Statesman's Year-Book 1899/Sweden and Norway

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SWEDEN AND NORWAY.

(SVERIGE OCH NORGE.)

Reigning King.

Oscar II., born January 21, 1829; the third son of King Oscar I., and of Queen Josephine, daughter of Prince Eugene of Leuchtenberg. Succeeded to the throne at the death of his brother. King Carl XV., Sept. 18, 1872. Married June 6, 1857, to Queen Sophia, born July 9, 1836, daughter of the late Duke Wilhelm of Nassau.

Children of the King.

I. Prince Gustaf, Crown Prince, Duke of Wermland, born June 16, 1858. Married Sept. 20, 1881, to Princess Victoria, born Aug. 7, 1862, daughter of the Grand Duke of Baden. Issue, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Scania, born Nov. 11, 1882; Prince Carl Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland, born June 17, 1884; and Prince Erik Ludvig Albert, Duke of Vestmanland, born April 20, 1889.

II. Prince Oscar Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg, born Nov. 15, 1859. Renounced his succession to the throne and married March 15, 1888, Ebba Munck of Fulkila, born Oct. 24, 1858.

III. Prince Carl, Duke of Westergötland, born Feb. 27, 1861. Married August 27, 1897, to Princess Ingeborg, born Aug. 2, 1878, daughter of the Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark.

IV. Prince Eugen, Duke of Nerike, born Aug. 1, 1865.

King Oscar II. is the fourth sovereign of the House of Ponte Corvo, and grandson of Marshal Bernadotte, Prince de Ponte Corvo, who was elected heir-apparent of the crown of Sweden by the Parliament of the Kingdom, Aug. 21, 1810, and ascended the throne Feb. 5, 1818, under the name of Carl XIV. Johan. He was succeeded at his death, March 8, 1844, by his only son Oscar. The latter died July 8, 1859, and was succeeded by his eldest son Carl XV., at whose premature death, without male children, the crown fell to his next surviving brother, the present King.

The royal family of Sweden and Norway have a civil list of 1,320,000 kronor, or 73,340 £., from Sweden, and 482,838 kroner, or 26,882 £., from Norway. The sovereign, besides, has an annuity of 300,000 kronor, or 16,666 £., voted to King Carl XIV. and his successors on the throne of Sweden. The following is a list of the kings and queens of Sweden, with the dates of their accession, from the accession of the House of Vasa:—

House of Vasa.
Gustaf I. 1521
Eric XIV. 1560
Johan III. 1568
Sigismund 1592
Carl IX. 1599
Gustaf II Adolf 1611
Christina 1632
House of Pfaltz.
Carl X. 1654
Carl XI. 1660
Carl XII. 1697
Ulrika Eleonora 1718
House of Hesse.
Fredrik I. 1720
House of Holstein-Gottorp.
Adolf Fredrik 1751
Gustaf III. 1771
Gustaf IV. Adolf 1792
Carl XIII. 1809
House of Ponte Corvo.
Carl XIV. 1818
Oscar I. 1844
Carl XV. 1859
Oscar II. 1872

By the treaty of Kiel, Jan. 14, 1814, Norway was ceded to the King of Sweden by the King of Denmark, but the Norwegian people did not recognise this cession, and declared themselves independent. A Constituent Assembly met at Eidsvold, and having adopted, on May 17, a Constitution, elected the Danish Prince Christian Fredrik King of Norway. The Swedish troops, however, entered Norway without serious resistance, and, the foreign Powers refusing to recognise the newly elected King, the Norwegians were obliged to conclude, August 14, the Convention of Moss, by which the independency of Norway in union with Sweden was solemnly proclaimed. An extraordinary Storthing was then convoked, which adopted the modifications in the Constitution made necessary by the union with Sweden, and then elected King Carl XIII. King of Norway, November 4, 1814. The following year was promulgated a charter, the Riksakt, establishing new fundamental laws on the terms that the union of the two Kingdoms be indissoluble and irrevocable, without prejudice, however, to the separate government, constitution, and code of laws of either Sweden or Norway.

The law of succession is the same in Sweden and Norway. In case of absolute vacancy of the throne, the two Diets assemble for the election of the future sovereign, and should they not be able to agree upon one person, an equal number of Swedish and Norwegian deputies have to meet at the city of Karlstad, in Sweden, for the appointment of the king, this nomination to be absolute. The common affairs are decided upon in a Council of State composed of Swedes and Norwegians. In case of minority of the king, the Council of State exercises the sovereign power until a regent or council of regency is appointed by the united action of the Diets of Sweden and Norway.

1. SWEDEN.

Constitution and Government.

I. Central Government.

The fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden are:—1. The Constitution or Regerings-formen of June 6, 1809; 2. The amended regulations for the formation of the Diet of June 22, 1866; 3. The law of royal succession of September 26, 1810; and 4. The law on the liberty of the press of July 16, 1812. According to these statutes, the king must be a member of the Lutheran Church, and have sworn fealty to the laws of the land. His person is inviolable. He has the right to declare war and make peace, after consulting the Council of State. He nominates to all higher appointments, both military and civil; concludes foreign treaties, and has a right to preside in the supreme Court of Justice. The princes of the blood royal, however, are excluded from all civil employments. The king possesses legislative power in matters of political administration, but in all other respects that power is exercised by the Diet in concert with the sovereign, and every new law must have the assent of the crown. The right of imposing taxes is, however, vested in the Diet. This Diet, or Parliament of the realm, consists of two Chambers, both elected by the people. The First Chamber consists of 150 members. The election of the members takes place by the 'Landstings,' or provincial representations, 25 in number, and the municipal corporations of the towns, not already represented in the 'Landstings,' Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, Norrköping and Gefle. All members of the First Chamber must be above 35 years of age, and must have possessed for at least three years previous to the election either real property to the taxed value of 80,000 kronor, or 4,444 £., or an annual income of 4,000 kroner, or 223 £. They are elected for the term of nine years, and obtain no payment for their services. The Second Chamber consists of 230 members, of whom 80 are elected by the towns and 150 by the rural districts. All natives of Sweden, aged 21, possessing real property to the taxed value of 1,000 kroner, or 56 £., or farming, for a period of not less than five years, landed property to the taxed value of 6,000 kroner, or 333 £., or paying income tax on an annual income of 800 kronor, or 45 £., are electors; and all natives, aged 25, possessing the same qualifications, may be elected members of the Second Chamber. The number of qualified electors to the Second Chamber in 1896 was 309,899, or 6.3 of the population; only 140,488, or 45.3 of the electors, actually voted. In the smaller towns and country districts the election may either be direct or indirect, according to the wish of the majority. The election is for the term of three years, and the members obtain salaries for their services, at the rate of 1,200 kroner, or 67 £., for each session of four months, or, in the case of an extra session 10 kronor (11 s.) a day, besides travelling expenses. The salaries and travelling expenses of the deputies are paid out of the public purse. The members of both Chambers are elected by ballot, both in town and country. The executive power is in the hands of the King, who acts under the advice of a Council of State, the head of which is the Minister of State. It consists of ten members, seven of whom are ministerial heads of departments and three without department, and is composed as follows:—

1. Erik Gustaf Boström, Minister of State; appointed July 10, 1891.

2. Count Ludvig Vilhelm August Douglas, Minister of Foreign Affairs; appointed June 1, 1895.

3. Per Samuel Ludvig Annerstedt, Minister of Justice; appointed Febniary 5, 1896.

4. Baron Axel Emil Rappe, Minister of War; appointed June 22, 1892.

5. Jarl Casimir Eugène Christerson, Minister of Marine; appointed December 16, 1892.

6. Julius Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Minister of the Interior; appointed October 6, 1896.

7. Count Hans Hansson Wachtmeister, Minister of Finance; appointed July 16, 1897.

8. Nils Ludwig Alfred Claëson, Minister of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs; appointed June 22, 1898.

9. Baron Albert Lars Evert Åkerhielm; appointed September 28, 1888.

10. Sven Herman Wikblad; appointed October 12, 1889.

All the members of the Council of State are responsible for the acts of the Government.

II. Local Government.

The provincial administration is entrusted in Stockholm to a Governor-General, and in each of the 24 governments to a prefect, who is nominated by the King. As executive officers of the prefects there are 117 baillies (Kronofogdar) and 518 sub-officers (Länsmän). The right of the people to regulate their own local affairs is based on the communal law of March 21, 1862. Each rural parish, and each town, forms a commune or municipality in which all who pay the local taxes are voters. Each commune has a communal or municipal council. The communal assembly or municipal council decides on all questions of administration, police and communal economy. Ecclesiastical affairs and questions relating to primary schools are dealt with by the parish assemblies, presided over by the pastor of the parish. Each government has a general council which regulates the internal aiiairs of the government. The council meets annually for a few days in September under a president appointed by the King from among its members. The members are elected by the towns and provincial districts. Towns having a population of at least 1-150th (if the total population of the country and towns already separated from the 'Landstings,' and where the number of inhabitants is not fallen below that which caused their separation, are administered separately by their municipal councils: these towns are Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, Norrköping, and Gefle.

Area and Population.

I. Progress and Present Condition.

The first census took place in 1749, and it was repeated at first every third year, and subsequently, after 1775, every fifth year. At present, a general census is taken every ten years, beside which there are annual numerations of the people.

The area and population of Sweden, according to the census taken on December 31, 1890, and as estimated on December 31, 1897, are as follows:—

Governments (Län) Area: English
square miles
Population
Dec. 31, 1890
Population
Dec. 31,1897
Pop. per
square mile
Stockholm (city) 13 246,454 288,602 22,200.1
Stockholm (rural district) 3,015 152,715 160,999 53.4
Upsala 2,051 121,091 124,061 61.9
Södermanland 2,631 154,991 164,557 62.5
Östergötland 4,267 266,619 274,818 64.4
Jönköping 4,447 193,704 198,623 44.6
Kronoberg 3,825 160,835 159,175 41.6
Kalmar 4,443 232,847 227,998 51.3
Gotland 1,219 51,337 52,187 42.8
Blekinge 1,164 142,602 144,666 124.3
Kristianstad 2,486 221,691 219,588 88.3
Malmöhus 1,866 368,817 393,231 210.7
Halland 1,900 136,106 140,504 73.9
Göteborg and Bohus 1,948 297,824 322,529 165.6
Elfsborg 4,938 275,780 276,969 56.1
Skaraborg 3,280 247,074 243,835 74.3
Vermland 7,435 253,326 253,363 34.1
Örebro 3,498 182,557 191,684 54.8
Vestmanland 2,625 137,453 144,396 55.0
Kopparberg 11,522 197,449 210,790 18.3
Gefleborg 7,614 206,924 226,423 29.7
Vesternorrland 9,837 208,763 223,606 22.8
Jemtland 19,712 100,455 107,656 5.4
Vesterbotten 22,754 122,784 138,061 6.1
Norrbotten 40,870 104,783 121,311 3.0
Lakes Venern, Vettern, Mälaren, Hjelmaren 3,516
Total 172,876 4,784,981 5,009,632 28.7

In 1897 there were 2,437,926 males and 2,571,706 females.

