in compsn, 1249 d.

-īka, see 1186 c.

īkṣ, aor., 862; desid., 1029b; periph. pf., 1071 c, 1073 a.

īḍ, pres., 628, 630; pf., 783 d.

īta- for eta-forms in optative, 738 b, 771 d, 1032 a, 1043 c.

-īti, see 1157 g.

-ītu, see 1161 c.

-īna, prmy, see 1171 b; scdry, 1223 d.

-īman, see 1168 j.

īya, conj.-stem, 1021 b.

-īya, 1215.

-īyas, 467–70, 1184; stems in, dcln, 463 ff.

īr, pres., 628; pf., 783 d, 801 d; pple, 957 b.

-īra, see 1188 e.

-īva, see 1190 a.

īç, pres., 628, 630.

īçvara, with infin., 984, 987.

īṣ, euph., 225 a.

-īṣa, see 1197.

īh, euph., 240 b.


u, pron. etc., 19, 20, 22; u and v, 57; combinations of final, 126, 129; with preceding a-vowel, 127; from va, 252, 784, 769, 922 b, 954 b, 956 d; cases of loss before v, 233 a; final u gunated in scdry derivation, 1203 a.

u-stems, dcln, 335 ff.; from rdcl ū-st, 354; desid. u-stems govern accus., 271 a.

-u, 1178; -u in -uka, 1180 a.

-uka, 1180; stems sometimes govern accus., 271 g.

ukṣán, dcln, 426 b.

uch, 608 b, 753 b.

ujh, periphr. pf., 1071 c.

uñch, pres., 758.

uṇādi-suffixes, 1138 a.

-ut, 383 k. 3.

-utra, see 1185 e.

-utṛ, see 1182 b.

-utha, see 1163 d.

ud or und, pres., 694 a, 758 a; pple, 957 d; desid., 1029 b.

úd, údaka, udán, 398 b, 432.

udātta, 81.

-una, see 1177 c.

-uni, see 1158 e.

upadhmānīya, 69.

ubj, aor., 862.

ubh or umbh, pres., 694, 758 a.

-ubha, see 1199 a.

ubháya, dcln, 525 c.

ur or us as 3d pl. ending, 169 b.

ur-stems, dcln, 392.

-ura, see 1188 f, 1226 b.

-uri, 1191 a.

-ula, see 1189 b, 1227 a.

uv in euph. comb'n from an u-vowel, 129 a, c, d, 352 b, 697 a.

uçánas, uçánā, dcln, 355 a, 416.

uṣ, pres., 608 b; ya-ger'd, 992 b; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

-uṣa, see 1197 c.

uṣás, euph., 168 a; dcln, 415 b.

-uṣi, see 1221 c.

uṣṇíh, euph., 223 a.

-us, 1154; us-stems, dcln, 411 ff.

usṛ́, 371 j.

us or ur as 3d pl. ending, 169 b.


ū, pron. etc., 19, 20, 22; combinations of final, 126, 129, 797 f; with preceding a-vowel, 127; circumflexed, 128; uncombinable in dual, 138 a.

ū-stems, dcln, 347 ff.

-ū, 1179.

-ūka, see 1180 f.

-ūtṛ, see 1182 b.

-ūtha, see 1163 d.

ū́dhan, ū́dhar, ū́dhas, 430 d.

ūna, in odd numbers, 477 a, 478 b.

-ūna, see 1177 c.

-ūra, see 1188 f.

ū́rj, euph., 219 a.

ūrṇu, so-called, 104 b, 713; pf., 801 g, 1071 e; ya-ger'd, 992 c.

-ūṣa, see 1197 c.

ūṣman, 31, 59.

ūh remove, infln., 968 c; ya-ger'd, 992 c.

ūh consider, euph., 240 b, 745 a; pres., 894 d, 897 b.


, pron. etc., 23–6; objectionable pronunciation and transliteration as ṛi, 24 a; question of or ar in roots and stems, 104 d, e, 237; combinations of final, 126, 129; with preceding a-vowel, 127; exceptions, 127 a; impedes change of preceding s to , 181 a; changes succeeding n to , 189 ff.; guṇa and vṛddhi increments of, 235 ff.; irregular changes, 241, 243; variable final of roots (so-called ), 242.

-roots, root-nouns from, 383 b, g.

-stems, dcln, 369 ff.

, variable (so-called ), roots in, 242, 245 b; their passive, 770 c; aor., 885, 900 b; prec., 922 a; fut., 935 a; pple, 957 b; root-infln., 971; gerund in ya, 992 a.

, euph., 242 c; pres., 608 a, 699 a, 753 b, 643 d, 645, 716 a; passive, 770 c; pf., 783 a; aor., 834 a, 837 b, 840 b, 847, 853, 862; pple, 957 b; int, 1002 e; caus., 1042 i; caus. aor., 1047.

-, see 1182 h.

ṛi, ṛī, bad transliterations for ṛ, ṝ, 24 a.

ṛc or arc, pf., 788 a; aor., 862, 894 d, 897 b; ya-ger'd, 992 b.

ṛch, 608, 753 b; pf., 788 b.

-ṛj, 383 k. 5.

ṛñj or ṛj or arj stretch out, pres., 758 a; pf., 788 b; aor., 894 d, 897 b.

ṛṇv, 716 a.

-ṛt, 383 k. 3.

ṛtvíj, euph., 219.

ṛd, pple, 957 d.

ṛdh, pres., 694; pf., 788 a; aor., 832, 837, 838, 840 a, 847, 862; des., 1029 b, 1030.

ṛbhukṣan, dcln, 434.

ṛṣ, pf., 788 b.

ṛhánt, dcln, 450 e.


, pron. and occurrence, 23–6; objectionable pronunciation and transliteration as ṛī, 24 a; as alleged final of roots, 104 d, 242 (and see , variable); changes succeeding n to , 189 ff.

, pron. and occurrence, 23–6; objectionable pronunciation and transliteration as ḷi or ḷri, 24 a; its guṇa-increment, 236.

ḷi, ḷri, bad transliterations for , 24 a.


, 23 a.


e, pron. etc., 27–9; combinations of final, 131–3, 135; with final a-vowel, 127; uncombinable in dual etc., 138 a, b, f; guṇa of i and ī, 235 ff.; from radical ā, 250 d; as alleged final of roots, 251, 761 f.

e, infln. in, 970 a, 971.

éka, dcln, 482 a, b; used as article, 482 c; in making 9's 477 a, b.

ekaçruti, 90 c.

edh, pf., 790 c; desid., 1029 b, 1031 b; periph. pf., 1071 c.

-ena, 1223 e.

-enya, 966 b, 1038, 1217.

-eya, 1216.

-eyya, 1216 e.

-era, see 1201 a, 1226 b.

-eru, see 1192 a.

-elima, 966 d, 1201 a.

eṣás, euph., 176 a.


āi, pron. etc., 27–9; combination with final a-vowel, 127; as final, 131–3; vṛddhi of i and ī, 235 ff.; as alleged final of roots, 251, 761 e; for union-vowel ī in tense-inflection, 555 c; for e in subj. endings, 561 a.

āi as gen.-abl. ending, 365 d.


o, pron. etc., 27–9; combination with final a-vowel, 127; as final, 131, 132, 134, 135; before suffix ya, 136 b; uncombinable, 138 c, f; for final as, 175, 176; ar, 179 a; guṇa of u and ū, 235 ff.; as alleged final of roots, 251, 761 g.

oṁ, euph., 137 b.

-otṛ, see 1182 b.

odana, euph., 137 b.

-ora, see 1201 a.

oṣṭha, euph., 137 b.

oṣṭhya, 49.


āu, pron. etc., 27–9 ; combination with final a-vowel, 127; as final, 131, 132, 134 b; vṛddhi of u and ū, 235 ff.


, pron. etc., 67–9; makes heavy syllable, 79; occurrence as final, 148, 170 a; for the labial and guttural spirants, 170 d; from finals, 145, 170 a, 172; from r, 144, 178; allows change of s to , 183.


or , pron. etc., 70–3; makes heavy syllable, 79; occurrence as final, 148; allows change of s to , 183; occurrence, 204, 212, 213 e.


k, pron. etc., 39, 40; relation to c, 42; to ç, 64; s to after, 180 ff.; added to final , 211; from c, by reversion, 214 ff.; as final, and in internal combination, 142, 217; from ç, do., 145, 218; from , 226 e; anomalously from t, 151 a; to t, 151 c.

-ka, prmy, 1186; scdry, 1222; ka in -uka, 1180 a; in -aka, 1181.

-kaṭa, see 1245 k.

kaṇṭhya guttural, 39.

kan, pf., 786 e; aor., 899 d.

kath, so-called, 1056.

kam, aor., 868; pple, 955 a.

kampa, 78 d, 87 d, 90 ff.

kámvant, euph., 212.

