Statesman's Year-Book 1871/Chronicle
|The Statesman's Year-Book
A Statistical and Historical Account of the States of the Civilised World for the Year 1871 (1871)
CHRONICLE OF THE 'STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK.'
|London: The Macmillan Company pages xiii-xxvi|
DECEMBER, 1869—DECEMBER, 1870.
6. Occupation of Samana Bay, San Domingo, by troops of the United States.
8. Submission of the Khedive of Egypt to the demands for right of suzerainty preferred by the Sultan.
11. New Ministry for the Kingdom of Italy appointed by the King.
12. Rejection of the Reciprocity Treaty with Canada by the Congress of the United States, by 128 against 42 votes.
13. Opening of the Austrian Reichsrath by the Emperor.
18. Capture of Port-au-Prince, Hayti, by the forces of General Saget, rival president.
19. Release of eighteen Spanish gunboats retained at New York by the United States Government.
21. Resignation of part of the ministry of Portugal.
23. End of the Dalmatian insurrection by submission of the leaders.
27. Resignation of the French ministry, and letter of the Emperor Napoléon to M. Emile Ollivier, calling upon him 'to aid in the task I have undertaken to bring into regular working a constitutional system.'
28. Prorogation of the French Legislative Body.
29. Death of M. V. Ruffy, newly-elected President of the Swiss Confederation.
1. Reception of the Legislative Body at the Tuileries by the Emperor Napoléon, who states that the aim he has in view 'is, after insuring order, to see prosperity securely guaranteed, and liberty definitely established.'
2. Opening of the Portuguese Chambers by the King.
3. Nomination by the Emperor Napoléon of a new ministry, under the presidency of M. Emile Ollivier.
8. Changes in the Greek Cabinet.
9. Ministerial crisis in Spain, caused by the choice of a candidate for the throne.
10. Resumption of the sittings of the French Legislative Body, M. Ollivier, head of the new ministry, declaring that he will inaugurate 'a national government, adapting itself to the march of progress.'
10. Victor Noir, journalist, shot by Prince Pierre Bonaparte at Auteuil, Paris.
14. Opening of the Diet of Prussia by the King.
14. Rout of Government troops by an insurgent force at San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
15. Execution of General Salnave, President of Hayti, and installation of General Nissage Saget as his successor.
17. Opening of the Bavarian Diet by the King.
19. Opening of the Swedish Diet by the King.
20. Dissolution of the newly-elected Portuguese Chamber of Deputies.
20. Prorogation of the Italian Parliament, to enable the ministry 'to elaborate measures for the restoration of the finances of the kingdom.'
22. Departure of the last detachment of British troops stationed in New Zealand from Wellington, the day being 'the thirteenth anniversary of the foundation of the colony.'
23. Bill for the re-admission of Virginia to representation in Congress passed by the Senate of the United States.
24. Motion for the exclusion of the Duke of Montpensier from the candidacy of the throne of Spain rejected by the Cortes.
28. Vote of want of confidence in the ministry passed by the Bavarian Diet.
28. Death of Ferdinando IV., ex-Grand Duke of Tuscany.
31. Meeting of the Federal Council of Switzerland in extraordinary session, to elect a President of the Confederation.
1. Spread of the insurrection in Mexico, five states declaring against President Juarez.
2. Resolution passed in the Lower House of Congress of the United States declaring that the insurgents of Cuba 'have established and maintained a de facto government.'
7. Political riots at Paris, and arrest of upwards of six hundred persons.
8. Opening of the second session of the 20th Parliament of Queen Victoria by Royal commission.
12. Prorogation of the Prussian Diet.
14. Opening of the North German Parliament by the King of Prussia.
15. First reading of the Irish Land Bill in the House of Commons.
15. Opening of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada.
17. First reading of the Education Bill in the House of Commons.
17. Bill for the re-admission of Mississippi to representation in Congress passed by the Senate of the United States.
19. General vote of the inhabitants of San Domingo in favour of annexation to the United States.
22. Expulsion of Don Carlos, pretender to the crown of Spain, from France.
24. Closing of the Diet of Saxony by the King.
1. Defeat and death of Lopez, President of Paraguay, in the battle of Aquidaban. 'Lopez fell sword in hand, refusing to surrender.'
