Statesman's Year-Book 1913

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The Statesman's Year-Book
Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1913
 (1913) 
The Statesman's Year-Book
Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1913
London: The Macmillan Company pages title-iv

THE
STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK

STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL ANNUAL OF
THE STATES OF THE WORLD
FOR THE YEAR

1913


EDITED BY
J. SCOTT KELTIE, LL D.
SECRETARY TO THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY
HONORARY CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETIES OF SCOTLAND, PARIS,
BERLIN, ST. PETERSBURG, MUNICH, ROME, LISBON, AMSTERDAM, BRUSSELS, BUDA-PEST, GENEVA,
NEUCHATEL, PHILADELPHIA AND OF THE COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS.

ASSISTED BY
M. EPSTIEN, M.A., Ph.D.

FIFTIETH ANNUAL PUBLICATION. REVISED AFTER
OFFICIAL RETURNS


MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED,
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON.
1913

Man sagt oft: Zahlen regieren die Welt.
Das aber ist gewiss, Zahlen zeigen wie sie regiert wird.

Goethe.

CONTENTS


INTRODUCTORY TABLES.
I.—THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 1911–1912. xxxii
II.—RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS OF VARIOUS BRITISH

POSSESSIONS.

xxxvi
1. Crown Lands. Approximate Area Alienated, Amount Realised, Area Conditionally Alienated, and area Unalienated up to the end of the year 1911 xxxvi
2. Agricultural Products:—
1. Wheat. Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911. xxxvi
2. Barley and Oats. Area and Yield in 1911 or 1911–12. xxxvii
3. Cane-Sugar. Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911 (or 1910–11 and 1911–12). xxxviii
4. Tea and Coffee. Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911. xxxviii
5. Cocoa, Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911. xxxix
6. Wine. Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911. xxxix
7. Cotton. Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911 (or 1910–11 and 1911–12). xl
8. Rubber. Quantity and Value Produced in 1910 and 1911 (or 1910–11 and 1911–12). xl
9. Tobacco, Area and Yield in 1910 and 1911 (or 1910-11 and 1911–12). xli
10. Wool. Exported from British Possessions in 1910 and 1911 (or 1911 and 1911–12). xli
11. Live Stock in 1911–12. xli
3. Mineral Production:—
1. Gold. Output in Ounces and Value in Sterling in 1910 and 1911 (or 1910–11 and 1911–12). xliii
2. Silver. Output in Ounces and Value in 1910 and 1911. xliii
3. Copper. Output and Value in 1911. xliv
4. Iron Ore. Output and Value in 1911. xlv
5. Tin. Production (Ore and Metal) in 1911. xlv
6. Miscellaneous Minerals. Output in 1910 and 1911. xlv
7. Coal Production. Quantity and Value in 1910 and 1911. xlvi
4. Savings Banks, Depositors and Deposits in 1911 or 1911–12. xlvi
PRELIMINARY RETURNS OF ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF CEREALS AND POTATOES IN 1912. xlvii
COAL. xlviii
IRON AND STEEL. xlviii
LIGNITE. xlix
WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF SILK. xlix
WORLD'S PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF COCOA. l
WINE. l
THE WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. li
THE WORLD'S COTTON SPINDLES. li
UNITED KINGDOM: FINAL RESULTS OF CENSUS OF PRODUCTION, 1907. lii
A RETROSPECT OF RECENT HISTORY.—1861–1911. liv
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.
United Kingdom—The Revenue; Army; Navy; Aviation; Civil Service; Production.
lxxviii
England and Wales—Vital statistics, 1912; Pauperism.
lxxxv
Scotland—Vital statistics, 1912.
lxxxvi
Ireland—Attorney-General.
lxxxvi
India—Finance.
lxxxvi
Sarawak.
lxxxvii
Union of South Africa— Parliamentary Representation; Religions; Occupations; Finance; Trade.
lxxxviii
British South Africa—Trade in 1912; Coal Resources; Mineral Production.
lxxxix
Southern Rhodesia—Trade in 1912.
lxxxix
North-Western Rhodesia—Trade in 1912.
lxxxix
Zanzibar—British Agent.
xc
Southern Nigeria—Trade in 1912.
xc
Sierra Leone Protectorate.
xc
Canada—Agriculture; Trade, 1912; Mineral Production in 1912; Railways; Post Office; Savings Banks.
xc
Newfoundland—Fisheries.
xcii
Australia—Commerce, 1912; Production.
xcii
Queensland—Mineral output in 1912.
xciii
New Zealand—Trade; Census of Manufactures.
xciii
Argentina.
xciv
Belgium.
xciv
France— Area, Population, and Commerce of Colonies.
xcv
Morocco (Spanish Zone)—Calipha.
xcvi
MAPS.
plates.
1. Europe—1863–1913.
2. Asia—1863–1913.
3. Africa—1863–1913.
4. North America—1863–1913.
5. South America—1863–1913.
6. Australia—1863–1913.
7. Extension of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba—1912.
8. Franco-Spanish Treaty—1912.
9. Graphic Diagram to Illustrate the Growth of Displacement, Horse-power, and Speed of Capital Battleship Types during the last Fifty Years.
10. Graphic Diagrams to Illustrate the Varying Ratio between Weight of Heaviest Gun, its Penetrative Power, and the Protection afforded to Ships during the last Fifty Years.
ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTORY TABLES.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE : SOME STATISTICS, 1862 and 1912. lxiv
THE BRITISH EMPIRE : RAILWAY MILEAGE, 1860 and 1911. lxviii
THE BRITISH EMPIRE : MERCHANT NAVIES, 1860 and 1911. lxviii
THE BRITISH ARMY, 1862–3 and 1912–13. lxviii
THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES : SOME STATISTICS, 1862 and 1912. lxx
UNITED KINGDOM FOOD SUPPLIES FROM CANADA, AUSTRALIA

