The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline and Fall

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The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline and Fall
by William Muir

THE CALIPHATE ITS RISE, DECLINE, AND FALL FROM ORIGINAL SOURCES BY WILLIAM MUIR, K.C.S.I. LL.D., D.C.L., PH.D (BOLOGNA)

A NEW AND REVISED EDITION BY T. H. WEIR, M.A., D.D. (ABERDEEN) Lecturer in Arabic in the University of Glasgow. Author of "Arabic Prose Composition" "Variants in the Gospel Reports"

EDINBURGH: JOHN GRANT 31 GEORGE IV BRIDGE

1924

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE

CHAPTER I 11 A.H.—Death of Mohammad—Election of Abu Bekr—'Omar, 'Ali, Abu 'Obeida

CHAPTER II Expedition of Usama to Syrian border

CHAPTER III Attack of Bedawin on Medina; repelled by Abu Bekr

CHAPTER IV Return of Usama—Bedawin chastised—Expeditions organized against apostate tribes

CHAPTER V Khalid's Arabian campaign—Toleiha—Battle of Al-Buzakha—'Oyeina—Malik ibn Nuweira—Al-Yemama—Museilima—Garden of Death

CHAPTER VI Apostasy crushed—Al-Bahrein, 'Oman, The Hijaz, Ibn Ma'dikerib, Al-Ash'ath—Freebooter burned to death

CHAPTER VII Review—Reclaimed tribes at first sullen—Enthusiasm kindled by Syrian and Chaldaean campaigns—Arabs become aristocracy of the world—Arab slaves set free

CHAPTER VIII 12 A.H.—Al-Muthanna’s campaign in Al-'Irak—Joined by Khalid—Battle of Chains—River of Blood—Al-Hira capitulates—'Ain at-Tamr—Duma stormed—Al-Firad—Khalid’s incognito pilgrimage

CHAPTER IX 12-13 A.H.—Syrian campaign—Battle of Ajnadain— Capitulation of Fihl

CHAPTER X Al-'Irak—Battle of Babylon—Al-Muthanna’s appeal for reinforcements

CHAPTER XI 13 A.H.—Abu Bekr's death—'Omar nominated by him Caliph

CHAPTER XII 13-14 A.H.—'Omar's accession—Reinforcements for Al-'Irak—Rustem—Battle of the Bridge—Abu 'Obeid's defeat—Battle of Al-Buweib—Death of Al-Muthanna

CHAPTER XIII 14 A.H.—Syria—Fall of Damascus

CHAPTER XIV Al-'Irak—Fresh levies—Sa'd—Yezdejird—Rustem’s advance—Battle of Al-Kadisiya—Discomfiture of Persian army

CHAPTER XV 15-16 A.H.—Al-Hira reoccupied—Fall of Al-Medain

CHAPTER XVI 16 A.H.—Battle of Jalula—'Omar forbids advance—Al-Kufa and Al-Basra—Land settlement of Al-'Irak

CHAPTER XVII 15 A.H.—Northern Syria, Hims, Antioch—Heraclius retires—Battle of the Yarmuk

CHAPTER XVIII Jerusalem submits to 'Omar—His visit—Ordinance of 'Omar

CHAPTER XIX 17 A.H.—Northern Syria and Mesopotamia—Attack by Greeks and Bedawin—Beni 'Iyad and Taghub—Fall of Caesarea—Khalid's trial and deposition

CHAPTER XX 14-15 A.H.—Jews and Christians expelled from Arabia—Register of Arab tribes—Civil and military administration—Kor'an "collected"

CHAPTER XXI 18 A.H.—Famine—Plague—'Omar visits Syria—Mu'awiya—Bilal

CHAPTER XXII 19-20 A.H.—Conquest of Egypt—Alexandria

CHAPTER XXIII 16-20 A.H.—Southern Persia—Sus—Tomb of Daniel—Al-Hormuzan

CHAPTER XXIV 21-22 A.H.—Conquest of Persia—Battle of Nihavend—Flight of Yezdejird

CHAPTER XXV 17-23 A.H.—Domestic events—Court of Ka'ba enlarged—Al-Moghira's trial—Al-Kufa—Al-Basra—Era of Hijra—Laxity of morals—'Omar's simple life