3. Renewed political riots in Paris.
7. Order of the Italian government for the dismissal of 10,000 soldiers on unlimited furlough.
9. Bill for the re-admission of Georgia to representation in Congress passed by the Senate of the United States.
12. Second reading of the Irish Land Bill agreed to in the House of Commons by 442 against 11 votes.
12. Duel near Madrid between Don Enrique de Bourbon and the Duke de Montpensier, pretenders to the crown of Spain. 'Don Enrique was killed by the Duke's third shot.'
15. Attempt at insurrection in Cadiz and other parts of Spain.
18. Bill for the modification of the Electoral law passed by the Belgian Senate.
22. Letter of the Emperor of the French to M. Ollivier declaring his Majesty's intention to 'restore to the nation a portion of the constituent power it has delegated to me.'
24. Declaration by General Lebœuf, Minister of War, in the French Legislative Body, that 'the foreign policy of the new Cabinet is entirely pacific.'
24. Resignation of the Minister of the Interior of Cis-Leithan Austria.
25. Insurrectionary movements at Pavia, Piacenza, and other Italian towns.
27. Acquittal by the Imperial High Court at Tours of Prince Pierre Bonaparte for killing Victor Noir.
28. Proclamation of the Governor-General of Cuba, offering amnesty to the insurgents.
29. Changes in the Spanish Cabinet.
30. Bill for the re-admission of Texas to representation in Congress passed by the Senate of the United States.
31. Opening of the Portuguese Cortes by the King, who declares that the 'best attention of the Ministry will be given to the grave state of the national finances.'
31. Withdrawal of the Deputies of Galicia and Buckowina from the Lower House of the Austrian Reichsrath.
2. Outbreak of a revolution in Venezuela.
4. Resignation of the entire Ministry of Cis-Leithan Austria on the refusal of the Emperor to dissolve those Provincial Diets the deputies from which left the Reichsrath.
7. Closing of the Diet of Baden, the Grand Duke thanking the deputies for their efforts 'to attain the object of all wishes, the national unity of Germany.'
8. Prorogation of both Houses of the Austrian Reichsrath.
9. Republican rising at Barcelona and Gracia, quelled by the troops after a struggle of four hours.
10. Resignation of the French Ministers of Foreign Affairs and of Public Instruction, upon notice that the Emperor is resolved to convoke the nation for another 'plebiscite.'
13. Prorogation of the Legislative Body of France.
15. Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act voted by the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada.
19. Resignation of the Minister of War of Denmark.
20. Adoption by the French Senate of a 'Senatus Consultum,' modifying the Constitution of the Empire.
21. Murder, by Greek brigands, of the British and Italian Secretaries of Legation.
21. Opening of the Zollverein Parliament at Berlin.
23. Decree of the Emperor Napoléon, convoking the French nation for the 8th of May in their comitia to acccept or reject the following plebiscite:—'The people approves the liberal reforms effected in the Constitution since 1860 by the Emperor, with the co-operation of the great bodies of the State, and ratifies the Senatus Consultum of the 20th of April, 1870.'
24. Changes in the Greek Ministry.
25. Protest of the Turkish Government against a new loan contracted by the Khedive of Egypt.
29. Discovery by the French police of a plot against the life of the Emperor.
3. Adjournment of the Congress of the United States for two months.
5. Opening of the Brazilian Chambers by the Emperor.
7. Close of the session of the German Zollverein Parliament by the King of Prussia.
8. National vote throughout France on the plebiscite submitted by the Emperor, resulting in 7,138,367 votes given in its favour, and 1,518,385 against it.
8. Republican rising at Catanzaro, Italy, suppressed by the troops.
9. Riots in Paris, and erection of numerous barricades.
12. Prorogation of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada.
14. Political disturbances at Naples, and close of the University by order of the Government.
15. Opening of the Congress of the Argentine Confederation.
16. Reconstruction of the French Cabinet, in the appointment of new Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Public Instruction.
