Statesman's Year-Book 1871

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The Statesman's Year-Book
A Statistical and Historical Account of the States of the Civilised World for the Year 1871
 (1871) 
The Statesman's Year-Book
A Statistical and Historical Account of the States of the Civilised World for the Year 1871
London: The Macmillan Company pages title-xii

THE
STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK

A STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE
STATES OF THE CIVILISED WORLD

Manual for
POLITICIANS AND MERCHANTS

FOR THE YEAR
1871

BY FREDERICK MARTIN

EIGHTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION

REVISED AFTER OFFICIAL RETURNS

London
MACMILLAN AND CO.
1871

The right of Translation and Reproduction is reserved

Man sagt oft: Zahlen regieren die Welt.
Das aber ist gewiss, Zahlen zeigen wie sie regiert wird.

Goethe.


LONDON : PRINTED BY
SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE
AND PARLIAMENT STREET

CONTENTS.


page
Introduction.
CHRONICLE OF THE 'STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK.'

December, 1869—December, 1870

xiii
COMPARATIVE TABLES.
Rank of European States, according to Area and to Population
xxvii
The Great Centres of Population in Europe and America
xxviii
Density of Population of the Principal States and Territorial Divisions of the World
xxix
The Import Markets of the United Kingdom—Rank in 1869 and in 1870
xxx
The Export Markets of the United Kingdom—Rank in 1869 and 1870
xxxi
The Mercantile Navies of the World
xxxii
Part the First.
THE STATES OF EUROPE.
AUSTRIA:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 3
Constitution and Government of the Empire 6
— — of German Austria 7
— — of Hungary 9
Church and Education 11
Revenue and Expenditure of the Empire 13
— — of German Austria 14
— — of Hungary 16
Army 17
Navy 19
Area and Population 21
Trade and Industry 23
Railways 25
Weights and Measures 26
Books of Reference 26
BELGIUM:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 28
Constitution and Government 29
Church and Education 32
Revenue and Expenditure 33
Army 35
Area and Population 36
Trade and Industry 37
Railways 39
Weights and Measures 40
Books of Reference 41
DENMARK:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 42
Constitution and Government 44
Church and Education 45
Revenue and Expenditure 46
Army and Navy 49
Population 51
Trade and Industry 52
Colonies 53
Weights and Measures 53
Books of Reference 54
FRANCE:—
Constitution and Government 55
Church and Education 56
Revenue and Expenditure 60
Public Debt 64
Army 65
Navy 69
Ironclads 70
Area and Population 75
Trade and Industry 80
Commercial Marine 85
Railways 86
Colonies 88
Weights and Measures 89
Books of Reference 90
GERMANY:—
Reigning Emperor 93
Constitution and Government 94
Revenue and Expenditure 97
Army 99
Navy 100
Area and Population 104
Trade and Commerce 186
Weights and Measures 189
Books of Reference 190
States of Germany:—
1. Prussia:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 107
Constitution and Government 110
Church and Education 114
Revenue and Expenditure 117
Army 121
Area and Population 123
Trade and Industry 127
Railways 130
2. Bavaria:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 131
Constitution and Government 133
Church and Education 134
Revenue and Expenditure 135
Army and Population 136
3. Würtemberg:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 139
Constitution and Government 140
Church and Education 141
Revenue and Expenditure 142
Army and Population 144
4. Saxony:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 145
Constitution and Government 146
Church and Education 147
Revenue and Expenditure 147
Population 149
5. Baden:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 150
Constitution and Revenue 150
Army and Population 153
6. Mecklenburg-Schwerin:—
Reigning Sovereign 154
Constitution, Revenue, and Population 155
7. Hesse:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 156
Constitution, Revenue, and Population 157
8. Oldenburg:—
Reigning Sovereign 158
Constitution, Revenue, and Population 159
9. Brunswick:—
Reigning Sovereign 160
Constitution, Revenue, and Population 161
10. Saxe-Weimar:—
Reigning Sovereign 162
Constitution, Revenue, and Population 163
11. Mecklenburg-Strelitz 164
12. Saxe-Meiningen 165
13. Anhalt 166
14. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 168
15. Saxe-Altenburg 170
16. Waldeck 171
17. Lippe-Detmold 172
18. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 173
19. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 174
20. Reuss-Schleiz 175
21. Schaumburg-Lippe 176
22. Reuss-Greiz 177
23. Hamburg 178
24. Lübeck 182
25. Bremen 183
Trade and Commerce:—
The Zollverein 186