-kara, 1201 a.

karmadhāraya, 1263 a.

kal, caus., 1042 g.

kalpa in compsn, 1302 i.

kas, pple, 956 b.

, int. (?), 1013 b.

kāma, with accus., 272; in compsn with infin.-stem, 968 g.

kāmya as denom.-sign, 1066.

kāra, in sound-names, 18.

kāç, int., 1017.

kās, periph. pf., 1071 f.

kíyant, dcln, 451.

kir, 756.

kīrt or kṝt, so-called, 1056.

ku, pres., 633.

kuc, caus., 1042 h.

kup, pres., 761 a; aor., 840b; pple, 956 b.

kumār, so-called, 104 b.

kuvíd, accent of verb with, 595 e.

kṛ make, pres., 714, 716, 855 a; pf. 797 c, 800 k; aor. 831, 834 a–40, 847, 894 d; int, 1002 g, h; prefixes s, 1087 d; in periph. conjn, 1070–3; in compd conjn, 1091–4; special constructions, 268 a.

kṛ, kir scatter, 242 b; pres., 756; aor., 885; prefixes s, 1087 d.

kṛ commemorate, int, 1002 d, 1019 b.

kṛt cut, pres., 758; aor., 847, 852 a; fut., 935 b.

-kṛt, see 1105.

kṛt-suffixes, 1138 a.

-kṛtvas, see 1105.

kṛp, pres., 745 b; aor., 834 b; cans., 1042 b.

kṛçá as pple, 958.

kṛṣ, 102 a; euph., 226 f; pf. 790 c; aor., 916 a, 920 a; fut., 935 d, 936 d; inf., 968 d.

kḷp, 26; pf., 786 a; fut., 935 b, 936 d.

-knī, see 1176 d.

knū, caus., 1042 l.

krand, pf., 794 d; aor., 847, 861 a, 890 b; int., 1002 g, h, 1017.

kram, pres., 745 d; aor., 833, 847, 899 d, 904 a; fut. 935 b; pple, 955 a; inf., 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; des., 1031 b; caus., 1042 g; in periphr. conj., 1070 c.

krī, caus., 1042 l.

krīḍ, caus., 1042 n.

krudh, aor., 847.

kruç, aor., 916 a, 920 a.

króṣṭu, kroṣṭṛ́, 343 k, 374.

klam, pres., 745 d, 761 a, 763; pple, 955 a.

klid, pple, 957 d.

kliç, aor., 916 a.

kṣ, combinations of, 146, 221.

kṣan, pple, 954 d; inf., 968 e.

kṣam, pres., 763; fut., 935 b; pple, 955 a, 956 b; inf., 968 d; caus., 1042 g.

kṣám, dcln, 388.

kṣar, aor., 890.

kṣal, caus., 1042 n.

kṣā, pres., 761 e; pple, 957 a.

kṣāma as pple, 958.

kṣi possess, pres., 755; caus., 1042 d, l.

kṣi destroy, pres., 761 b; fut, 935 a; pple, 957 a; ya-ger'd, 922 a; caus., 1042 l.

kṣud, pple, 957 d.

kṣudh, pres., 761 a; aor., 847.

kṣubh, pple, 956 b.

kṣāipra-circumflex, 84 a.

kṣṇu, pres., 626.

kṣvid, pple, 957 d.


kh, pron. etc., 39; relation to , 61 b.

khan or khā, 102 a; pass., 772; pf., 794 e; aor., 890 a; pple, 955 b; inf., 968 e; ya-ger'd, 992 a; caus., 1042 g.

khā, 102 a.

khid, pf., 790 b; pple, 957 d.

khud, khun, int., 1002 g, h.

khyā, aor., 847, 894 c; fut, 936 c.


g, pron. etc., 39; relation to j, 42; from j by reversion, 214 ff.

gata, in compsn, 1273 c.

gam, 102 a; pres., 608 b, 747, 855 a; aor., 833, 834b, 837–40, 847, 881 e, 887 b; pf., 794 e, 805 a; fut, 943 a; pple, 954 d; int., 1002 g, h, 1003; des., 1028 e, 1031 b; caus., 1042 g; root-noun, 383 h.

gal, int., 1002 d.

go, 102 a; pres., 660; aor., 830, 836, 839, 884, 894 c; desid., 1028 d.

sing, 251; pres., 761 e; aor., 894 d, 912; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; ya-ger'd, 992 a; caus., 1042 j, k.

gāh or gah, pple, 956 e; int., 1002 d.

gir, gil, 756; caus., 1042 b.

gu, int., 1002 d.

guṇa, 27, 235 ff.

gup, aor., 863 a; inf., 968 c; ya-ger'd, 992 c; des., 1040.

gur, pres., 756; aor., 834 a; pple, 957 b.

guh, euph., 155 b, d, 223 b, 240 c; pres., 745 c; pf., 793 i; aor., 847, 852, 916 a, 920 a, f; inf., 968 e; ya-ger'd, 992 c; caus., 1042 b.

gṛ sing, euph., 242 b; aor., 894 d.

gṛ swallow, euph., 242 b; pres., 756; aor., 836; inf., 968 d; int., 1002 d.

gṛ (or jāgṛ) wake, 1020; aor., 867, 871.

gṛdh, pf., 786 a; aor., 847.

, euph., 134 a, 236 b; dcln, 361 c, f.

gdha, gdhi, 233 f.

grath or granth, pres., 730 a; pf., 794 h; caus., 1042 h.

grabh or grah, euph., 155 b, 223 g; pres., 723, 729, 731, 732, 904 d, 1066 b; pf., 794 c, 801 i; aor., 834 b, 847, 900 b, 904 a, b; fut. 936 e; pple, 956 d, e; infin., 968 f; pass., 998 f; des., 1031 b; caus., 1042 b.

gras, pple, 956 b.

glā, pres., 761 e; aor., 912; pple, 957 a; caus., 1042 j.

glāú, dcln, 361 a.


gh, pron. etc., 30; h derived from, 66; from h, by reversion, 214 ff., 402.

ghaṭ, caus., 1042 g.

ghas, euph., 167, 233 f; jakṣ from, 640; pf., 794 d; aor., 833, 847; pple, 954 e.

ghoṣavant, 34.

ghrā, pres., 671, 749 a; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; ya-ger'd, 992 c; caus., 1042 d.


, pron. etc., 39; occurrence as final, 143, 386. 2, 3, 407 a; duplication as final, 210; adds k before sibilant, 211.


c, pron. etc., 42–4; as final, 142; from t before a palatal, 202 a, 203; n to ñ before it, 208 b ; internal combinations of, 217; reversion to k, 216 ff.; in pres., 681; pf., 787; int., 1002 i; des., 1028 f.

cakās or cakāç, so-called, 677.

cakṣ, pres., 444 a, 621 a, 628, 675.

catúr, dcln, 482 g, h.

cam, pres., 745 d; pple, 955 a; caus., 1042 g.

car, euph., 242 d; aor., 899 d; pple, 957 b; inf., 968 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 b, c; int., 1002 d, 1003, 1017; des., 1031 b; in ppial periphr. phrases, 1075 b.

carv, pple, 956 a, 957 b.

cal, int., 1003; caus., 1042 g.

cāy, pres., 761 e; tvā-ger'd, 991 c; ya-ger'd, 992 b; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

ci gather, reversion of c to k, 216 l, 681, 787, 1028 f; pres., 716 b, 855 a; aor., 889; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; ya-ger'd, 992 a; caus., 1042 l.

ci note, pres., 645; aor., 834 a.

cit, reversion of c to k, 216 l, 681, 787, 1002 i, 1028 f; pf., 790 b, 801 e; aor., 840 a, b; int., 1002 i, 1024; des., 1040; caus., 1042 b.

ceṣṭ pf., 790 c.

cyu, pf., 785 a; aor., 840 b, 866, 867, 868 a, 870; inf., 968 c; caus., 1042 e.


ch, pron. etc., 42, 44; as final, 142; from ç after t or n, 203; after other mutes, 203 a; in internal combination, 220; duplication between vowels, 227; çch for, 227 a.

cha present-stems, 608.

chad, pple, 957 d.

chand, aor., 863 a, 890 b; caus., 1042 g.

chā, pres., 753 c; pple, 954 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; caus., 1042 k.

chid, pres., 694 a; pf., 805 b; aor., 832 a, 834 d, 847, 887 a; pple, 957 d.

chur, caus., 1042 b.

chṛd, pple, 957 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.


j, pron. etc., 42–4; as final, 142; in internal combination, 219; n to ñ before it, 202 b; from t before sonant palatal, 202 a; reversion to g, 215 ff.; in pf., 787; in des., 1028 f.; before na of pple, 957 c; anomalously changed to d, 151 c.

jakṣ, 102 a; euph., 233 f; pres., 640, 675; pple, 954 e.

jágat, dcln, 450 d.

jagdha etc., 233 f.

jan, 102 a; pres., 631 a, 645, 680, 761 b, 772; pf., 794 e; aor., 834 b, 904 d; pple, 955 b; inf., 968 e; des., 1031 b.

jáni, dcln, 343 f.

janús, dcln, 415 c.

jap, pple, 956 b; int., 1002 d, 1017.

jambh or jabh, inf., 968 e; int., 1017.

jalp, pf., 790 c.

jas, aor., 871.