The growth of the population has been as follows:—

Year Population Increase per ct.
per annum
1800 2,347,303
1820 2,584,690 0.5 
1840 3,138,887 1.07
1850 3,482,541 1.09
1860 3,859,728 1.08
1870 4,168,525 0.80
1880 4,565,668 0.95
1890 4,784,981 0.50

With the exception of (1890) 19,505 Finns, 6,846 Lapps, and some thousands others, the Swedish population is entirely of the Scandinavian branch of the Aryan family.

In 1890 the foreign-born population numbered 24,548, of whom 4,066 were born in Germany, 5,401 in Denmark, 6,287 in Norway, 4,609 in Finland, 1,195 in Russia, 598 in the United Kingdom, and 1,482 in the United States.

According to civil condition the population was divided as follow in 1890:—

Male Female
Unmarried 1,431,843 1,460,664
Married 795,463 804,613
Widowed 88,580 199,930
Divorced 1,301 2,587

The following table shows the leading occupations of the people in 1890, including the families and dependents of those directly employed:—

Agriculture, &c.:
Landed and farm proprietors 1,229,601
Farmers, overseers, &c. 250,784
Planters, &c. 400,623
Crofters, cottagers, &c. 494,421
Dairy-keepers 11,882
Gardeners 15,793
Fisheries 34,246
Mining and metal works 219,578
Timber works 96,323
Various manufactures 533,119
Trade and locomotion 309,957
Officials and military 207,276
Learning and literature 43,383
Medicine, &c. 18,817
Owners, pensioners, &c. 307,550
Mechanics, servants, &c 555,297
Various 56,271

II. Movement of the Population.

1. Births, Deaths, and Marriages.
Year Total living
Births
Of which
Illegitimate
Stillborn Marriages Deaths
exclusive of
Stillborn
Surplus of
Births over
Deaths
1891 135,516 13,718 3,556 27,940 80,603 54,913
1892 129,622 13,595 3,363 27,338 85,894 43,728
1893 131,729 13,616 3,436 27,219 81,027 50,702
1894 131,409 13,958 3,457 27,851 79,444 51,965
1895 134,599 14,438 3,535 28,728 74,368 60,231
2. Emigration.
Year Immigrants Total
Emigrants
To America
1890 6,030 34,212 29,487
1891 6,114 42,776 36,134
1892 6,511 45,504 40,990
1893 7,377 40,869 37,321
1894 10,425 13,358 9,529
1895 8,528 18,955 14,982

III. Principal Towns.

The population of Sweden is mainly rural. In 1871 the town population numbered only 551,106, and in 1896, 1,030,367, showing an increase of 87 per cent., or nearly five times the rate of the general average of the Kingdom.

The following towns had more than 10,000 inhabitants at the end of 1897:—

Stockholm 288,602
Göteborg 120,552
Malmö 55,500
Norrköping 38,354
Gefle 26,400
Karlskrona 23,196
Helsingborg 22,818
Upsala 22,706
Jönköping 21,439
Örebro 18,687
Lund 15,791
Sundsvall 17,158
Halmstad 17,100
Landskrona 13,481
Linköping 13,586
Eskilstuna 12,971
Kalmar 12,459
Borås 12,371
Söderhamn 10,775
Karlstad 10,511
Kristianstad 10,079

Religion.

The mass of the population adhere to the Lutheran Protestant Church, recognised as the State religion. There are 12 bishoprics, and 2,551 parishes in 1898. At the census of 1890, the number of 'Evangelical Lutherans' was returned at 4,735,218, the Protestant Dissenters, Baptists, Methodists, and others numbering 44,378, including 23,307 unbaptized children. Of other creeds, there were 1,390 Roman Catholics, 46 Greek-Catholics, 313 Irvingites, 3,402 Jews, and 234 Mormons. No civil disabilities attach to those not of the national religion. The clergy are chiefly supported from the parishes and the proceeds of the Church lands.

Instruction.

The Kingdom has two universities, at Upsala and Lund, the former frequented by 1,405 and the latter by 585 students in the spring of 1898. There are also a state faculty of medicine in Stockholm (268 students) and private philosophical faculties in Stockholm and Göteborg. Education is well advanced in Sweden. In 1897 there were 79 public high schools, with 16,180 pupils; 28 people's high schools, 1,205 pupils; 12 normal schools for elementary schoolteachers, 1,203 pupils; 2 high and 6 elementary technical schools; 10 navigation schools, 592 pupils; 21 institutions and schools for deaf mutes and blinds; besides medical schools, military schools, veterinary and other special schools. Public elementary instruction is gratuitous and compulsory, and children not attending schools under the supervision of the Government must furnish proofs of having been privately educated. In 1896 there were 11,342 elementary schools, with 15,155 teachers and 730,259 pupils. In 1896 the expenditure on elementary education was 16,132,149 kronor, of which more than one-fourth came from the national funds. Among the recruits (Beväring) of 1895 only 0.20 per cent, were unlettered, only 0.65 per cent, unable to write.

Justice and Crime.

The administration of justice is entirely independent of the Government. Two functionaries, the Justitie-Kansler, or Chancellor of Justice, and the Justitie-Ombudsman, or Attorney-General, exercise a control over the administration. The former, appointed by the King, acts also as a counsel for the Crown; while the latter, who is appointed by the Diet, has to extend a general supervision over all the courts of law. The Kingdom, which possesses one Supreme Court of Judicature, is divided into 3 high court districts and 207 district courts divisions, of which 90 are urban districts and 117 country districts.

In town these district courts (or courts of first instance) are held by the burgomaster and his assessors; in the country by a judge and 12 jurors—peasant proprietors—the judge alone deciding, unless the jurors unanimously differ from him, when their decision prevails. In Sweden trial by jury only exists for affairs of the press.

In 1896, 1,936 men and 262 women were sentenced for serious crimes; at the end of 1896, 1,640 hard-labour prisoners.

Pauperism.

Each commune is bound to assist children under 15 years of age, if their circumstances require it, and all who from age or disease are unable to support themselves. In other cases the communal poor board decides what course to take. Each commune and each town (which may be divided) constitutes a poor district, and in each is a board of public assistance. In 1896 these districts possessed workhouses and similar establishments to the number of 1,854, capable of lodging 47,377 people. The number of paupers assisted in 1860 was 132,982; in 1870, 204,378; in 1880, 219,532; in 1896, 252,480. Of the last 84,168 were in the towns.

Finance.

The budgets of revenue and expenditure for the years 1897 and 1898 were as follows:—

Revenue 1898 1899
Kronor Kronor
Domains, railway, land taxes, &c. 21,082,000 22,603,000
Customs 39,000,000 41,000,000
Post 9,025,000 9,925,000
Stamps 5,000,000 4,400,000
Impost on spirits, &c. 23,500,000 24,500,000
Tax on incomes, &c. 6,450,000 6,350,000
Net profit of the State Bank 1,800,000 2,000.000
Surplus from the previous years 14,229,000 12,615,000
Total revenue 120,086,000 123,393,000
Expenditure 1898 1899
Kronor Kronor
(a) Ordinary:
Royal Household 1,820,000 1,320,000
Justice 3,842,350 3,842,450
Foreign Affairs 606,750 606,750
Army 26,342,985 26,528,460
Navy 7,046,340 7,164,965
Interior 5,738,800 5,756,200
Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs 13,800,698 14,222,099
Finance 18,376,400 19,219,350
Pensions 3,284,450 3,429,450
Total of (a) 80,358,773 82,089,724
(b) Extraordinary 27,047,127 28,024,076
(c) Expenditure thro' the Riksgäldskontor:
Payment of loans and Miscellaneous (Diet, &c.) 11,243,800 11,588,507
Carried to floating capital 36,300 40,693
Fund for insurance against invalidity of workmen 1,400,000 1,400,000
Fund for insurance against accidents of workmen 250,000
Total expenditure 120,086,000 123,393,000

Of the extraordinary expenditure in 1899 the army claims 5,431,390 kronor, the navy 3,569,335 kronor, the interior 4,354,350 kronor, education and ecclesiastical affairs, 1,945,101 kronor, pensions 1,540,000 kronor. The value of the land and house property of Sweden is thus returned for 1897:—

Kronor
Taxed: Agricultural land in the country 2,239,891,950
,, ,, in the towns 42,741,260
Other real estate in the country 426,076,150
,, ,, ,, in the towns 1,323,968,450
Total (1897) 4,032,677,810
Untaxed: National In the country 165,949,346
In the towns 65,174,700
Belonging to
commonalties,
academies, &c.
In the country 115,915,550
In the towns 132,025, 588
Total (1897) 479,065,184
Grand total (1897) 4,511,742,994

The expenditure for the Church is chiefly defrayed by the parishes and out of the revenue of landed estates belonging to the Church, and the amounts do not appear in the budget estimates. A part of the cost for maintaining the army Indelta also does not appear in the budget. The expenses for public instruction are in great part defrayed by the parishes.

On January 1, 1898, the public liabilities of the Kingdom, contracted entirely for railways, were as follows:—

Kronor
Funded railway loan of 1860 without interest 121,111
,, ,, ,, 1880 with 3+12 ,, 101,821,500
,, ,, ,, 1886 ,, 3+12 ,, 58,670,666
,, ,, ,, 1887 ,, 3+610 ,, 48,759,500
,, ,, ,, 1888 ,, 3 ,, 26,666,667
,, ,, ,, 1890 ,, 3+12 ,, 33,444,000
Funded railway loan of 1894 with 3 interest 18,000,000
Total 287,483,444

All the loans are paid off gradually by means of sinking funds. The debt amounts to about 3 £. 8 s. per head of the population, and the interest to about 2 s. 3 d.; but as the railway receipts amount to about the whole interest, the charge per head is nominal.

The income of the communes in 1896 was 74,184,779 kronor, and the expenditure 74,268,772 kronor. Their assets amounted to 312,691,802 kronor, and their debts to 188,543,622 kronor. The revenue of the provincial representative bodies was 4,585,691 kronor, and expenditure 4,322,742 kronor; their assets 14,346,759 kronor, and debts 4,760,238 kronor.

Defence.

The chief fortifications of Sweden are, on the coast, Karlskrona with Kungsholmen and Westra Hästholmen, Stockholm with Vaxholm-Oscar-Fredriksborg; in the interior, Karlsborg, near Lake Wetter.

The Swedish army is composed of three distinct classes of troops. They are:—

1. The Värfvade, or enlisted troops, to which belong the royal lifeguards (two infantry and one cavalry regiments), five regiments of infantry (of these, however, three regiments contain Indelta troops), one battalion of chasseurs, two battalions of infantry, four regiments of cavalry, the artillery, the engineers, and the train. The Värfvade are in service two or three years.