17. Refusal of Marshal Espartero to accept the Crown of Spain.
19. Military revolt at Lisbon, led by Marshal Saldanha, who, having invaded the royal palace, dismisses the Ministry, and forms a new Cabinet.
19. Resignation of the entire Danish Ministry after an adverse vote in the Folkething.
21. Declaration of the Emperor Napoléon to a deputation from the Legislative Body expressing 'thanks to the nation which, for the fourth time during twenty-two years, has given me a striking proof of its confidence.'
25. Fenian raid into Canada, repulsed without loss by volunteer troops.
26. Closing of the North German Parliament by the King of Prussia, who declares that 'the North German Confederation, in developing its internal institutions and its national treaty alliances with South Germany, is perfecting the strength of the German people, not to the greater danger, but to the more powerful support of universal peace.'
31. Rejection by the Spanish Cortes of a proposal for the election of a king by universal suffrage.
1. Meeting of the Congress of Chili, summoned for drawing up a new constitution.
3. Adoption of a resolution by the Spanish Cortes providing that the king to be elected must have the votes of an absolute majority of all the deputies.
6. Dissolution of the Mexican Congress, on refusing to provide for the financial exigencies of the Government.
10. Seizure of a war steamer of the Netherlands by the President of Venezuela.
15. Appointment by the President of the United States of a new Attorney-General.
18. Resignation of the whole Belgian ministry.
21. Popular outbreak at Tien-tsin, China, and murder of the French consul and all French residents.
25. Abdication of ex-Queen Isabel II. of Spain signed at Paris.
27. Death of the Earl of Clarendon, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
30. Rejection by the Senate of the United States of a Treaty concluded by the President for the annexation of San Domingo.
30. Declaration of the President of the Council of Ministers in the French Legislative Body that 'at no epoch was the peace of Europe more assured: irritating questions nowhere exist, and all the European cabinets understand that treaties should be maintained.'
2. Petition of the Orleans Princes for permission to return to France rejected by the Legislative Body by 174 against 31 votes.
3. Announcement by the President of the Spanish Council of Ministers that Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen has accepted, pending election by the Cortes, the offer of the crown of Spain.
6. Declaration of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Legislative Body that France 'cannot suffer a foreign power to place a prince upon the throne of Charles V., and that, should such event happen, the government will know how to do its duty without hesitation or weakness.'
11. Withdrawal of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen from the candidacy to the throne of Spain.
12. Declaration by the President of the Council of Ministers of France that 'peace is now assured.'
15. Declaration that war against Prussia has been resolved upon made by the President of the Council of Ministers in the French Legislative Body. Demand for the production of documents justifying the decision of the Government rejected by 164 against 83 votes.
16. Bills for calling out the whole of the National Garde Mobile, and for granting supplementary provisional estimates of 515 millions of francs to the Government for war purposes passed by the French Legislative Body.
17. Decree for the mobilisation of the army of the North German Confederation issued by the King of Prussia.
18. Notification of the Governments of Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden, and Hesse that, war having been declared by France, their forces will join those of Prussia and the North German Confederation.
18. Vote of the dogma of Infallibility of the Pope passed by the Œcumenical Council at Rome.
19. Official declaration made by the French charge d'affaires at Berlin to the Prussian Government, that France, 'for the defence of its honour and its injured interests,' has taken to arms, and 'considers itself from this moment in a state of war against Prussia.'
19. Opening of the North German Parliament by the King of Prussia, who declares that 'the candidacy of a German prince for the Spanish throne has afforded the Emperor of the Freuch a pretext for a casus belli, put forward in a manner long since unknown in the annals of diplomatic intercourse, and adhered to after the removal of the very pretext itself, with that disregard for the people's right to the blessings of peace of which the history of a former ruler of France offers so many analogous examples.'