AND NEW ZEALAND.

lxxiv
THE TREATY OF OUCHY. lxxv
THE TREATY OF MADRID. lxxv
CASES BROUGHT BEFORE THE HAGUE TRIBUNAL. lxxv
CONTRIBUTIONS FROM COMMONWEALTHS TO IMPERIAL NAVY (1912–13). lxxvi
COMPULSORY SERVICE IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE. lxxvi
Part the First.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
Reigning King and Emperor 3
I. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Constitution and Government 4
Area and Population 12
Religion 25
Instruction 29
Justice and Crime 34
National Insurance 37
Old Age Pensions 38
Pauperism 39
Finance 40
Defence 50
Production and Industry 60
Commerce 72
Shipping and Navigation 80
Internal Communications 82
Money and Credit 86
Money, Weights, and Measures 89
Isle of Man 90
Channel Islands 91
Books of Reference 92
II. India, the Colonies, Protectorates, and Dependencies
Europe
Gibraltar 99
Malta 100
Asia
Aden, Perim, Sokotra, &c. 102
Bahrein Islands 103
Borneo (British) 104
Ceylon
Constitution and Government 107
Area and Population 107
Religion and Instruction 108
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism 109
Finance 109
Defence 109
Production and Industry 110
Commerce 110
Shipping and Communications 111
Money and Credit 111
Dependency 111
Books of Reference 111
Cyprus 112
Hong Kong
Constitution and Government 115
Area and Population 115
Instruction 116
Justice and Crime 116
Finance 116
Defence 117
Industry, Commerce and Shipping 117
Money and Credit 118
Money, Weights, and Measures 118
Books of Reference 119
India and Dependencies
Government and Constitution 119
Area and Population 123
Religion 129
Instruction 130
Justice and Crime 131
Finance 132
Defence 136
Production and Industry 137
Commerce 141
Shipping and Navigation 147
Internal Communications 148
Money and Credit 150
Money, Weights, and Measures 152
Books of Reference 153
Baluchistan 155
Sikhim 159
Andaman Islands 160
Nicobar Islands 160
Laccadive Islands 161
Keeling Islands 161
Kuria Muria Islands 161
The Straits Settlements, Labuan, &c.
Constitution and Government 161
Area and Population 162
Instruction 163
Justice and Crime 164
Finance 164
Defence, Production, Industry 164
Commerce 165
Shipping and Navigation 166
Communications 166
Money, Weights, and Measures 167
Federated Malay States 167
Other British Protected States 170
Books of Reference 172
Weihaiwei 172
Africa
Ascension Island 174
British East Africa 174
East Africa Protectorate 174
Uganda Protectorate 178
Zanzibar Protectorate
Sultan and Government 180
Area, Population, Religion 180
Justice 181
Finance, Commerce 181
Books of Reference 182
Mauritius
Constitution and Government 184
Area and Population 184
Finance, Defence, Commerce 185
Money, Weights, and Measures 185
Dependencies 185
Books of Reference 185
Nyasaland Protectorate 185
St. Helena 188
Tristan da Cunha 189
Seychelles 189
Somaliland Protectorate 191
South Africa
Basutoland 192
Bechuanaland Protectorate 193
Rhodesia 194
Swaziland 198
Union of South Africa 200
Area and Population 202
Instruction 203
Finance 203
Defence 204
Production and Industry 205
Commerce 205
Shipping and Communications 207
Books of Reference 207
Cape of Good Hope
Constitution and Government 208
Area and Population 208
Religion, Instruction 210
Justice, Crime 210
Charitable Institutions, Hospitals, Pauperism 210
Finance 210
Production and Industry 211
Commerce 211
Banks 212
Money, Weights, and Measures 212
Books of Reference 212
Natal
Constitution & Government 213
Area and Population 213
Instruction 214
Finance 215
Industry 215
Commerce 216
Books of Reference 216
The Transvaal
Constitution & Government 217
Area and Population 217
Religion, Instruction, &c. 217
Finance 218
Production and Industry 219
Commerce 219
Books of Reference 220
Orange Free State
Constitution 221
Area and Population 221
Religion 222
Education 222
Justice 222
Finance 222
Production and Industry 223
Commerce 224
Books of Reference 225
West Africa
Northern Nigeria 225
Area, Population, &c. 225
Justice 226
Religion and Education 226
Defence 226
Finance 226
Production and Industry 227
Commerce and Communication 227
Southern Nigeria 228
The Gold Coast 230
Sierra Leone 231
Gambia 233
Statistics 233
Books of Reference 236
America
Bermudas 238
Canada
Constitution and Government 239
Area and Population 242
Religion 243
Instruction 244
Justice and Crime 244
Finance 245
Defence 247
Production and Industry 248
Commerce 250
Shipping and Navigation 254
Internal Communications 254
Money and Credit 255
Money, Weights, & Measures 256
Books of Reference 257
Canadian Provinces
Alberta
Constitution and Government 258
Local Government 259
Area and Population 259
Instruction 259
Justice and Crime 260
Finance 260
Production and Industry 260
Commerce and Communication 261
Books of Reference 261
British Columbia
Constitution and Government 261
Area and Population 262
Instruction 262
Finance 263
Production and Industry 263
Commerce 263
Communications and Shipping 263
Books of Reference 264
Manitoba
Constitution and Government 264
Area and Population 264
Instruction 264
Finance 264
Production and Industry 264
Communications 265
Books of Reference 265
New Brunswick
Constitution and Government 265
Area and Population 265
Instruction 265
Finance 265
Production and Industry 265
Commerce and Communications 266
Books of Reference 266
Nova Scotia
Constitution and Government 266
Local Government 267
Area and Population 267
Religion 267
Instruction 267
Pensions 267
Justice and Crime 268
Finance 268
Production and Industry 268
Commerce and Communications 269
Books of Reference 269
Ontario
Constitution and Government 269
Area and Population 270
Instruction 270
Finance 270