2. The Indelta, consisting of 19 regiments and one corps of infantry, and 3 regiments of cavalry. The privates of cavalry (Indelta) are paid and kept by the Landowners. Every soldier of the Indelta has, as a rule, besides a small annual pay, his torp, or cottage, with a piece of ground attached, which remains his own during the whole period of service, sometimes extending to thirty years, but he may instead take money payment. There is about 200 days' training in two years for recruits in the infantry and 400 days' in two years in the cavalry, after which they are annually called out for 22 or 23 days' practice.

3. The Värnpligtige, or conscription troops, drawn by annual levy from the male population between the ages of 21 and 40 years, of which the first 12 classes are called Beväring, the 8 others Landstorm. The right of purchasing substitutes, which formerly existed, was abolished by the Diet in 1872. The Värnpligtige are divided among the Värfvade and the Indelta troops, and are mobilised with these. The Beväring undergoes 90 days' training, which in the navy and also in the cavalry is completed in the first year; in the other forces 68 days in the first year and 22 in the second. The Landstorm is in time of war formed in separate troops. Beväring of first year, about 29,000 men; of the 12 years, about 250,000. Landstorm of the 8 years, about 200,000.

The total peace strength of the armed forces of Sweden (exclusive of the Värnpligtige), according to the re-organization carried out in 1892, consists of:—

Permanent Army Officers Non-com-
missioned
Officers
Musicians Men (exclusive
of Musicians)
Civil and
Civil Military
persons
Total Field-guns Horses
Generals 9 9 18
General Staff, Staff-College, &c. 39 2 229 270 78
Infantry 1,220 1,133 1,285 23,792 201 27,631 241
Cavalry 232 210 152 4,615 60 5,269 5,318
Artillery 303 255 171 3,307 143 4,179 240 1,022
Engineers 77 58 21 821 14 991 87
Train 66 124 24 522 36 772 112
Total 1,946 1,782 1,653 33,057 683 39,121 240 6,876
Reserves 1898 685 760 75 80 1,300 56

The Swedish navy is maintained wholly for coast defence. In September 1892, a committee appointed to consider the subject recommended a considerable increase in the floating strength. The navy consists of the following vessels: Armoured coast defence turret ships—First class, 5; second class, 4; armoured gunboats, 9; steam corvettes, 3; gunboats and despatch vessels, 16; torpedo boats of 65 to 90 tons, 4; of 34 to 40 tons, 9; vedettes 8, and school and other ships of various types, 12.

The following is a list of the principal armonr-clad ships:—

Description Name Launched Displacement
tons
Extreme
armouring
inches
Armament Torpedo
ejectors
Indicated
horse
power
Nominal
speed
knots
t John Ericsson 1865 1,500 10.8 2.5.9 in. 380 7.5
t Thordön 1866 1,500 10.4 2.9.4 in. 380 6.7
t Tirfing 1867 1,500 10.4 ,, 380 6.8
t Loke 1871 1,600 17.8 ,, 430 8.5
t Svea 1886 2,900 11.8 2 10 in. 44.7 in. 14 Q.F.
guns of smaller calibre
1 3,640 14.7
t Göta 1891 3,100 11.7 2 10 in. 45.7 in. 13 Q.F.
guns of smaller calibre
3 4,750 16.0
t Thule 1893 3,150 11.7 2 10 in. 45.9 in. 13 Q.F.
guns of smaller calibre
2 4,740 16.2
t Oden 1896 3,300 10.0 2 10 in. 44.7 in. 14 Q.F.
guns of smaller calibre
1 5,330 16.8
t Niord 1898 3,300 10.0 Do. do. 1 5,330 16.8
t Thor 1898 3,300 10.0 Do. do. 1 5,330 16.8

It is proposed to lay down three first-class coast defence armourclads in 1900. Some of the Armoured gunboats are receiving quick-firing guns, and several torpedo cruisers are nearly ready. A committee has reported upon the question of fixed defences, and a plan has been laid down to complete, within ten years, the defences of Karlskrona, Karlsburg, and the Island of Gothland, to erect new works at Waxholm and Oscar-Frederiksberg for the defence of Stockholm, and to fortify Boden and Gothenborg.

The personnel of the Royal Navy is divided into three classes, viz.: 1, The Active List; 2. The Reserve; 3. The Beväring. On the active list are 5 flag-officers, 6 captains, 24 commanders, and about 140 lieutenants and sub-lieutenants, while about 140 commissioned officers belong to the Reserve.

Production and Industry.

I. Agriculture.

The number of farms in cultivation in 1896 was 333,073; of these there were of 2 hectares and under, 72,020; 2 to 20 hectares, 216,650; 20 to 100 hectares, 32,463; 100 and above, 3,211. Of the total land area of Sweden 8.4 per cent. is under cultivation, 3.6 per cent. under natural meadows, and 47.5 per cent. under forests, the products of which form a staple export.

The following table shows, in thousands of hectares, the area under the chief crops in 1896, and, in thousands of hectolitres, the yield in 1897:—

Wheat Rye Barley Oats Mixed Grain Pulse Potatoes
71.3
1,611.2
407.7
8,316.4
218.0
5,040.5
818.7
20,605.9
121.8
3,356.2
50.7
848.3
157.7
19,772.5

The value of all cereal crops in 1897 was estimated at 265.2 million kronor. At the end of 1896 Sweden had 512,406 horses, 2,554,577 head of cattle. 1,298,732 sheep and lambs, 788,736 pigs. In 1880 34,000 head of cattle and

29,000 sheep were exported, in 1896 respectively, 25,146 and 12,793.

II. Mines and Minerals.

Mining is one of the most important departments of Swedish industry, and the working of the iron mines in particular is making constant progress by the introduction of new machinery. There were raised in the year 1896, throughout the Kingdom, 2,038,094 tons of iron ore. The pig-iron produced amounted to 487,147 tons; the bar iron to 321,615 tons. Of iron ore in 1895 800,452 tons, and in 1896 1,150,695 tons were exported; of pig-iron, 86,368 tons in 1895, and 71,343 in 1896; of bar iron, 177,086 in 1895, and 180,372 in 1896. There were also raised in 1896 15,381 tons of silver and lead ore, 27,351 tons of copper ore, 44,041 tons of zinc ore, and 2,056 tons of manganese ore. The gold produced amounted to 114.53 kilogrammes, the silver to 2,082, the lead to 1,518,419, the copper to 248,586. There are not inconsiderable veins of coal in the southern parts of Sweden, giving 225,878 tons of coal in 1896. In 1896 there were 27,994 persons engaged in mining.

Commerce.

The total customs duties levied were in 1895 39,466,186 kronor, in 1896 42,339,086 kronor, and in 1897 43,755,018 kronor. The value of the imports subject to duty in 1896 was 217,351,729 kronor; and of duty-free imports, 140,962,989 kronor.

The imports and exports of Sweden have been as follows:—

1890 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896
Kronor Kronor Kronor Kronor Kronor Kronor
Imports 377,187,739 360,315,855 332,689,289 351,173,005 344,290,247 358,314,718
Exports 304,591,863 329,300,154 328,271,667 298,625,234 311,434,290 340,283,042

The following were the values of the leading imports and exports for two years:—

Imports
1895
Imports
1896
Exports
1895
Exports
1896
Kronor Kronor Kronor Kronor
Textile manufactures 43,394,575 41,671,033 7,265,867 8,004,445
Corn and flour 26,284,212 38,248,993 6,502,983 5,624,517
Colonial wares 42,849,293 41,851,757 713,556 652,338
Raw textile material and yarn 35,835,101 35,466,710 1,224,047 1,287,892
Minerals, of imports mostly coal 43,787,064 45,114,786 10,387,749 13,178,748
Metal goods, machinery, &c. 37,462,115 43,941,208 13,674,947 16,830,248
Live animals and animal food 15,953,946 18,668,472 65,755,099 64,332,767
Hair, hides, and other animal products 20,688,201 19,897,595 4,615,320 5,037,046
Metals, raw and partly wrought 8,396,101 9,527,708 33,045,476 35,332,642
Timber, wrought and unwrought 4,424,663 4,512,386 139,909,132 152,090,709
Paper and paper manufactures 3,832,457 3,909,256 7,796,817 8,319,939
Other articles 61,382,519 65,468,814 20,543,297 22,591,751
Total 344,290,247 358,314,718 311,434,290 340,283,042

The values of imports and exports are calculated according to average prices in Swedish port, exclusive of Customs duties. For most of these average prices merchants are consulted by the Board of Trade (Kommers-Kollegium), and the values thus obtained are published in the Board's annual report on commerce. The quantities in the Customs' returns are most exactly given for imports. For the quantities of exports the statements of exporters are relied on. Imports are recorded as from the country of the last port of shipment, and exports as to the country which is their immediate destination. The figures record the special trade. The returns of the trade between Sweden and Norway may be considered as not corresponding with the real commerce.

The following shows the value of the trade with the principal countries with which Sweden deals:—

Country Imports from
(1895)
Imports from
(1896)
Exports to
(1893)
Exports to
(1896)
Kronor Kronor Kronor Kronor
Great Britain 97,774,831 98,834,090 130,819,647 144,052,618
Germany 116,223,385 117,516,148 42,759,526 43,833,965
Denmark 37,975,650 45,897,752 41,464,029 42,293,111
Norway 28,741,784 29,027,882 18,053,791 19,548,410
Russia (including Finland) 19,755,142 23,267,447 11,292,119 13,336,656
France 7,931,912 7,170,442 25,207,694 29,365,472
Spain 864,330 1,214,017 3,623,999 2,489,179
Netherlands 8,331,267 8,777,465 18,302,375 20,140,466
Belgium 9,628,509 11,689,109 8,898,432 12,075,365
United States 10,642,732 9,091,760 81,809 720,582
Other countries 6,420,705 5,828,606 10,930,869 12,427,218
Total 344,290,247 358,314,718 311,434,290 340,283,042

The following table shows the trade between Sweden and the United Kingdom according to the Board of Trade Returns:—

1893 1894 1895 1896 1897
£ £ £ £ £
Imports into U. K. from Sweden 8,416,252 8,330,188 8,784,256 9,524,137 9,839,146
Exports of British produce to Sweden 2,699,527 2,971,256 3,021,811 3,206,033 3,565,422

The following table shows the chief articles of import into the United Kingdom from Sweden:—

1893 1894 1895 1896 1897
£ £ £ £ £
Wood & timber 3,564,586 3,977,631 3,704,197 4,488,381 5,224,978
Oats 927,936 250,660 312,777 222,823 51,406
Bar iron 518,209 470,910 490,180 510,511 464,195
Iron and steel manufactures 268,259 223,619 277,211 253,500 239,721
Pig iron 159,381 267,627 380,149 323,473 288,324
Butter 1,452,099 1,413,779 1,644,111 1,664,685 1,515,705
Matches 204,060 230,509 203,196 204,999 223,834

The leading exports of British home produce to Sweden in 1897 were iron, wrought and unwrought, of the value of 491,058 £.; coals, 1,014,056 £.; cotton

manufactures and yarn, 388,286 £.; woollen manufactures and yarn, 355,093 £.