19. Proclamation of neutrality issued by the British Government.
21. Prorogation of the North German Reichstag.
22. Close of the session of the Senate and Legislative Body of France.
23. Decree of the Emperor Napoléon appointing the Empress Eugénie Regent of France during his absence with the army.
24. Visit of the Empress Eugénie to the fleet at Cherbourg, ready to sail for the Baltic.
25. Publication in the Times of a 'Projet de Traité' between the Emperor of the French and the King of Prussia, enabling the former 'à faire entrer ses troupes en Belgique ou à la couquérir.'
27. Departure of French troops from Rome.
28. Arrival of the Emperor Napoléon at the headquarters of the French army at Metz, and issue of a proclamation to the troops, concluding, 'le Dieu des armées sera avec nous.'
30. Notification of the Chancellor of the Austrian Empire that, 'in consequence of the definition of the dogma of Infallibility, the Government has resolved no longer to maintain the Concordat with Rome.'
31. Proclamation of the King of Prussia on his departure from Berlin for the army. 'My people know with me that the rupture of, and provocation to war, did not come from our side. But, being challenged, we are resolved, like our forefathers, placing full trust in God, to accept the battle for the defence of our homes and our country.'
1. Grant of two millions sterling by the House of Commons to the British Government 'towards defraying the expenses which may be incurred in maintaining the naval and military services of the kingdom during the war in Europe.'
2. Commencement of the war of France against Germany by an attack upon the town of Saarbrück, under the eyes of the Emperor Napoléon, accompanied by his son. Telegram of the Emperor to the Empress, 'Louis a reçu son baptême de feu.'
3. Arrival of the French fleet of war in the Baltic.
4. Storming of the fortified lines of Weissenburg by three divisions of the Third German Army under the Crown Prince of Prussia. Death of General Abel Douay, commander of the French troops.
5. Occupation of Lauterburg, Alsace, by troops of Baden.
6. Defeat of the right wing of the French Army of the Rhine at Wörth by the Third German Army, under the command of the Crown Prince of Prussia; capture of 6 mitrailleuses, 30 pieces of cannon, and 8,000 prisoners.
6. Defeat of part of the left wing of the French Army of the Rhine, under General Frossard, by the vanguard of the First German Army, at For bach, Saarbrück.
7. Paris proclaimed in a state of siege; telegram of the Emperor Napoléon to the Empress-Regent, 'tout peut se rétablir.'
8. Departure of the French army of occupation from Rome.
9. Meeting of the French chambers; resignation of the ministry presided over by M. Emile Ollivier.
9. Treaty guaranteeing the neutrality of Belgium signed in London by the representatives of Great Britain and the North German Confederation.
10. Prorogation of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by Royal Commission.
10. Appointment of a new French ministry under the presidency of Count Palikao.
11. Grant of 1,000 millions of francs, or 40,000,000 £., for war purposes, and forced currency for bank notes, voted by the French Chambers.
12. Surrender of Nancy to a cavalry detachment of the vanguard of the Third German Army.
12. Appointment of Marshal Bazaine to the command-in chief of the French Army of the Rhine.
13. Treaty guaranteeing the neutrality of Belgium signed at London by the Ambassador of France.
14. Battle of Courcelles and defeat of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th corps d'armée of France, which are driven within the fortifications of Metz.
14. Departure of the Emperor Napoléon from Metz for Verdun.
16. Battle of Vionville, ending in the retreat of the main body of the French Army of the Rhine, attempting to retreat upon Verdun, into Metz.
18. Battle of Gravelotte, and decisive victory of the united German armies, under the King of Prussia, over the army of Marshal Bazaine, which is imprisoned at Metz.
19. Bombardment of Strasburg commenced by troops of Baden.
20. Retreat of the army of Marshal MacMahon from the camp of Chalons.
21. Decree of the French Government ordering a national loan of 750,000,000 f., or 30,000,000 £.
22. Occupation of the cities of Chartres and of Chalons by the vanguard of the Third German Army.
23. Proclamation of General Trochu, Governor of Paris, ordering the expulsion from the capital of all foreigners, beggars, and 'bouches inutiles.'