Production and Industry 270
Communications 270
Books of Reference 270
Prince Edward Island
Constitution and Government 271
Area and Population 271
Instruction 271
Finance 271
Production and Industry 271
Communications 271
Books of Reference 271
Quebec
Constitution and Government 272
Area and Population 272
Instruction 272
Finance 272
Production and Industry 272
Communications 272
Books of Reference 273
Saskatchewan
Constitution and Government 273
Area and Population 273
Instruction 273
Finance 273
Production and Industry 274
Communications 274
Books of Reference 274
Yukon
Constitution and Government 274
Area and Population 274
Production, Industry, and Communications 274
North-West Territories 275
Constitution and Government 275
Area and Population 275
Falkland Islands 275
Guiana, British 276
Honduras, British 278
Newfoundland and Labrador 280
Revenue and Expenditure 281
Imports and Exports 281
Shipping 281
Production, &c. 282
Communications, &c. 282
Books of Reference 282
West Indies 283
Bahamas 283
Barbados 284
Jamaica 284
Leeward Islands 286
Trinidad 288
Windward Islands 289
Statistics of West Indies 290
Books of Reference on West Indies 292
Australasia and Oceania
Commonwealth of Australia:
Constitution 293
Area and Population 294
Finance 295
Invalid & Old Age Pensions 296
Defence 296
Production 298
Commerce 298
Shipping and Navigation 301
Communications 302
Books of Reference 303
New South Wales
Constitution and Government 305
Area and Population 306
Religion 307
Instruction 308
Old Age, Invalidity, and Accident Pensions 308
Justice and Crime 309
Finance 309
Production and Industry 310
Commerce and Communications 314
Money and Credit 314
Books of Reference 316
Victoria
Constitution and Government 316
Victoria
Area and Population 317
Religion 319
Instruction 319
Old Age Pensions, Justice and Crime 319
Finance 320
Production and Industry 321
Commerce and Credit 323
Books of Reference 324
Queensland
Constitution and Government 324
Area and Population 325
Religion 326
Instruction 327
Justice and Crime 327
Pauperism, Old Age Pensions 327
Finance 327
Defence 328
Production and Industry 328
Commerce, Shipping 330
Banks 330
Books of Reference 331
South Australia
Constitution and Government 331
Area and Population 332
Religion, Instruction 333
Justice, Crime, Old Age Pensions 334
Finance 334
Production and Industry 334
Commerce, Shipping 335
Banks 336
Books of Reference 336
Western Australia
Constitution and Government 336
Area and Population 337
Religion, Instruction 339
Justice and Crime 339
Pauperism and Old Age Pensions 340
Finance 340
Production and Industry 340
Commerce, Shipping 342
Money and Credit 342
Books of Reference 343
Tasmania
Constitution and Government 343
Tasmania
Area and Population 344
Religion, Instruction 345
Justice and Crime 345
Pauperism, Old Age Pensions 345
Revenue and Expenditure 346
Production and Industry 346
Commerce 347
Savings Banks 347
Books of Reference 347
Northern Territory
Government 348
Area and Population 348
Finance 349
Production and Industry 349
Commerce 349
Books of Reference 350
Papua 350
Books of Reference 351
New Zealand
Government and Constitution 352
Area and Population 353
Religion 355
Instruction 356
Justice, Crime 356
Pauperism 357
Old Age Pensions 357
Finance 357
Defence 359
Production and Industry 359
Commerce 361
Shipping and Navigation 363
Money and Credit 364
Dependencies 364
Books of Reference 365
Fiji
Constitution and Government 365
Area and Population 366
Religion, Instruction 366
Finance 367
Production, Industry, and Commerce 367
Shipping and Communications 368
Books of Reference 368
Pacific Islands
Tonga 369
Other Islands 370
Books of Reference 371
Part the Second.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
UNITED STATES
Constitution and Government 375
Area and Population 381
Religion 388
Instruction 388
Justice and Crime 391
Pauperism 391
Finance 392
Defence 394
Production and Industry 399
Commerce 411
Shipping and Navigation 415
Internal Communications 417
Money and Credit 419
Money, Weights, and Measures 421
Diplomatic Representatives 421
Books of Reference 422
STATES AND TERRITORIES—
Alabama
Constitution & Government 424
Area and Population 424
Religion, Instruction, Charity 425
Finance, Defence 425
Production and Industry 426
Books of Reference 426
Arizona
Government 427
Area. Population, Instruction 427
Charity 428
Finance, Defence 428
Production and Industry 428
Books of Reference 429
Arkansas
Government 429
Area, Population, Instruction 429
Charity 430
Finance, Defence 430
Production and Industry 430
Books of Reference 431
California
Constitution and Government 431
Area and Population 432
Religion and Instruction 433
Charity 433
Finance, Defence 434
Agriculture and Forestry 434
Mining, Manufactures, &c. 435
Commerce and Transportation 436
Books of Reference 436
Colorado
Government 437
Area and Population 437
Religion and Instruction 437
Charity 437
Finance, Defence 438
Production and Industry 438
Books of Reference 438
Connecticut
Government 439
Area, Population, Instruction 440
Charity 440
Finance, Defence 441
Production and Industry 441
Banking 441
Books of Reference 441
Delaware
Government 442
Area, Population, Instruction 442
Charity 443
Finance, Defence 443
Production and Industry 443
Books of Reference 444
District of Columbia 444
Florida
Government 446
Area, Population, Religion, Instruction 447
Charity 447
Finance, Defence 448
Production and Industry 448
Books of Reference 449
Georgia
Government 449
Area and Population 449
Religion, Instruction, Charity 450
Finance, Defence 451
Production and Industry 451
Books of Reference 452
Idaho
Government 453