Weights and Measures 189
Books of Reference concerning Germany 190
GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 192
Constitution and Government 195
Church and Education 209
Revenue and Expenditure 215
Taxation 220
National Debt 222
Army 225
Navy 232
Iron-clad Navy 236
Population—
England and Wales 241
Scotland 246
Ireland 248
Emigration 254
Commerce and Industry—
Imports and Exports 256
Shipping 262
Textile Industry 267
Minerals and Metals 269
Railways 272
Colonial Possessions 273
Books of Reference—
Official Publications 280
Non -official Publications 282
GREECE:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 283
Constitution and Government 284
Church and Education 285
Revenue and Expenditure 286
Army and Navy 289
Population 290
Trade and Industry 292
Weights and Measures 293
Books of Reference 293
ITALY:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 295
Constitution and Government 297
Church of Rome 298
Sovereign Pontiff 299
Cardinals 302
Church and Education 305
Revenue and Expenditure 308
Public Debt 311
Army and Navy 312
Area and Population 315
Trade and Industry 320
Shipping 322
Weights and Measures 323
Books of Reference 323
NETHERLANDS:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 326
Constitution and Government 328
Church and Education 329
Revenue and Expenditure 330
Public Debt 333
Army and Navy 334
Area and Population 337
Trade and Industry 338
Shipping 339
Colonies 340
Weights and Measures 341
Books of Reference 341
PORTUGAL:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 343
Constitution and Government 345
Church and Education 346
Revenue and Expenditure 348
Army and Navy 350
Area and Population 351
Trade and Industry 351
Colonies 353
Weights and Measures 353
Books of Preference 354
RUSSIA:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 355
Constitution and Government 357
Church and Education 362
Revenue and Expenditure 365
National Debt 368
Army 372
Navy 377
Area and Population 379
Trade and Industry 385
Shipping 387
Railways 388
Manufactures 389
Weights and Measures 390
Books of Reference 390
SPAIN:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 393
Constitution and Government 394
Church and Education 396
Revenue and Expenditure 399
National Debt 401
Army and Navy 403
Area and Population 405
Trade and Industry 409
Minerals 410
Railways 410
Colonies 412
Weights and Measures 415
Books of Reference 415
SWEDEN and NORWAY:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 417
Dynastic Union 418
Sweden:—
Constitution and Government 419
Revenue and Expenditure 421
Army and Navy 423
Area and Population 425
Trade and Industry 426
Railways 427
Colonial Possession 435
Weights and Measures 435
Books of Reference 436
Norway:—
Constitution and Government 429
Revenue and Expenditure 431
Army and Navy 431
Area and Population 433
Trade and Industry 434
Weights and Measures 435
Books of Reference 436
SWITZERLAND:—
Constitution and Government 438
Church and Education 440
Revenue and Expenditure 441
Army 444
Area and Population 446
Trade and Industry 448
Railways 449
Weights and Measures 449
Books of Reference 450
TURKEY and TRIBUTARY STATES:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 451
Constitution and Government 452
Religion and Education 454
Revenue and Expenditure 457
Public Debt 458
Army and Navy 461
Area and Population 465
Trade and Commerce 469
Manufactures 470
Tributary States
1. Egypt:—See Part II. Africa.
2. Roumania:—
Constitution 471
Revenue and Population 472
Trade and Commerce 474
3. Servia:—
Government 474
Revenue and Population 475
Trade 476
Weights and Measures 476
Books of Reference 477
Part the Second.
THE STATES OF AMERICA, AFRICA, ASIA, AND AUSTRALASIA.
I. AMERICA.
ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION:—
Constitution and Government 480
Revenue, Army, and Population 481
Trade and Industry 484
Railways 484
Weights and Measures 485
Books of Reference 485
BOLIVIA:—
Constitution and Government 487
Revenue and Population 488
Trade and Industry 489
Weights and Measures 489
Books of Reference 490
BRAZIL:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 491
Constitution and Government 492
Church and Education 494
Revenue and Expenditure 495
Army and Navy 498
Population 500
Trade and Commerce 502
Weights and Measures 505
Books of Reference 506
CANADA and BRITISH NORTH AMERICA:—
Constitution and Government 508
Church and Education 510
Revenue and Expenditure 511
Army and Navy 512
Population 514
Trade and Industry 517
Shipping 519
Weights and Measures 519
Books of Reference 520
CHILI:—
Constitution and Government 521
Revenue and Population 521
Trade and Industry 523
Railways 524
Weights and Measures 524
Books of Reference 525
COLOMBIA:—
Constitution and Government 526
Revenue and Population 527
