Shulchan Aruch/Yoreh Deah/112
Laws regarding bread of idolaters
דיני פת של עובדי כוכבים
Paragraph 1 — The sages forbade eating the bread of idol worshippers because of the concern of intermarriage. Rema: and even in a situation where there is no concern of intermarriage, it is [nonetheless] forbidden. (Rashb"a §248) However, they only forbade bread made from the Five Grains (wheat, barley, oats, rye, spelt), but bread made from legumes or from rice or millet is not in the category of "regular bread" which they forbade. Rema: It is also not forbidden on account of [being] "Idolaters' Cooking," if it would not be served at kings' tables (Tur and Beit Yosef in the name of the Rosh's responsa).
סעיף א — אסרו חכמים לאכול פת של עובדי כוכבים, משום חתנות. (ואפילו במקום דליכא משום חתנות, אסור (רשב"א סימן רמ"ח). ולא אסרו אלא פת של חמשת מיני דגן, אבל פת של קטניות ושל אורז ודוחן, אינו בכלל פת סתם שאסרו. הגה: וגם אינו אסור משום בישולי עובדי כוכבים, אם אינו עולה על שלחן מלכים (טור וב"י בשם תשו' הרא"ש).
Paragraph 2 — There are places that are lenient about this, [where] they buy bread from an idolater's bakery in a situation where there is no Jewish bakery, since this is considered a "time of pressing need." Rem"a: And some say that even in a place where "Jews' bread" can be found, it is permitted (Beit Yosef following the Mordechai; Sefer Mitzvot Hakatan; Hagaot Ashri; Mahar"i; Issur VeHeter §44). But regarding personal bread, no-one rules leniently, since the essence of the decree is because of the concern of intermarriage, and if one eats the bread of [idolatrous] home-owners, he will come to dine by them. Rem"a: However, it is not called "personal bread" unless he made it for the people of his own household, but if he made it to sell, it is called commercial bread, even if he doesn't normally [sell bread]; conversely, a baker who made [bread] for himself, it is considered "personal [bread]."
סעיף ב — יש מקומות שמקילין בדבר ולוקחים פת מנחתום העובד כוכבים, במקום שאין שם נחתום ישראל, מפני שהיא שעת הדחק. (וי"א דאפילו במקום שפת ישראל מצוי, שרי) (ב"י לדעת המרדכי וסמ"ק והג"א ומהרי"א ואו"ה ריש כלל מ"ד). אבל פת של בעלי בתים, אין שם מי שמורה בה להקל, שעיקר הגזירה משום חתנות, ואם יאכל פת בעלי בתים יבא לסעוד אצלם. הגה: ולא מקרי פת בעל הבית, אלא אם עשאו לבני ביתו, אבל עשאו למכור, מיקרי פלטר. אע"פ שאין דרכו בכך. וכן פלטר שעשאו לעצמו, מקרי בעל הבית (כך משמע בב"י).
There are those that say that if the baker invited the Jew over, then that is considered personal bread.
Paragraph 4: A place in which no Jewish baker is found, and there are those that permit commercial bread, if a Jewish baker should arrive there, then the bread of the non-Jewish bakers becomes forbidden until the Jewish baker has sold his bread, after which the bread of the non-Jews regains its kosher status.
There are those that say that one that has bread in his hand, or there exists both a Jewish baker, but the bread of the non-Jewish baker is superior, or another case where he is unable to get the bread of the Jewish baker, it is permitted to buy from the non-Jews in a place that is accustomed to permit their baker's bread, since that the non-Jewish bread is more convenient as well as it's greater significance, this is the bread of a pressing need.