Area, Population, Instruction 453
Charity 453
Finance, Defence 453
Production and Industry 454
Books of Reference 454
Illinois
Government 455
Area, Population, Instruction 455
Charity 456
Finance, Defence 456
Production, Industry 457
Books of Reference 458
Indiana
Government 458
Area and Population 458
Religion, Education 459
Charity 460
Finance, Defence 460
Production and Industry 460
Books of Reference 461
Iowa
Government 462
Area and Population 462
Religion, Instruction, Charity 463
Finance, Defence 463
Production and Industry 464
Books of Reference 465
Kansas
Government 465
Area, Population, Instruction 465
Charity 466
Finance, Defence 466
Production and Industry 467
Books of Reference 468
Kentucky
Government 468
Area, Population, Instruction 468
Charity 469
Finance, Defence 469
Production, Industry 469
Books of Reference 470
Louisiana
Government 470
Area, Population, Instruction 471
Charity 472
Finance, Defence 472
Production, Industry 472
Books of Reference 473
Maine
Government 474
Area, Population, Instruction 474
Charity 474
Finance, Defence 475
Production, Commerce, Railways 475
Books of Reference 476
Maryland
Government 476
Area, Population, Instruction 477
Charity 477
Finance, Defence 478
Production, Industry 478
Books of Reference 479
Massachusetts
Constitution and Government 480
Area, Population, Instruction 480
Charity and Correction 482
Finance, Defence 483
Production, Industry, Commerce 484
Books of Reference 486
Michigan
Government 486
Area, Population, Education 487
Charity 488
Finance, Defence 488
Production, Industry 488
Books of Reference 490
Minnesota
Government 490
Area, Population, Education 490
Charity 490
Finance, Defence 491
Production, Industry 491
Books of Reference 492
Mississippi
Government 492
Area, Population, Education 493
Charity 493
Finance, Defence 494
Production, Industry 494
Books of Reference 495
Missouri
Government 495
Area, Population, Instruction 495
Charity 496
Finance, Defence 497
Production, Industry 497
Books of Reference 498
Montana
Government 498
Area, Population, Instruction 498
Charity 499
Finance, Defence 499
Production 499
Books of Reference 500
Nebraska
Government 501
Area, Population, Instruction 501
Charity 502
Finance, Defence 502
Production, Industry 502
Books of Reference 503
Nevada
Government 504
Area, Population, Instruction, Justice 504
Finance, Defence 504
Production, Industry 505
Books of Reference 505
New Hampshire
Government 505
Area, Population, Instruction 506
Charity 506
Finance, Defence 507
Production, Industry 507
Books of Reference 508
New Jersey
Government 508
Area, Population, Instruction 508
Charity 509
Finance, Defence 509
Production 509
Books of Reference 510
New Mexico
Constitution and Government 511
Area, Population, Instruction 511
Charity 512
Finance, Production, &c. 512
Books of Reference 513
New York State
Constitution and Government 513
Area, Population, Education 514
Charity 516
Finance, Defence 516
Production, Industry, Commerce 517
Books of Reference 519
North Carolina
Government 520
Area, Population, Instruction 520
Charity 520
Finance, Defence 521
Production, Industry 521
Books of Reference 522
North Dakota
Government 522
Area, Population, Instruction 523
Charity 523
Finance, Defence 523
Production, Industry 524
References 524
Ohio
Government 524
Area, Population, Instruction 524
Charity 526
Finance, Defence 526
Production, Industry 526
Books of Reference 528
Oklahoma 528
Area and Population 528
Religion, Education, Charity 528
Finance, Defence 529
Production 529
Books of Reference 529
Oregon
Government 530
Area, Population, Instruction 530
Charity 531
Finance, Defence 531
Production, Industry 531
Books of Reference 533
Pennsylvania
Government 533
Area, Population, Instruction 533
Charity 534
Finance, Defence 535
Production, Industry 535
Books of Reference 536
Rhode Island
Constitution and Government 537
Area, Population, Education 537
Charity 538
Finance, Defence 538
Production, Industry 539
Railways 539
Books of Reference 539
South Carolina
Constitution and Government 540
Area, Population, Instruction 540
Charity 541
Finance, Defence 541
Production, Industry 541
Books of Reference 542
South Dakota
Government 543
Area, Population, Instruction 543
Charity 544
Finance, Defence 544
Production, Industry 544
Books of Reference 545
Tennessee
Constitution and Government 546
Area, Population, Instruction 546
Charity 547
Finance, Defence 547
Production, Industry 547
Books of Reference 548
Texas
Government 549
Area, Population, Instruction 549
Charity 550
Finance, Defence 550
Production, Industry 550
Books of Reference 552
Utah
Constitution and Government 552
Area, Population, Instruction 552
Charity 553
Finance, Defence 553
Production, Industry 554
Books of Reference 554
Vermont
Government 555
Area, Population, Instruction 555
Charity 555
Finance, Defence 556
Production, Industry 556
Books of Reference 557
Virginia
Constitution and Government 557
Area, Population, Instruction 557
Charity 558
Finance, Defence 558
Production, Industry 559
Books of Reference 560
Washington
Government 560
Area, Population, Instruction 560
Charity 561
Finance, Defence 561
Production, Industry 562
Books of Reference 563
West Virginia
Government 564
Area, Population, Instruction 564
Charity 565
Finance, Defence 565
Production, Industry 565
Books of Reference 566
Wisconsin
Government 567
Area, Population, Education 567
Charity 568
Finance, Defence 568
Production, Industry, Communications 569
Books of Reference 570
Wyoming
Government 570
Area, Population, Instruction 570
Charity 570
Finance, Defence 571
Production, Industry 571
Books of Reference 572
OUTLYING TERRITORIES—
Alaska Territory
Government 572