, 102 a.

jāgṛ, so-called, 104 b, 1020; pf., 1071 e.

jātya-circumflex, 84 b.

ji conquer, reversion of j to g, 216 l; in pf., 787; in des., 1028 f; aor., 839, 889, 894 b, 904 b; fut., 935 a; caus., 1042 l; caus. aor., 1047, 861 b; periph. pf., 1071 f.

ji injure — see jyā.

jinv, 716 a, 749 b.

jihvāmūlīya, 39 a, 69.

jiv, aor., 861 a ; des., 1028 h, 1031 b; caus., 1042 n.

jur, pres., 756, 766.

juṣ, aor., 834 b, 836, 840 b; in sajū́s, 225 a, 392 b.

, pres., 728; pf., 786 c. jṛ waste away, euph., 216 l, 242 b; pres., 756, 766; pf., 793 h, 794 k; pple, 957 b; caus., 1042 e.

jñā, pres.,730b, 731; pf., 790 b; aor., 830, 838, 894 c, 912; caus., 1042 j; caus. aor., 1047, 861 b; caus. des., 1030; caus. pple, 1051 b.

jyā or , pres., 761 b; pf., 785 a, 794 b; aor., 912; pple, 954 c.

jri, aor., 897 b.

jval, aor., 899 d; caus., 1042 g.


jh, pron. and occurrence, 42; as final, 142; in internal combination, 220 b.


ñ, pron. etc., 42; from n after a palatal, 201; before j, 202 b; ç, 203; c, 208 b.


, pron. etc., 45, 46; from a final palatal, 142; ç, 145, 218; , 145; h, 147; adds t before s, 199 e; added to final before sibilant, 211; from j in internal combination, 219; ch, 220; kṣ, 221; h, 222; , 226 b.


ṭh, pron. etc., 45, 46.


, pron. etc., 45; ordinary derivation, 46; used for, 5 a, 54; from d with preceding sibilant, 198 d, 199 d.


ḍh, pron. etc., 45, 46; ḷh used for, 54; from dh with preceding sibilant, 199 d; from h with following t or th or dh, 222 b.

ḍhvam or dhvam, 226 c, 881 b, 901 a, 924 a.


, pron. etc., 45; ordinary derivation, 46; as final, 143; change of n to, 189–95; from n with preceding sibilant, 199 b; doubled as final, 210; adds before a sibilant, 211.


t, pron. etc., 47, 48; from final radical s, 145; do. in internal combn, 167, 168; with preceding sonant aspirate, 160; assim. to following l, 162; added after before s, 199 e; after n before s or , 207; to palatal before palatal, 202; before ç, 203; anomalously changed to k, 151 a; to , 151 b; from k and j, 151 c.

-t, added after short final vowel of root, 345, 376 h, 383 f–h, 1143 d, 1147 d, 1196 a, 1213 a; irregular cases, 1147 e.

-ta, of pple, 952–6, 1176; ta-stems in compsn, 1273, 1284; scdry, 1245 e.

taṅs or tas, pf., 794 d; aor., 847.

takṣ, pres., 628; pf., 790 b; pple, 956 a.

taḍ, euph., 198 c.

tatpuruṣa, 1263 a.

taddhita-suffixes, 1138 a.

tan stretch, pass., 772; pf., 794 f, 805 a; aor., 833 a. 834 b, 847, 881 e, 890 a, 899 d; pple, 954 d; ya-ger'd, 992 a; des., 1028 e.

-tana, 1245 g–i.

tanū as refl. pronoun, 514 b.

tap, pres., 761 b ; aor., 834 d, 233 e, 865 a; fut, 935 b.

tam, pres., 763; aor., 847; pple, 955 a; inf., 968 e.

-tama, 471–3, 487 f, g, 1242 a, b.

-tamam and -tāmam, 1111 e, 1119.

-taya, 1245 a.

-taye, infin. in, 970 e, 975.

-tar, see 1109 a, and -tṛ.

-tara, 471–3, 1242 a, b.

-taram and tarām, 1111 e, 1119.

-tari, infln. in, 970 i, 979.

-tavant, pple in, 959, 960.

-tave and tavāi, infln. in, 970 b, 972.

-tavya, 962, 964, 1212 i.

tas, see taṅs.

-tas, 1152; advbl, 1098.

-, 1237.

-tāt, impv. forms in, 570, 571, 618, 654, 704, 723, 740, 752 c, 760 c, 839, 1011 a, 1032a, 1043 d.

-tāt, 383 k, 1238; advbl, 1100 b.

-tāti, 1238.

tāy, pres., 761 e; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

tālavya, 44 a.

-ti, 1157; ti-stems in compsn, 1274, 1287 d; scdry, 519, 1157 h; advbl, 1102 a–d.

tij, euph., 219 a; des., 1040.

-titha, 1242 e.

tir, 756, 766.

tu, pres., 633; pf., 786 c; aor., 868 a; int., 1002 g.

-tu, 1161, 970 b, 972.

tuj, caus., 1042 b.

tud, pres., 758; pple, 957 d.

-tum, infin. in, 968, 970 b, 972, 987, 988.

tur, pres., 756, 766; des., 1029 a; caus., 1042 b.

-tur, 1182 g.

tul, caus., 1042 b.

tuṣ, caus., 1042 b.

tṛ, euph., 242 b; pres., 709, 715 c, 756, 766; pf., 794 k, 801 f, 804; aor., 904 d; pple, 957 b; inf., 968 d; ya-ger'd, 992 a; int, 1002 d, g, 1003, 1017; desid., 1029 a.

-tṛ, 943, 1182; tṛ-stems, dcln, 369 ff.; govern accus., 271 d; verbal use of, 946; make periphr. fut, 942–7.

tṛca, euph., 233 a.

tṛta, tṛtīya, euph., 243.

tṛd, aor., 836 b, 837 a; pple, 957 d.

tṛp, pres., 710, 758; pf., 786 a; fut., 936 d; aor., 847, 852 a.

tṛṣ, pf., 786 a; aor., 840 b, 847

tṛh or tṛṅh, euph., 223 b, 224 b; pres., 694 a, 695; aor., 847, 916 a.

toçás, dcln, 415 b.

-tos, infln. in, 970 b, 972.

tta for dāta, 955 f, 1087 e.

tti for dāti, 1157 c.

-tna, 1245 g, h.

-tnu, 1196.

tman, dcln, 426 b.

-tya, for -ya, 992; scdry, 1245 b–d.

tyaj, 1087 f; euph., 219 a; pf., 785 a; fut. 935 b; pple, 956 b.

-tyāi, infln. in, 970 e, 975 a.

-tra, 1185; or trā, advbl, 1099.

trap, pf., 794 h.

tras, pf., 794 h; aor., 899 d.

trā, 102 a; pres., 628; aor., 887 d, 893 a, 895.

-trā, see -tra.

tri, dcln, 482 e, f; in compsn, 1300 c.

-tri, see 1185 g.

triṣṭúbh, euph., 151 d.

-trī, 376 c, 1182.

-tru, see 1185 g.

-tva, gerundival, 966 a, 1209 h; scdry, 1239.

-tvatā, 1239 d.

-tvan, see 1169.

-tvana, 1240.

tvar, caus., 1042 g.

-tvara, see 1171.

-tvā, 990, 991, 993.

-tvānam, 993 c.

-tvāya, 993 b.

tviṣ, pres., 621 a; aor., 916 a.

-tvī, 993 b.

-tvīnam, 993 c.

tsar, aor., 890 a, 899 d.


th, pron. etc., 47, 48; with preceding sonant aspirate, 160.

-tha, 1163; ordinal, 487 c, 1242 d; or thā, advbl, 1101.

-tham, advbl, see 1101 a.

-thā, see tha.

-thāt, advbl, 1101 a.

-thu, 1164.


d, pron. etc., 47, 48; anomalously changed to , 151 b; do. from h, 404.

dákṣina, dcln, 525 c.

dagh, euph., 155 b, 160 c; aor., 833, 836 b, 838, 847.

dad, 672; pf., 794 j.

dadh, 672; euph., 155 e, 160 c.

dadhán, dádhi, 343 i, 431.

dán, euph., 389 b.

dánt, dcln, 396.

dantya, 47.

dabh or dambh, euph., 155 b; pf., 794 h; aor., 833; des., 1030.

dam, pres., 763; pple, 955 a; tvā-ger'd, 991 b.