25. Capitulation of the fortress of Vitry-le-Français.
26. Repulse of a sortie of Marshal Bazaine from Metz.
28. Arrival of the army of Marshal MacMahon, accompanied by the Emperor Napoléon, at Carignan, in the Ardennes.
29. Defeat of the right wing of Marshal MacMahon's army, under General de Failly, near Montmédy, with loss of 4,000 prisoners.
30. Defeat of Marshal MacMahon at Beaumont, and retreat of the French army towards Mouzon, with loss of 25 pieces of cannon and 10,000 prisoners.
31. Defeat of Marshal MacMahon at Douzy and Bazeilles, and retreat of the French army into the fortress of Sedan.
1. Battle of Sedan, and final defeat, with loss of 30,000 prisoners, of the army of Marshal MacMahon, by the united German armies under the King of Prussia.
2. Interview between the Emperor Napoléon and the King of Prussia, resulting in the capitulation of the whole of the French army imprisoned at Sedan. The Emperor, Marshal MacMahon, thirty-nine generals and 100,000 soldiers of all grades, fall prisoners to the German troops.
3. Proposal to establish a Provisional Government made in the French Legislative Body.
4. Insurrection at Paris, culminating in the overthrow of the Imperial Government, the proclamation of a republic, and the instalment of a 'Provisional Government of National Defence,' composed of nine members, under the presidency of General Trochu. Flight of the Empress-Regent from the Tuileries.
5. Decree of the French Provisional Government of National Defence dissolving the Legislative Body, and abolishing the Senate and the Council of State.
5. Entry of the King of Prussia, at the head of the German armies, into Rheims.
6. Decree of the Provisional Government of France ordering a 'levée en masse' of the population.
7. Foundering of the iron-clad turret-ship 'Captain,' of the British navy, in a gale, off Cape Finisterre, Bay of Biscay.
8. Decree of the Provisional Government of France convoking the electoral colleges for the 16th October, to elect a National and Constituent Assembly of 750 members.
9. Surrender of the town and citadel of Laon, fire being set to the powder magazine after the entry of the German troops.
10. Bombardment of Metz commenced by the investing army.
12. Entry of the King of Prussia into Chàteau-Thierry.
13. Occupation of Meaux, near Paris, by German cavalry.
15. Opening of the Lower House of the Austrian Reichsrath by the Emperor.
17. Invasion of the Papal states by an Italian army under General Cadorna.
18. Occupation of Versailles by German troops.
19. Defeat of General Vinoy, commanding an army of 25,000 French Mobile Guards, at Villejuif, near Paris.
19. Opening of the States-General of the Netherlands by the King.
20. Complete investment of Paris by the German armies under the King of Prussia.
20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops, after a capitulation stipulating that there shall remain under the sovereignty of the Pontiff 'that portion of Rome which is bounded on the southern part by the walls of Santo Spirito, and comprehends Mount Vatican and the Castel Saint Angelo, forming the so-called Leonine city.'
22. Negotiation for an armistice between Count von Bismarck-Schönhausen and M. Jules Favre, Vice-President of the French Provisional Government, at Ferrières, near Paris.
23. Departure of the fleet of war of France from the Baltic.
24. Surrender of the fortress of Toul after a bombardment of six hours, and capture of 80 pieces of cannon and 2,500 French troops.
24. Proclamation of the Provisional Government in Paris stating that France cannot accept the terms of an armistice and peace proposed by the Chancellor of the North German Confederation, and will prefer 'war to the last extremity.'
26. Defeat of French troops of the Garde Mobile at Melun.
27. Occupation of the city of Orleans by German cavalry.
28. Capitulation of Strasburg, under which 451 officers and 17,000 non-commissioned officers and rank and file lay down their arms.
30. Entry of the German besieging force, under General Von Werder, into Strasburg, it being stated that 'King Louis the Fourteenth of France entered the city on the same day, 189 years before, having captured it by surprise, in a time of general peace.'
1. Decree of the Provisional Government at Paris, ordering the adjournment of the elections for a National and Constituent Assembly, 'until they can be carried out throughout the whole of the republic.'