In a place that is accustomed to permitting commercial bread, even if it is kneaded with eggs or washed with eggs, it is permitted. But stuffed breads that are baked by non-Jews, these breads are forbidden to be eaten. Rema: And there are those that forbid the breads kneaded with eggs or cooked with an egg wash, because they are readily seen and are not nullified within the bread. And they also take on aspects of being forbidden because a non-Jew has cooked them. And this is our custom. And the breads that they call "Kichelach" or small sweet breads called "Lekikh" they are included the category of bread, and in a place that is accustomed to permit non-Jewish bread, they are also permitted, and we do not say that there is a concern from the fact that non-Jews baked them. And there are some types of these breads that they bake on iron racks which have been prepared with forbidden fats or lard, and these must be avoided and are forbidden, and this is the custom.
Personal bread is always forbidden, even if it was purchased by a baker, and even if it was sent to a Jewish person's house. And so even if a Jew sent it to another, it is always forbidden. And commercial bread is always permitted, even if it was bought by an individual, because whether something is forbidden does not depend on who currently holds the bread, only who baked it.
There are those that say, in a place where no baker is found at all, even personal bread is permitted. (And you do not need to wait for kosher bread to become available, and such is our custom).
If a non-Jew lights the oven, and a Jew bakes the bread, or a Jew lights the oven, and the non-Jew bakes the bread, or a non-Jew lit tje oven and baked the bread, and a Jew comes along and increased the fire a little, this is permitted. Even if he only threw in a single piece of wood into the oven, it permits all the bread that is in it, because this act is only for a sign of recognition that their bread is otherwise forbidden. (And if he blew on this fire, this is considered stoking the coals).
If they baked in a non-Jewish oven 3 times in 1 day, and they made the oven kosher by contributing one wood chip in two of those times, and on the third time they did not do so, it is permitted. Rema: And there are those that say that if they prepared the oven and made it kosher a single time and did not allow the oven to cool down for 24 hours, even if they baked in it for many days, everything is permitted because of the strength of the first preparation. And we shall rely on this.
Bread of a Jew that was baked by a non-Jew without a stoking of the fire by a Jew and no chip was thrown into the oven is forbidden, and it is forbidden to sell it to a non-Jew, lest he sell it to a Jew. And if is cut into pieces, it is permitted to sell to a non-Jew. Rema: And this is the law for all non-Jewish breads, as they are forbidden. And therefore they are accustomed to not buy pieces of bread from non-Jews, because we are concerned perhaps it is forbidden bread, and a Jew sold it that way.
If a non-Jew cooked bread without a Jew stoking [the fire during the cooking process] and without [a Jew throwing into the fire] a wood chip, even if the bread had formed an outer skin while in the oven, a Jew stoking [the flame] is efficacious [to permit the bread], so long as the bread still needs [to be in] the oven and it is improving. There is one who says that even if one has removed the bread, there is a way to fix it, which is for a Jew to return it to the oven, if it improves [through its additional time in the oven].
If a Jew who does not eat non-Jewish bread goes to eat at the house of another Jew who does consume non-Jewish bread, and on the table sits one loaf of Jewish bread, and a loaf of non-Jewish bread which is a better loaf than that made by a Jew, the homeowner should break the better one, and for the whole meal the non-Jewish bread is permitted.
A dip of non-Jews is permitted, and there is no concern that there will be any bread crumbs in it. Rema: And thus in all places that they dip non-Jewish bread into other foods, it is nullified in the majority, whether the dip is liquid or dry. But it is forbidden to mix it in order to be able to eat it.
Someone who avoids non-Jewish breads, it is permitted to eat from one dish with someone who does not avoid it, and even though that the taste of non-Jewish bread may become mixed with the Jewish bread, there is no concern. Rema: There are those that say that one who avoids Jewish bread and eats with others who do not avoid it is allowed to eat with them because of the hatred and quarrel, because if he would not eat bread with them, which is the essence of the meal, they would come to hate him. And we do not expand this concept to other forbidden acts.
There are those that say that one who refrains from non-Jewish bread, and he is travelling, if there is a Jewish baker within 2.4 miles, he should wait. (And it has already been clarified above that our custom is to be lenient).