-dam, advbl, see 1103 b.

day, pres., 761 f; periph. pf., 1071 f.

daridrā, so-called, 104b, 1024 a; pf., 1071 e.

dal, caus., 1042 g.

daç or daṅç, pres., 746; pf., 794 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

das, aor., 847, 852 b, 899 d.

dah, euph., 155 b, d, 223 a; aor., 890 a, 897 a, 444 a; fut., 935 d; int, 1002 d; des., 1030.

give, pres., 667–9, 672, 855 a; pf., 803 a; aor., 830, 834 a, 836, 837, 839, 847, 884, 894 c; pple, 955 f, 1087 e, 1157 c; inf., 968 f; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; ya-ger'd, 992 a; des., 1030, 1034 b.

divide, 251; pres., 753 c, 761 g; aor., 834 a; pple, 954 c, 955 f, 957 a, 1087 e, 1157 c; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

bind, pres., 753 c, 761 g; aor., 884; pple, 954 c.

protect, alleged, pf., 787.

-, advbl, 1103 a, b.

-dānīm, advbl, 1103 c.

dāç, pres., 444, 639 c; pf., 790 b, 803 a.

dās, pres., 444.

-di, advbl, 1103 e.

didyót etc., 336 e.

div, see dīv.

dív, dcln, 361 d.

diç, euph., 218 a; aor., 916, 920 a; int., 1017.

dih, euph., 155 b, 223 a; aor., 916.

dīkṣ, des., 1031 b; caus., 1042 n.

dīdī, so-called, 676; pf., 786 b.

dīdhī, so-called, 104 b, 676; pf., 786 b; aor., 897 b.

dīp, aor., 861 a.

dīv play, euph., 240 b; pres., 765; pple, 955 c; inf., 968 e.

dīv or dev lament, pple, 957 a; inf., 968 e.

du or , pres., 716 b; pple, 957 a.

ducchúnā, euph., 168 b.

dudh, 102 a.

duṣ, euph., 240 c, 1155 a; aor., 847; caus., 1042 b.

dus-, 225 a, 1121; in compsn, 1284 a, b, 1288 e, f, g, 1304 c, d.

duh, euph., 165 b, d, f, 223 a; pres., 621, 635; pf., 801 h; aor., 916, 920 a f.

dṛ pierce, euph., 242 c; pf., 793 h; pple, 957 b; int., 1002 d, 1003, 1023; caus., 1042 e.

dṛ heed, pres., 757, 773; aor., 834 a, 881 b.

dṛp, aor., 847; fut., 935 b, 936 d.

dṛç, euph., 218 a; pf., 790 c, 801 e, 805 b; aor., 832, 834 b, 836, 840 b, 847, 890 a, 894 a; fut., 936 d; pass., 998 f; root-noun, dcln, 386. 3.

dṛç, dṛça, drkṣa, with pron.-stems, 518.

dṛh or dṛúh, euph., 155 b, 223 b, d; pres., 758, 761 b, 767; pf., 786 a.

devanāgarī, 1.

doṣán, dós, 398 a. 432.

dyú and dyó, dcln, 361 d, e.

dyut, pf., 785 a; aor., 840 a, b, 847, 863 a, 890 a; int., 1002 g; caus., 1042 b.

-dyus, see 1105 b.

drā run, pple, 957 a; int., 1024 a.

drā sleep, aor., 912; pple, 954 c, 957 a; int., 1024 a.

dru, pf., 797 c; aor., 868; int., 1018 a; caus., 1042 e.

druh, euph., 155 b, d, 223 a, c; aor., 834 d. 847, 920 e, f.

dvandva, 1252 a.

dvā́r, dcln, 388. 3.

dvi, cmpds with, 1300 c.

dvigu, 1312.

dviṣ, euph., 226 d, f; pres., 621 a; aor., 916, 920 b.


dh, pron. etc., 47. 48; from t or th after sonant aspirate, 160; h from, 223 g.

-dha, see -dhā.

dham or dhmā, pres., 760 ; pass., 772; aor., 912; pple, 955 b; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

dhā put, euph., 223 g; pres., 667–9, 672, 856 a; aor., 830, 834–7, 839, 847, 884; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; des., 1028 d, 1030, 1031 a; in periphr. conj., 1070 c.

dhā suck, 251; pres., 761 f; aor., 868; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

-dhā or -dha, advbl, 1104.

dhāv rinse, pple dhāutá, 954 e.

dhi (or dhinv), 716 a.

dhi, final of compds, 1155 g, 1276 b.

dhū or dhu, pres., 712, 728 a, 755; pf., 790 b; aor., 868 a, 887 c; int., 1002 g, 1003, 1018 a; caus., 1042 m.

dhūrv, aor., 887 c; des., 1028 h.

dhṛ, pres., 767, 773; pf., 786 a; aor., 834 a, 867, 871; int., 1003.

dhṛṣ, pf., 786 a; aor., 847, 852 b; pple, 956 b.

dhmā, see dham.

dhyā, pres., 761 e; aor., 912.

-dhyāi, infin. in, 970 g, 976, 1050 f.

dhvaṅs or dhvas, euph., 168; pf., 790 c; aor., 847; caus., 1042 g.

dhvan, pple, 955 a, 956 b; caus., 1042 g.

dhvṛ, pple, 955 e.


n, pron. etc., 47, 48; as final, 143; for final rdcl m, 143 a, 212 a; change to , 189–95; to ñ after and before palatals, 201–3. 208 b; combinations as root-final, 204; loss as stem-final, 204 b; assim. to palatals and linguals, 205; to l, 206; before sibilants, 207; treated as ns, 208, 209; duplication of final, 210; instability as final, 256, 1203 b; used as union-cons., 257, 313, 482 h; question of final of pañcan etc., 484; final n in secndry dervn, 1203 c.

, comparative, 1122 h.

na added to tha or ta of 2d pl., 549 a; forms so made, 613, 616 b, 618, 621 b, 654, 658, 669, 690, 704, 707, 723, 735 b, 740, 752 b, 760 c, 831 a, 839, 849 a.

-na, of pples, 952, 957, 1177; euph., 161 b; scdry, 1223 g, 1245 f; in compsn, 1273, 1284.

nakṣ, 102 a.

nad, caus., 1042 g.

nand, euph., 192 a.

nabh, euph., 192 a; cans., 1042 g.

nam, pf., 786 a; aor., 890 a, 897 b, 911, 912; fut., 935 b: pple, 954 d; inf., 968 d ; int., 1017; caus., 1042 g.

-nam, advbl, 1109 a.

naç be lost, euph., 192 a; aor., 847, 854 b, 867; fut., 935 d, 936 a; des., 1028.

naç attain, euph., 218 a; pf.,801 g; aor., 833, 834 b, 837 b; des., 1029 c.

nas, aor., 837 b.

nás, dcln, 387, 397.

-nas, 1152.

nah, euph., 223 g; pres., 761 c.

-, see 1177.

nāgarī, 1 a.

nāsikya, 230 b.

, euph., 192 f.

-ni, 1158.

niṅs, euph., 183 a; pres., 628.

nij, euph., 219 a; aor., 847; int., 1024.

nitya-circumflex, 84 b.

nind, pf., 790 b; aor., 840 b.

nilay, quasi-root, 1087 c.

níç and níçā, 397.

nis, loss of initial of, 1087 a.

, aor., 889, 896, 900 b; fut., 935 a; inf., 968 c; -ger'd, 991 c; int., 1017, 1018 a; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

-, fem. ending, 1176 d, 1223 c.

nīḍá, euph., 198 d.

nu or nū, pres., 626 a; aor., 868 a, 887 c; int., 1002 g, 1003.

-nu, 1162.

nud, aor., 834 d, 904 c; pple, 956 b, 957 d; int, 1017.

nṛ́, dcln, 371.

nṛt, euph., 192 a; aor., 833, 847, 852 b; inf., 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 c.

néd, accent of verb with, 595 e.

nāma, dcln, 525 c.

nāú, dcln, 361 a.


p, pron. etc., 49, 50.

-p, caus.-sign, 1042 i–l; aor. from such caus., 1047.

