The Cambridge History of American Literature/Book II/Chapter VII

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The Cambridge History of American Literature by Carl Van Doren
Book II, Chapter VII: Fiction II: Contemporaries of Cooper

Contents

§ 1. The Services of the Historical Romance in the Development of the American Novel.[edit]

IT is mere coincidence that Cooper was born in the year which produced The Power of Sympathy and that when he died Uncle Tom's Cabin was passing through its serial stage, and yet the limits of his life mark almost exactly the first great period of American fiction. Paulding, Thompson, Neal, Kennedy, Simms, Melville, to mention no slighter figures, outlived him, but not, as a current fashion, the type of romance which had flourished under Cooper. Although by 1851 tales of adventure had begun to seem antiquated, they had rendered a large service to the course of literature: they had removed the stigma, for the most part, from the word novel. For the brutal scrapes of eighteenth-century fiction the new romance had substituted deeds of chivalrous daring; it had supplanted blunt fleshliness by a chaste and courtly love, and had tended to cure amorous sentimentalism by placing love below valour in the scale of virtues. Familiar life, tending to sordidness, had been succeeded by remote life, generally idealized; historical detail had been brought in to teach readers who were being entertained. Cooper, like Scott, was more elevated than Fielding and Smollett, more realistic than the Gothic romancers, more humane than Godwin or Brown. The two most common charges against the older fiction, that it pleased wickedly and that it taught nothing, had broken down before the discovery, except in illiberal sects, that the novel is fitted both for honest use and for pleasure.

§ 2. The Influence of the Frontier.[edit]

In Europe, at Cooper’s death, a new vogue of realism had begun, but America still had little but romance. With so vast and mysterious a hinterland free to any one who might come to take it, novelists, like farmers, were less prompt in America than in Europe to settle down to cultivate intensively known fields. There is a closer analogy, indeed, between the geographic and the imaginative frontier of the United States than has been pointed out. As the first advanced, thin, straggling, back from the Atlantic, over the Alleghanies, down the Ohio, beyond the Mississippi, across the Great Plains and the Rockies to the Pacific, the other followed, also thin and straggling but with an incessant purpose to find out new territories over which the imagination could play and to claim them for its own. “Until now,” wrote Cooper in 1828, “the Americans have been tracing the outline of their great national picture. The work of filling up has just seriously commenced.” He had in mind only the physical process, but his image applies as well to that other process in which he was the most effective pioneer. Two years after his death the outline of the national picture, at least of contiguous territory, was established, and the nation gave itself to the problem of occupation. In fiction, too, after the death of Cooper the main tendency for nearly a generation was away from the conquest of new borders to the closer cultivation, east of the Mississippi, of ground already marked.

§ 3. The Sections Celebrated by the Romancers.[edit]

As late as 1825 Jared Sparks thought ten American novels a striking output for one year, but during the second quarter of the century Cooper had many helpers in his great task. In New England Neal, Miss Sedgwick, Mrs. Child, and D. P. Thompson had already set outposts before Hawthorne came to capture that section for classic ground. Paulding and Hoffman assisted Cooper in New York, and Paulding took Swedish Delaware for himself; for Pennsylvania Bird was Brown’s chief successor; Maryland had Kennedy; Virginia, without many native novels, began to undergo, in the hands of almost every romancer who dealt with the founders of the republic, that idealization which has made it, especially since the Civil War, the most romantic of American states; South Carolina passed into the pages of Simms; Georgia and the lower South brought forth a school of native humorists who abounded in the truth as well as in the fun of that border;[1] the Mississippi and the Ohio advanced to a place in the imagination with the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, and the James. North of the Ohio romance achieved relatively little, but on the southern bank Kentucky, “Dark and Bloddy Ground,” rivalled its mother Virginia. Bird ventured into Mexico at a time when Irving and Prescott were writing romantic histories of the Spanish discovery and conquest. Melville, the most original and perennial of Cooper’s contemporaries, concerned himself with the wonders of the Pacific and the deeds of Yankee whalers. Some of these novels dealt with contemporary life, but the large majority used history to lend depth to the picture which was being filled in. This was the age during which there grew up the heroic conceptions of the first settlements and of the Revolution which still prevail; the novelists stand side by side with the orators and the popular biographers in the creation of those powerful legends. Crude style and bombastic characters abound, but so do great vigour and idealism. Although such romances do not present a solid record of actual life in America at the time they were written, they offer important evidence regarding the life of the imagination, its aims, methods, and conventions, as it existed in those formative years.

§ 4. John Neal; Mrs. Child; Miss Sedgwick.[edit]

The first confessed follower of Cooper, it seems, began his career on other models. John Neal (1793–1870), a native of Maine, was in Baltimore when The Spy appeared, engaged in the production of four long novels in six or seven months. Full of a history of the Revolution on which he had been working, he was fired by Cooper’s example to write Seventy-Six (1823) with incredible rapidity. The work, however, is little more like Cooper than the three which had preceded it, Logan (1822), Randolph (1823), and Errata (1823). In all these Neal’s real master was Byron, whom he followed with a fury of rant and fustian which would have made him, had he been gifted with taste and humour as well, no mean follower. Three years spent in England as a writer on American topics, where he became one of Bentham’s secretaries and a utilitarian in all but atheism, modified Neal somewhat so that in his long later career he seemed almost a man of sense if never a man of humour or taste. Brother Jonathan (1825) and The Down-Easters (1833), however, which promise at first to be real pictures of New England life and character, soon run amuck into raving melodrama. For all his very unsual originality and force Neal has ceased to be read, the victim of a bad education and uncritical times. Equally unread, as novelists, are two other writers famous in their day, Catherine Maria Sedgwick (1789–1867) and Lydia Maria Child (1802–80), who, through long and busily useful years, touched fiction here and there, both beginning with historical romances in the early days of The Spy’s fame and later drifting to more solid shores with the tide of realism. Less gifted than Neal, both had greater charm. Mrs. Child is remembered for her devoted opposition to slavery, but Miss Sedgwick was the more important novelist. Redwood (1824), Hope Leslie (1827), and The Linwoods (1835), her best and most popular stories, exhibit almost every convention of the fiction of her day.

§ 5. D. P. Thompson.[edit]

One novelist of New England before Hawthorne, however, still has a wide, healthy public. Daniel Pierce Thompson (1795–1868) knew the Vermont frontier as Cooper knew that of New York. After many struggles with the bitterest poverty he got to Middlebury College, studied law, became a prominent official of his native state, and somewhat accidentally took to fiction. Of his half-dozen novels, which all possess a good share of honest realism, Locke Amsden (1847) gives perhaps the most truthful record of frontier life, but The Green Mountain Boys (1840) is the classic of Vermont. It is concerned with the struggles of the Vermonters for independence first from New York and second from Great Britain; its hero is the famous Ethan Allen. Thompson had none of Cooper’s poetry and was little concerned with the magic of nature. He took over most of the tricks of the older novelists, their stock types and sentiments. But he made little effort to preach, he could tell a straight story plainly and rapidly, and he touched action with rhetoric in just the proportion needed to sell fifty editions of the book by 1860 and to make it in the twentieth century a standard book for boys which is by far the most popular romance of the immediate school of Cooper.

§ 6. Paulding; Bird.[edit]

The Middle States had no secondary novelist who has survived so sturdily as Thompson. Charles Fenno Hoffman[2] is remembered for his lyrics, not for Greyslaer (1840). James Kirke Paulding,[3] though nearer Irving than Cooper, had considerable merit as a novelist, particularly in the matter of comedy, which most of the romancers lacked. Koningsmarke (1823) contains some pleasant burlesquing in its stories of adventures among the Delaware Swedes. Here, as in his later works, Paulding laughed at what he called “Blood-Pudding Literature.” He was too facile in lending his pen, as parodist or follower, to whatever fashion happened to be approved to do any very individual work, but The Dutchman’s Fireside (1831), probably his masterpiece, deserves to be mentioned with Mrs. Grant’s Memoirs of an American Lady (1809), on which it is based, and Cooper’s Satanstoe, much its superior, as a worthy record of colonial life along the Hudson. New Jersey and Pennsylvania appear in nothing better than the minor romances of Robert Montgomery Bird (1803–54),[4] The Hawks of Hawk Hollow (1835), Sheppard Lee (1836), and The Adventures of Robin Day (1839), vigorous and sometimes merry tales but not of permanent merit.

§ 7. Kennedy.[edit]

To the school of his friend Irving may be assigned the urbane John Pendleton Kennedy (1795–1870). Of excellent Virginia connections, he was born and educated in Baltimore, which, like New York, made rapid progress after the Revolution, first in commerce and then in taste. Having served bloodlessly enough in the War of 1812 and been admitted to the bar, Kennedy lived as merrily as Irving in the chosen circles of his native town. With Peter Hoffman Cruse he issued The Red Book (1818–19), a kind of Baltimore Salmagundi in prose and verse, and after several years devoted to law and politics made a decided success with Swallow Barn (1832),[5] obviously suggested by Bracebridge Hall but none the less notable as a pioneer record of the genial life of a Virginia plantation. Although the story counts for little, Kennedy’s easy humour and real skill at description and the indication of character make the book distinguished. His later novels, Horse-Shoe Robinson (1835), in which he dealt with the Revolution in the Carolinas, and Rob of the Bowl (1838), which has its scene laid in colonial Maryland, are nearer Cooper, with the difference that Kennedy depended, as he had done in Swallow Barn, on fact not invention for almost all his action as well as for his details of topography and costume. Indeed, he founded the career of Horse-Shoe Robinson upon that of an actual partisan with such care that the man is said later to have approved the record as authentic. Decidedly Kennedy’s gift was for enriching actual events with a finer grace and culture than many of the rival romancers could command. His style is clear, his methods always simple and rational. Of his miscellaneous writings The Annals of Quodlibet (1840) is tolerable satire, and the Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt (1849), substantial biography. Kennedy’s range of friendship with other authors was wide; he had a full and honourable public career in city, state, and national affairs.