Shipping and Navigation.

The Swedish mercantile marine engaged both in the home and foreign trade on January 1, 1897, was as follows:—

Sailing Steam. Total
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage
20-100 tons 1,200 60,443 269 13,498 1,469 73,941
100-500 ,, 733 171,667 349 74,007 1,082 245,674
500-1,000 ,, 70 46,947 105 74,335 175 121,282
Above 1,000 tons 10 11,798 33 44,124 43 55,922
Total 2,013 290,855 756 205,964 2,769 496,819


The port of Göteborg had the largest shipping in 1896—namely, 206 vessels of 82,702 tons; and next to it came Stockholm, possessing 194 vessels of a total burthen of 60,411 tons.

Vessels entered and cleared with cargoes and in ballast in 1896, as follows:—

With Cargoes In Ballast Total
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage
Entered:
Swedish 7,971 1,415,929 7,876 874,009 15,847 2,289,938
Foreign 4,302 1,290,228 12,592 3,471,258 16,894 4,761,486
Total entered 12,273 2,706,157 20,468 4,345,267 32,741 7,051,424
Cleared:
Swedish 11,613 2,041,693 4,271 288,051 15,884 2,329,744
Foreign 9,698 3,149,453 7,263 1,589,183 16,961 4,738,636
Total cleared 21,311 5,191,146 11,534 1,877,234 32,845 7,068,380
Total entered & cleared 1896 33,584 7,897,303 32,002 6,222,501 65,586 14,119,804
,, ,, ,, 1895 31,125 7,897,303 28,271 5,070,350 59,396 12,383,747
,, ,, ,, 1894 31,957 7,313,397 28,154 4,945,345 60,111 12,689,093

Internal Communications.

In 1896 88,734 ships and boats passed through the canals of Sweden.

At the end of 1897 the total length of railways in Sweden was 6,350 miles, which 2,283 miles belonged to the State. The receipts in 1896 were 65,097,537 kronor, and expenses 36,471,958 kronor. The total cost of construction for the State railways to the end of 1896 was 324,060,946 kronor, and for private railways 310,374,351 kronor. The total number of passengers on the State railways in 1896 was 7,728,919; weight of goods carried on State railways, 4,968,360 tons; private railways 11,364,837 tons of goods, and 12,630,720 passengers.

The length of all the telegraph lines at the end of 1896 was 8,281 miles, and of wires 25,578 miles. Of the lines, 5,398 miles, and of the wire, 15,416 miles belonged to the State telegraph, and the remainder to the railways. There were 1,425 telegraph offices. The number of despatches sent in the year 1896 was 2,213,444, including 258,508 in transit. In 1896 there were 64,895 miles of wire and 49,411 instruments employed in the telephone service.

The Swedish Post Office carried 182,923,354 letters, post-cards, journals, &c., in the year 1896. The number of post-offices at the end of the year was 2,595. The total receipts of the Post Office in 1896 amounted to 9,035 371 kronor, and the total expenditure to 8,016,794 kronor, leaving a surplus of 1,018,577 kronor.

Money and Credit.

The Riksbank, or National Bank of Sweden, belongs entirely to the State and is managed by directors elected for three years by the Diet, except one, the president, who is designated by the king. It is a bank of exchange to regulate financial relations with foreign countries, it accepts and pays interest on deposits of money, and on sufficient security it lends money for purposes in which there is no speculative element. The Bank is under the guarantee of the Diet, its capital and reserve capital are fixed by its constitution, and its note circulation is limited by the value of its metallic stock and its assets in current accounts at home and abroad; but its actual circulation is kept far within this limit.

The following table gives statistics of the National Bank, private banks, and joint-stock banks in Sweden for January 1, 1898:—

Assets National Bank Private Banks Joint-stock
Banks
Kroner Kroner Kroner
Mortgages 57,963,876
Real estate 5,450,010 3,568,629
Coin and bullion 32,257,248 22,345,981 12,060,231
Accounts with other banks 19,673,635 49,820,620 34,299,040
State notes and bills 21,942,664 35,599,603 22,222,755
Stocks, shares, mortgages, &c. 64,364,526
Bills 53,716,569 178,300,580 73,718,235
Loans, public obligations, shares, &c 42,257,196 190,062,481 117,935,409
Cash credits, &c. 8,455,379 95,985,951 49,363,355
Totals 178,302,691 635,529,102 377,532,180
Liabilities
Bank notes and bills 70,941,074 89,546,531 7,674,108
Liabilities with other banks 9,464,303 52,664,164 40,839,196
Deposits 3,936,366 264,986,177 90,767,714
Capital 50,000,000 73,252,600 56,582,258
Reserve 5,000,000 24,339,612 17,073,109
To be paid out to the public treasury 1,800,000
Various liabilities 30,285,280 123,174,141 163,263,922
To further disposition 6,875,668 7,565,877 1,331,873
Totals 178,302,691 635,529,102 377,532,180

The savings-banks statistics (exclusive of Post Oflfice) are as follows:—

1893 1894 1895 1896
Number of depositors at end of year 1,111,187 1,119,887 1,124,298 1,141,469
Deposits at end of year, kronor 314,653,546 333,078,309 348,441,088 369,707,290
Capital and reserve fund, ditto. 28,557,033 29,998,600 31,383,447 32,634,284

At the end of 1896 the Post Office Savings Bank had 451,872 depositors

and 49,733,810 kronor of deposits.

2. NORWAY.

Constitution and Government.

I. Central Government.

The Constitution of Norway, called the Grundlov, bears date May 17, 1814, with several modifications passed at various times up to 1898. It vests the legislative power of the realm in the Storthing, or Great Court, the representative of the sovereign people. The King, however, possesses the right of veto over laws passed by the Storthing, but only for a limited period. The royal veto may be exercised twice; but if the same bill pass three Storthings formed by separate and subsequent elections, it becomes the law of the land without the assent of the sovereign. The King has the command of the land and sea forces, and makes all appointments, but, except in a few cases, is not allowed to nominate any but Norwegians to public offices under the crown.

The Storthing assembles every year. New elections take place every three years. The meetings take place suo jure, and not by any writ from the King or the executive. They begin on the first weekday after October 10 each year, and must receive the sanction of the King to sit longer than two months. Every Norwegian citizen of twenty-five years of age (provided that he resides and has resided for five years in the country) is entitled to elect. Under the same conditions citizens thirty years of age, and having resided in Norway for ten years, are qualified to be elected. The mode of election is indirect. Towards the end of every third year the people choose their deputies, at the rate of one to fifty voters in towns, where the election is administered by the magistrate, and one to a hundred in rural sub-districts, where they meet in the parish church under the presidency of the parish minister. The deputies afterwards assemble and elect among themselves, or from among the other qualified voters of the district, the Storthing representatives. Former members of the Council of State can be elected representatives of any district of the Kingdom without regard to their residence. No new election takes place for vacancies, which are filled by the persons already elected for that purpose, or, if not, who received the second largest number of votes. At the election in 1897 on the old franchise, the number of electors was 195,956, or 9.79 per cent. of total population, while 167,207 votes, or 85.33 per cent. of the whole number, were recorded. Of the total male population, 45 per cent. are 25 years of age and above. The Storthing has 114 members—38 from towns, 76 from rural districts.

The Storthing, when assembled, divides itself into two houses, the 'Lagthing' and the 'Odelsthing.' The former is composed of one-fourth of the members of the Storthing, and the other of the remaining three-fourths. The Thing nominates its own presidents. The principal ordinary business of the Storthing is to enact or repeal laws, to impose taxes, to supervise the financial affairs of the kingdom, to vote the amounts required for the public expenditure, and to examine treaties concluded with foreign Powers. Questions relating to laws must be considered by each house separately. The inspection of public accounts and the revision of the Government, and impeachment before the Rigsret, belong exclusively to the Odelsthing. All other matters are settled by both houses in common sitting. The Storthing elects five delegates, whose duty it is to revise the public accounts. All new laws must first be laid before the Odelsthing, from which they pass into the Lagthing to be either accepted or rejected. If the Odelsthing and Lagthing do not agree, the two houses assemble in common sitting to deliberate, and the final decision is given by a majority of two-thirds of the voters. The same majority is required for alterations of the Constitution. The Lagthing and the ordinary members of the supreme court of justice (Höiesteret) form a high court of justice (the Rigsret) for the impeachment and trial of Ministers, members of the Höiesteret, and members of the Storthing. While in session, every member of the Storthing has an allowance of twelve kroner (13 s. 4 d.) a day, besides travelling expenses.

The executive is represented by the King, who exercises his authority through a Council of State, composed of two Ministers of State and at least seven Councillors. Two of the Councillors, who change every year, together with one of the Ministers, form a delegation of the Council of State, residing at Stockholm, near the King. Ministers and Councillors of State are entitled to be present in the Siorthing and to take part in the discussions, when public, but without a vote. The following are the members of the Council of State, February 16, 1898:—

(1.) Council of State at Kristiania.

Minister of State.Johannes Wilhelm Christian Steen.

Department of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs.Vilhelm Andreas Wexelsen.

Department of Justice.Ole Anton Qvam.

Department of the Interior.Georg August Thilesen.

Department of Public Works.Jörgen Gunderson Lövland.

Department of Finance and Customs.Elias Sunde.

Department of Defence.—Colonel Peter Theodor Holst.

Revision of Public Accounts Department.J. W. C. Steen, Minister of State.

(2.) Delegation of the Council at Stockholm.

Otto Albert Blehr, Minister of State.

Hans Hein Theodor Nysom.

Einar Löchen.

II. Local Government.

The admiuistrative division of tlie country is into twenty districts, each governed by a chief executive functionary (Amtmand), viz., the towns of Kristiania and Bergen, and 18 'Amts' (counties). They are subdivided into 39 towns and 56 'Fogderier,' the latter comprising 22 'Ladesteder' (ports). There are 525 rural communes (Herreder), mostly parishes or subparishes (wards). The government of the Herred is vested in a council and a body of representatives. The members (from three to nine) of the former (the 'Formænd') are elected from the different wards within the Herred. The representatives, who vote the expenditure of the Herred, are three times the number of the Formænd, These bodies elect conjointly every year from among the 'Formænd' a chairman and a deputy chairman. All the chairmen of an Amt form with the Amtmand and the Fogder (sheriffs) the 'Amtsformandskab' or 'Amtsthing' (county diet), which meets yearly to settle the budget of the Amt. The Amtmand is the chairman of the diet. The towns and the ports form 59 communes, also governed by a council (4 to 12, Kristiania 15), and representatives (three times the size of the council). The members of both local governing bodies are elected, in towns and rural communes, by voters for the Storthing.

Area and Population.