CHAPTER XXVI 23 A.H.—Death of 'Omar—Appointment of Electors

CHAPTER XXVII 23-24 A.H.—'Othman—Murder of Al-Hormuzan

CHAPTER XXVIII 24-35 A.H.—Arabs and Koreish—Hashimites and Umeiyads—Campaigns in East and West—Naval victory

CHAPTER XXIX 30-34 A.H.—Unpopularity of 'Othman—Discontent at Al-Kufa and Al-Basra—Recension of Kor'an—Abu Dharr—Other causes—Naila

CHAPTER XXX 33-34 A.H.—Growing disaffection—Outbreak at Al-Kufa—'Ali warns 'Othman

CHAPTER XXXI 34-35 A.H.—Outlook darkens—Conference of Governors—Mu'awiya's help declined

CHAPTER XXXII 35 A.H.—Conspirators attack Medina—Palace besieged—'Othman slain

CHAPTER XXXIII 35-36 A.H.—Election of 'Ali—Excitement at Damascus—War proclaimed against Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XXXIV 36 A.H.—'Aisha at Mecca—Joined by Talha and Az-Zubeir—They seize Al-Basra

CHAPTER XXXV 'Ali's advance on Al-Basra—Battle of the Camel—Talha and Az-Zubeir killed—'Aisha retires to Medina

CHAPTER XXXVI Al-Kufa seat of Government—Egypt—Mu'awiya at Damascus threatens regicides

CHAPTER XXXVII 36-37 A.H.—Hostilities between 'Ali and Mu'awiya—Battle of Siffin—Arbitration—Abu Musa and 'Amr, Umpires

CHAPTER XXXVIII 37 A.H.—Khawarij rebel against 'Ali—Yield to him

CHAPTER XXXIX Decision of Umpires—Mu'awiya Caliph at Damascus

CHAPTER XL 'Ali marches against Mu'awiya—Recalled by Khariji outbreak—Battle of Nahrawan—Khawarij

CHAPTER XLI 38 A.H.—'Amr takes Egypt for Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XLII 38-40 A.H.—Khariji risings—Ziyad—Treaty between 'Ali and Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XLIII 40 A.H.—Khariji conspiracy—'Ali assassinated—Mu'awiya escapes

CHAPTER XLIV 40-41 A.H.—Al-Hasan—Abdicated in favour of Mu'awiya—Death of Al-Hasan

CHAPTER XLV 40-60 A.H.—Mu'awiya sole Caliph—Death of 'Amr and Al-Moghira—Ziyad—Africa; Kairawan—Attack on Constantinople—Mohammad's pulpit

CHAPTER XLVI 56 A.H.—Yezid declared Heir-apparent—Forms a precedent—Yezid's Bedawi mother

CHAPTER XLVII 60-61 A.H.—Yezid—Ibn az-Zubeir at Mecca—Al-Hosein marches on Al-Kufa—Tragedy of Kerbala—Death of Al-Hosein—The Moharram

CHAPTER XLIII 61-64 A.H.—'Alid reaction—Ibn az-Zubeir affects Caliphate—Mecca besieged—Death of Yezid

CHAPTER XLIX 64-73 A.H.—Mu'awiya II.—Merwan—'Abd al-Melik—Tribal hostilities—Al-Mukhtar seizes Al-Kufa—Slays "Murderers" of Al-Hosein—Mus'ab beaten—Al-Kufa gained—Al-Hajjaj storms Mecca—Ibn az-Zubeir's death

CHAPTER L 73-86 A.H.—'Abd al-Melik (continued)—Al-Hajjaj—Azarika—Al-Muhallab—Ibn al-Ash'ath—Wasit—Mint—Ibn Khazim

CHAPTER LI 86-96 A.H.—Al-Welid—'Omar at Medina—Death of Al-Hajjaj—Koteiba—Khorasan—Al-Multan—India—Africa—Spain—Fall of Musa—Glory of Al-Welid

CHAPTER LII 96-99 A.H.—Suleiman—Khorasan—Koteiba's rebellion—Yezid, son of Al-Muhallab—Attack on Constantinople

CHAPTER LIII 99-101 A.H.—'Omar II.—Fall of Yezid—Efforts at conversion

CHAPTER LIV 101-105 A.H.—Yezid II.—Rebellion of Yezid, son of Al-Muhallab—Narbonne—Hashimite canvass—Collectors of tradition

CHAPTER LV 105-125 A.H.—Hisham—Hashimites; 'Alids and 'Abbasids—Al-Kufa—Yusuf—Zeid—Central Asia—India—Armenia—Africa—France—Charles Martel—Just reign

CHAPTER LVI 125-126 A.H.—Al-Welid II.—Yezid III.—Khorasan—Nasr—'Abbasid canvass—Merwan's advance—Compromise—Death of Yezid III.