§ 8. Judge Beverley Tucker.[edit]

South of the Potomac there were relatively few novelists during Cooper’s lifetime. The great tradition of Virginia was sustained by her orators and scholars rather than by her writers of fiction, but Nathaniel Beverley Tucker (1784–1851) was both scholar and novelist. His George Balcombe (1836) Poe thought the best novel by an American; his Partisan Leader (1836), primarily famous because it prophesied disunion, is clearly a notable though little known work. No other American of the time wrote with such classical restraint and pride as Tucker. No book, of any time, surpasses The Partisan Leader for intense, conscious Virginianism.

§ 9. Caruthers.[edit]

Mention should be made of Dr. William Alexander Caruthers (1800–46), perhaps less for his genial novels, The Cavaliers of Virginia (1835) and The Knights of the Horse-Shoe (1845), than for his widely-known sketch Climbing the Natural Bridge.[6] The lower states best appeared in the pages of their native humorists, who seldom wrote novels. South Carolina produced the writer who, among all the American romancers of the first half century, ranks nearest Cooper for scope and actual achievement.

§ 10. William Gilmore Simms.[edit]

William Gilmore Simms has been, to a pathetic degree, the victim of attachment to his native state. It was one of his strongest passions. He loved every foot of South Carolina, he honoured its traditions and defended its institutions even when they hurt his own fame. His best work was largely devoted to an heroic account of the Revolution in the Carolinas. But, whether his birth did not admit him to the aristocracy of Charleston, or because of a traditional disrespect for native books, South Carolina refused Simms the honour certainly due his powers. In this the whole South was negligent; Simms had to depend too largely upon the North for publishers and a public. Unfortunately, Northern readers, though hospitable to his tales from the first, were not as familiar with Southern manners and traditions as with those nearer home, and Simms had not the mastery of illusion which might have overcome this disadvantage. The solid grounds, therefore, of his romance were partly wasted upon an audience not competent to recognize them. Time must have taught South Carolina more cordiality to her best writer had not the Civil War forced all literary matters into the background for a generation. When, later, the South became eager to establish its claims to a literature, the vogue of historical romance had passed, and Simms, not yet having found the public he deserved, never has found it.

§ 11. His Devotion to South Carolina.[edit]

Unlike Poe, he had not the art or patience to make himself independent of general approval. Born in Charleston, 17 April, 1806, son of a merchant of Irish birth who lost both his wife and his fortune during the winter of 1807–8, Simms got but a bare schooling and was early apprenticed to a druggist. He seems, during his youth, to have been as bookish as Brockden Brown, but it was romantic poetry and history which claimed his attention, not romantic speculation. From his grandmother, with whom he lived as a boy, he heard innumerable legends of the Revolution, South Carolina’s heroic age, and cherished them with a poetic and patriotic devotion. When he was eighteen he went to visit his father, who had left Charleston for the West, become friend and follower of Andrew Jackson, and finally settled on a plantation in Mississippi. The young poet was thus shown the manners of frontier which corresponded, in many ways, to that of Cooper, and he seems, during extended travels, to have observed its rough comedy and violent melodrama with sharp eyes. But the border was not, for Simms, his first love, and he went back, against his father’s advice, to the traditions and dreams of Charleston. There he was married in 1826, was admitted to the bar the next year, published the first of his many volumes of verse, and suffered the death of his young wife. Thence, in 1832, he set out to the North on a career of authorship in which necessity confirmed his training and temper by urging him to immense industry and careless work.

§ 12. The Variety of his Miscellaneous Work.[edit]

It is unnecessary to say more of the miscellaneous tasks of Simms than that he wrote moderate poetry to the end of his life, including three tragedies, that he edited the apocryphal plays of Shakespeare, that he produced popular histories of South Carolina and popular biographies of Marion, Captain John Smith, the Chevalier Bayard, and General Greene, and that he kept up a ceaseless flood of contributions to periodicals. His range of interest and information was large, but he commonly dealt with American, and particularly Southern, affairs. His really significant work, as a romancer, he began in 1833 with a Godwinian tale of crime, Martin Faber, which was so well received that he followed it in 1834 with Guy Rivers and in 1835 with The Yemassee, two romances in which almost the full extent of his powers was instantly displayed.

§ 13. Guy Rivers; The Yemassee.[edit]

Guy Rivers, a conventional piece as regards the love affair which makes a part of the plot, is a tale of deadly strife between the laws of Georgia and a fiendish bandit. A born story-teller, like Cooper, Simms was as heedless as Cooper of structure and less careful as to style, but he was too rapid to be dull and he revealed to the reading world a new adventurous frontier. In The Yemassee his concern for the history of South Carolina bore fruit, a moving tale of the Yemassee War of 1715. This book is to the famous Revolutionary group what The Spy is to the Leather-Stocking tales, a romance standing somewhat by itself at the beginning of the author’s career and yet quite the equal of any of the most representative volumes. Once again Simms took hints from current romances, but when he set himself to describing the rich landscape of South Carolina or to recounting its annals he was more fully master of his material than in Guy Rivers and more admirable in proportion as his subject was more congenial to him. He gave his Indians the dignity and courage which, he said, they must have had at an earlier period; he invented for them a mythology. The white and black characters have somewhat less heroic dimensions, but they are done with great vigour and some realism.

§ 14. The Partisan Series.[edit]

His third novel having met with popular success, Simms turned to the Revolution and published The Partisan (1835), designed as the first volume of a trilogy which should celebrate brate these valorous times. He later wavered in his scheme, and, though he finally called Mellichampe (1836) and Katherine Walton (1851) the other members of his trilogy, he grouped round them four more novels that have obvious marks of kinship. The Partisan traces events from the fall of Charleston to Gates’s defeat at Camden; the action of Mellichampe, which is nearly parallel to that of Katherine Walton, the proper sequel of The Partisan, takes place in the interval between Camden and the coming of Greene; The Scout, originally called The Kinsmen (1841), illustrates the period of Greene’s first triumphs; The Sword and the Distaff (1852), later known as Woodcraft, furnishes a kind of comic afterpiece for the series. Simms subsequently returned to the body of his theme and produced The Forayers (1853) and its sequel Eutaw (1856) to do honour to the American successes of the year 1781.

Of these The Scout is perhaps the poorest, because of the large admixture of Simms’s cardinal vice, horrible melodrama; Woodcraft is on many grounds the best, by reason of its rather close-knit plot and the high spirits with which it tells of the exploits and courtships, after the war, of Captain Porgy, the best comic character in the whole range of the older American romance. But neither of these works is quite representative of the series; neither has quite the dignity which, lacking in his sensational tales of the border, Simms always imparted to his work when he was most under the spell of the Carolina tradition. That always warmed him; indeed at times he seems drunk with history. He had a tendency to overload his tales with solid blocks of fact derived from his wide researches, forgetting, in his passionate antiquarianism, his own belief that “the chief value of history consists in its proper employment for the purposes of art,” or, rather, too much thrilled by bare events to see that they needed to be coloured into fiction if they were to fit his narrative. Simms never took his art too lightly. He held that the “modern Romance is the substitute which the people of the present day offer for the ancient epic.”[7] In this sense, the seven novels are his epic of the Revolution. Marion, the Agamemnon of these wars, had already become a kind of legend, thanks to the popular memory and the fantastic ardour of Weems, but it remained for Simms to show a whole society engaged in the task which Marion did best. Simms’s defect was that he relied too much upon one plot for all his tales, a partisan and a loyalist contending for the hand of the same girl, and that he repeated certain stock scenes and personages again and again. His great virtue was that he handled the actual warfare not only with interest and power but that he managed to multiply episodes with huge fecundity. He described, in a surge of rhetoric, his favourite material:

Partisan warfare, itself, is that irregular and desultory sort of life, which is unavoidably suggestive of the deeds and feelings of chivalry—such as gave the peculiar character, and much of the charm, to the history of the middle ages. The sudden onslaught—the retreat as sudden—the midnight tramp—the moonlight bivouack—the swift surprise, the desperate defence—the cruel slaughter and the headlong flight—and, amid the fierce and bitter warfare, always, like a sweet star shining above the gloom, the faithful love, the constant prayer, the devoted homage and fond allegiance of the maiden heart!

The passage is almost a generalized epitome of his Revolutionary romances. It also betrays the fact that by “epic” Simms meant not Homer but Froissart. If he is more bloody, he is also more sentimental than Cooper. His women, though Nelly Floyd in Eutaw is strikingly pathetic and mysterious, and Matiwan in The Yemassee is nearly as tragic as romance can make her, are almost all fragile and colourless things, not because Southern women were, but because pseudo-chivalry prescribed. His comedy is successful only, and there not always, in the words and deeds of the gourmand Porgy. Simms is a master in the description of landscapes, from the sterile wastes of Georgia to the luxuriant swamps in which the partisans found a refuge; but he lays little emphasis on the poetry or philosophy of “nature.”

§ 15. Simms’s Border Tales.[edit]

In historical tales, not Cooper’s forte, Simms succeeded best; he was inferior when he dealt with the border. This may have been due partly to the intrinsic superiority of the earlier frontier to that which Simms had observed. At least it shows itself chiefly in the fact that Simms grew more melodramatic, as Cooper more poetic, the farther he ventured from regions of order and law. Richard Hurdis (1838), Border Beagles (1840), Beauchampe (1842), and Charlemont (1856) are amazingly sensational. Nor was Simms happy when he abandoned native for foreign history, as in Pelayo (1838), The Damsel of Darien (1839), Count Julian (1845), and Vasconselos (1854). Even more than Cooper, he lacked judgment as to the true province of his art; like Cooper, he constantly turned aside to put his pen to service in the distracted times through which he was fated to live.