I. Progress and Present Condition.

Norway has an area of 124,445 English square miles; at the census of January 1, 1891, the population amounted to 1,988,674 present, and 2,000,917 domiciled inhabitants.

The area and population of the twenty districts (Amter) are as follows:—

Amter. Area : English
square miles
Population
Jan. 1, 1891
Density per
square mile
Kristiania (town) 6 15,239 25,206.5
Akershus 2,055 99,111 48.2
Smaalenene 1,600 120,360 75.2
Hedemarken 10,621 119,129 11.2
Kristians 9,793 108,076 11.0
Buskerud 5,790 104,769 18.1
Jarlsberg og Larvik 896 100,957 112.7
Bratsberg 5,865 92,034 15.7
Nedenes 3,609 81,043 22.4
Lister og Mandal 2,805 78,738 28.1
Stavanger 3,532 117,008 33.1
Söndre Bergenhus 6,026 128,213 21.3
Bergen (town) 5 53,684 10,736.8
Nordre Bergenhus 7,132 87,552 12.3
Romsdal 5,788 127,806 22.1
Söndre Trondhjem 7,184 123,817 17.2
Nordre Trondhjem 8,791 81,236 9.2
Nordland 14,517 131,850 9.1
Tromsö 10,134 65,125 6.4
Finmarken 18,296 29,170 1.6
Total 124,445 2,000,917 16.1

There were 965,911 males, and 1,035,006 females.

Conjugal condition of the domiciled population, 1891:—

Unmarried Married Widowed Divorced Not stated
Males 602,962 323,935 37,660 308 1,046
Females 627,498 325,952 80,263 426 867

Of the total population in 1891, 1,526,788 (76.3 per cent.) were domiciled in rural districts, and 474,129 (23.7 per cent.) in towns.

Of the total population in 1891, 1,940,726 were born in Norway, 38,017 in Sweden, 2,475 in Denmark, 2,661 in Finland, 1,738 in Germany, 655 in Great Britain or Ireland. In 1891 the number of Laps was 20,786, and of Fins, 9,378.

In 1891 the population was divided according to occupation as follows:—

Occupation Employers,
&c.
Clerks,
overseers.
&c.
Workmen
and
women
Dependents
of families,
&c.
Total
Administrative and
professional
Male 4,368 12,148 2,949 16,162 35,627
Female 1,684 3,972 1,830 15,769 23,255
Agriculture, &c. Male 122,143 3,231 126,217 166,774 408,365
Female 11,216 512 74,346 166,477 247,551
Fisheries Male 41,072 188 14,455 33,687 89,402
Female 297 1 748 32,053 33,099
Mines, metal works,
and other industries
Male 34,998 5,269 87,089 85,204 212,560
Female 29,731 304 20,120 84,844 134,999
Commerce Male 13,991 10,648 9,923 55,284 131,360
Female 6,199 4,798 2,942 56,745 71,926
Transport Male 3,575 11,667 26,272 (included in commerce, above)
Female 302 475 465
Domestic work Male 42 10,843 2,593 13,478
Female 305,267[1] 13,077 137,113[2] 2,585 458,042
Occupation not stated Male 170[3] 79 4,782 4,204 9,235
Female 259[3] 38 3,654 3,910 7,861
Living on private
fortune, annuitants, &c.
Male 26,612 3,951 30,563
Female 31,109 4,555 35,664
Charity, public
or private
Male 20,700 20,700
Female 24,987 24,987
Total Male 236,929 43,272 282,530 388,559 951,290
Female 386,064 23,177 241,218 386,925 1,037,384
Male and female 622,993 66,449 523,748 775,484 1,988,674
  1. Married women in their own households.
  2. Comprising servants, children, &c., living in the house.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Social condition unknown.

II. Movement of the Population.

1. Births, Deaths, and Marriages.
Year Marrages Births
(exc.
stillborn)
Stillborn Illegitimate,
living
Deaths
(exc.
stillborn)
Excess
of Births
1892 12,742 59,430 1,707 4,266 35,769 23,661
1893 12,974 61,918 1,844 4,428 32,915 29,003
1894 12,966 60,450 1,719 4,332 34,355 26,095
1895 13,339 62,932 1,634 4,464 32,189 30,743
1896 13,962 63,308 1,632 4,598 31,574 31,734
2. Emigration.
Place of Destination 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897
United States 13,249 16,841 18,690 5,591 6,153 6,584 4,580
British North America 79 223 75 22 6 22 3
Other countries 13 12 13 29 48 73 86
Total 13,814 17,049 18,778 5,642 6,207 6,679 4,669

III. Principal Towns.

At the census taken January 1, 1891, the number of towns with a population of above 100,000 was one, above 20,000 four, above 10,000 five, above 5,000 nine. The population of the principal towns, January 1, 1891, was:—

Kristiania 151,239
(January 1, 1898) 203,337
Bergen 53,684
Trondhjem 29,162
Stavanger 23,899
Drammen 20,687
Kristiansand 12,813
Fredrikstad 12,451
Larvik 11,261
Fredrikshald 11,217
Kristiansund 10,381
Skien 8,979
Aalesand 8,406
Moss 8,051

Religion and Instruction.

The evangelical Lutheran religion is the national Church and the only one endowed by the State. Its clergy are nominated by the King. All other Christian sects (except Jesuits) as well as the Jews are tolerated, and free to exercise their religion within the limits prescribed by the law and public order. Ecclesiastically Norway is divided into 6 bishoprics, 83 Provstier (provostships, or archdeaconries), 478 Præstegjeld (clerical districts). In 1891 there were 30,685 dissenters, including 1,004 Roman Catholics, 8,187 Methodists, 4,228 Baptists, 348 Mormons, 231 Quakers.

Education is compulsory, the school age being from six and a half in towns and seven in the country to fourteen. In 1894 (the latest date for which there are statistics) there were in the country 5,983 public elementary schools with 248,906 pupils, and in towns 2,001 classes with 62,440 pupils; the amount expended on both being 8,319,282 kroner, of which 1,949,822 kroner was granted by the State, the rest being provided in towns by the towns themselves, in rural districts partly by the separate parish communes, partly by the county communes (Amtskommuner). There are 83 secondary schools: 14 public, 42 communal, 27 private. Of the secondary schools 19 have a higher department for classics, or mathematics, or both, viz. 14 public, 1 communal, 4 private. Most of the secondary schools are mixed, 15 are for girls alone: 1 communal, 14 private. The number of pupils in the secondary schools in 1894 was 11,325. Besides these, 75 communal and private schools have 3,629 pupils more or less advanced. There were in 1894, 6 public normal schools and 3 private, with 478 students. Kristiania has a University, attended in 1897 by 1,220 students. In the financial year 1897-8 it has, besides its own incomes amounting to 295,400 kroner, a subsidy of 497,493 kroner from the State.

Justice and Crime.

For civil justice Norway is divided into 119 districts, each with an inferior court. Of these 82 are rural courts, divided into 447 circuits. The other courts are in towns. There are 3 superior courts, having each one chief justice and two other justices, and one supreme court for the whole kingdom (Höiesteret), consisting of 1 president and at least 6 other justices. There is a court of mediation (Forligelseskommission) in each town and Herred (district), consisting of two men chosen by the electors, before which, as a rule, civil cases must first be brought.

According to the law of criminal procedure of July 1, 1887, all criminal cases (not military, or coming under the Rigsret—the court for impeachments) shall be tried either by jury (Lagmandsret), or Meddomsret.

The Lagmandsret consists of three judges (1 Lagmand, or president), and 10 jurors (Lagrettemand). The Kingdom is divided into 5 jury districts (Lagdömmer), each having its chief judge (Lagmand). Each district is divided into circuits, corresponding, as a rule, to the counties (Amter), in which courts are held at fixed times. The Meddomsret consists of the judge and is held in the district of the inferior court, and 2 assistant judges (not professional) summoned for each case. The Lagmandsret takes cognisance of the higher classes of offences. The Meddomsret is for the trial of other offences, and is also a court of first instance.

The prosecutions are directed by the State advocates (Statsadvokater), 13 in number, subordinate to one Rigsadvokat.

The number of persons convicted of crimes was: in 1894, 2,948; in 1893, 2,949; in 1892, 3,026; in 1891, 2,548; in 1890, 2,603. For offences against public order and police, penalties were, in 1894, inflicted upon 28,825 persons.

There are four convict prisons (1 a penitentiary); inmates, June 30, 1896, 657 (565 were males and 92 females).

There are, besides, 55 district prisons, in which, in 1895, 10,915 persons were detained. There are 3 reformatories for young offenders between 10 and 15 years.

The police force of Kristiania numbers 439 men, including 15 superior functionaries.

Pauperism.

In Norway the relief of the poor is mostly provided for by local taxation, but certain expenditure is also borne by the Amter (counties) and by the State. The number of persons receiving relief amounted to 78,439 in 1895, 80,749 in 1894, 80,924 in 1893, 78,681 in 1892, 76,613 in 1891. In 1895 12,335, 1894 10,275, 1893 9,572, 1892 9,471, 1891 9,938, persons are included who have only been medically relieved.

Finance.

The following table shows the revenue and expenditure for each of the last five years in thousands of kroner:—

Revenue Expenditure Years ending June 30 Direct Taxes Indirect Taxes Other Sources Total Defence Debt Public "Works General Total

1894 1895 1896

,000 kr. 3,310 3,198 3,343 4,529 4,634 ,000 kr, 28,518 28,861 30,170 31,249 35,792 ,000 kr. 20,716 21,566 21,290 22,764 25,150 ,000 kr. 52,544 53,625 57,3851 71,9322 69,0473 ,000 kr. 10,913 10,495 12,006 17,635 22,651 ,000 kr. 4,557 4,890 4,937 5,500 6,882 ,000 kr. 10,481 11,515 11,490 16,465 16,553 ,000 kr. 26,824 28,045 28,223 29,563 30,644 ,000 kr. 52,775 54,945 56,656 69,163 56,730 Including 2,582,000 kroner raised by loans. ,, 13,390,000 ,, ,, ,, 3,471,200

The following table shows the principal heads of the budget for two years ending June 30:—

Sources of Revenue Branches of Expenditure 1898 1899

Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Income Tax 4,000,000 4,000,000 Civil list 361,466 482,838 Customs 29,200,000 31,900,000 Storthing 665,500 646,550 Excise on spirit 3,000,000 3,500,000 The Ministries 1,331,983 1,319,872 ,, ,, malt 3,700,000 3,500,000 Church & education 7,552,663 8,582,878 Succession tax 550,000 550,000 Justice 6,109,571 6,390,790 Stamps 715,000 865,000 Interior 2,820,218 3,190,256 Judicial fees 1,000,000 850,000 Post, telegraphs, &c. 6,758,959 8,697,200 Mines 463,300 459,800 State railways 13,399,331 14,444,717 Post Office 4,000,000 4,350,000 Roads, canals, ports, &c. 4,316,248 4,549,763 Telegraphs 1,530,000 1,770,000 State property 2,886,354 3,055,704 Finance and customs 3,423,682 3,711,288 Railways 9,701,300 10,139,400 Mines 572,000 585,450 Miscellaneous 6,179,874 6,463,789 Amortisation of debt 1,222,679 1,521,960 Balance 3,937,503 — Interest ,, ,, 5,965,722 5,796,378 Loans for Defence and Railways. — 15,188,054 Army 9,975,220 15,824,000 Navy 3,704,500 3,018,300 Foreign affairs 769,651 773,590 Miscellaneous 1,913,938 2,056,007 Balance — —

70,863,331 86,591,837

70,868,331 86,591,837

The following table shows the amortisation, growth, and interest of the public debt for the years named, ending June 30:— Years ending
June 30 Amortisation Growth Interest Amount at the
end of the year

Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner

1893 1894 1895 1896 1897

591,160 — 681,948 39,675,733[1] 19,630,351 — 532,407 13,572,000 1,458,582 25,444,233

3,959,330 4,201,574 4,430,230 4,957,772 5,894,671

124,950,005 163,943,791 144,313,440 157,353,033 181,338,684

  1. Of this amount 19,131,560 kroner were applied to the redemption of a former loan.

The unredeemable debt, 10,837,410 in 1885, is now 245,472 kroner.