-pa, 1201.

pakvá as pple, 958.

pac, pres. 761 b.

pat, pf., 794 f, h; aor., 847; int., 1002 g; des., 1030, 1031; caus., 1042 g.

páti, dcln, 343 d, e; in dpndt compsn, 1267 a; denom. conj. from, 1054 a.

páth, pathí, pánthan, dcln, 343 j, 395, 433.

pad, pres., 761 c; aor., 834 b, d, 836, 837 b; pple, 957 d; int., 1002 g; des., 1030.

pád, dcln, 387, 389 b.

pada, 111 a; pada-endings and cases, 111 a, b.

pan, pf., 794 f; int., 1002 g.

pánthan, see páth.

pára, dcln, 525 c.

parasmāi padam, 529.

párucchepa, euph., 168 b.

palāy, quasi-root, 1087 c.

palyan̄g, quasi-root, 1087 c.

palyay, quasi-root, 1087 c.

paç, pres., 761 c.

paçcima, dcln, 525 c.

drink, pres., 671, 749 a, 855 a; aor., 830, 838; pple, 954 c; ya-ger'd, 992 a; des., 1028 d; caus., 1042 k.

protect, aor., 912; caus., 1042 m.

pāda, 79, 93 d.

pādapūraṇa, 1122 b.

piṇak, eup'h., 190 c.

pinv, 699 b, 716 a, 749 b.

piç, pres., 758; aor. 840 b; pple, 956 b.

piṣ or piṅṣ, euph., 226 d, f; pres., 694 a, 920 a; aor., 190 c, 758 a.

pis, euph., 181 d.

pīḍ, euph., 198 d.

pīpi, conj.-stem, 676, 786 b.

púṁs, púmāṅs, euph., 183 a; dcln, 394.

puraḥsara, puraskṛta, purogama, in compsn, 1302 f.

purā́, pres. in past sense with, 778 a.

puru, in compsn, 1284 b, 1290.

puṣ, aor., 847.

, pres., 728; aor. (?), 868 a, 894 d; inf., 968 e; caus., 1042 e.

pū́rva, dcln, 525 c; in compsn, 1251 e, 1291 c, 1302 f. pūṣán, dcln, 426 a.

pṛ fill, euph., 242c; pres., 731, 761 b, 766; pf., 793 h; pple, 955 d, 957 b; inf., 968 c.

pṛ pass, pf., 793 h; aor., 896.

pṛ be busy, pres., 767, 773.

pṛc, pres., 694 a; aor., 834 c, 836 b, 837 b, 840 b, 890, 894 a: pple, 957 c.

pṛṇ, 731, 753.

pṛ́t, pṛ́tanā, 397.

pṛ́ṣant, dcln, 450 c.

pyā or , pres., 761 e; pf., 786, 794 b; aor., 912, 914 b.; pple, 957 a; caus., 1042 k.

pragṛhya, 138.

pracaya or pracita accent, 90 a.

prach, euph., 220; pres., 756 a; pf., 794 c; aor. 834 c, 890; pple, 954 b.

prath, aor., 840 b, 863 a.

prabhṛti, in compsn, 1302 e.

praçliṣṭa-circumflex, 84 d.

prā, aor., 830, 889.

prāya, in compsn, 1302 i.

prī, pres., 731; aor. (?), 866, 868; caus., 1042 m.

pruth, ya-ger'd, 992 b.

pruṣ, euph., 226 d, 392 b; pres., 732, 1066 b.

plāy, quasi-root, 1087 c.

plu, aor., 863 b, 866; ya-ger'd, 992 a; cans., 1042 a.

pluta, 78.

psa, 102 a.


ph, pron. etc., 49, 50.

phan, pf., 794 h; int., 1002 g, 1003.

phal, pf., 794 h.

phullá as pple, 958.


b, pron. etc., 49, 50; interchange with v, 50 a.

baṅh, euph., 223 b.

badh or vadh, aor., 904 a; des., 1029 a, 1040.

bandh, euph., 155 b; pres., 723, 730 a; pf., 794 d; fut., 935 b; inf. 968 d.

bahuvrīhi, 1293 b.

bādh, euph.. 155 b; aor., 904 d; int., 1002 d, 1003; des., 1029 a, 1031, 1040.

budh, euph., 155 b; aor., 834 b, d, 839, 840 b, 847.

bṛh, euph., 223 b; pres., 768; int., 1011; caus., 1042 h.

bṛhánt, dcln, 450 a.

bbh, occurrence, 151 e.

brū, pres., 632; peculiar construction, 268 a.


bh, pron. etc., 49, 60; anomalously changed to a guttural, 161 d; h from, 223 g.

bhakṣ, 102 a.

bhaj, euph., 219 a; pf., 794 h; aor., 834 c, 867, 890 a; fut., 936 b; inf., 968 d.

bhañj, euph., 219 a; pres., 694; pple, 957 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

bhávant, 466, 514 c.

bhas, euph., 233 f; pres., 678.

bhāṣ, inf., 968 d.

bhikṣ, 102 a.

bhid, aor., 832, 834 d, 836 a, 840 a, 847; pple, 957 d.

bhiṣaj, euph., 219 a; denom. conj. from, 1054 a.

bhī, pres., 645, 679; pf., 786 b; aor., 831 a, 840 b, 866, 891, 897 b; caus., 1042 l, m; caus. aor., 1047; periphr. pf., 1071 f, 1073 a.

bhīs, 1042 m; aor., 861 a, 1047.

bhuj bend, euph., 219 a; pple, 957 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

bhuj enjoy, euph., 219 a; pres., 694 a; aor., 836 b, 847, 912.

bhur, pres., 756; int., 1002 d.

bhúvas, euph., 176 c.

bhū, pf., 789 a, 793 b, 800 d; aor., 829, 830, 836–9, 863, 924; inf., 968 e; in periphr. conjn, 1070–72; in ppial periphr. phrases, 1075 d; in compd conjn, 1091–4.

bhūta in compsn, 1273 c.

bhṛ, pres., 646, 855 a; pf., 789 b, 797 c; aor., 890 a; int, 1002 g, h, 1003; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

bhos, 456; euph., 174 b.

bhraṅç or bhraç, pres., 767; aor., 847; pple, 954 b; caus., 1042 h.

bhrajj or bhṛjj, euph., 219 b.

bhram, pres., 763; pf., 794 h; pple, 955 a; inf., 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; ya-ger'd, 992 c; caus., 1042 g.

bhrāj, euph., 219 b; pf., 790 c, 794 h; aor., 833.

m, pron. etc., 49, 50; as final, 143; as final radcl, 143 a, 212, 256; in extrnl combn, 213; before rāj, 213 b.

-ma, prmy, 1166; scdry, 474, 487 a, d, 1224 b, 1242 c.

maṅh or mah, pf., 786 a; caus., 1042 g.

maghávan, dcln, 428.

majj, euph., 219 a; pf., 801 g; aor., 887 a; fut. , 936 a; pple, 957 c; inf., 968 e; des., 1028 j.

-mat, advbl, 1235 e.

math or manth, pres., 730 a, 731, 732, 1066 b, 746; aor., 899 d; ya-ger'd, 992 b; caus., 1042 g.

mad or mand, 102 a; pres, 628, 645, 764; aor., 833, 834 d, 839, 840 b, 887 a, 897 b, 899 d, 904 d; pple, 956 b; caus., 1042 g.

man, pf., 794 f; aor., 834 b, 840 b, 881 e, 887 a, b; fut., 935 b; pple, 954 d; des., 1028 e, 1029 a, 1040; special construction, 268 a, 994 e.

-man, 1168; man- and ma-stems, 1166 c: man-stems in compsn, 1277 b.

manas, in comp. with infin.-stem, 968 g.

-mane, infin. in, 970 d, 974.

-mant, 1235.

mantr, so-called, 104 b, 1056, 1067, 1073 d.

mánthan, dcln, 434.

mand, 102 a: see mad.

-maya, 161 a, 1225.

-mara, 1201 a.

mah, see maṅh.

máh, mahī́, 400 a.

mahánt, dcln, 450 b.

mahā́, 355 a.

mahāprāṇa, 37 d.

measure, pres., 660, 663; aor., 839; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; tvā-gerd, 991 b; ya-ger'd, 992 a; des., 1030.

exchange, pres., 761 f.

bellow, pres., 660, 663, 672, 676 c; aor., 868 e.

mā́ṅs, māṅsá (and mā́s), 397.

mātrā, in compsn, 1302 g; euph., 161 a.

-māna, 584 b, 1174.

mā́s, euph., 168 a; dcln, 389 b, 397: and see mā́ṅs.

mi fix, aor., 911; des., 1030.

-mi, 1167.

mikṣ, 1033 a; caus., 1042 b.

mitrá, 1185 c.

-min, 1231.

mil, fut., 936 b.

or mi damage, pres., 192 c, 731, 761 b; aor., 911; des., 1030; caus., 1042 l.

mīh, euph., 223 b; pf., 790 b; aor., 916 a, 920 a.

mīv, pple, 955 b.

muc, pres., 758, 761 b, 855 a; aor., 832, 834 c, 837 b, 839, 847, 890 a; des., 1030.

mud, aor., 837 b.

muv, pres., 732, 1066 b; pple, 956 b; caus., 1042 b.

muh, euph., 223 a, c; pres., 761 a; aor., 847; pple, 955 e.

mūrch, 220 a; pres., 745 f; pple, 954 e.

mūrdhanya, 45.

mṛ die, euph., 242 c; pres., 757, 733; aor., 834 a, 837 b.

mṛ crush, pres., 731.

mṛj, euph., 219 b; pres., 621 a, 627, 745 e; pf., 786 a. 793 i; aor., 900 a, 919, 920; fut., 935 b, 936 d; pple, 956 b, d; inf., 958 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 c; ya-ger'd, 992 b; int, 1002 g, 1003, 1017; des., 1028 j; caus., 1042 b.

mṛd, euph., 198 d; caus., 1042 b.

mṛṇ, 731, 753 a.

mṛd, fut., 936 d.

mṛdh, aor., 838, 847.

mṛç, pf., 786 a; aor., 916, 920; pple, 956 b; int., 1002 g, 1003, 1017.

mṛṣ, aor., 834 c, 840 a, 847.