CHAPTER LVII 126-130 A.H.—Ibrahim—Merwan II.—Ibn Mu'awiya—Suleiman Ad-Dahhak—Khawarij—Spain slips from Caliphate

CHAPTER LVIII 64-130 A.H.—The Arab tribal feuds in Khorasan

CHAPTER LIX 130-132 A.H.—Merwan II. (continued)—'Abbasids in Khorasan—Abu Muslim—Nasr's flight—Al-Kufa taken by 'Abbasids—Battle of Zab—Merwan's death

CHAPTER LX 132-656 A.H.—'Abbasid Dynasty—General features

CHAPTER LXI 132-136 A.H.—Abu'l-'Abbas—Hashimiya—Persecution of Umeiyads—Ibn Hubeira—Abu Muslim’s pilgrimage

CHAPTER LXII 136-158 A.H.—Abu Ja'far al-Mansur—Abu Muslim put to death—Rawendiya—Khorasan, Al-Mehdi—Ibrahim’s rebellion—Bagdad—Umeiyads in Spain—Barmekis—Pilgrimage—Literature

CHAPTER LXIII 158-169 A.H.—Al-Mehdi—Growing laxity—Manichaeans—War with Greece

CHAPTER LXIV 169-193 A.H.—Al-Hadi—Harun ar-Rashid—Nicephorus—Fall of Barmekis—Harun dies at Tus—Glory of his reign

CHAPTER LXV 193-198 A.H.—Al-Amin—Al-Ma'mun—Bagdad besieged—Tahir and Harthama—Death of Al-Amin

CHAPTER LXVI 198-218 A.H.—Al-Ma'mun (continued)—'Alid predilections—Bagdad revolts—'Ali ar-Rida—Ibrahim rival Caliph—Al-Ma'mun at Bagdad—Tahirids—Babek—Heterodoxy—Brilliant reign

CHAPTER LXVII 218-232 A.H.—Al-Mo'tasim—Turkish soldiery—Samarra—Bebek—Amorion—Al-Wathik Heterodoxy—Ahmed the Martyr

CHAPTER LXVIII 232-247 A.H.—Al-Mutawakkil—Return to Orthodoxy—Ordinance against Jews and Christians—Saffarids—Assassination

CHAPTER LXIX 247-256 A.H.—Al-Muntasir—Al-Musta'in—Rebellion—Siege of Bagdad—Al-Mo'tazz—Wasif and Bogha—Ahmed ibn Tulun—Al-Mohtadi—Riot at Bagdad

CHAPTER LXX 256-279 A.H.—Al-Mo'tamid and Al-Muwaffak—Zenj rebellion—Saffarids—Tulunid Dynasty

CHAPTER LXXI 279-295 A.H.—Al-Mo'tadid—Al-Muktafi—Egypt—War with Greeks

CHAPTER LXXII Ismailians and Carmathians—Fatimid Dynasty—Druses—Assassins

CHAPTER LXXIII 295-329 A.H.—Al-Muktadir—Al-Kahir—Ar-Radi

CHAPTER LXXIV 329-344 A.H.—Al-Muttaki—Hamdan Chiefs—Ikshidids—Al-Mustakfi—Buweihids

CHAPTER LXXV 334-447 A.H.—Buweihid Dynasty—Al-Muti', At-Tai', Al-Kadir, and Al-Kaim, Caliphs

CHAPTER LXXVI 447-575 A.H.—Bagdad under Seljuks—Toghril Beg—Al-Muktadi and four following Caliphs—Crusades—Capture of Jerusalem—End of Fatimids

CHAPTER LXXVII 575-640 A.H.—An-Nasir, his Son and Grandson—Khwarizm Shah—Jenghiz Khan

CHAPTER LXXVIII 640-656 A.H.—Al-Musta'sim, last of the Caliphs—Hulagu takes Bagdad—Caliph put to death—End of 'Abbasid Dynasty

CHAPTER LXXIX 659-926 A.H.—Spurious Caliphate under Memluk Kings of Egypt—Osmanli Conquest

REVIEW

BIBLIOGRAPHY