Instruction 572
Justice, Finance 573
Production, Communications 573
Books of Reference 574
Hawaii
Government 574
Area, Population 575
Religion and Instruction 575
Justice 575
Finance, Defence 576
Production and Commerce 576
Shipping and Communications 576
Books of Reference 577
Porto Rico
Government 577
Area, Population, and Instruction 578
Finance 578
Production, Industry, and Commerce 579
Shipping and Communications 579
Books of Reference 580
Philippine Islands
Area and Population 580
Movement of Population 580
Government 581
Justice and Defence 581
Religion 581
Education 582
Finance 582
Production and Industry 583
Commerce 583
Shipping and Communications 584
Banking and Coinage 584
Guam 585
Samoan Islands 586
Books of Reference (Philippine, Ladrone, & Samoan Islands) 587
Part the Third.
OTHER COUNTRIES.
ABYSSINIA
Government 591
Population 592
Religion and Instruction 592
Agriculture 592
Commerce 593
Communications 593
Money and Credit 593
Books of Reference 594
AFGHÁNISTÁN 595
Area, Population, Defence 596
Production 597
Trade 597
Books of Reference 598
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
Constitution and Government 600
Area and Population 601
Religion and Instruction 602
Justice 602
Finance 603
Defence 604
Production and Industry 605
Commerce, Shipping 605
Shipping and Navigation 607
Internal Communications 607
Money and Credit 607
Money, Weights, and Measures 608
Diplomatic Representatives 608
Books of Reference 608
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Reigning Sovereign 610
Political Relations between Austria and Hungary 611
Common Finance 613
Defence 614
Commerce of the Common Customs Territory 618
Money and Credit 619
Money, Weights, and Measures 620
AUSTRIA
Constitution and Government 621
Area and Population 624
Religion 626
Instruction 627
Justice and Crime 629
Pauperism 629
Finance 630
Production and Industry 631
Shipping and Navigation 634
Internal Communications 634
Money and Credit 635
HUNGARY
Constitution and Government 637
Area and Population 639
Religion 641
Instruction 642
Justice and Crime 643
Pauperism 643
Finance 644
Production and Industry 645
Commerce 647
Shipping and Navigation 648
Internal Communications 648
Money and Credit 649
Austria-Hungary
Diplomatic Representatives 650
Bosnia and Herzegovina 651
Government 651
Area and Population 651
Instruction 652
Justice 652
Finance 652
Production and Industry 652
Commerce and Communications 653
Books of Reference 653
BELGIUM
Reigning King 658
Constitution and Government 658
Area and Population 661
Religion 663
Instruction 663
Justice and Crime 664
Pauperism 664
State Finance 666
Local Finance 666
Defence 666
Production and Industry 667
Commerce 669
Shipping and Navigation 671
Internal Communications 671
Money and Credit 672
Money, Weights, and Measures 672
Diplomatic Representatives 672
Books of Reference 673
BELGIAN CONGO
Constitution and Government 674
Area and Population 674
Finance, Defence 675
Justice 676
Production, Commerce, Shipping 676
Internal Communications 677
Books of Reference 678
BHUTÁN 679
BOLIVIA
Constitution and Government 681
Population 667
Religion, Instruction, and Justice 682
Finance 682
Defence 683
Production and Industry 684
Commerce 684
Communications 685
Money, Weights, and Measures 686
Consular Representatives 686
Books of Reference 686
BRAZIL
Constitution and Government 687
Area and Population 689
Religion 690
Instruction 690
Justice and Crime 690
Finance 691
State Finances 691
Defence 691
Production and Industry 692
Commerce 693
Shipping and Navigation 694
Internal Communications 694
Money and Credit 695
Money, Weights, and Measures 695
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 696
Books of Reference 696
BULGARIA
Reigning King 698
Constitution and Government 698
Area and Population 699
Religion, Instruction 700
Finance 701
Defence 701
Production and Industry 702
Commerce 703
Shipping, Communications 703
Money and Credit 704
Consular Representatives 704
Books of Reference 704
CHILE
Constitution and Government 705
Area and Population 706
Religion 707
Instruction 707
Justice, Crime, Pauperism 707
Finance 708
Defence 708
Agriculture and Industry 709
Commerce 710
Shipping and Navigation 711
Communications 711
Money and Credit 712
Money, Weights, and Measures 712
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 712
Books of Reference 713
CHINA
Government 714
Area and Population 716
Religion 718
Instruction 719
Justice 720
Finance 720
Defence 723
Production and Industry 723
Commerce 725
Shipping and Navigation 727
Internal Communications 728
Money, Weights, and Measures 730
Diplomatic Representatives 731
Chinese Dependencies and Frontier Provinces 731
Manchuria 731
Tibet 732
Sin-Kiang 733
Mongolia 734
Books of Reference 735
COLOMBIA
Constitution and Government 739
Area and Population 739
Religion and Instruction 740
Finance 741
Defence 741
Production 741
Commerce 742
Shipping and Communications 743
Money, Weights, and Measures 743
Diplomatic and Commercial Representatives 744
Books of Reference 744
COSTA RICA
Constitution and Government 745
Area and Population 745
Religion, Instruction, Justice 746
Finance 746
Defence 747
Industry and Commerce 747
Shipping and Communications 748
Money, Weights, and Measures 748
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 749
Books of Reference 749
CUBA
Constitution and Government 750
Area and Population 750
Instruction 751
Finance, Defence 751
Production and Industry 752
Commerce 752
Shipping and Communications 753
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 753
Books of Reference 754
DENMARK
Reigning King 755
Constitution and Government 756