§ 16. His Tragic Later Career.[edit]

His life was singularly noble and singularly tragic. Married a second time, in 1836, to Miss Chevillette Roach, and thus master of Woodlands, a respectable plantation in his own state, he led a pleasantly feudal existence, hospitable to many guests, and helpful, as the most prosperous Southern man of letters, to nearly all the authors and journals of the South. He spent the summers in Charleston where he came to preside over a coterie of younger writers; he made not infrequent visits to New York, and was well received. Besides concerning himself unofficially with all public affairs, he served in the state legislature for the session of 1844–46. As the agitation which led to civil war grew more heated, Simms plunged into stormy apologetics for the grounds and virtues of slavery. Just on the eve of the struggle he repeated the success of The Yemassee with a romance of seventeenth-century Carolina, The Cassique of Kiawah (1859), a stirring, varied story which must be ranked with his better books. Then upon him came the disasters of war. At first he was as sure that the South would win as that the South was just. His gradual realization that it was a losing contest would have shattered him had he been of any but the strongest stuff. His house, on the line of Sherman’s march, was burned in February, 1865; he witnessed the wicked burning of Columbia. When the war ended he had lost his wife, nine of his fourteen children, (two of them since 1861), many of his best friends, and the whole of his fortune, yet he managed, in a more horrid overthrow than Scott’s, to drive himself to work again with courage and energy, and kept up his efforts till his death, undoubtedly hastened by his labour, on II June, 1870. Despite his friends and admirers, the eclipse of those last years has never been quite lifted, and the somewhat fitful republication of his romances has left him much less read than he deserves, though few competent judges will put him far below Cooper, at least as regards strength and vigour, in the type of romance in which no third American name can be associated with theirs.

§ 17. Mrs. Kirkland.[edit]

West of the Alleghanies the growth of fiction during the life of Cooper was, of course, scanty. It consisted less of novels than of tales and sketches, which, produced for the most part by writers of Eastern birth dwelling for a time in the new settlements, were chiefly concerned with the representation of manners not known to the seaboard. The wittiest of these writers was Mrs. Caroline Matilda Stansbury Kirkland (1801–64), a native of New York who took advantage of a three years’ stay in Michigan to produce A New Home—Who’ll Follow (1839), a volume of keen and sprightly letters on the frontier avowedly in the manner of Miss Mitford, and a continuation, Forest Life (1842), which is less piquant only because it was not the first. In the later Western Clearings (1846) she was somewhat more regular but not so racy and natural.

§ 18. James Hall.[edit]

A more representative Western author was James Hall (1793–1868),[8] born in Philadelphia, went west in search of adventure, lived in Illinois and Ohio, edited an annual and a magazine, and served as interpreter between West and East much as Irving did between America and Europe. Hall’s manner, indeed, is like Irving’s in its leisurely, genial narrative, its abundant descriptions, and its affection for supernatural legends which could be handled smilingly. He had real powers of fidelity, the only merit he claimed, to the life he knew, but he had also a florid style and a vein of romantic sentiment which too seldom rings true. Legends of the West (1832), Tales of the Border (1834), and The Wilderness and the War-Path (1846) contain his best stories; he is perhaps better known, not quite justly, for such books as Sketches of History, Life and Manners, in the West (1835), wherein he published his wide knowledge of a section then becoming important in the national life. It is as traveller and observer, too, not as romancer, that Timothy Flint (1780–1840) has come to be remembered, though he essayed fiction as well as nearly every other type of authorship in the days when he and Hall divided the West between them as a province to be worked by their versatile pens.

§ 19. Kentucky in Fiction.[edit]

Many novels celebrated Kentucky, which, as the first Western state of the Union, had secured a primacy in romance, between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi, that it has never lost. Paulding, Simms, and Bird were chief among those who laid plots there. Bird’s best novel, Nick of the Woods (1837), an exciting tale of border warfare in 1782, is notable for its attempt to correct Cooper’s heroic drawing of the Indian and for its presentation of a type often spoken of in frontier annals, the white man who, crazed by Indian atrocities, gave his whole life to a career of ruthless vengeance.[9] The great romance of Kentucky, however, while perpetuated by no single novel or novelist, centres round the life and character of Daniel Boone, who became, by the somewhat capricious choice of tradition, a folk hero, standing among other pioneers as Leather-Stocking stands among native characters of fiction. A similar, though smaller, fame belongs to David Crockett of Tennessee, who comes somewhat closer to literature by the fact of having written an Autobiography (1834).

§ 20. Bird’s Mexican Romances; Mayo.[edit]

The region west of the Mississippi continued in the popular mind to be a strange land for which the reports of explorers and travellers did the work of fiction, and Cooper’s Prairie had few followers. In 1834, however, Albert Pike (1809–91) published in his Prose Sketches and Poems some vivid tales of life in the South-west. That same year appeared Calavar, in writing which Bird had the avowed purpose of calling the attention of his public to romantic Mexico. The next year he repeated his success with The Infidel, another story of Cortez and the Conquest. Reading these novels with their tolerable learning in Mexican antiquities, their considerable power, and their superior sense of the pomp of great historical events, one is reminded how few romances of the period ventured beyond native borders. Whatever may be said of the poets, the novelists kept themselves almost always scrupulously at home. One set of exceptions was those who dealt with Spain and Mexico, and even with them the motive was largely, as with the contemporary historians, to honour the ancient bond between America and the European nation which had discovered it. In a more distant scene Mrs. Child laid her Philothea (1836), a gentle, ignorant romance of the Athens of Pericles, the fruit of a real desire to escape from the clang of current life. Not much more remote from any thinkable reality was George Tucker’s Voyage to the Moon (1827), in which a sound scholar satirized terrestrial follies in the spirit which seemed to his friends like that of Swift.[10] To a slightly later date belong the two novels of William Starbuck Mayo (1812–95), Kaloolah (1849) and The Berber (1850), stories of wild adventure in Africa. The first contains a strange mixture of satire and romance in its account of a black Utopia visited by the Yankee hero Jonathan Romer.

§ 21. Melville.[edit]

Contemporaries suspected, what Mayo denied, that Kaloolah must have taken hints from Typee. The suspicion was natural at a time when Melville, at the height of his first fame, had not entered the long seclusion which even yet obscures the merit of that romancer who, among all Cooper’s contemporaries, has suffered least from the change of fashion in romance. Herman Melville, grandson of the conservative old gentleman upon whom Holmes wrote The Last Leaf, and son of a merchant of New York, was born there, 1 August, 1819. The early death of his father and the loss of the family fortune having narrowed Melville’s chances for higher schooling to a few months in the Albany Classical School, he turned his hand to farming for a year, shipped before the mast to Liverpool in 1837, taught school from 1837–40, and in January, 1841, sailed from New Bedford on a whaling voyage into the Pacific. Upon the experiences of that voyage his principal work is founded. The captain of the Acushnet, it seems, treated the crew badly, and Melville, with the companion whom he calls Toby, escaped from the ship to the Island of Nukuheva [Nukahiva] in the Marquesas and strayed into the cannibal valley Typee [Taipi], where the savages kept them for four months in an “indulgent captivity.” Rescued by an Australian whaler, Melville visited Tahiti and other islands of the Society group, took part in a mutiny, and once more changed ship, this time setting out for Honolulu. After some months as a clerk in Hawaii, he joined the crew of the frigate United States and returned by the Horn to Boston, October, 1844. “From my twenty-fifth year,” he told Hawthorne, “I date my life.” Why he held 1844 so important is not clear; he may then first have turned to authorship. Though he had kept no notes of his journeying, within a year he had completed his first book, Typee, the record of his captivity. This was followed the next year by Omoo,[11] which completes his island adventures. In 1849 came Redburn, based on his earlier voyage to Liverpool, and in 1850 White-Jacket, an account of life on a man-of-war.

§ 22. Typee; Omoo.[edit]

The first two had a great vogue and aroused much wonder as to the proportion of fiction and fact which might have gone to their making. Murray published Typee in England in the belief that it was pure fact. There were others to rank it with Richard Henry Dana’s Two Years before the Mast (1841) as a transcript of real events. But though little is known of Melville’s actual doings in the South Seas, it is at least clear that Typee and Omoo are no more as truthful as Two Years before the Mast than they are as crisp and nautical as that incomparable classic of the sea. Melville must be ranked less with Dana than with George Borrow. If he knew the thin boundary between romance and reality, he was still careless of nice limits, and his work is a fusion which defies analysis. White-Jacket, of these four books, is probably nearst a plain record; Redburn has but few romantic elements. Omoo, as a sequel, has not the freshness of Typee, nor has it such unity. Typee, indeed, is Melville at all but his best, and must be classed with the most successful narrations of the exotic life; after seventy years, when the South Pacific seems no longer another world, the spell holds. The valley of Taipi becomes, in Melville’s handling, a region of dreams and languor which stir the senses with the fragrance and colour of the landscape and the gay beauty of the brown cannibal girls. And yet Melville, thoroughly sensitive to the felicities of that life, never loses himself in it but remains the shrewd and smiling Yankee.

§ 23. Mardi.[edit]

The charge that he had been writing romance led Melville to deserve the accusation, and he wrote Mardi (1849), certainly one of the strangest, maddest books ever composed by an American. As in Typee, two sailors escape from a tyrannical captain in the Pacific and seek their fortune on the open sea, where they finally discover the archipelago of Mardi, a paradise more rich and sultry than the Marquesas, which becomes, as the story proceeds, a crazy chaos of adventure and satirical allegory. In Mardi for the first time appear those qualities which made a French critic call Melville “un Rabelais américain,” his welter of language, his fantastic laughter, his tumultuous philosophies. He had turned, contemporaries said, from the plain though witty style of his first works to the gorgeous manner of Sir Thomas Browne; he had been infected, say later critics, with Carlylese. Whatever the process, he had surely shifted his interest from the actual to the abstruse and symbolical, and he never recovered from the dive into metaphysics which proved fatal to him as a novelist. It was, however, while on this perilous border that he produced the best of his, and one of the best of American, romances; it is the peculiar mingling of speculation and experience which lends Moby Dick (1851) its special power.