-mna, 1224 c.

mnā, 102 a; aor., 912.

mruc, aor., 847.

mlā, pres., 761 c; aor., 912; pple, 957 a; caus., 1042 j.

mluc, int., 1002 g.


y, pron. etc., 51, 66, 56; relation to i-vowels, 55; nasal y, 71 c, 213 d; y as union-consonant, 258, 313 b, 844, 1112 e, 1151 d, 1230 e, 996 b; resolved to i, 55, 113 b, 129 c; cases of loss of i before, 233 a; y of sfx treated as i, 1203 a.

ya contracted to i, 262, 769, 784 b, 794 b.

ya as conj.-class-sign, 606, 759; as passive-sign, 606, 768, 998 a; added to intens. stem, 1016; in caus. sign, 1055 a; as denom. sign, 1055–67.

-ya (or ) of gerund, 990, 992, 993; of gerundive, 962, 963, 1213.

-ya, prmy, 1187, 1213; ya-stems in compsn, 1272; scdry, 1210–12.

yakán, yákṛt, 398 a, 432.

yaj, euph., 219 b, 784b; pres., 628; pf., 784 b; aor., 834 c, 839, 890 a, 894 d; inf., 968 d; des., 1029 c.

yat, aor., 840 b; pple, 956 b.

yáthā, accent,. 1101 b; in compsn, 1313 c–e.

yam, pres., 608 b, 631 a, 747; pf., 790 b; aor., 833, 836–9, 887 a, 890 a, 896, 897 b, 911; fut., 935 b; pple, 954 d; inf., 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; caus., 1042 g.

yama, 230 a.

yas, aor., 847; pple, 956 b.

-yas for -īyas, 470 a.

, 102 a; aor., 894 c, 912, 914 c.

-, 1213 d.

-yin, see 1230 e.

yu unite, pres., 626 a, 765; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

yu separate, pres., 608 a, 645; aor., 838, 868 a, 889, 894 b; int., 1018 a; caus., 1042 e.

-yu, 1165; see 1178 h–j.

yuj, euph., 219 a; pres., 758 a; aor., 832, 834 b, 836 b, 837 a, 839, 840 b, 847, 887 a; root-noun, 386.

yudh, aor., 834 d, 836 b, 839, 887 a.

yup, int., 1017.

yúvan, dcln, 427.

yūṣá, yūṣán, 432.

yóṣan, dcln, 426 b.


r, pron. etc., 51, 52; r and l, 53 b; r and s as corresponding sonant and surd, 117 b, 158 a, 164; final, 144, 169; words ending in original r, 169 a; combination as final rdcl, 165; as other, 178; avoidance of double, 179; s or r as final of certain forms, 169 b; from s after a, 176 c; s to after, 180 ff.; but not before, 181 a, b; changes succeeding n to , 189 ff.; duplication of consonant after, 228; svarabhakti after, 230 c.

r-endings in 3d pl., 613, 618, 629, 699 b, 738 a, 752 b, 799, 813, 818 a.

ra and as increments of r, 241.

-ra, prmy, 1188; scdry, 474, 1226, 1242 c.

rakṣ, aor., 899 d.

raj or rañj, euph., 219 a; pres., 746, 767; caus., 1042 g.

radh or randh, pf., 786 a, 794 h; aor., 847.

ran, pf., 786 a; aor., 899 d.

rabh, pf., 786 a, 794 h; aor., 834 d, 897 b; des., 1030.

ram, aor., 911, 912; pple, 954 d; inf., 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; caus., 1042 g.

give, pres., 660, 666, 672; aor., 839, 896.

bark, pres., 761 e.

rāj, euph., 213 b, 219 b; pf., 794 h.

rādh, pf., 794 h; aor., 836; des., 1030.

ri or , caus., 1042 l.

-ri, 1191.

ric, pres., 761 b; aor., 834 c, 839, 847, 890.

riç, aor., 916.

riṣ, euph., 226 f; aor., 847, 852 a, 853, 870; caus., 1042 b.

rih, euph., 223 b; int., 1017.

, see ri.

ru, pres., 626, 633, 755.

-ru, 1192.

ruc, aor., 834 c, 837 b, 840 b, 847; desid., 1031 b.

ruj, euph., 219 a; aor., 832; pple, 957 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 c.

rud, pres., 631; aor., 847; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

rudh, pres., 694 a, 758 a, 855 a; pf., 801 h; aor., 832, 834 d, 847, 887 a, 890 a; inf., 968 d; ya-ger'd, 992 b.

ruç, aor., 916; caus., 1042 b.

rúçant, dcln, 450 c.

ruṣ, pple, 956 b.

ruh, euph., 223 b, d; aor., 840 b, 847, 853, 916, 920 a, b; fut., 935 d; inf., 968 d; ya-ger'd, 992 c; caus., 1042 l.

repha, 18.

rāí, dcln, 361 b, f.

-rhī, advbl, 1103 d.


l, pron. etc., 51, 53; l and r, 53 b; l for r in certain verbal prefixes, 1087 c; nasal l, 71 b, c, 206, 213 d; as final, 144; assim. to, 117 g; of t, 162; of n, 206; of m, 213 d; asserted s to after, 180 b; duplication of consonant after, 228 a; svarabhakti after, 230 d.

-la, prmy, 1189; scdry, 1227.

lag, pple, 957 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 c; caus., 1042 g.

lajj, pres., 754.

lap, pple, 956 b; infin., 968 c.

labh, aor., 834 d; fut., 935 b; des., 1030.

lal, caus., 1042 g.

likh, fut., 936 b.

lip, pres., 753, 758: aor., 834 d; 847.

liç, aor., 916.

lih, euph., 223 b; aor., 916, 920 a.

cling, aor., 911; pple, 957 a; ya-ger'd, 992 a; caus., 1042 l, m.

totter, int., 1018 a, 1022.

lup, pres., 758, 761 b; aor., 887 a.

lubh, pres., 761 a.

, pres., 728 a; pple, 957 a.


, pron. etc., 5 a, 54.


v, pron. etc., 51, 57, 58; relation to u-vowels, 57 a; interchange with b, 50 a; nasal v, 71 c, 213 d; resolved to u, 58 a, 113 b; cases of loss of u before, 233 a; duplication of consonants after, 228 a.

va, contracted to u, 252, 769, 784, 794 b.

-va, prmy, 1190; scdry, 1228; advbl, 1102 e. f.

vakṣ, pple, 956 b.

vac, euph., 216 l; pres., 660; pf., 784, 789 d; aor., 847, 853, 854 a.

vañc, euph., 216 l; pf., 786 a.

-vat, advbl, 1107, 1233 f; scdry, 383 k. 1, 1245 j.

vad, 102 a; pres., 738 a; pf., 784; aor., 899 d, 904 d; pple, 956 d; int., 1017; desid., 1031 b.

vadh, see badh.

van, pf., 786 a, 794 f; aor., 839, 887 b, 912, 914; pple, 955 b; des., 1028 g.

-van, prmy, 1169; scdry, 1234; van-stems in compsn, 1277, 1287 b.

-vana, -vani, -vanu, 1170; -vana, 1425 l.

-vane, infln. in, 970 d, 974.

-vant, 517, 959, 1233; prmry, 1233 g.

vand, 102 a.

vap, pf., 784; fut., 935 b; pple, 954 b.

vam, pres., 631 a; pple, 955 a; tvā-ger'd, 991 b; caus., 1042 g.

vam (from vṛ), 543 a.

-vam, advbl, 1102 b.

-vaya, 1228 b.

-vara, 1171.

-varī, fem. to van, 1169, 1171, 1234 a.

varga, 32.

varṇ, so-called, 1056.