2. Plebiscite in the Papal States to decide for or against annexation to the kingdom of Italy: number of voters on the lists, 167,548; number who voted, 135,291; number who voted 'Yes,' 133,681; number who voted 'No,' 1,507; votes annulled, 103.
5. Defeat of a force of 12,000 troops of the French Garde Mobile at St. Quentin.
6. Instalment of the head-quarters of the German armies, under the King of Prussia, at Versailles.
7. Flight from Paris, in a balloon, of M. Léon Gambetta, Minister of the Interior in the Provisional Government of National Defence.
7. Attempt of Marshal Bazaine to break out of Metz, and repulse by the investing forces, after a general battle of ten hours.
9. Decree of King Vittorio Emanuele declaring that Rome and the Papal States shall 'constitute henceforth an integral part of the Kingdom of Italy.'
10. Battle of Artenay, and defeat of the French Army of the Loire by the Bavarian division of the German armies, under General Von der Tann.
11. Instalment of a delegate Government of National Defence at Tours, under M. Léon Gambetta as minister of war.
12. Appointment of General Garibaldi to the command-in-chief of the irregular forces of Eastern France.
12. Capture of Epinal by German troops.
13. Destruction of the Palace of St. Cloud by the guns of the forts of Paris.
15. Opening of the Portuguese Cortes by the King.
16. Surrender of the fortress of Soissons, after a bombardment of four days; 120 guns taken, with 4,800 prisoners.
18. Capture of the town of Vesoul by German troops.
21. Occupation of Chartres and of St. Quentin by German forces.
22. Proposal to conclude an armistice, in order to convoke a French Representative Assembly, addressed by the British Government to the French and German belligerents.
24. Capitulation of the fortress of Schlestadt, with 108 guns, and 2,500 prisoners.
27. Capitulation of the fortress of Metz to the investing forces under Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia. Three marshals of France, fifty generals, and 173,000 rank and file of the Army of the Rhine, including the Imperial Guard, are made prisoners by the Germans, who also capture 400 pieces of cannon, 105 mitrailleuses, and vast ammunitions of war.
28. General Moltke, chief of the staff of the German armies, raised to the rank of Count by the King of Prussia.
29. Occupation of the town of Dijon by German troops.
31. Riots at Paris, and arrest for some hours of the members of the Provisional Government by the insurgents.
1. Interview of M. Thiers and Count Bismarck-Schönhausen, Chancellor of the North German Confederation, at Versailles, to treat for an armistice, proposed by the British Government.
2. Plebiscite of the inhabitants of Paris, declaring, by 557,976 ayes against 62,638 noes, confidence in the Provisional Government.
4. Bill for the election of Prince Amedeo of Italy as King of Spain laid before the Cortes.
6. Rupture of armistice negotiations carried on at Versailles.
8. Capitulation of the fortress of Verdun, the Germans capturing 108 guns and 5,000 prisoners, including two generals.
9. Presentation of a despatch of Prince Gortschakoff, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, to Earl Granville, declaring that 'Sa Majesté Impériale ne saurait se cousidérer plus longtemps comme liée aux obligations du Traité du 18-30 Mars, 1856, en tant qu'elles restreignent ses droits de souveraineté dans la Mer Noire.'
10. Repty of Earl Granville to the despatch of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, stating that 'it is impossible for her Majesty's Government to give any sanction, on their part, to the course announced by Prince Gortschakoff.'
10. Evacuation of the city of Orleans by the German troops, under General Von der Tann.
11. Capitulation of the fortress of Neu-Breisach, with capture by the Germans of 105 guns and 5,100 prisoners.
14. Defeat of the French Army of the Loire at Toury by German forces under the Grand-Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
16. Election of Prince Amedeo of Italy as King of Spain by the Cortes Constituyentes.
16. Treaty for the entrance of the Kingdom of Bavaria into the German Confederation signed at Versailles.
17. Defeat of the French Army of the Loire at Dreux.
18. Proposal of Prussia to assemble a conference in London for deciding upon the claims of Russia to cancel parts of the Treaty of 1856, referring to the sovereignty over the Black Sea, accepted by the Governments of Russia, Austria, and Italy.