§ 24. Moby Dick.[edit]

The time was propitious for such a book. The golden age of the whalers was drawing to a close, though no decline had yet set in, and the native imagination had been stirred by tales of deeds done on remote oceans by the most heroic Yankees of the age in the arduous calling in which New England, and especially the hard little island of Nantucket, led and taught the world. A small literature of whaling had grown up, chiefly the records of actual voyages or novels like those of Cooper in which whaling was an incident of the nautical life. But the whalers still lacked any such romantic record as the frontier had. Melville brought to the task a sound knowledge of actual whaling, much curious learning in the literature of the subject, and, above all, an imagination which worked with great power upon the facts of his own experience. Moby Dick, the strange, fierce white whale that Captain Ahab pursues with such relentless fury, was already a legend among the whalers, who knew him as “Mocha Dick.”[12] It remained for Melville to lend some kind of poetic or moral significance to a struggle ordinarily conducted for no cause but profit. As he handles the story, Ahab, who has lost a leg in the jaws of the whale, is driven by a wild desire for revenge which has maddened him and which makes him identify Moby Dick with the very spirit of evil and hatred. Ahab, not Melville, is to blame if the story seems an allegory, which Melville plainly declare it was not;[13] but it contains, nevertheless, the semblance of a conflict between the ancient and scatheless forces of nature and the ineluctable enmity of man. This is the theme, but description can hardly report the extraordinary mixture in Moby Dick of vivid adventure, minute detail, cloudy symbolism, thrilling pictures of the sea in every mood, sly mirth and cosmic ironies, real and incredible characters, wit, speculation, humour, colour. The style is mannered but often felicitous; though the book is long, the end, after every faculty of suspense has been aroused, is swift and final. Too irregular, too bizarre, perhaps, ever to win the widest suffrage, the immense originality of Moby Dick must warrant the claim of its admirers that it belongs with the greatest sea romances in the whole literature of the world.

Married in 1847, Melville lived for three years in New York and then for thirteen years in a farmhouse near Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Although he did not cease to write at once, Moby Dick seems to have exhausted him. Pierre (1852) is hopelessly frantic; Israel Potter (1855) is not markedly original; neither are The Piazza Tales (1856), and The Confidence Man (1857). The verses which he wrote in his later years, his sole output, are in a few instances happy, but far more often jagged and harsh. Whatever the causes of his loss of power, he fretted under it and grew more metaphysical, tortured, according to Hawthorne, his good friend, by uncertainty as to a future life. That way, for Melville, was madness; his earlier works should have taught him that he was lost without a solid basis in fact. He moved restlessly about, lecturing on the South Seas during the years 1857–1860 in many cities of the United States and Canada. He visited Europe and Palestine. Finally, having returned to New York, he was appointed to a place in the Custom House in 1866, and served there for twenty years, living a private life of almost entire, though voluntary and studious, seclusion. His death, 28 September, 1891, after nearly forty silent years, removed from American literature one of its most promising and most disappointing figures. Of late his fame has shown a tendency to revive.

§ 25. Ware; Judd.[edit]

Another type of romance which had some vogue during the later years of Cooper was the religious romance, of which, though many essayed it, the chief writers were William Ware (1797–1852), and Sylvester Judd (1813–53). Ware, a clergyman and fair classical scholar, wrote three novels, Letters from Palmyra (1837), later called Zenobia, Probus (1838), a sequel now known as Aurelian, and Julian (1841), which, though strongly biased in favour of the creed Ware preached, and often diffuse and monotonous, had still enough force and charm to have continued to be read by those to whom all books dealing with the origins of Christianity are an equal duty and delight. Judd has not been so widely read as Ware, though generally considered a novelist of superior truth and subtlety. His first novel, Margaret (1845), was born of a desire to show that Unitarians could produce imaginative literature. Its special merits are its vivid fidelity to the life of rural Massachusetts just after the Revolution, its thorough, loving familiarity with the New England temper and scene, and a kind of spiritual ardour which pervades the whole book; but it is badly constructed and it runs, toward the close, into a region of misty transcendentalisms where characters and plot are lost. Richard Edney (1850), a companion piece with its hero a boy and its setting contemporary, suffers, either as narrative or sense, from the same theological obsession, which appears in Judd’s poems as little less than pathological.

§ 26. The Victory of Fiction in the United States.[edit]

By 1851 there were, or had been, many novelists whose names could find place only in an extended account of American fiction:[14] writers of adventure stories more sensational than Simms’s or of moral stories more obvious than Miss Sedgwick’s and Mrs. Child’s, author for children, authors preaching causes, authors celebrating fashionable or Bohemian life in New York. Not only regular novels and romances but briefer tales multiplied. The period which could boast in Cooper but one novelist of first rank could show three such taletellers as Irving, Hawthorne, and Poe. The annuals and magazines met the demand for such amusement and fostered it,[15] but the novel was encouraged more than it was hurt by the new type. Prose fiction, in fact, though somewhat late in starting, had firmly established itself in the United States by the middle of the century, and Cooper, followed in Great Britain by the nautical romancers, and on the Continent by such writers about wild life as Karl Anton Postl (“Charles Sealsfield”), Friedrich Gerstaäscker, and Gustave Aimard, and everywhere read, had become a world figure.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^  See Book II, Chap. XIX.
  2. ^  See also Book II, Chap. V.
  3. ^  See also Book II, Chaps. I, III, IV, and V.
  4. ^  See also Book II, Chap. II.
  5. ^  See also Book II, Chap. III.
  6. ^  First published in The Knickerbocker Magazine, July, 1838.
  7. ^  Preface to The Yemassee (1853).
  8. ^  See also Book II, Chap. XX.
  9. ^  For the play founded on this novel, see Book II, Chap. II.
  10. ^  For Tucker, see also Book II, Chap. XVII.
  11. ^  The word is Polynesian for “rover.”
  12. ^  See Reynolds, J. N., Mocha Dick, Knickerbocker Magazine, May, 1839.
  13. ^  Moby Dick, Chap. XLV.
  14. ^  See Northrup, C.S., The Novelist, in A Manual of American Literature, ed. Stanton, T., 1909.
  15. ^  See Book II, Chap. XX.

Bibliography[edit]

A. Historial and Bibliographical[edit]

Baker, E. A. A Guide to the Best Fiction in English. London, 1913.

——A Guide to the Best Historical Fiction. London and New York, 1914.

Baldwin, C. S. American Short Stories. 1904.

Cross, W. L. The Development of the English Novel. 1899. [Includes American authors.]

Erskine, J. Leading American Novelists. 1910.

Evans, E. P. Zur amerikanischen Novellistik. In Beitrage zur amerikanischen Litteratur–und Kulturgeschichte. Stuttgart, 1898.

Griswold, W. M. Descriptive List of Novels and Tales dealing with the History of North America. Cambridge, Mass., 1895.

——Descriptive List of Novels and Tales dealing with American Country Life. Cambridge, Mass., 1890.

Johnson, J. G. Southern Fiction Prior to 1860; an Attempt at a First–Hand Bibliography. Charlottesville, 1909.

Loshe, Little D. The Early American Novel. 1907.

Mims, E. [ed.] History of Southern Fiction. In The South in the Building of the Nation. 13 vols. Richmond, 1909–13.

Northrup, C. S. The Novelists. In Stanton, T. [ed.], A Manual of American Literature. 1909. Also No.4000 of the Tauchnitz Collection of British and American Authors.

Venable, W. H. The Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley. Cincinnati, 1891.

Wegelin, O. Early American Fiction, 1774–1830. Stamford, 1902. Rev. ed., New York, 1913.

B. Particular Authors[edit]

ROBERT MONTGOMERY BIRD[edit]

Calavar; or, the Knight of the Conquest: a Romance of Mexico…. Philadelphia…1834. 2 vols. 3d ed., 1837. Philadelphia, 1847. St. Louis, 1848 (German). New York, 1854. Leipzig (English), 1856(?). New York, 1864. As Abdalla the Moor and the Spanish Knight, London, 1835, 4 vols. London, 1839.

The Hawks of Hawk–Hollow. A Tradition of Pennsylvania&hellip Philadelphia. …1835. 2 vols. 2d ed., 1835. London, 1837, I856. German. Frankfort, 1840.

The Infidel; or, the Fall of Mexico. A Romance…. Philadelphia…. 1835. 2 vols. As Cortes: or the Fall of Mexico. London, 1835. As The Infidel's Doom. London, 1840.

Sheppard Lee. Written by Himself…. 1836. 2 vols.

Nick of the Woods, or the Jibbenainosay. A Tale of Kentucky…. Philadelphia…. 1837. 2 vols. New York, 1853, 1856, 1864, 1890, 1905. London, 1837. [ed. Ainsworth, W. H.], 1841, 1845, 1854, 1856, 1860, 1872, 1883, 1900. Halifax, 1855. German: Leipzig, 1838, Frankfort, 1841, Stuttgart, 1847, 1875. Dutch, Leyden, 1877. Polish, Chicago, 1905.

Peter Pilgrim, or, a Rambler's Recollections…. Philadelphia…. 1838. 2 vols. London, 1839.

The Adventures of Robin Day…. Philadelphia…. 1839. 2 vols. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

A Belated Revenge. From the Papers of Ipsico Poe…. Philadelphia…. n. d. [1889]. [An unfinished novel, completed by Bird, F. M. It appeared in Lippincott's Magazine, Nov., 1889, and was issued as a volume by the mere addition of a title page.] For Bird's plays

See the bibliography to Book II, Chap. II.