-vala, 1228 b.

vaç, pres., 638, 660; pf., 784, 786 a.

vas shine, euph., 167 ; pres., 608 b, 753 b; pf., 784; aor., 834 b; pple, 956 b, d.

vas clothe, euph., 167 ; pres., 628, 631 a, 638 a; pf., 786 a.

vas dwell, euph., 167; pf., 784; aor., 840 b, 883; fut., 935 d; pple, 956 b, d; inf., 968 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 c; in periphr. conj. 1070 c; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

-vas, 1173 b: and see vāṅs.

vah, euph., 137 c, 223 b, 224 b; pf., 784; aor., 837 b, 839, 840 b, 890 a; fut., 935 d; pple, 954 b; int., 1002 g, 1017; at end of compds, 408.

blow, aor., 912; pple. 957 a.

droop, pres., 761 e.

or vi weave, pres., 761 f; pf., 784, 801 b; fut., 935 c; pple, 954 e; inf., 968 f; caus., 1042 k.

vāṅs (or -vas), of pples, 584 c, 802–6, 1173; vāṅs-stems, dcln, 458 ff.

vāgháṭ, dcln, 444 a.

vāç, pf., 786 a; aor., 861 a.

, dcln, 343 b.

-vi, 1193.

vikampana, 87 d.

vic, int., 1024.

vij, euph., 219 a; aor., 834 c; fut., 935 b. 936 c; pple, 957 c; int., 1017, 1024.

-vit, see 1193 b.

vid know, 102 a; pres. 613, 618, 621 a; pf., 790 a, 803 a; fut., 935 b; inf., 968 d; des., 1031 b; periphr. pf., 1071 f, 1073 a; periphr. aor. and pres., 1073 b, c.

vid find, 102 a; pres., 758; pf., 805 b ; aor., 847, 852 a; pple, 957 d.

vidhā, in compsn, 1302 i.

-vin, 1232.

vindh, pres., 758.

vip, aor., 840 b; caus., 1042 b.

virāma, 11.

viç, euph., 218 a; pf., 803 a, 805 b; aor., 834 b, 916, 920 a.

víçva, dcln, 524; in compsn, 1251 e, 1280 c, 1298 c.

viṣ, euph., 225 a, 226 d, f; aor., 916; int., 1024.

visarga, visarjanīya, 67: and see ḥ.

, int, 1017, 1024 a.

vṛ cover, 102 a; pres. (ūrṇu), 713; aor., 831 a, 834 a, 836 b, 839, 840 b, 900 b; inf., 968 d; int., 1002 g.

vṛ choose, 102 a; euph., 102 a, 242 c; pf., 797 c ; aor., 837 b, 840 b; inf., 968 d; caus., 1042 e.

vṛj, euph., 219 a; pf., 786 a, 803 a; aor., 832, 834 c, 836–9, 919, 920 a; int., 1002 g.

vṛt, pres., 643 c, 855 a; pf., 786 a; aor., 832, 834 b, 836 b, 839, 840 a, 847, 904 d; fut, 935 b, 943 a; inf., 968 e; int, 1002 g, 1003, 1017, 1023.

vṛtrá, 1185 c.

vṛddhi, 27, 235 ff.

vṛdh, pf., 786 a; aor., 847, 852 a, b, 897 b; fut., 943 a; inf., 968 e.

vṛṣ, pf., 786 a; aor., 847; inf., 968 d.

vṛ́ṣan, dcln, 426 b.

vṛh, aor., 916, 920 a.

voc, quasi- root, 854 a.

-vya, 1228 c.

vyac, 1087 f; pres., 682; pf., 785, 794 b.

vyañjana, 31.

vyath, pf.. 785.

vyadh, pres., 767; pf., 786, 794 b; fut, 936 b; pple, 954 b; inf., 968 f; caus., 1042 g.

vyay, pres., 761 f.

vyā or , pres., 761 f; pf., 785, 794 b, 801 c; aor., 847; fut, 935 c; pple, 954 c; caus., 1012 k.

vraj, euph., 219 b; aor., 899 d.

vraçc, euph., 221 b; pple, 957 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 c.

vlī, pres., 728 b; pple, 957 a; int, 1017; caus., 1042 l.


ç, pron., etc., 59, 63, 64, 119; relation to , 63 a; as final, 145; in intrnl combn, 218; with preceding t or n, 203.

-ça, 1229.

çaṅs, pf., 790 c; ya-ger'd, 992 c.

çak, aor., 837 a, 839, 847; pple, 956 b; des., 1030, 1040.

çakán, çákṛt, 398, 432.

çan̄k, aor., 904 d.

çad prevail, pf., 786.

çad fall, pple, 957 d.

çap, aor., 233 e; inf., 968 c.

çam labor, pres., 634, 763.

çam be quiet, pres., 763; aor., 847; pple, 955 a; caus., 1042 g.

çaç, pf., 794 j.

ças, aor., 839.

-ças, advbl, 1106.

çā, pres., 660, 662, 753 c, 761 g; aor., 834 a; pple, 954 c; caus., 1042 k.

çās (or çiṣ), pres., 444, 639, 675; aor., 847, 852 a, 854 c; pple, 954 e, 956 b; inf., 968 c; ya-ger'd, 992 c; desid., 1031 b; āçís from, 225 a, 392 b.

çiñj, euph., 219 a; pres., 628.

çiṣ leave, euph., 226 f; pres., 694 a, 758 a; aor., 847, 853.

çiṣ, see çās.

çī lie, pres., 628, 629; pf., 806 a; fut, 935 a; pple, 956 c; ya-ger'd, 992 c.

çuc, pres., 631 a; aor., 847; int, 968 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 c; caus., 1042 b.

çudh, caus., 1042 h.

çubh, pres., 758; aor., 852 a, b, 840 b; caus., 1042 b.

çuṣ, pres., 761 a.

çúṣka as pple, 958.

çū, see çvā.

çūṣ, euph., 240 b.

çṛ crush, euph., 242 b; pres., 731; pf., 793 h; aor., 900 a, 904 b; pple, 955 d, 957 b; inf., 968 d.

çcand, int, 1002 g.

çnath, pres., 631 a; aor., 867.

çyā or çī, pres., 761 e; pple, 954 c, 957 a.

çrath, pres., 732, 1066 b, 758; pf, 794h; pple, 956 d.

çram, pres., 763; pf., 794 h; aor., 847; pple, 955 a; caus., 1042 g.

çrā, pres., 761 e; pple, 954 b; caus. 1042 j; caus. aor., 861 b, 1047.

çri, aor., 831, 867, 868, 889 a; inf., 968 e; caus., 1042 l.

çriṣ, aor., 847.

çrī, pple, 955 d.

çrīv, see srīv.

çru, euph., 243; pres., 699 b, 711; pf., 797 c; aor., 831, 836, 838, 839, 853, 866, 867; desid., 1040; caus., 1042 e.

çruṣ, 102 a.

çliṣ, euph., 226 d, f; pres., 761 c; aor., 847, 916.

çvañc, aor., 863 a.

çván, dcln, 427.

çvas, pres., 631; pple, 956 b; caus., 1042 g.

çvā or çvi or çū, pf., 786 c, 791 b; aor., 847, 868, 897 b; pple, 957 a; inf., 968 e.

çvit, aor., 832, 890.


, pron. etc., 59, 61, 62, 120, 182; relation to ç, 63 a; ordinary derivation, 46; exceptional occurrence, 182; as final, 145, 145 b; s changed to, 180–8; recurrence avoided, 181 c, 184 e, 1028 i; as root final, 182 a, 184 c, 225, 226; changes succeding n to , 189 ff.; assim. of dental after, 197; from ç, 218.

-ṣaṇi, (or -sani), infln in, 970 h, 978, 1159 c, 1160 a.

ṣaṣ, euph., 146 b, 199 c.

-ṣe (or -se), infln. in, 970 c, 973 b.

ṣṭhīv, euph., 240 b; pres., 745 g, 765; pf., 789 c; pple, 955 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 d.

-ṣyāi (or -syāi), infin. in, 970 g, 977.


s, pron. etc., 59, 60; s and r as corresponding surd and sonant, 117 b, 158 a, 164; s or r as final of certain forms, 169 b; as final, 145, 169, 170 a; combinations of final rdcl s, 145 b, 166–8; of other, 170–7; exceptional cases, 171, 173; final as, 175, 176; ās, 177; s to , 180–8; exceptional cases, 181, 184 e, 185 c, d, 186 a; adds t before, 199 e; final n adds (retains) s, 208, 209; s lost between mutes, 233 c–f; in s-aor., 834, 881, 883; after a vowel, 233 b; exceptional combination after such loss, 233 f; s anomalously from final root-consonant, 406 a; s before ām of gen. pl., 313 a, 496 c; in aor., 874 ff.; in fut., 931 ff.; in desid., 1027 ff.

-s, advbl, 1105.