Area and Population 758
Religion 759
Instruction 759
Pauperism, Old Age Pensions 759
Justice and Crime 760
Finance 760
Defence 762
Production and Industry 763
Commerce 764
Shipping and Navigation 765
Internal Communications 765
Money and Credit 766
Money, Weights, and Measures 766
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 766
Colonies 767
Books of Reference 767
ECUADOR
Constitution and Government 769
Area and Population 769
Religion and Instruction 770
Justice and Crime 770
Finance 770
Defence 771
Production, Commerce 771
Shipping and Internal Communications 772
Money and Credit 773
Money, Weights, and Measures 773
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 774
Books of Reference 774
FRANCE
Constitution and Government 775
Area and Population 778
Religion 783
Instruction 784
Justice and Crime 789
Pauperism and Old Age Relief 790
Finance 791
Defence 794
Production and Industry 800
Commerce 804
Shipping and Navigation 807
Internal Communications 808
Money and Credit 809
Money, Weights, and Measures 810
Diplomatic Representatives 810
Books of Reference 811
Andorra 813
Colonies and Dependencies 814
Asia
French India 816
French Indo-China 816
Annam 818
Cambodia 818
Cochin-China 819
Tonking 819
Laos 820
Books of Reference 820
Africa
Algeria
Government 821
Area and Population 822
Religion and Instruction 823
Crime 823
Finance 823
Defence 824
Agriculture and Industry 824
Commerce 825
Shipping and Communications 826
Money, Weights, and Measures 827
Books of Reference 827
French Congo 828
Madagascar
Government 830
Area and Population 830
Religion, Education, Justice 831
Finance 831
Defence 832
Production and Industry 832
Commerce 832
Shipping and Communications 833
Money and Banks 833
Consular Representatives 833
Books of Reference 833
Mayotte and the Comoro Islands 834
Réunion 835
Somali Coast 835
West Africa and the Sahara 836
Senegal 838
Guinea 839
Ivory Coast 839
Dahomey 840
Upper Senegal and Niger Territories 840
Mauretania 841
Books of Reference 842
Tunis
Bey and Government 843
Area and Population 843
Education 844
Finance 844
Industry 844
Commerce 845
Money, Weights, and Measures 846
Books of Reference 846
America
Guadeloupe and Dependencies 847
Guiana 847
Martinique 848
St. Pierre and Miquelon 848
Books of Reference 849
Australasia and Oceania
New Caledonia and Dependencies 849
New Hebrides 851
French Establishments in Oceania 851
Books of Reference 852
GERMAN EMPIRE
Reigning Emperor and King 853
Constitution and Government 854
Area and Population 856
Religion 862
Instruction 862
Justice and Crime 865
Pauperism and Old Age Pensions 866
Compulsory Insurance 866
Finance 867
Defence 869
Production and Industry 875
Commerce 879
Shipping and Navigation 882
Internal Communications 884
Money and Credit 887
Money, Weights, and Measures 887
Diplomatic Representatives 887
Books of Reference 888
Colonies and Dependencies 890
Togo 891
Kamerun 892
German South-West Africa 892
German East Africa 893
Kiau-Chau 895
In the Pacific 895
Books of Reference 897
States of Germany
Alsace-Lorraine
Constitution 899
Area and Population 899
Religion, Instruction, Justice and Crime 900
Finance 900
Production and Industry 900
Books of Reference 901
Anhalt 901
Baden
Reigning Grand-Duke 902
Constitution 902
Area and Population 903
Religion and Instruction 903
Finance 904
Production and Industry 904
Communications 904
Books of Reference 905
Bavaria
Reigning King 905
Regent 905
Constitution and Government 905
Area and Population 906
Religion 908
Instruction 908
Justice, Crime, Pauperism 908
Finance 908
Army 909
Production and Industry 909
Books of Reference 909
Bremen 910
Brunswick 911
Hamburg
Constitution 912
Area and Population 913
Religion, Instruction, Justice 913
Finance 913
Commerce and Shipping 914
Books of Reference 915
Hesse
Reigning Grand-Duke 915
Constitution 916
Area and Population 916
Religion and Instruction 916
Finance 917
Production and Industry 917
Books of Reference 918
Lippe 918
Lübeck 919
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 920
Mecklenburg-Strelitz 920
Oldenburg 922
Prussia
Reigning King 923
Constitution and Government 925
Area and Population 928
Religion 929
Instruction 930
Justice and Crime 931
Finance 932
Army 933
Production and Industry 933
Commerce 934
Internal Communications 934
Books of Reference 934
Reuss, Elder Branch 934
Reuss, Younger Branch 935
Saxe-Altenburg 936
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 937
Saxe-Meiningen 938
Grand-Duchy of Saxony 939
Saxony
Reigning King 940
Constitution and Government 940
Area and Population 941
Religion 942
Instruction 942
Justice, Crime & Pauperism 943
Finance 943
Production and Industry 943
Books of Reference 944
Schaumburg-Lippe 944
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 945
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 945
Waldeck 946
Württemberg
Reigning King 946
Constitution and Government 947
Area and Population 948
Religion 948
Instruction 948
Justice 948
Finance 948
Army 950
Industry 950
Books of Reference 950
GREECE
Reigning King 951
Constitution and Government 951
Area and Population 952
Religion 953
Instruction 954
Finance 954
Defence 955
Production and Industry 956
Commerce 957
Navigation and Shipping 958
Internal Communications 958
Money and Credit 959
Money, Weights, and Measures 959
Diplomatic Representatives 960
Mount Athos 960
Books of Reference 961
GUATEMALA
Constitution and Government 962
Area and Population 962
Religion and Instruction 962
Justice and Crime 962
Finance 963
Defence 963
Production and Industry 963
Commerce 964
Shipping, Communications 965
Money, Weights, and Measures 965
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 966