Quinn, A. H. Dramatic Works of Robert Montgomery Bird. In The [New York] Nation, 3 August, 1916. A monograph on Bird is being prepared by Mr. Clement Foust.

HUGH HENRY BRACKENRIDGE[edit]

Modern Chivalry: Containing the Adventures of Captain John Farrago, and Teague O Regan, his servant…Philadelphia…. M. DCC. XCII. 2 vols. Vol. II has the date M. DCC. XII., Plainly a misprint for M. DCC. XCII. A third volume was published at Pittsburgh, 1793. The date on the title page is M. DCC. XIII., another misprint. A fourth volume appeared at Philadelphia, 1797. These four volumes make up what is known as Part I of Modern Chivalry. Part II was issued in two volumes at Philadelphia, 1804–5.

The bibliography of the later editions is difficult, as the book underwent many revisions and changes. The four volumes of Part I were arranged as two and published at Philadelphia, etc., 1804–7. Part II appeared, again in two volumes, at Philadelphia, etc., 1807. The complete work was issued in four volumes at Philadelphia, 1815. The first three volumes of this edition contained all that had been published previously, and the fourth volume was made up of entirely new material. This edition forms the basis of most subsequent editions. There was another complete edition of both parts, Pittsburgh, 1819, 2 vols. Part I also appeared as follows: Philadelphia, 1808 [only one half of Part I, that is, vol. I and vol. II of the original edition of 1792–93]; Wilmington, Delaware, 1815, 1825; Philadelphia, 1846 [with notes and a memoir by H. M. Brackenridge and the illustrations by Darley], 1851, [1853?], 1855, [1856?] [In the 1856 edition Part I was issued in 2 vols., one called Adventures of Captain Farrago, and the other, Adventures of Major O'Regan.] Part II appeared as follows: Pittsburgh, 1853 [only one half of Part II, that is, vol. I of the 1819 Pittsburg edition of Part II]; Philadelphia, 1857 [only vol. of Part II]. A monograph on Brackenridge is being prepared by Mr. M. M. Hoover, who has furnished the information on which this entry is based.

CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN[edit]

I. Separate Works[edit]

The Novels of Charles Brockden Brown &hellip with a Memoir of the Author…. Boston…. MDCCCXXVII. Philadelphia, 1857, 1887.

Alcuin; a Dialogue &hellip 1798.

Wieland; or the Transformation. An American Tale…. 1798. New York and London, 1811. London, 1822, 3 vols. New York, 1846. Philadelphia, 1889. French, Paris, 1841. [There was probably another French version about 1800.]

Ormond; or the Secret Witness…. 1799. London, 1839. New York, 1846.

Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoirs of the Year 1793…. Philadelphia…. 1799. Second Part. New York, 1800. Philadelphia, 1883, 1889. German, Leipzig, c. 1858.

Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep–Walker &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1799. 3 vols. London, 1831, 1842, 1847. German. Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

Clara Howard; in a Series of Letters…. Philadelphia…. 1801. As Philip Stanley; or, the Enthusiasm of Love. A Novel. London, 1807.

Jane Talbot, a Novel…. Philadelphia…. 1801.

An Address to the Government of the United States, on the Cession of Louisiana to the French; and on the late Breach of Treaty by the Spaniards: including the Translation of a Memorial, on the War of St. Domingo, and Cession of the Mississippi to France, drawn up by a French Counsellor of State…. Philadelphia…. Baltimore…. Washington City…. 1803. Rev. ed., 1803.

A View of the Soil and Climate of the United States of America: with Supplementary Remarks upon Florida; on the French Colonies on the Mississippi and Ohio, and in Canada; and on the Aboriginal Tribes of America. C. F. Volney &hellip Translated, with Occassional Remarks, by C. B. Brown &hellip 1804. [Distinct from the London translation of the same year.]

Sketch of the Life and Character of John Blair Linn. In Linn, J. B., Valerian, a Narrative Poem &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1805.

The British Treaty of Commerce and Naviagation, concluded December 31, 1806 &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1807. London, 1808.

An Address to the Congress of the United States, on the Utility and Justice of Restrictions upon Foreign Commerce. With Reflections on Foreign Trade in General and the Future Prospects of America &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1809.

A System of General Geography; containing a Topographical, Statistical, and Descriptive Survey of the Earth &hellip [n. d.] [Philadelphia, 1809?] [The prospectus of a work never finished].

Carwin, the Biloquist, and Other American Tales and Pieces &hellip London &hellip 1822. 3 vols. [Includes Carwin, the Biloquist, Stephen Calvert, Jessica, and The Scribbler.]

II. Periodicals edited[edit]

The Monthly Magazine and American Review. April, 1799–December, 1800. 3 vols.

The Literary Magazine and American Register. Philadelphia, October, 1803–7.

The American Register, or, General Respository of History, Politics, and Science [for 1806–10]. Philadelphia, 1807–11. 7 vols.

III. Contributions to Periodicals[edit]

(I) The Rhapsodist. Columbian Magazine. Aug.–Nov., 1789. (2) The Man at Home. Weekly Magazine. 3 Feb.–28 Apr., 1798. (3) A letter to the editor of The Weekly Magazine, signed Speratus. 17 Mar., 1798. (4) The Rights of Women. A Dialogue. [Alcuin]. Weekly Magazine. 17 Mar.–7 Apr., 1798. (5) An Extract from Sky–Walk. Weekly Magazine. 24 Mar., 1798. (6) A Series of Original Letters. Weekly Magazine. 21 Apr.–2 June, 1798. (7) Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoires of the Year 1793. Weekly Magazine. 16 June–25 Aug., 1798 [nine chapters of Part I]. (8) Edgar Huntly; a Fragment. Monthly Magazine. Apr., 1799. (9) Thessalonica; a Roman Story. Monthly Magazine. May, 1799. (10) Memoris of Stephen Calvert. Monthly Magazine. June, 1799–June, 1800 [not continuous]. (11) A Lesson in Concealment; or, Memoirs of Mary Selwyn. Monthly Magazine. Mar., 1800. (12) Friendship: an Original Letter. Monthly Magazine. July, 1800. (13) Original Letters. Monthly Magazine. Aug., 1800. (14) L'Amoroso [a poem]. Port Folio. 18 Apr., 1801. (15) A Jaunt to Rockaway in Long Island. Literary Magazine, Oct., 1803. (16) Memoirs of Carwin, the Biloquist. Literary Magazine. Nov., 1803–Mar., 1804. (17) Sketch of the Life and Character of John Blair Linn. Port Folio. Jan.–Mar., 1809.

No attempt has been made to identify any pieces but those which have autobiographic interest or which belong to imaginative writing.

IV. Biography and Criticism[edit]

American Quarterly Review. Dec., 1830. Brown's Novels.

Bernard, J. Retrospections of America. 1887.

Blake, W. B. Fiction and Yellow Fever. Evening Transcript [Boston], 26 Feb., 1910. A Novelist of Plague Days, Evening Post, [New York]. 19 Mar., 1910. Brockden Brown and the Novel. Sewanee Review. Oct., 1910.

Davies, J. Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America. London, 1803.

Dunlap, W. The Life of Charles Brockden Brown: together with Selections from the Rarest of his Printed Works, from his Original Letters, and from his Manuscripts before Unpublished. Philadelphia, 1815. 2 vols. [The unpublished items are: Sketches of a History of Carsol, Sketches of a History of the Carrills and Ormes, A Few Letters from C. B. Brown to his Friends, Dialogues, Fragments.]

—— Memoirs of Charles Brockden Brown, the American Novelist &hellip London &hellip 1822.

—— A History of the American Theatre &hellip 1832.

—— Charles Brockden Brown. In Herring, J., and Longacre, J. B. National Portrait Gallery. 1834–6. Vol. III.

Fricke, M. Charles Brockden Brown's Leben und Werke. Hamburg, 1911. [Kiel dissertation.]

Higginson, T. W. Charles Brockden Brown. In Carlyle's Laugh and Other Surprises. Boston, 1909.

Just, W. Die romantische Bewegung in der amerikanischen Literatur: Brown, Poe, Hawthorne. Weimar, 1910. [Munster disseratation.]

Marble, Annie R. Charles Brockden Brown and Pioneers in Fiction. In Heralds of American Literature. Chicago and London, 1907.

Neal, J. American Writers. No II. In Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Oct., 1824.

North American Review. June, I8I9. Charles Brockden Brown.

Oberholtzer, E. P. The First American Novelist. In Journal of American History. Vol. I., pp.236–40 (I907).

Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. 30, No. 2. I906.

Prescott, W. H. Life of Charles Brockden Brown. In Sparks, J. Library of American Biography. Vol. I (I834). Also in Prescott, Biographical and Critical Miscellanies. I845.

Smith, G. B. Brockden Brown. Fortnightly Review. I Sept., I878.

Stanzas, Commemorative of the late Charles B. Brown, of Philadelphia. Port Folio, Sept., I8I0.

Tuckerman, H. T. The Supernaturalist; Charles Brockden Brown. In Mental Portraits; or, Studies of Character. I853.

Vilas, M. S. Charles Brockden Brown. A Study of Early American Fiction. Burlington, Vt., I9O4.

Van Doren, C. Early American Realism. Nation [New York]. 12 Nov., I9I4 [The source of Wieland]. Minor Tales of Brockden Brown, I798–I800.

Nation. 14 Jan., I9I5 [A detailed study, adding several titles not before ascribed to Brown].

WILLIAM ALEXANDER CARUTHERS[edit]

The Kentuckian in New York. Or, the Adventures of Three Southerns. By a Virginian…I834. 2 vols.