-sa, 1197.

sa-, 1121 e; in compsn, 1288 g, 1304 f–h, 1313 f.

saṁvṛta a, 21.

sákhi, dcln, 343 a–c.

sakthán, sákthi, 343 i, 431.

sagh, aor., 836 b.

sac, pres., 660; pf., 794f; aor., 840 b; saçc from, 673, 675.

saj or sañj, euph., 219 a; pres., 746; pf., 794 d, h, 801 h; aor., 834 c, 887 a; inf., 968 f; des., 1028 i; caus., 1042 h.

sad, pres., 748; aor., 847, 852 a, 853, 899 d; fut., 935 b, 936 c; pple, 957 d; inf., 968 d.

san or , pf., 804; aor., 847, 853, 899 d; pple, 955 b; int., 1002 g; des., 1028 g, i, 1032 a.

-sani, infln. in, see -ṣaṇi.

saṁdhi, 109.

saṁdhyakṣara, 28 a, 30.

sannatara, 90 c.

sabhāg, so-called, 104 b, 1067.

samānākṣara, 30.

samprasāraṇa, 252 a.

samrāj etc., 213 b.

-sara, 1201 a.

sarágh or saráḍ, 389 b.

sárva, dcln, 524; in compsn, 1251 e, 1298 c.

saçc, pres., 444, 673, 673.

sás, euph., 176 a, b.

-sas, 1152.

sah, euph., 186 a, 223 b, 224 b; pres., 628; pf., 786 a, 790 b, 803 a; aor., 837, 838, 887 a, 897 a, b, 899 d; fut, 935 d; pple, 955 e; inf., 968 d; des., 1030; at end of cmpds, 405.

sahá, in cmpsn, 1304 f, g.

or si bind, pres., 753 c; aor., 830, 834 a, 839, 868 a, 894 c; fut., 935 a, 936 b; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; ya-ger'd, 992 a; caus., 1042 k.

-sāt, advbl, 1108.

sādh, aor., 861 a.

-sāna, ppial words in, 897 b, 1175.

sāntv, so-called, 104 b.

si, see .

sic, pres., 758; aor., 847; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; caus., 1042 h.

sidh repel, fut., 935 b.

sāv, pres., 761 c, 765; pple, 955 c; des., 1028 h, i.

su press out, pres., 699 b; aor., 839, 840 b, 867; fut. 935 a; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

su-, 1121 h, i; in compsn, 1284 a, b, 1288, 1304 c, d.

-su, see 1178 f.

subh, pres., 758.

or su, pres., 626, 628, 755; pf., 789 a; aor., 868 a; fut., 935 a, 936 b, 939 b; inf. 968 d, e.

sūc, aor., 861.

sūd, aor., 871.

sṛ, pf., 797 c, 806 a; aor., 847; caus., 1042 e.

sṛj, euph., 216 l, 219 b, c; aor., 834 b, c, 840 b, 890; fut, 936 d.

sṛp, euph., 151 d; pf., 790 c; aor., 834 d, 847; fut., 935 b, 936 d; inf., 968 e; int., 1002 g.

-se, infln. in, see -ṣe.

soṣman, 37 d.

sk, original of ch, 42.

skand, aor., 833, 890 b; pple, 957 d; ya-ger'd, 992 b; int., 1002 g, h.

skabh or skambh, pres., 730, 732, 1066 b; pf., 786 a, 790 b, 794 d.

sku, pres., 626 a; int., 1017.

stan, pres., 631 a; aor., 899 d.

stabh or stambh, euph., 233 c; pres., 730, 732, 1066 b; pf., 794 d; pple, 956 b.

-stāt for -tāt, advbl, 1100 b.

stigh, desid., 1031 b.

stu, pres., 626, 633; pf., 797 c; aor., 866, 894 b, d; fut, 935 a; ya-ger'd, 992 a; desid., 1028 i; caus., 1042 e.

stṛ, euph., 242 c; pf., 801 f, 806 a; aor., 831, 834 a, 885, 900 a; pple, 957 b; inf., 968 d; ya-ger'd, 992 a.

stṛ́, dcln, 371 k.

stṛh, aor., 916.

styā, pres., 761 e; pple, 957 a.

strī, dcln, 366, 367 c.

sthā, euph., 233 c; pres., 671, 749 a; aor., 830, 834 a, 836, 837, 840 a, 847, 884, 894 c; pple, 954 c; inf., 968 f; caus. aor., 861 b, 1047; in ppial periphr. phrases, 1075 c.

-sna, 1195.

snā, caus., 1042 j.

snih, euph., 223 a, c.

snu, pres., 626 a.

-snu, 1194.

sparça, 31, 32.

spaç, aor., 834 c.

spṛ, aor., 831, 836 b, 839.

spṛdh, euph., 242 d; aor., 834 b, 840 b.

spṛç, euph., 218 a; aor., 916, 920 a; fut., 936 d.

spṛh, euph., 223 b, d; caus., 1042 d.

sphā, pple, 964 c; caus., 1042 m.

sphuṭ, fut, 936 b.

sphṛ, pres., 756; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; caus., 1042 b.

sphoṭana, 230 e.

sma, in pronom'l dcln, 493, 496 a, 503.

sma, pres. in past sense with, 778 b, c.

smi, tvā-ger'd, 991 d; caus., 1042 l; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

smṛ, pass., 770 c; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; caus., 1042 e.

sya as denom. sign, 1064.

syand, pf., 785 a; aor., 861 a, 890 b; fut, 943 a; pple, 957 d; tvā-ger'd, 991 d; int., 1002 g.

syam, pf., 794 b.

syás, euph., 176 a.

-syāi, infln. in, see -ṣyāi.

sráj, euph., 219 a.

sras or sraṅs, euph., 168; pf., 790 c; aor., 833, 847; ya-ger'd, 992 b.

sridh, aor., 847, 852 b.

srīv (or çrīv), euph., 240 b ; pres., 765; caus., 1042 b.

sru, pf., 797 c; aor., 868; caus., 1042 e.

sva, 513 b, 416 e; dcln, 525 c.

svaj, euph., 219 a; pres., 746; pf., 794 h; aor., 863 a; tvā-ger'd, 991 c.

svátavas, euph., 168 a, 415 b.

svad, pple, 954 f.

svan, pf., 794 h; aor., 899 d; int, 1002 g.

svap, pres., 631; pf., 786 b, 794 b; aor., 867; fut, 935 b; pple, 954 b; des., 1028 h; caus., 1042 g.

svayam, in compsn, 1284 b.

svar, aor., 890 a, 899 d.

svàr, dcln, 388.

svara, 30, 81.

svarabhakti, 230 c–e.

svarita, 81.

svávas, euph., 168 a, 416 b.

svid, pple, 957 d.

h, pron. etc., 59, 65, 66, 119; from dh and bh, 223 g; as final, 147; compensating aspiration of initial, 147, 155 b; with following t or th, 160 a; with preceding final mute, 163; m before h and another cons., 213 g; reversion to gh, 214 ff., 222; in inflection, 402, 637; in pf., 787; in intens., 1002 i; in desid., 1028 f; internal combn, 222–4; anomalously changed to a sibilant, 150 f; to d, 404; duplication of a cons. after, 228 a; nāsikya added after, 230 b; loss before hi, 1011 a.

-ha, advbl, 1100 a, 1104 b.

had, pple, 957 d.

han, euph., 192 b, 216 l, 402, 637, 787; pres., 637, 673, 709; pf., 794 e, 805 a; aor., 899 d; fut., 935 b, 943 a; pass., 998 f; pple, 954 d; inf., 968 d; int., 1002 g, h, i, 1003; des., 1028 e, f; caus., 1042 m; root-noun, 383 h, 402.

hánta, accent of verb with, 598 a.

has, jakṣ from, 640.

move, pres., 660, 664; des., 1028 d; caus., 1042 d.

leave, pres., 665, 761 b; aor., 830, 889, 912; fut., 936 c; pple, 957 a; inf., 968 f; caus. aor., 861 b, 1047.

hās, 102 a, 912.

hi, euph., 192 c, 216 l, 674, 787; pres., 699 b, 716 a; aor., 831, 839, 840 b, 847, 889 a, 894 d; des., 1028 f.

, 595 e, 1122 b.

-hi, advbl, 1100 c.

hiṅs, euph., 183 a; pres., 687, 696; des., 1031 b.

hinv, 716 a.

hīḍ, euph., 240 b; pf., 786 b; caus., 1042 b.

hu, pres., 645, 647 c, 652; periphr. pf. etc., 1071 f, 1073 c.

or hvā, pres., 761 f, 755; pf., 794 b; aor., 834 a, 847, 887 c, 912; fut., 935 c; inf., 968 f; caus., 1042 k; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

hṛ seize, aor., 834 a, 890 a; inf., 968 d; caus., 1042 e.

hṛ́d, hṛ́daya, 397.

hṛṣ, aor., 847; pple, 956 b.

hnu, pres., 626 a.

hras, pple, 956 b.

hrī, pres., 645; aor., 840 b; pple, 957 a; caus., 1042 l; periphr. pf., 1071 f.

hvā, see .

hvṛ or hvar, euph., 242 c; pres., 682; aor., 863 a, 890; pple, 955 e.