Trade and Industry 528
Weights and Measures 529
Books of Reference 530
COSTA RICA:—
Constitution and Government 531
Revenue, Population, and Trade 531
Weights and Measures 533
Books of Reference 534
ECUADOR:—
Constitution and Government 535
Revenue, Population, and Trade 535
Weights and Measures 536
Books of Reference 537
MEXICO:—
Constitution and Government 538
Revenue and Expenditure 539
Public Debt 540
Area and Population 541
Trade and Industry 542
Weights and Measures 544
Books of Reference 544
PARAGUAY:—
Constitution and Government 546
Revenue and Army 546
Population and Trade 547
Weights and Measures 548
Books of Reference 549
PERU:—
Constitution and Government 550
Revenue, Army, and Population 550
Trade and Industry 552
Guano exports 553
Weights and Measures 554
Books of Reference 555
UNITED STATES:—
Constitution and Government 556
Lists of Presidents 557
Congress 559
Revenue and Expenditure 563
National Debt 565
Army 568
Navy 571
Iron-clad Navy 572
Area and Population 575
Census of 1870 576
Immigration 580
Trade and Industry 584
Mines and Minerals 589
Railways 589
Commercial Marine 590
Weights and Measures 591
Books of Reference 592
URUGUAY:—
Constitution and Government 594
Revenue, Army, and Population 594
Trade and Industry 595
Weights and Measures 596
Books of Reference 597
VENEZUELA:—
Constitution and Government 598
Revenue, Population, and Trade 599
Weights and Measures 600
Books of Reference 600
2. AFRICA.
ALGERIA:—
Government, Revenue, and Army 601
Area and Population 602
Trade and Industry 603
Weights and Measures 605
Books of Reference 605
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE:—
Constitution and Government 606
Revenue and Expenditure 607
Area and Population 608
Trade and Commerce 610
Weights and Measures 611
Books of Reference 612
EGYPT:—
Government, Revenue, and Army 613
Population and Trade 615
Suez Canal 617
Weights and Measures 618
Books of Reference 618
LIBERIA:—
Constitution 619
Population and Trade 620
Weights and Measures 621
Books of Reference 621
NATAL:—
Constitution and Government 622
Revenue and Expenditure 622
Population 623
Trade and Commerce 624
Books of Reference 625
3. ASIA.
CEYLON:—
Constitution and Government 626
Reveune and Expenditure 626
Population 627
Trade and Commerce 628
Weights and Measures 629
Books of Reference 629
CHINA:—
Constitution and Government 630
Revenue and Population 631
Trade and Commerce 634
Treaty Ports 635
Weights and Measures 638
Books of Reference 639
HONG KONG:—
Constitution and Government 641
Revenue and Expenditure 641
Area and Population 642
Trade and Commerce 643
Weights and Measures 645
Books of Reference 645
INDIA:—
Constitution and Government 646
Revenue and Expenditure 648
Land Tax 51
Public Debt 655
Army 656
Population 658
Caste and Religion 661
Trade and Commerce 663
Shipping 666
Railways 668
Weights and Measures 671
Books of Reference 672
JAPAN:—
Constitution and Government 674
Army and Population 675
Trade and Commerce 677
Weights and Measures 679
Books of Reference 679
JAVA:—
Constitution and Government 681
Revenue and Expenditure 682
Army and Navy 684
Area and Population 685
Trade and Commerce 686
Weights and Measures 687
Books of Reference 688
PERSIA:—
Reigning Sovereign and Family 689
Government, Religion, and Education 689
Revenue and Army 691
Area, Population, and Trade 693
Weights and Measures 695
Books of Reference 696
SIAM:—
Government, Revenue, and Army 697
Population and Trade 698
Weights and Measures 700
Books of Reference 700
4. AUSTRALASIA.
NEW SOUTH WALES:—
Constitution and Government 701
Revenue and Expenditure 702
Public Debt 702
Area and Population 702
Trade and Industry 704
Mineral Productions 706
Railways 707
NEW ZEALAND:—
Constitution and Government 708
Revenue and Expenditure 709
Public Debt 710
Area and Population 711
Immigration 713
Trade and Industry 713
Mineral Productions 715
QUEENSLAND:—
Constitution and Government 716
Revenue and Expenditure 716
Public Debt 717
Area and Population 717
Trade and Industry 718
Mineral Productions 719
SOUTH AUSTRALIA:—
Constitution and Government 720
Eevenue and Expenditure 721
Public Debt 721
Area and Population 722
Trade and Industry 724
Mines and Mineral Productions 726
TASMANIA:—
Constitution and Government 728
Revenue and Expenditure 728
Public Debt 729
Area and Population 729
Census of 1870 730
Trade and Industry 731
VICTORIA:—
Constitution and Government 732
Revenue and Expenditure 733
Public Debt 735
Area and Population 735
Origin of Population 736
Immigration 738
Trade and Commerce 739
Exports and Imports 740
Mining Industry 742
Railways 743
WESTERN AUSTRALIA:—
Constitution and Government 745
Revenue and Expenditure 745
Population and Trade 746
Mining Industry 747
Books of Reference concerning Australasia 747
INDEX 749