The Cavaliers of Virginia, or the Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion…I834–I835. 2 vols.

Climbing the Natural Bridge. In The Knickerbocker Magazine. July, I838.

The Knights of the Horse–Shoe; Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion…Wetumpka, Alabama…I845. New York, I882, I909.

Holiday, C. William Alexander Carruthers [sic]. In Library of Southern Literature. Ed. Alderman, E. A., etc. Vol.II. I908.

LYDIA MARIA CHILD[edit]

Hobomok, a Tale of Early Times. By an The Rebels, or, Boston before the Revolution…Boston…I825. Boston, I850.

Philothea. A Romance…Boston…New York…I836. 2d ed., I839. Rev. ed. Boston, I845, I861.

Fact and Fiction: a Collection of Stories…I846. I847. London, I847. Dulbin, I849. New York, I867.

A Romance of the Republic…Boston…Boston…I867. 4th ed. I867. Rosa and Flora. London, I867, I868.

Beach, S. C. Daughters of the Puritans. Boston, I906.

Letters of Lydia Maria Child with a Biographical Introduction by John G. Whittier and an Appendix by Wendell Phillips. Boston, I883.

London, I891. [Contains a bibliography of the miscellaneous writings.] Higginson, T. W. Lydia Maria Child. In Contemporaries. Boston and New York, I899.

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER[edit]

A complete bibliography of Cooper would fill a volume. The present list gives only the important American editions of the collected works and the first editions of particular works, with such later editions as contain new matter.

I. Collected Works[edit]

New York, I854, 33 vols. I857–60, 33 vols. I859–61, 32 vols. I860, 34 vols. I861, 32 vols. I865, 32 vols. Boston, I879, I6 vols. New York, I879, I6 vols. New York, I883, 32 vols. Boston, I884, I890, 32 vols. Boston, I885, I6 vols. New York, I895, I896–97, 32 vols.

II. Single Works[edit]

Precaution; a Novel…I820. 2 vols. With A Discourse on the Life, Genius, and Writings of the Author, by Bryant, W. C. I861.

The Spy; a Tale of the Neutral Ground &hellip I82I. 2 vols. Rev. ed. with a new int. by Cooper, London, I83I, I849.

Tales for Fifteen; or, Imagination and Heart. By Jane Morgan. [Really by Cooper.] I822.

The Pioneers; or the Sources of the Susquehanna. A Descriptive Tale &hellip I823. 2 vols.

The Pilot; a Tale of the Sea &hellip I823 [Pub. Jan., I824]. 2 vols.

Lionel Lincoln; or, the Leaguer of Boston &hellip I825. 2 vols. Rev. ed., with new preface, London, I837.

The Last of the Mohicans. A Narrative of I757 &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I826. 2 vols.

The Prairie; a Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I827. 2 vols. (London, April; Philadelphia, May.)

The Red Rover; a Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I828. 2 vols. (London, December, I827; Philadelphia, Jan., I828.)

Notions of the Americans; Picked up by a Travelling Bachelor &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I828. 2 vols.

The Wept of Wish–ton–Wish: a Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I829. 2 vols. (In England as The Borderers or The Heathcotes.) Rev. ed., with new preface, London, I837.

The Water–Woitch; or the Skimmer of the Seas. A Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I831. 2 vols. (London, Oct., I830; Philadelphia, Dec., I83O.)

The Bravo: a Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I83I. 2 vols. (London, Oct.; Philadelphia, Nov.) Rev. ed. with new preface, London, I85I.

Letter of J. Fenimore Cooper to General Lafayette on the Expenditure of the United States of America &hellip Paris &hellip I83I.

The Heidenmauer; or the Benedictines. A Legend of the Rhine &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I832. 2 vols. (London, July; Philadelphia, Sep.)

The Headsman; or the Abbaye des Vignerons. A Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I833. 2 vols (London, Sep.; Philadelphia, Oct.)

A Letter to his Countrymen &hellip I834.

The Monikins; edited by the Author of the Spy … Philadelphia I835. 2 vols. (London, June; Philadelphia, July.)

Sketches of Switzerland. By an American &hellip Philadelphia &hellip I836. 2 vols. (In England as Excursions in Switzerland.)

Sketches of Switzerland. By an American. Part Second &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1836. (In England as A Residence in France, etc., London, Sept.; Philadelphia, Oct.)

Gleanings in Europe. By an American &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1837. 2 vols. (In England as Recollections of Europe.)

Gleanings in Europe. England; by an American &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1837. 2 vols. (In England as England; with Sketches of Society in the Metropolis.)

Gleanings in Europe. Italy: by an American &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1838. (In England as Excursions in Italy.)

The American Democrat; or Hints on the Social and Civic Relations of the United States of America &hellip Cooperstown &hellip 1838.

The Chronicles of Cooperstown &hellip Cooperstown &hellip 1838. Enlarged ed. Albany, 1862. Ed. Livermore, T. S.

Homeward Bound; or, The Chase. A Tale of the Sea &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1838. 2 vols.

Home as Found &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1838. 2 vols. (In England as Home.)

The History of the Navy of the United States of America &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1839. 2 vols. Abridged ed. in I vol., Philadelphia, 1841.

The Pathfinder; or the Inland Sea &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1840. 2 vols.

Mercedes of Castile; or the Voyage to Cathay &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1840. 2 vols.

The Deerslayer; or, the First War Path, a tale &hellip Philadelphia 1841. 2 vols.

The Two Admirals; a Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1842. 2 vols.

The Wing–and–Wing; or Le Feu–Follet. A Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1842. 2 vols. (In England as The Jack o' Lantern (le Feu–Follet); or, the Privateer.)

Le Mouchoir; an Autobiographical Romance &hellip 1843. (In England as The French Governess; or the Embroidered Handkerchief.)

The Battle of Lake Erie; or Answers to Messrs. Burges, Duer, and Mackenzie &hellip Cooperstown &hellip 1843.

Wyandotte; or the Hutted Knoll. A Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1843. 2 vols.

Ned Myers; or a Life before the Mast &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1843.

Afloat and Ashore; or, the Adventures of Miles Wallingford &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1844. 2 vols.

Proceedings of the Naval Court Martial in the Case of Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, a Commander in the Navy of the United States &hellip including the Charges and Specifications of Charges, preferred against him by the Secretary of the Navy. To which is annexed an Elaborate Review &hellip 1844.

Afloat and Ashore; or the Adventures of Miles Wallingford &hellip 1844. Vols. 3 and 4. (Later as Miles Wallingford. In England as Lucy Hardinge.)

Satanstoe; or the Littlepage Manuscripts. A Tale of the Colony &hellip 1845. 2 vols.

The Chainbearer; or the Littlepage Manuscripts &hellip 1845. 2 vols.

Lives of Distinguished American Naval Officers &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1846. 2 vols.

The Redskins; or Indian and Injin. Being the Conclusion of the Littlepage Manuscripts &hellip 1846. 2 vols. (In England as Ravensnest; or the Redskins.)

Elinor Wyllys; or the Young Folk of Longbridge &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1846. 2 vols. [Only edited by Cooper, with a preface. The author is unknown.]

Jack Tier; or the Florida Reef&hellip 1848. (In England as Captain Spike; or the Islets of the Gulf).

The Crater; or, Vulcan's Peak. A Tale of the Pacific&hellip 1847. 2 vols. (In England as Marke's or the Creater.)

The Oak Openings; or the Bee Hunter&hellip 1848. 2 vols. (In England as The Bee Hunter; or the Oak Openings.)

The Sea Lions; or the Lost Sealer&hellip 1849. 2 vols.

The Ways of the Lost Hour; a Tale&hellip 1850.

American and European Scenery Compared. In Bryant, W. C. [ed.]., The Home Book of the Picturesque. 1852.

III. Contributions to Periodicals[edit]

(I) Letter to the American Public. Philadelphia National Gazette. 6 Dec., 1832. (2) Hints on Manning the Navy, etc. Naval Magazine. March, 1836 [Issued as a pamphlet, May, 1836]. (3) Letter to the Editors of the Knickerbocker. Knickerbocker Magazine. Apr., 1838. (4) Review of Memoris of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart. By J. G. Lockhart. Knickerbocker. Oct., 1838. (5) Two letters in Cooperstown Freeman's Journal. I–8 July, 1839. (6) Home as Found. Lost Chapter. In Brother Jonathan. I Jan., 1842. (7) The Effingham Matter. Ibid., 12 Feb., 1842. (8) The Effingham Controversy. Ibid., 26 Mar., 1842, and 9 Apr., 1842. (9) Edinburgh Review on James' Naval Occurrences and Cooper's Naval History. United States Magazine and Democratic Review. May–June, 1842. (10) Richard Somers. Graham's Magazine. Oct., 1842. (11) William Bainbridge. Ibid., Nov., 1842. (12) Richard Dale. Ibid., Dec., 1842. (13) Autobiography of a Pocket Handkerchief. Ibid., Jan–Apr., 1842. (In a vol. as Le Mouchoir; an Autobiographical Romance.) (14) Oliver Hazard Perry Ibid., May–June, 1843. (15) John Paul Jones. Ibid., Mar., 1843. (16) John Shaw. Ibid., Mar., 1844. (17) John Barry. Ibid., Jun, 1844. (18) John Templer Shubrick. Ibid., Dec., 1844. (19) Melancthon Taylor Woolsey. Ibid. Jan., 1845. (20) Edward Preble. Ibid. May–June, 1845. (21) The Islets of the Gulf; or, Rose Budd. Ibid. Nov., 1846.–Mar., 1848. (In a vol. as Jack Tier; or the Florida Reefs.) (22) Old Ironsides. Putnam's Magazine. May–June, 1853. (23) Fragments from a Diary of James Fenimore Cooper. Ibid. February and June, 1868. (24) The Battle of Plattsburgh Bay. Ibid. Jan., 1869. (25) The Eclipse. Ibid. Sep., 1869. (26) Unpublished Letters of J. Fenimore Cooper. Yale Review, July, 1916.

