The American Carbon Manual

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The American Carbon Manual  (1868)  by Edward L. Wilson
Title page

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Specimen of Carbon Printing.
Swan's Process.


Negatives and Prints by Wenderoth, Taylor & Brown, Philadelphia.

THE
AMERICAN CARBON MANUAL:

OR,

THE PRODUCTION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS
IN PERMANENT PIGMENTS.


By EDWARD L. WILSON,
Editor of The Philadelphia Photographer.


NEW YORK:
SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY.
1868.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868,

By EDWARD L. WILSON,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

CONTENTS.


Specimen Carbon Print, Vignette
page
Preface, 3
Introduction, 9
Swan's Carbon Process, 15
Crosman's Carbon Tissue, 25
Details of Manipulation, 28
Preparing the Non-Sensitive Tissue, 28
Sensitizing the Tissue, 32
Exposure Under the Negative, 35
Mounting and Preparation for Development of the Image, 36
Development and Washing, 39
Transferring the Prints, 43
The Sensitive Collodio-Gelatine Tissue, 48
Carbon Printing in the Solar Camera, 52
Swan's Actinometer, 54
Vogel's New Photometer, 56
The Chromic Salts, 60
Physiological Effects of Chromic Salts, 61
The Pigments Employed, 63
The Gelatine, 65
A Hint on the Preparation of Solution of India-rubber in Benzole, 66
Coloring Carbon Prints, 67
Practical Notes on the Carbon Process, 68
Transferring Without a Press, 68
Transferring Without Gelatine 69
Carbon Prints on Porcelain Glass, 70
Carbon Negatives, 71
Failures, Faults, and Remedies, 71
Spontaneous Insolubility of the Tissue, 71
Tardy Solution of the Superfluous Gelatine in Development, 72
Bichromate of Potash Crystallizing on the Tissue in Drying, 72
Uneven Development, 72
Blisters During Development, 73
Over Exposure, 73
Under Exposure, 74
Weak and Flat Prints, 74
Hardness and Excessive Contrast, 74
An Uneven Texture in the Finished Print, 75
Portions of the Image Tearing Off in Transferring, 75
A Green Tint Pervading the Blacks, 75
Unequal Sensitiveness, 75
The Gelatinous Coating Runs in Sensitizing, 76
Dark Spots, 76
A Sparkling Appearance in the Prints after Transfer, 76
Cracking of the Film, 76
Many Mites from Many Minds, 76
Historical Notes on Carbon Printing, 1814 to 1868, 83
This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.