The taxation for communal purposes amounted for the rural communes to 11,967,620 kroner, and for the towns to 11,813,513 kroner in 1896.

Defence.

The most important fortresses of Norway are Oscarsborg and the new fortresses by Agdenes, Bergen, Tönsberg, and Christianssand S.; the other fortresses, Fredriksstad, Fredriksten, Carljohansvaern, Akershus in Kristiania, Trondhjem, and Vardö, are of little importance.

The troops of the Kingdom are raised mainly by conscription, and to a small extent by enlistment. By the terms of three laws voted by the Storthing in 1866, 1876, and 1885, the land forces are divided into the troops of the Line, the Landvaern, the Landstorm or final levy. All young men past the twenty-second year of age are liable to the conscription. The young men in the line raised by conscription have to go through a first training in the school of recruits, extending over 48 days in the infantry, in the fortress and mountain artillery, 50 days in the engineers, and 70 days in the field artillery and cavalry. They are then put into the battalions, which in the second, third, and fourth year in the artillery, cavalry, and engineers, and the second and third year in the infantry and train, under ordinary circumstances, have an annual practice of 24 days, after which the men are sent on furlough, with obligation to meet when ordered. The Landvaern of the sixth year has a 18 days' practice, in which also the recruits take part. The train has a school of recruits, extending over 50 days for the engineers, and 18 days in the other arms. The nominal term of service is 13 years, divided between 5 years in the Line, 4 years in the Landvaern, and 4 years in the Landstorm. The Landvaern and Landstorm is only liable to service within the frontiers of the Kingdom. Every man capable of bearing arms, and not placed in one of the said categories, is in time of war liable to do service in the reserve of the Landstorm, from the eighteenth to the fiftieth year of age.

On January 1, 1894, the troops of the line numbered about 30,000 men, with 900 officers. The number of troops of the line actually under arms can never exceed, even in war, 18,000 men without the consent of the Storthing. The King has permission to transfer, for the purpose of common military exercises, a number of men not exceeding 3.000, from Norway to Sweden and from Sweden to Norway, but only for (at most) six weeks annually.

The infantry consists of 5 brigades of 4 battalions of Line, Landvaern, and Landstorm, of 4 companies. For each brigade there is a school of sub-officers. His Majesty's guard consists of 2 companies of riflemen.

Cavalry.—3 corps of Line, Landvaern and Landstorm, each consisting of 3 (1 corps 2) squadrons of mounted riflemen.

In addition, 1 orderly-squadron of Line, Landvaern and Landstorm. Besides there is a school of sub-officers, "The school-squadron."

Artillery.—3 battalions of Line, Landvaern, and Landstorm, of 3 batteries of 6 pieces, and 1 company of equipage field artillery per battalion; 1 battalion of Line, Landvaern, and Landstorm, of 2 companies of fortress artillery and two batteries of 6 pieces mountain artillery. There are 2 schools of sub-officers, one for the field artillery and one for the fortress artillery.

Engineers.—1 battalion of Line, Landvaern, and Landstorm, of 2 companies of sappers, 1 company of pontooneers, 1 company of telegraphists, and 1 company of equipage. Besides there is a school of sub-officers.

Like the Swedish navy, that of Norway is maintained solely for coast defence. It consists of 2 modern armourclads built at Elswick; 4 ironclad monitors; 1 wooden corvette launched in 1862; 4 unarmoured gun-vessels of 640, 1,000 and 1,113, and 1,371 tons, built 1877-96; 1 of 1,371 tons (Frithjof); 4 older gunboats between 190 and 280 tons, 8 between 230 and 390 tons, and 16 smaller (60 tons), besides a small torpedo flotilla (26 torpedo boats and 1 torpedo division boat).

These ships call for little description. The monitors, Skorpionen, Thrudvang, and Mjölner (1,447 and 1,515 tons) were built in 1866-68. They have 5-inch armour-belts, and l2-inch plating on their turrets, which carry severally two 4.7-in. Q.F., and four 2.4-in. Q.F. The Thor, launched in 1872, is a little larger (2,003 tons), has 14+12-inch turret-plating, and carries two 4.7-in. Q.F., and four 2.4-in. Q.F. guns. Of unarmoured ships the deck-protected gun-vessel Viking (1,113 tons) is steel-built, with a cellulose belt, is 203 ft. 6 in. in length, and has 30 ft. beam, engines of 2,000 I.H.P., and steamed 15 knots at her trials. Her armament consists of two 5.9-in. guns, and four 2.4-in. and four smaller quick-firers. A new vessel of the Viking type is the Frithjof (1,371 tons), armed with two 4.7-in. Q.F., 4.3-in. Q.F., and four smaller quick-firers, and having a speed of 15 knots. The torpedo division boat Valkyrien (385 tons), armed with two 3-in. Q.F., and four smaller quick-firers, steamed 23 knots at her trials.

The turret ships Harold Haarfagre and Tordenskjold have lately been built on the Tyne. They displace 3,500 tons, and are protected by a belt of armour on the side, and by an armoured deck curved down to the lower edge of the belt. The thickness of the belt is 7 in. and of the armour in the barbettes, 7.9-in. (Harveyed steel). The armament consists of two 8.2-in. Q.F., in barbettes, six 4.7-in. Q.F., six 3-in. Q.F., and six smaller quick-firers. The speed is 16+12 knots. They are remarkably powerful vessels for their size, and two others of the class have been ordered at Elswick.

The despatch-vessel, Heimdal (630 tons), armed with four 2.4-in. quick-firing guns, steamed 12 knots at her trials. The gunboat Ægir (400 tons), is armed with one 82 in. gun, one 27 in. Q.F., two l.9 in. Q.F., and two smaller Q.F.

The navy numbers 96 officers on active service and 65 in the reserve and abont 700 petty officers and seamen on permanent engagement. All seafaring men between the ages of twenty-two and thirty-five are enrolled on the lists of the active fleet, and are liable to the maritime conscription. By a law passed in 1892, they all go through a first training of at least 70 days.

Production and Industry.

I. Agriculture.

Of the total area, 75 per cent. is unproductive, 22 per cent. forest, and 3 per cent. under cultivation. At the end of 1890 there were 146,355 real estates separately registered (not including Finmarken), and the number of farms was 236,286. The 146,355 real estates were classified as follows according to the official valuation in cadaster-marks (each representing an average purchase value of about £100 sterling):—

Up to 0.50 mark 27,549 estates or 18.8 per cent. of the whole.
0.51—1.0 ,, 20,524 ,, ,, 14.0 ,, ,,
1.01—3.00 ,, 50,956 ,, ,, 34.8 ,, ,,
3.01—5.00 ,, 21,691 ,, ,, 14.8 ,, ,,
5.01—10.00 ,, 16,954 ,, ,, 11.6 ,, ,,
10.01—20.00 ,, 6,441 ,, ,, 4.4 ,, ,,
20.01—50.00 ,, 2,022 ,, ,, 1.4 ,, ,,
50.01—100.00 ,, 183 ,, ,, 0.1 ,, ,,
101 or more ,, 35 ,, ,, 0.02 ,, ,,

As to the classification of the estates according to their area, no returns have been collected since 1865. (See Statesman's Year Book for 1896, p. 987.)

The latest agricultural statistics are for 1890, when the area under cereals was 185,605 hectares, potatoes 39,122 hectares. The estimated yield of cereals was 5,962,353 hectolitres, of potatoes 8,441,403 hectolitres. The total value of the produce was for cereals 38,262,761 kroner, for potatoes 24,807,136 kroner. The average annual produce in hectolitres per 10 acres for 1886-90 was: wheat, 2.12; rye, 2.43; barley, 2.87; mixed corn, 3.57; oats, 3.53; peas, 2.18; potatoes, 21.56 hectolitres.

On January 1, 1891, there were:—Horses, 150,898; cattle, 1,006,499; sheep, 1,417,524; goats, 272,458; swine, 121,057; reindeer, 170,134.

The value of cereals imported (including flour) was 37,792,700 kroner in 1897; the principal article being rye, 17,029,600 kroner. The import of butter amounted to 1,132,000 kroner, and of bacon and meat to 5,477,900 kroner. The export of agricultural produce is insignificant.

II. Forestry.

The total area covered with forests is estimated at 26,320 square miles, of which 73 per cent. is under pine trees. The State forests occupy 3,870 square miles, administered by a forest staff under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. The value of unwrought or partly wrought timber exported from Norway in 1897 was 42,212,400 kroner, and of wrought timber 19,461,900 kroner.

III. Mines and Minerals.

The mining and metal industry of Norway is unimportant. The total value of mineral products in 1896 was 2,887,600 kroner (4,013,300 in 1890); of furnace products, 1,264,000 (1,315,400 in 1890) kroner; of bar iron and steel, 78,000 kroner. The chief mineral products are silver, 400,000 kroner in 1896 (621,000 in 1890); copper ore, 1,136,100 kroner, pyrites, 970,000 kroner; nickel, 20,000 kroner (1,565,000 in 1876); apatite, 640,000 kroner (1,000,700 in 1890); felspar, 202,000 kroner (213,300 in 1890). Of the smelting products in 1896 silver was valued at 377,000 kroner; copper, 843,000 kroner; nickel, 30,000 kroner. At the end of 1896 there existed 27 mining establishments; employing 1,987 workpeople, and 5 smelting furnaces with 251 workpeople.

IV. Fisheries.

The number of persons in 1896 engaged in cod fishery was 93,277; in herring fishery, 17,606; and in mackerel fishery 2,344.