22. Occupation of the city of Rouen by German troops.
23. Capitulation of the fortress of Thionville, the Germans taking 180 guns and 4,000 prisoners.
24. Opening of the Reichstag of the North German Confederation by royal commission.
25. Treaty for the entrance of the Kingdom of Würtemberg into the German Confederation signed at Versailles.
27. Capitulation of the fortress of La Fère to the German investing force, after two days' bombardment.
27. Defeat of the French Army of the North, near Amiens, by a German division under General von Manteuffel.
28. Reply of Earl Granville to a new despatch of Prince Gortschakoff, stating that 'her Majesty's Government have no objection to accept the invitation which has been made by Prussia to a Conference, upon the understanding that it is assembled without any foregone conclusion as to its results.'
28. Occupation of the city of Amiens by German troops.
29. Defeat of the French Army of the Loire at Nonneville.
30. Attack of 150,000 men of the garrison of Paris, under General Ducrot, on the German besieging forces, and occupation of the villages of Champigny and Brie on the Marne; proclamation of the General that he will return to Paris 'either dead or victorious.'
1. Storming of Champigny and Brie by a detachment of Prussian guards; return of General Ducrot to Paris.
3. Battle of Orleans, and defeat of the French army under General d'Aurelle de Paladine by Prussian and Bavarian troops, under Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia.
4. Re-occupation of the city of Orleans by the Germans.
5. Acceptance of the crown of Spain by Prince Amedeo of Italy.
5. Opening of the third session of the Forty-first Congress of the United States.
6. Circular letter of King Ludwig of Bavaria to the sovereign princes of Germany, proposing that they should 'urge upon his Majesty the King of Prussia to assume the title of "Kaiser von Deutschland," and stand forth as head of the German races, who for centuries have been united in language, manners, science, and art, and who now celebrate a brotherhood of arms.'
7. Occupation of the seaport of Dieppe by German cavalry.
9. Decree of M. Léon Gambetta, transferring the seat of the delegate Government of National Defence from Tours to Bordeaux.
10. First, second, and third reading, in the Reichstag at Berlin, of a bill for the union of all German states in the form of an Empire; the third reading passed by 188 against 6 votes. Election of a deputation uf thirty members to present the Imperial crown to the King of Prussia, and closing of the Reichstag.
12. Capitulation of the fortress of Pfalsburg, with 63 pieces of cannon, 52 officers, and 1,839 rank and file.
14. Capitulation of the fortress of Montmédy, with 65 guns and 3,000 officers and soldiers.
14. Opening of the Diet of Prussia by royal commission.
16. Decree of the delegate Provisional Government, of France, ordering a blockade of the French ports of Dieppe, Fécamp, and Havre.
18. Presentation of the Imperial crown of Germany to the King of Prussia, at Versailles, by a deputation of the Reichstag.
19. Storming of the fortified lines of Nuits by Prussian troops, under General von Werder.
21. Occupation of the City of Tours by German troops.
21. Sortie of the Paris garrison towards Stains and Le Bourget, and repulse by the investing army.
23. Battle of Pout Noyelles, near Amiens, and retreat of the French Army of the North, commanded by General Faidherbe, before three divisions of the First German Army, under General von Manteuffel.
23. Bill for the transfer of the seat of Government of the kingdom from Florence to Rome adopted by the Italian Chamber of Deputies, by 192 against 18 votes.
25. Proclamation of General Trochu, Governor of Paris, exhorting the inhabitants and troops to renewed resistance against the enemy.
27. Bombardment of the Fort of Mont Avron, Paris, by German batteries established at Chelles.
28. Attempted assassination of Marshal Don Juan Prim, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain, at Madrid.
29. Occupation of Fort Mont Avron, Paris, by German troops.
30. Arrival of Amedeo I., King-elect of Spain, at Cartagena.
30. Death of Marshal Don Juan Prim, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain.
31. Resolution passed by the Cortes Constituyentes of Spain declaring that Marshal Prim 'has deserved well of his country.'
31. Arrival of King Vittorio Emanuele, King of Italy, at Rome.