Books of Reference 966
HAITI
Constitution and Government 967
Area and Population 967
Religion and Instruction 967
Finance 967
Defence 968
Production and Commerce 968
Shipping and Communications 969
Money, Weights, and Measures 969
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 970
Books of Reference 970
HONDURAS
Constitution and Government 971
Area and Population 971
Religion, Instruction, Justice 971
Finance 971
Production and Commerce 972
Commerce 972
Communications 973
Money, Weights, and Measures 973
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 974
Books of Reference 974
ITALY
Reigning King 975
Constitution and Government 976
Area and Population 978
Religion 983
Instruction 984
Justice and Crime 986
Pauperism 987
Finance 987
Defence 990
Production and Industry 994
Commerce 997
Navigation and Shipping 999
Internal Communications 1000
Money and Credit 1000
Money, Weights, and Measures 1002
Diplomatic Representatives 1002
San Marino 1002
Foreign Dependencies
Eritrea 1003
Somaliland 1004
Tripoli and Cyrenaica 1005
Books of Reference 1006
JAPAN
Reigning Sovereign 1009
Constitution and Government 1009
Local Government 1011
Area and Population 1011
Religion 1013
Instruction 1013
Justice and Crime 1014
Pauperism 1014
Finance 1015
Defence 1016
Production and Industry 1020
Commerce 1021
Shipping and Navigation 1023
Internal Communications 1023
Money and Credit 1024
Money, Weights, and Measures 1025
Diplomatic Representatives 1025
Korea
Government 1026
Area and Population 1027
Religion and Instruction 1027
Finance 1027
Commerce 1028
Shipping & Communication 1028
Money 1029
Books of Reference 1029
Formosa (Taiwan) 1030
Pescadores 1031
Sakhalin 1031
Kwantung 1031
Books of Reference 1031
LIBERIA
Constitution and Government 1034
Area and Population 1034
Finance 1035
Production, Commerce 1036
Money, Weights, and Measures 1037
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1037
Books of Reference 1037
LIECHTENSTEIN 1038
LUXEMBURG 1039
MEXICO
Constitution and Government 1040
Area and Population 1041
Religion, Instruction, Justice 1042
Federal Finance 1043
Defence 1044
Production and Industry 1044
Commerce 1045
Shipping and Communications 1045
Money and Credit 1045
Money, Weights, and Measures 1047
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1047
Books of Reference 1048
MONACO 1049
MONTENEGRO
Reigning King 1050
Government 1051
Area and Population 1051
Religion 1051
Instruction 1051
Justice, Crime, Pauperism 1052
Finance, Defence 1052
Production and Industry 1053
Commerce 1053
Communications 1053
Money 1054
Books of Reference 1054
MOROCCO
Reigning Sultan 1055
Government 1055
Area and Population 1057
Finance, Defence 1057
Commerce 1058
Money, Weights, Measures 1060
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1060
Books of Reference 1060
NEPAL 1062
NETHERLANDS (THE)
Reigning Sovereign 1064
Government and Constitution 1065
Area and Population 1067
Religion 1068
Instruction 1069
Justice and Crime 1070
Pauperism 1070
Finance 1071
Defence 1072
Production and Industry 1075
Commerce 1076
Shipping and Navigation 1078
Internal Communications 1079
Money and Credit 1080
Money, Weights, and Measures 1081
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1082
Colonies
Dutch East Indies
Government and Constitution 1083
Area and Population 1084
Religion, Instruction 1085
Justice and Crime 1085
Finance 1086
Defence 1087
Production and Industry 1087
Commerce 1088
Shipping and Communications 1089
Money and Credit 1089
Money, Weights, and Measures 1089
Consular Representatives 1089
Dutch West Indies
Surinam or Dutch Guiana 1090
Curaçao 1091
Books of Reference 1092
NICARAGUA
Constitution and Government 1094
Area and Population 1094
Religion and Instruction 1095
Finance 1095
Industry and Commerce 1095
Shipping, Communications 1096
Money, Weights, and Measures 1097
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1097
Books of Reference 1097
NORWAY
Reigning King 1098
Consititution and Government 1098
Area and Population 1100
Religion and Instruction 1102
Justice and Crime 1103
Pauperism 1103
Finance 1103
Defence 1105
Production and Industry 1106
Commerce 1107
Shipping and Navigation 1109
Internal Communications 1109
Money and Credit 1110
Money, Weights, and Measures 1111
Diplomatic Representatives 1111
Books of Reference 1112
OMAN 1113
PANAMA
Government 1115
Area and Population 1115
Education 1115
Finance 1116
Production 1116
Commerce, Shipping and Communications 1116
Panama Canal 1117
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1117
Books of Reference 1118
PARAGUAY
Constitution and Government 1118
Area and Population 1119
Religion, Instniction, Justice 1119
Finance 1120
Defence 1120
Production and Industry 1120
Commerce 1121
Communications 1121
Money and Credit 1122
Money, Weights, Measures 1122
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1122
Books of Reference 1122
PERSIA
Reigning Shah 1124
Constitution and Government 1124
Area and Population 1126
Religion 1127
Instruction 1127
Justice 1128
Finance 1128
Defence 1129
Production and Industry 1130
Commerce 1131
Money and Credit 1133
Communications 1133
Money, Weights, and Measures 1135
Diplomatic Representatives 1136
Books of Reference 1136
PERU
Constitution and Government 1138
Area and Population 1138
Religion 1140
Instruction, Justice 1140
Finance 1141
Defence 1142
Agriculture, Industry 1142
Commerce 1143
Shipping and Navigation 1144
Internal Communications 1144
Money and Credit 1145
Money, Weights, and Measures 1145
Diplomatic Representatives 1145
Books of Reference 1146
PORTUGAL
Area and Population 1147
Religion 1149
Instruction 1150
Justice and Crime 1150