The value of the fisheries in kroner in 1896 was cod, 14,332,606; herring, 2,648,514; mackerel, 194,453; salmon and sea trout, 801,300; other fisheries, 3,333,742; lobster, 397,710; oysters, 5,928; total, 21,714,253. The total value was in 1895, 22,210,157 kroner; in 1894, 22,900,229 kroner; in 1893, 23,616,945 kroner; in 1892, 24,793,715 kroner; in 1891, 25,966,599.

Other fisheries are the mackerel fisheries in the North Sea, the bank fisheries off the coast, and the whale, walrus, seal, and shark fisheries in the northern seas, which in 1896 produced a total of about 4,000,000 kroner.

Commerce.

The following table shows the value of the trade of Norway with different countries in 1897:—

Country Imports Exports
Kroner Kroner
Sweden 42,277,800 25,724,300
Denmark, Iceland, and Faeroe 14,429,000 7,935,700
Russia and Finland 24,079,200 4,461,400
Germany . 71,348,300 21,918,500
Switzerland 390,000
Netherlands 9,624,400 8,934,100
Belgium 11,790,700 6,527,100
Great Britain and Ireland 67,560,400 65,387,000
France 4,057,500 7,358,500
Portugal and Madeira 836,100 717,700
Spain 1,685,100 9,602,100
Italy 2,001,300 2,789,800
Austria and Hungary 49,500 212,800
Turkey, and Roumania 18,300
Africa 700 2,737,200
Asia 24,300 362,700
Australia 100 1,908,900
America 11,988,700 853,300
Not stated 1,556,600 265,600
Total 263,718,200 167,696,700

The total amount of the import duties collected in 1897 was about 28 millions of kroner (about one-tenth in value of the total imports), divided among the principal articles as follows:—Breadstuffs, 3,423,000 kroner; coffee, 2,924,000 kroner; tea, 220,000 kroner; sugar, 5,345,000 kroner;

The recorded values are calculated according to information supplied by Exchange Committees and merchants. Those of imports include the invoice price, freight, packing, and insurance, but not duty; those of exports give the price free on board in Norwegian port, excluding freight and insurance, but including packing and Norwegian commercial profit. The returns of quantities are compiled from the officially controlled declarations of importers and exporters. These declarations state the countries from which the articles are directly imported and to which they are directly exported. An article coming, for example, from the East Indies via London is recorded as coming from England. The recorded imports include all articles imported, whether for consumption inland or for re-exportation. The exports are divided into exports of Norwegian articles (special trade) and exports of foreign articles (transit, warehousing on credit, duty-paid and duty-free articles). A considerable part of the export and also of the import (mostly duty-free) trade over the land frontier between Norway and Sweden escapes the control of the Customs' authorities. COMMERCE

tobacco, 3,299,000 kroner ; spirits and wines, 2,084,000 kroner ; mannfactured goods, 3,376,000 kroner. The value of imports suhject to duty (1897) was 162,675,200 kroner, and of duty-free 101,043,000 kroner. Total imports and exports of Norwegian and foreign goods in the last five years : —

Kroner Imports (foreign) . . 204,568,000 Exports (Norwegian) . 126,718,800 „ (foreign) . 9,367,800

Kroner 205,989,800 124,031,500 ,963,600


Kroner Kroner ,310,200 240,217,500 ,408,400 137,755,700 ,871,700 10,015,500

Kroner 263,718,200 159,678,700 ,018,000 Values of imports and e xports, divided into classes, for 1895-1897 : — Classes of Goods


Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports of Foreign Norwegian of Foreign Norwegian of Foreign Norwegian Goods Goods Goods Goods Goods Goods Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Animals, living . ,083,000 ,700 ,484,300 ,000 ,009,100 ,700 Animal prodnce (inaltv food) . ,922,500 ,854,500 ,043,500 ,309,000 ,367,300 ,831,600 Breadstuff's . ,194,700 ,800 ,743,300 ,100 ,265,300 ,600 Groceries . ,047,200 ,900 ,415,700 ,700 ,175,200 ,700 Fruits, plants, <fcc. ,321,200 ,800 ,780,200 ,100 ,943,100 ,400 Spirits, (fee. . ,721,400 ,300 ,155,200 ,100 ,705,400 ,300 Yarn, rope, &c. . ,332,900 ,100 ,005,700 ,300 ,056,200 ,200 Textile manufac- tures, (fee. ,.S65,600 ,643,100 ,282,900 ,688,200 ,576,700 ,272,100 Hair, skins, &c. . ,510,000 ,638,300 ,955,700 ,581,000 ,723,700 ,742,300 Tallow, oils, tar. &c. . ,085,700 ,513,200 ,669,300 ,981,200 ,169,200 ,606,500 Timber & wooden goods ,875,000 ,610,800 ,189,100 ,055,000 ,525,000 ,674,300 Dye stuff's . ,137,400 ,400 ,098,400 ,100 ,205,000 ,700 Diff'erent vege- table produce . ,759,000 ,099,200 ,706,200 ,505,200 ,696,300 ,487,900 Paper and paper manufactures . ,018,600 ,961,000 ,317,700 ,199,900 ,942,500 ,699,400 Minerals, un- wrought . ,200,600 ,643,300 ,888,600 ,993,400 ,307,300 ,517,400 Minerals, manu- factured . ,012,000 ,774,200 ,447,700 ,290,700 ,532,800 ,402,400 Metals, un- wrouglit or partly wrought ,979,600 ,404,400 ,522,700 ,154,600 ,383,800 ,099,600 Metals, manu- factured . ,447,100 ,203,500 ,621,200 ,361,800 ,372,500 ,780,100 Vessels, carriages, machinery, (Sic. Total . ,296,700 ,769,300 ,290,100 ,891,300 ,701,800 ,622,500 ,310,200 ,408,400 ,217,500 ,755,700 ,718,200 ,678,700 Re-exports . Grand total . ,871,700 ,015 500 ,0]8,000t ,280,100

147,771,200 ,696,700 The values of imports and exports to and from the principal Norwegian ports in the last three years were:—

Imports Exports
1895 1896 1897 1895 1896 1897
Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner Kroner
Kristiania 117,448,800 132,432,700 144,231,100 31,713,600 33,935,500 33,655,100
Bergen 37,725,400 36,509,300 40,015,700 23,656,700 20,364,100 24,707,200
Trondhjem 16,017,300 17,887,500 18,378,400 8,658,100 9,423,900 10,840,000

The commercial intercourse between Norway and the United Kingdom, according to the Board of Trade Returns, is shown in the subjoined table, for each of the last five years:—

1893 1894 1895 1896 1897
£ £ £ £ £
Imports into U.K. from Norway 3,570,592 3,657,595 3,831,727 4,312,106 4,995,461
Exports of British prodnce to Norway 1,756,813 1,916,566 1,895,889 1,988,554 2,250,734

In 1897 the imports of timber from Norway into the United Kingdom amounted to 1,866,550 £.; fish, 612,622 £.; paper-making materials, 988,371 £.; paper, &c., 443,123 £.; ice, 248,671 £.; butter, 138,199 £. The minor imports into Great Britain comprise train oil, matches, and small quantities of iron manufactures. The chief British exports to Norway in the year 1897 were iron, wrought and unwronght, 371,800 £.; cotton manufactures and yarns 323,966 £.; coals, 497,994 £.; and woollens and worsteds and yarn, 168,172 £.; machinery, 128,142 £.

Shipping and Navigation.

The total Norwegian mercantile marine on January 1, 1898, was as follows:—

Sailing Steam Total
No. Tons No. Tons No. Tons
4—100 tons 4,096 118,404 389 11,850 4,485 130,254
100—500 tons 1,226 363,078 349 98,994 1,575 462,072
500—1,000 ,, 610 423,990 160 115,298 770 539,288
1,000—2,000 tons 206 252,237 93 128,939 299 381,173
Above 2,000 ,, 5 11,373 13 28,039 18 39,412
Total 6,143 1,169,079 1,004 383,120 7,147 1,552,199
In Foreign Trade 3,109 1,090,100 591 361,653 3,700 1,451,753

The vessels entered and cleared at Norwegian ports in 1896 were as follows:—

With Cargoes In Ballast Total
No. Tonnage No. Tonnage No. Tonnage
Entered
Norwegian 4,189 1,190,673 2,653 747,281 6,842 1,937,954
Foreign 2,394 700,443 3,965 270,549 6,359 970,992
Total entered 6,583 1,891,116 6,618 1,017,830 13,201 2,908,946
Cleared
Norwegian 6,138 1,666,590 677 308,777 6,815 1,975,367
Foreign 5,608 707,805 729 258,669 6,337 966,474
Total cleared 11,746 2,374,395 1,406 567,446 13,152 2,941,841
Total entered and cleared 1896 18,329 4,265,511 8,024 1,585,276 26,353 5,850,787
,, ,, ,, ,, 1895 16,608 3,921,089 7,158 1,418,161 23,766 5,339,250
,, ,, ,, ,, 1894 16,430 3,866,501 7,504 1,612,511 23,934 5,479,012

Vessels entered and cleared in 1896 at the following ports:—

Number Tonnage
Kristiania Entered 2,403 920,080
Cleared 1,532 610,912
Bergen Entered 638 323,486
Cleared 677 333,882
Trondhjem Entered 360 190,621
Cleared 355 181,568
Frederiksstad Entered 1,767 188,368
Cleared 3,521 258,471

Internal Communications.

The total length of State Railways in 1897 was 1,120 miles, and a length of 93 miles worked by five companies; total 1,213 miles.

Total receipts 1896-97, State railways, 9,542,058 kroner; companies, 2,154,590 kroner. Total expenses 1896-97, State railways, 7,159,992 kroner; companies, 1,167,676 kroner. Goods carried 1896-97, State railways, 1,451,773 tons (of 1,000 kilogs.); companies, 728,575. Passengers carried 1896-97 (including season-ticket holders). State railways, 6,796,515; companies, 777,371. The State railways have been constructed partly by subscription in the districts interested and partly at the expense of Government.

The following are the postal statistics:—

1895 1896 1897
Letters 35,852,500 38,630,800 41,496,300
Post-cards 3,268,300 3,493,300 3,916,000
Registered letters 658,000 714,900 790,300
Journals 37,539,700 38,889,100 43,165,900
Other printed matter 6,107,300 5,285,700 5,771,900
Samples and parcels 690,900 773,500 856,900

Length of telegraph lines and wires in 1897:—

Belonging to the State 5,474 miles of line, 15,009 miles of wires.
,, ,, railways 1,172 ,, ,, 2,172 ,, ,,
Total 6,646 ,, ,, 17,181 ,, ,,

The number of paid messages in the year 1897 was on the State lines 1,940,840, on the railway lines 71,254, total, 2,012,094, of which 1,221,934 (on the lines of the railways, 71,254) were internal, 332,350 sent abroad, and 386,556 received from abroad. Number of telephone conversations on trunk lines, 361,760. The number of telegraph offices in 1897 was:—244 belonging to the State, 239 to the railways, total 483. Receipts: State telegraphs 1,650,599 kroner, railways 54,680 kroner, total 1,705,279 kroner. Expenses:—State telegraphs 1,454,587 kroner, railways 213,902 kroner, total 1,668,489 kroner.

Money and Credit.

On December 31, 1897, the Norwegian coins in circulation (the coinage after the monetary reform deducting the coins melted down) were:—

Gold coin 15,858,490 kroner
Silver coin 8,215,842 ,,
Bronze coin 629,218 ,,
Total 24,703,550 ,,

There exists no Government paper money.

The value of income and property assessed for taxes in 1897 was:—

Income. Property.
The towns 179.2 millions of kroner 658.3 millions of kroner
The rural districts 206.4 ,, ,, 1,069.8 ,, ,,
The whole kingdom 385.6 ,, ,, 1,755.1 ,, ,,

There are two State banks, the 'Norges Bank' (Bank of Norway) and the 'Kongeriget Norges Hypothekbank.'

The 'Norges Bank' is a joint-stock bank, of which, however, a considerable part is owned by the State. The bank is, besides, governed by laws enacted by the State, and its directors are elected by the Storthing, except the president of the head office, who is nominated by the King. There is a head office at Kristiania, and 12 branch offices. It is the only bank in Norway that is authorised to issue bank notes for circulation. The balance-sheets of the bank for 1897 show the following figures:—Assets at the end of the year—bullion, 47,607,599 kroner; outstanding capital, mortgaged estates, foreign bills, &c., 40,703,170 kroner; total, 88,310,769 kroner. Liabilities—notes in circulation, 59,311,592; the issue of notes allowed was 71,607,599 kroner; deposits, cheques, unclaimed dividends, unsettled losses, &c., 9,482,203 kroner (of which the deposits amounted to 8,893,226 kroner); dividends payable for the year, 1,590,820 kroner; total, 70,384,615; balance, 17,926,154.

The 'Kongeriget Norges Hypothekbank' was established in 1852 by the State to meet the demand for loans on mortgage. The capital of the bank is furnished by the State, and amounted to 15,000,000 kroner in 1897. The bank has besides a reserve fund amounting in 1897 to 1,000,000 kroner. At the end of 1897 the total amount of bonds issued was 110,180,000 kroner. The loans on mortgage amounted to 117,210,739 kroner.

There were, at the end of 1896, 38 private joint-stock banks, with a collective subscribed capital of 44,430,260 kroner, and a paid-up capital of 17,940,287. The reserve fund amounted to 9,397,784. The deposits and withdrawals in the course of the year amounted to 506,962,481 kroner and 501,079,770 kroner respectively. Deposits at the end of the year 153,428,547 kroner, of which 10,345,713 kroner deposits on demand, and 143,082,834 kroner on other accounts.

All savings-banks must be chartered by royal permission. Their operations are regulated, to a considerable extent, by the law, and controlled by the Ministry of Finance. In 1897 their number was 394; depositors 586,606, with 251,614,947 kroner to their credit at the end of the year. In 1896 the banks numbered 380; depositors 561,257 with 234,690,760 kroner to their credit at end of year.

Sweden and Norway.

Money, Weights, and Measures.

By a treaty signed May 27, 1873, with additional treaty of October 16, 1875, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark adopted the same monetary system.

The Swedish Krona and the Norwegian Krone, each of 100 öre, is of the value of 1 s. 1+12 d., or about 18 kronor to the pound sterling.

The gold 20-kronor piece weighs 8.960572 grammes, .900 fine containing 8.0645 grammes of fine gold, and the silver krona weighs 7.5 grammes, .800 fine, containing 6 grammes of fine silver.

The standard of value is gold. In Sweden National Bank notes for 5, 10, 50, 100, and 1000 kronor are legal means of payment, and the Bank is bound to exchange them for gold on presentation. The case is the same in Norway, where there are also notes for 500 kroner.

The Swedish Skålpund = 100 ort = 0.937 lb. avoirdupois.
,, ,, Fot = 10 tum = 11.7 English inches.
,, ,, Kanna = 140 kubiktum = 4.6 imperial pints.
,, ,, Mil = 360 ref = 6.64 English miles.

The metric system of weights and measures (see France) was introduced in 1879, and became obligatory in Sweden in 1889, in Norway on July 1, 1882.

Diplomatic Representatives.

1. Of Sweden and Norway in Great Britain.

Envoy and Minister.—Count C. Lewenhaupt.

Secretary.—G. de Stråde.

Attaché.—Count von Rosen.

Consul-General in London.—Carl Juhlin Dannfelt.

There are Consular representatives at the following places:—Belfast, Birmingham, Bradford, Bristol, Cardiff, Cork, Dublin, Dundee, Glasgow, Hartlepool, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Southampton, and many other places.

2. Of Great Britain in Sweden and Norway.

Envoy and Minister.—Hon. Francis J. Pakenham, appointed Envoy Extra-ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Sweden and Norway, February 1, 1896.

Secretary.—Arthur Herbert.

Consul at Stockholm.

Consul-General at Christiania.—Hon. C. S. Dundas.

There are also Consular representatives at Gothenburg, Christiansand

Bergen, Tromsö, Trondhjem, Hammerfest, Vardö, &c.

References concerning Sweden and Norway.

1. Official Publications.

Bidrag till Sveriges officiela statistik: A. Befolknings-statistik. B. Rättsväsendet. C. Bergshandtering. D. Fabriker och manufakturer. E. Sjöfart. F. Handel. G. Fångvården. H. K. Majestäts befallningshafvandes femårsberättelser. I. Telegrafväsendet. K. Helso- och sjukvården. L. Statens jernvägstrafik. M. Postverket. N. Jordbruk och boskapsskötsel. O. Landtmäteriet. P. Undervisningsväsendet. Q. Statens domäner. R. Valstatistik. S. Allmänna arbeten. T. Lots- och fyrinrättningen samt lifräddningsanstalterna å rikets kuster. U. Kommunernas fattigvård och finanser. V. Bränvins tillverkning och försäljning samt hvitbetssockertillverkningen. X. Aflönings- och pensionsstatistik. Y. Sparbanksstatistik. 4. Stockholm, 1857-98.

Norges officielle Statistik: Arbeidslönninger; Bergværksdrift; Den almindelige Brandforsikringsindretning; Civilretsstatistik; Distriktsfængsler; Fabrikanlæg; Faste Eiendomme; Fattigstatistik; Femaarsberetninger om Amternes ökonomiske Tilstand; Statskassens Finantser; Fiskerier; Folkemængdens Bevægelse, Folketælling; Handel; De offentlige Jernbaner; Jordbrug; Kommunale Finantser; Kriminalstatistik; Sundhedstilstanden og Medicinalforholdene; Postvæsen; Rekruteringsstatistik; Rigstelegraf; Sindssygeasylerne; Skibsfart; Skiftevæsen; Skolevæsen; Socialstatistik; Sparebanker; Spedalske; Strafarbeidsanstalter; Valgstatistik; Veterinærvæsen. 4. Fra 1881-8. Kristiania, 1870-98.

Sveriges statskalender för år 1898. Utgifven efter Kongl. Majestats nådigste förordnande af dess Vetenskaps-Akademi. 8. Stockholm, 1898.

Sveriges officiela statistik i sammandrag, 1898. Stockholm, 1898.

Statistisk Aarbog for Kongeriget Norge. (Annuaire statistique de la Norvège.) 17de Aargang, 1897. Udgivet af det Statistiske Centralbureau. Kristiania, 1897.

Norges Statskalender for Aaret 1898. Efter offentlig Foranstaltning redigeret af N. R. Bull. 8. Kristiania, 1897.

Statistisk tidskrift, utgifven af Kongl. Statistiska Central-Byrån. Stockholm, 1862-98.

Oversigt over Kongeriget Norges civile, geistlige og judicielle Inddeling. Udgiven af det Statistiske Centralbureau. 8. Kristiania, 1893.

Meddelelser fra det Statistiske Centralbureau. I.—XV. 8. Kristiania, 1883-98.

Norges Land og Folk. I. Smaalenenes Amt. II. Akershus Amt. V. Buskeruds Amt. XI. Stavanger Amt. XII. Söndre Bergenhus Amt. Kristiania, 1885-97.

Reports on Sweden, Foreign Office Reports, Annual Series. London, 1894.

The 'Gothenburg' Licensing System in Sweden, No. 274, and in Norway, No. 279, Foreign Office Reports, Miscellaneous Series. London, 1893.

Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Possessions. Imp. 4. London.

2. Non-Official Publications.

Baedeker's Norway, Sweden and Denmark. 6th ed. London, 1895.

Bain (R. N.), Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries. 2 vols. London, 1894.

Charles XII. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire in "Heroes of the Nations" series. London, 1895.

Bennett (T.), Handbook for Travellers in Norway. 8. Christiania, 1896.

Bradshaw (J.), Norway, its Fjords, Fjelds, and Fosses. London, 1896.

Cook (T.), Guide to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. London, 1893.

Carlson (F. F.), Geschichte Schweden's. 8 vols. Gotha, 1832-75.

Chapman (A.) Wild Norway. London, 1897.

Du Chaillu (P. B.), The Land of the Midnight Sun. 2 vols. London, 1881.

Dyring (Joh.), Kongeriget Norge, dets Geografi, Samfundsindretninger og Næringsveie, Anden Udgave. 8. Porsgrund, 1891.

Hammar (A.), Historiskt, geografiskt och statistiskt lexicon öfver Sverige. 8 vols. 8. Stockholm, 1859-70.

Höjer (M.), Konungariket Sverige, en topografisk-statistisk beskrifning med historiska anmärkningar. 8. Stockholm, 1875-83.

Hyne (C. J. C), Through Artic Lapland. London, 1898.

Keary (C. F.), Norway and the Norwegians. 8. London, 1892.

Kiær (A. N.), Indtægts og formuesforhold i Norge. 8. Kristiania, 1892-1893.

Löfström (S. A.), Sweden, Statistics. (World's Columbian Exposition 1893, Chicago). 8. Stockhobn, 1893.

Murray's Handbook for Norway. 9th ed. London, 1897.

Nielsen (Dr. Yngvar), Reisehaandbog over Norge. Ottende Oplag. Kristiania, 1896.

Nielsen (Dr. Yngvar), Handbook for Travellers in Norway. With Maps. Kristiania, 1893.

Otté (E. C), Scandinavian History. 8. London.

Rosenberg (C. M.), Ny resehandbok öfver Sverige. 8. Stockholm, 1887.

Rudbeck (J. G.), Försök till beskrifning öfver Sveriges städer i historiskt, topographiskt och statistiskt hänseende. 3 vols. 8. Stockholm, 1855-61.

Rydfors (A.), Konung Oskar II. och Sweriges Folk. Stockholm, 1897.

Sedgwick (C. S.), The Story of Norway. London, 1885.

Willson (T. B.), Guide to Norway. 4th ed, London, 1898.