Finance 1150
Defence 1151
Production and Industry 1152
Commerce 1153
Shipping, Navigation, and Internal Communications 1155
Money, Weights, and Measures 1155
Diplomatic Representatives 1156
Dependencies 1156
Books of Reference 1160
ROME, SEE AND CHURCH OF
Relation to Italy 1163
Supreme Pontiff 1163
College of Cardinals 1164
Patriarchates 1166
Archbishoprics 1166
Bishoprics 1166
Sacred Congregations 1167
Books of Reference 1167
RUMANIA
Reigning King 1170
Constitution and Government 1170
Area and Population 1171
Religion, Instruction, Justice, &c. 1172
Finance 1173
Defence 1174
Production and Industry 1175
Commerce 1176
Shipping and Communications 1177
Money, Weights, and Measures 1178
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1178
Books of Reference 1179
RUSSIA
Reigning Emperor 1180
Constitution and Government 1181
Area and Population 1187
Religion 1192
Instruction 1193
Justice and Crime 1195
Finance 1197
Defence 1199
Production and Industry 1205
Commerce 1210
Shipping and Navigation 1215
Internal Communications 1216
Money and Credit 1218
Money, Weights, and Measures 1220
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1220
Finland
Population 1221
Instruction 1222
Pauperism and Crime 1222
Finance 1222
Industry 1223
Commerce 1224
Shipping and Navigation 1224
Internal Communications 1224
Money, Weights, &c. 1225
Dependencies in Asia
Bokhara 1225
Khiva 1227
Books of Reference 1227
SALVADOR
Constitution and Government 1231
Area and Population 1231
Instruction and Justice 1231
Finance 1231
Production and Commerce 1232
Shipping, Communications 1232
Money, Weights, and Measures 1233
Diplomatic Representatives 1233
Books of Reference 1233
SANTO DOMINGO
Constitution and Government 1234
Area and Population 1234
Religion and Instruction 1234
Justice, Finance, Defence 1235
Production and Industry 1235
Commerce 1236
Shipping and Communications 1236
Money, Weights, and Measures 1237
Consular Representatives 1237
Books of Reference 1237
SERVIA
Reigning Sovereign and Family 1238
Constitution and Government 1238
Area and Population 1239
Religion, Instruction 1240
Justice, Crime, Pauperism 1240
Finance, Defence 1241
Production and Industry 1242
Commerce 1243
Communications 1244
Money and Credit 1244
Money, Weights, and Measures 1245
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1245
Books of Reference 1245
SIAM
Reigning King 1246
Government 1246
Area and Population 1247
Religion and Instruction 1248
Finance 1248
Defence 1249
Production and Industry 1249
Commerce 1250
Shipping, Communications 1251
Money, Weights, and Measures 1252
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1252
Books of Reference 1253
SPAIN
Reigning Sovereign 1254
Government and Constitution 1255
Area and Population 1257
Religion 1258
Instruction 1259
Finance 1259
Defence 1260
Production and Industry 1262
Commerce 1264
Shipping and Navigation 1266
Internal Communications 1266
Money and Credit 1267
Money, Weights, and Measures 1267
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1267
Colonies 1268
Books of Reference 1268
SWEDEN
Reigning King 1270
Constitution and Government 1271
Area and Population 1272
Religion, Instruction 1274
Justice & Crime, Pauperism 1275
Finance 1275
Defence 1277
Production and Industry 1279
Commerce 1280
Shipping and Navigation 1282
Internal Communications 1283
Money and Credit 1283
Money, Weights, and Measures 1285
Diplomatic Representatives 1285
Books of Reference 1285
SWITZERLAND
Constitution and Government 1287
Area and Population 1289
Religion 1291
Instruction 1292
Justice and Crime 1293
Finance 1294
Defence 1294
Production and Industry 1295
Commerce 1296
Internal Communications 1299
Money and Credit 1299
Money, Weights, and Measures 1300
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1300
Books of Reference 1300
TURKEY
Reigning Sultan 1302
Constitution and Government 1303
Area and Population 1304
Religion and Education 1306
Finance 1307
Defence 1308
Production and Industry 1311
Commerce 1313
Shipping and Navigation 1314
Internal Communications 1315
Money, Weights, and Measures 1315
DiplomaticRepresentatives 1316
Books of Reference 1317
Tributary States
Crete
Area and Population 1320
Religion and Education 1320
Finance 1321
Agriculture and Commerce 1321
Books of Reference 1322
Samos 1323
Egypt
Reigning Khedive 1323
Government and Constitution 1324
Area and Population 1325
Religion and Instruction 1327
Justice 1330
Finance 1331
Defence 1333
Production and Industry 1333
Commerce 1335
Shipping and Navigation 1336
Suez Canal 1337
Internal Communications 1338
Money and Credit 1338
Money, Weights, and Measures 1339
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1340
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government 1341
Area and Population 1341
Instruction 1341
Justice 1341
Finance 1342
Production and Commerce 1342
Internal Communications 1344
Books of Reference 1344
URUGUAY
Constitution and Government 1348
Area and Population 1348
Religion and Instruction 1349
Justice 1350
Finance 1350
Defence 1351
Production and Industry 1351
Commerce 1352
Shipping, Communications 1353
Money and Credit 1353
Money, Weights, and Measures 1353
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1354
Books of Reference 1354
VENEZUELA
Constitution and Government 1355
Area and Population 1355
Religion and Instruction 1356
Justice 1356
Finance 1356
Defence 1357
Production and Industry 1357
Commerce 1357
Shipping, Communications 1358
Money, Weights, and Measures 1359
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1360
Books of Reference 1360
THE PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION 1361
INDEX 1365