Many of Cooper's countributions to newspapers have been omitted from this List.

IV. Biography and Criticism[edit]

Balzac, H. de. Fenimore Cooper et Walter Scott. In La Revue Parisienne. 25 July, 1840. Also in Honore de Balzac. Critique Litteraire. Ed. Lumet, L. Paris, 1912.

Barba, P. A. Cooper in Germany. In German American Annals. Philadelphia, 1914.

Barnum, H. L. The Spy Unmasked; or Memoris of Enoch Crosby, alias Harvey Birch, the Hero of Mr. Cooper's Tale of the Neutral of Ground. 1828. 5th ed. 1864.

See also; Scharf, J. T. History of Westchester Country, New York. Philadelphia, 1886. 2 vols.; Cooper, Susan, F. A Glance Backward. In

The Atlantic Monthly. February, 1887; Magazine of American History. May, July, Oct., 1887; Miller, H. E. The Spy of the Neutral Ground. In New England Magazine. May, 1898.

Birdsall, R. Fenimore Cooper's Grave and Christ Churchyard. 1911.

Brownell, W. C. Cooper. In Scribner's Magazine. Apr., 1906. Also in American Prose Masters. 1907.

Bryant, W. C. A Discourse on the Life and Genius of James Fenimore Cooper. 1852.

Chapman, E. M. English Literature in Account with Religion. Boston, 1910.

Chasles, P. Ètudes sur la littèrature et les mŒrus des Anglo–Americans du XIX. siécle. Paris, 1851. In English, New York, 1852.

See also Chasles, P., MŒurs et Voyages ou rècits du monde nouveau. Paris, 1855.

Clemens, S. L. (Mark Twain). Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences. North American Review. July, 1895. Also in How to Tell a Story and Other Essays. 1897.

Clymer, W. B. S. James Fenimore Cooper. Boston, 1900.

Coffin, R. B. [Barry Gray]. The Home of Cooper and the Haunts of Leatherstocking. 1872.

Cooke, J. E. Cooper's Indians. In Appleton's Magazine. 29 Aug., 1874.

Cooper, Susan F. Pages and Pictures from the Writings of James Fenimore Cooper with Notes. 1861.

——A Glance Backward. The Atlantic Monthly. Feb., 1887.

——A Second Glance Backward. Atlantic. Oct., 1887.

The Cooperstown Centennial. Cooperstown, 1907.

Cushing, Caleb. A Reply to the Letter of J. Fenimore Cooper. By One of his Countrymen. Boston, 1834.

Darley, F. O. C. The Cooper Vignettes from Drawings by F. O. C. Darley. 1862.

Fenimore, Constance. [Really Woolson, Constance Fenimore.] The Haunted Lake. In Harper's Magazine. December, 1871.

Francis, J. W. Reminiscences of the Late Mr. Cooper.——His Last Days. In The International Monthly Magazine. Nov., 1851.

Greene, G. W. Biographical Sketches. 1860.

Hale, E. E., Jr. American Scenery in Cooper's Novels. In The Sewanee Review. July, 1910.

Hillard, G. S. Fenimore Cooper. Atlantic Monthly. Jan., 1862.

Howe, M. A. De W. James Fenimore Cooper. In the Bookman. Mar., 1897. Also in American Bookmen. 1898.

Howells, W. D. Heroines of Fiction. 1901.

Latto, T. C. James Fenimore Cooper [a poem]. In Harper's Magazine. July, 1870.

Matthews, B. Fenimore Cooper. In Atlantic Monthly. Sept., 1907. Also in Gateways to Literature. 1912.

Memorial of James Fenimore Cooper. 1852.

Lounsbury, T. R. James Fenimore Cooper. 1883.

Moireau, A. Cooper. In La Grande Encyclopèdie.

Morris, G. D. Fenimore Cooper et Edgar Poe d'aprés la critique française du dix–neuviéme siécle. Paris, 1912.

Morse, Samuel, F. B. His Letters and Journals. 1914. 2 vols.

Müller, W. The Monikins von J. F. Cooper in ihrem Verhältnis zu Gulliver's Travels von J. Swift. Rostock, 1900.

Parkman, F. James Fenimore Cooper. North American Review. Jan., 1852.

Phillips, Mary E. James Fenimore Cooper. 1913.

Sand, George. Autour de la table. Paris, 1856.

Sawyer, Edith A. A Year of Cooper's Youth. In New England Magazine. Dec., 1907.

Sainte–Beuve, C.——A. Le Corsaire Rouge. Le Globe. Paris, 16 Oct., 1828. Also in Premiers Lundis. Paris, 1886. Tom. I.

Schönbach, E. A. James Fenimore Cooper. In Allgemeine Zeitung. 21 Dec., 1883. Also in Gesammelte Aufsätze zur neueren Litteratur in Deutchland, Oesterrich, Amerika. Graz, 1900.

Simms, W. G. The Writings of J. Fenimore Cooper. Views and Reviews. 1845. 1st Series.

Stedman, E. C. Poe, Cooper and the Hall of Fame. North American Review. Aug., 1907.

Tuckerman, H. T. James Fenimore Cooper. In North American Review. Oct., 1859.

Vincent, L. H. American Literary Masters. Boston and New York, 1906.

Wilson, J. G. Cooper Memorials and Memories. In The Independent. 31 Jan., 1901.

——Bryant and His Friends. 1886.

——The Life and Letters of Fitz–Greene Halleck. 1869.

TIMOTHY FLINT[edit]

Francis Berrian, or the Mexican Patriot &hellip Boston &hellip 1826. 2d ed. Philadelphia, 1834. London, 1834.

The Life and Adventures of Arthur Clenning &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1828.

George Mason, the Young Backwoodsman; or, `Don't Give up the Ship.' A Story of the Mississippi &hellip Boston &hellip 1829. As Don't Give up the Ship; or, the Good Son. London, 1833.

The Shoshonee Valley; a Romance &hellip Cincinnati &hellip 1830. Kirkpatrick, J. E. Timothy Flint, Pioneer, Missionary, Author, Editor. Cleveland, 1911. Complete bibliography.

HANNAH FOSTER[edit]

The Coquette; or, the History of Eliza Wharton; a Novel; founded on Fact. By a Lady of Massachusetts. Boston &hellip 1797. 13th ed., Boston, 1833. Boston, 1855 [Memoir by Locke, J. E.], 1866, 1874.

Bolton, C. K. The Elizabeth Whitman Mystery at the Old Bell Tavern in Danvers. A Study of “Eliza Wharton” the Heroine of a Famous New England Romance &hellip Peabody, Massachusetts, 1912.

Dall, Mrs. C. H. The Romance of the Association; or, One Last Glimpse of Charlotte Temple and Eliza Wharton. A Curiosity of Literature and Life &hellip Cambridge, Massachusetts .. 1875.

JAMES HALL[edit]

Works. 4 vols. 1853–6.

Legends of the West &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1832. 2d ed., 1833. 1854, 1857. Cincinnati, 1869, 1874. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

The Soldier's Bride; and Other Tales &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1833.

The Harpe's Head; a Legend of Kentucky &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1833. As Kentucky. A Tale. London, 1834. 2 vols.

Tales of the Border &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1835.

The Wilderness and the War Path &hellip 1846. New York and London, 1849. Davis, J. L. Judge James Hall, a Literary Pioneer of the Middle West. In Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications. October, 1909.

A monograph on James Hall is being prepared by Professor F. W. Scott.

CHARLES FENNO HOFFMAN[edit]

Greyslaer; a Romance of the Mohawk &hellip 1840. London, 1840., 3 vols. Rev. ed., New York, 1841. 4th ed., 1849.

See also the bibliography to Book II, Chap. V.

Griswold, R. W. Poets and Poetry of America. Philadelphia, 1842.

SYLVESTER JUDD[edit]

Margaret. A Tale of the Real and Ideal, Blight and Bloom; including Sketches of a Place not before Described, Called Mons Christi &hellip Boston &hellip MDCCCXLV. Rev. ed., 1851. Boston, 1871, 1882, 1891. London, 1871, 1874, 1881. Compositions in Outline by Felix O. C. Darley from Judd's Margaret. Engraved by Conrad Huber &hellip 1856. [30 plates. Letterpress selected from Margaret.]

Philo: an Evangeliad &hellip Boston &hellip 1850.

Richard Edney and the Governor's Family. A Rus–urban Tale, Simple and Popular, yet Cultured and Noble, of Morals, Sentiment and Life, practically treated and pleasantly Illustrated. Containing, also, Hints of Being Good and Doing Good &hellip Boston &hellip 1850. Boston, 1880.

Hall, Arethusa. Life and Character of the Rev. Sylvester Judd &hellip Boston &hellip 1857.

Osgood, S. The Real and the Ideal in New England. In The North American Review. April, 1857.

JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY[edit]

Works. 1854, 3 vols. 1871, 9 vols. A 10th vol. contained Tuckerman's Life.

The Red Book. Baltimore, 1818–19. (A periodical issued in occasional numbers by Kennedy and Peter Hoffman Cruse.)

Swallow Barn, or a Sojourn in the Old Dominion &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1832. 2 vols. New York, 1851, 1852, 1856. Philadelphia, 1860, 1861. New York, 1872. Swedish, Stockholm, 1835.

Horse Shoe Robinson; a Tale of the Tory Ascendency &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1835. 2 vols. 2d ed., 1835. London, 1835, 1839. New York, 1852. Philadelphia, 1860, 1865. New York, 1883, 1897 [abridged for schools], 1906. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

Rob of the Bowl: a Legend of St. Inigoe's &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1838. 2 vols. Rev. ed., New York, 1854. Philadelphia, 1860. New York, 1860, 1866, 1907. German. Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

Quodlibet: containing some Annals thereof &hellip ed. by Solomon Secondthought &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1840. 2d ed., 1860.

Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt, Attorney General of the United States &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1849. 2 vols. Rev. ed., 1850, 1852, 1853, 1856, 1860.

The Blackwater Chronicle: a Narrative of an Expedition into the Land of Canaan in Randolph County, Virginia &hellip 1853. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

Letters of Mr.Paul Ambrose on the Great Rebellion in the United States. [Baltimore? 1864?] New York, 1865. Included in

Occasional Addresses; and the Letters of Mr. Ambrose on the Rebellion … 1872.

At Home and Abroad: a Series of Essays: with a Journal in Europe in 1867–8 … 1872.

Kennedy Wrote numerous political and occasional pamphlets.

Link, S. A. Pioneers of Southern Literature. Nashville and Dallas, 1899–1900.

Tuckerman, H. T. The Life of John Pendleton Kennedy. 1871.

Wynne, J. John P. Kennedy. In Harper's Magazine. Aug., 1862.

CAROLINA MATILDA STANSBURY KIRKLAND[edit]

A New Home—Who'll Follow? or, Glimpses of Western Life … New York … Boston … 1839. 3d ed., 1841. 5th ed., 1855. As Our New Home. 1872. As Montacute; or a New Home. London, 1840, 2 vols. German, Grimma, 1851.

Forest Life … New York … Boston … 1842. 2 vols. 1844. London, 1842. 2 vols.

Western Clearings … 1845. London, 1846, 1850.

Powell, T. The Living Authors of America. I850.

WILLIAM STARBUCK MAYO[edit]

Kaloolah, or journeyings to the Djebal Kumri. An Autobiography of Jonathan Romer … 1849. 4th ed., 1849. 5th, 1850. 1854, 1861, 1872, 1887. London, 1849, 1851, 1873, 1887. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

The Berber; or the Mountaineer of the Atlas. A Tale of Morocco … New York … London … 1850. 3d ed., 1850. New York, 1873, 1883. As The Mountaineer of the Atlas. London, 1873. German, Lemgo, 1852.

Romance Dust from the Heroic Placer … 1851. London, 1851. As Flood and Field, or, Tales of Battles on Sea and Land … Philadelphia … 1855.

Never Again … 1873. London, 1873. 4th London ed., 1873.

HERMAN MELVILLE[edit]

I. Collected Works[edit]

[Herman Melville's Sea Tales.] 4 vols. Ed. Stedman, A., 1892, 1896; Boston, 1900, 1910. Typee (with biographical and critical introduction by the editor), Omoo, Moby Dick, White Jacket.

II. Separate Works[edit]

Typee: a Peep at Polynesian Life. During a Four Months' Residence in a Valley of the Marquesas … 1846. Two parts in one vol. (Issued in England as Narrative of a Four Months' Residence among the Natives of a Valley of the Marquesas Islands; or, a Peep at Polynesian Life … 1846, 1847, 1855, 1861.) Revised, with a sequel, The Story of Toby, 1847, 1849, 1855, 1857, 1865, 1871. Later editions, English and American, have the American title, Typee, etc. London, 1892, 1893 (ed. Salt, H. S.), 1898,

1899; Boston, 1902 (ed. Trent, W. P.); London, 1903 (ibid.); London and New York, 1904 (ed. Russell, W. C.), 1907 (ed. Rhys, E.); London, 1910, another edition, 1910 (ed. Russell, W. C.); New York, 1911 (ibid.). Translated into German by Garrique, R., Leipzig, 1846. Dutch, Haarlem, 1847.

Omoo: a Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas &hellip 1847 (five editions the same year); London, 1847, 1849; New York and London, 1855; London, 1861; New York, 1863, 1868; London, 1892, 1893 (ed. Salt, H.S.); London and New York, 1904 (ed. Russell, W. C.), 1908 (ed. Rhys, E.), 1911 (ed. Russell, W. C.). Translated into German by Gerstäcker, F., Leipzig, 1847.

Mardi: and a Voyage Thither &hellip 1849. 2 vols. London, 3 vols. New York, 1855, 1864.

Redburn: his First Voyage. Being the Sailor–Boy Confessions and Reminiscences of the Son–of–a–Gentleman, in the Merchant Service &hellip 1849. (London, 1849, 2 vols.); New York, 1855, 1863. Translated into German by Marezoll, L., Grimma, 1850.

White Jacket: or, The World in a Man–of–War &hellip 1850. London, 1850, 2 vols. New York, 1852; New York and London, 1855; London, 1892, 1893, 1901.

Moby Dick: or, The Whale &hellip 1851. (London, 1851, 1853, under the name The Whale, 3 vols. New York, 1863; London, 1892, 1893. New York, 1899. London, 1901 (ed. Becke, L.); London and New York, 1907 (ed. Rhys, E.); London, 1912. The editions since 1892 have borne the title Moby Dick; [or] the [Great] White Whale.

Pierre: or, The Ambiguities &hellip 1852. 1855.

Israel Potter: his Fifty Years of Exile &hellip 1855 (three editions the same year). London, 1855, 1861. (The book had appeared serially in Putnam's Monthly Magazine, July, 1854–March, 1855, as Israel Potter: or, Fifty Years of Exile. A Fourth of July Story. It was re–issued in Philadelphia, n.d. [entered, 1865], as The Refugee, with the original dedication and table of contents omitted.)

The Piazza Tales &hellip 1856. London, 1856. [Contains: The Piazza; Bartleby; Benito Cereno; The Lightning–Rod Man; The Encantadas; or, Enchanted Islands; The Bell–Tower.]

The Confidence–Man: his Masquerade &hellip 1857. London, 1857.

Battle–Pieces and Aspects of the War &hellip 1866.

Clarel a Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land &hellip 1876. 2 vols.

John Mair and Other Sailors &hellip 1888. [Privately printed.]

Timoleon, etc…. 1891.

III. Contributions to Periodicals[edit]

(I) Hawthorne and His Mosses. By a Virginian spending July in Vermont. Literary World. 17 Aug.–24 Aug., 1850. (2) The Town–Ho's Story [ch. 54 of Moby Dick]. Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Oct., 1851. (3) Bartleby the Scrivener, a Story of Wall Street. Putnam's Monthly Magazine. Nov.–Dec., 1853. (4) Cock–a–Doodle–Doo! or, the Crowing of the Noble Cock Beneventano. Harper's Dec., 1853. (5) The Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles. By Salvator R. Tarnmoor. Putnam's Mar.–May, 1854. (6) The Light–Aug., 1855. (8) Benito Cereno. Putnam's. Oct.–Dec., 1855. (9) I and My Chimney. Putnam's, Mar., 1856.

IV. Biography and Criticism[edit]

Chasles, P. Voyages Rèels et Fantastiques d'Hermann Melville. Revue des Deux Mondes. Paris, 15 May, 1849.

Coan, T. M. Herman Melville. Literary World, 19 Dec., 1891.

Hawthorne, J. Nathaniel Hawthorne and his Wife. Boston and New York, 1884. [Some letters of Melville.]

MacMechan, A. “The Greatest Sea Story in the World.“ In Life in a Little College. Boston and New York, 1913.

O'Brien, F–J. Our Young Authors–Melville. Putnam's. Feb., 1853.

Salt, H. S. Herman Melville. Scottish Art Review. London and Newcastle–on–Tyne. Nov., 1889; Marquesan Melville. The Gentleman's Magazine. London, Mar., 1892.

Stoddard, R. H. Recollections Personal and Literary. 1903.

A monograph on Melville is being prepared by Mr. C.M. Pang. See, also, the introductions mentioned in I and II.

SARAH WENTWORTH MORTON[edit]

The Power of Sympathy: or, the Triumph of Nature. Founded in Truth &hellip Boston &hellip MDCCLXXXIX. 2 vols. Facsimile, Boston, 1894. Serially in The Bostonian. Oct., 1894–June, 1895.

Brayley, A. W. The Real Author of “The Power of Sympathy.“ In The Bostonian, Dec., 1894. [Ascribed, with little reason, to W. H. Brown.]

JOHN NEAL[edit]

Keep Cool. A Novel. Written in Hot Weather. By Somebody, M.D.C. & c., & c., & c. Author of Sundry Works of Great Merit–never Published, or read, from his–story. Reviewed by–Himself–“Esquire.“ &hellip Baltimore &hellip 1817. 2 vols.

Logan, a Family History &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1822. 2 vols. London, 1823. 4 vols. As Logan, the Mingo Chief. A Family History. London, 1840, 1845.

Seventy–Six &hellip Baltimore &hellip 1823. 2 vols. London, 1823. 3 vols.

Randolph, a Novel &hellip Published for whom it may concern. [Baltimore], 1823. 2 vols.

Errata; the Works of Will Adams &hellip 1823. 2 vols.

Brother Jonathan: or, the New Englanders &hellip Edinburgh &hellip 1825 3 vols.

Rachel Dyer: a North American Story &hellip Portland &hellip 1828.

Authorship, a Tale. By a New Englander over–Sea. Boston &hellip 1830.

The Down–Easters, & c., & c., & c &hellip 1833. 2 vols.

True Womanhood; a Tale &hellip Boston &hellip 1859.

Wandering Recollections of a Somewhat Busy Life. An Autobiography &hellip Boston &hellip 1869.

JAMES KIRKE PAULDING[edit]

Collected Works. 1834–39, 15 vols. 1867–8, 4 vols.

Koningsmarke, the Long Finne, a Story of the New World &hellip 1823. 1834, 2 vols. London, 1823, 1839, 1843. German, Frankfort, 1840.

Westward Ho! A Tale &hellip 1832. 2 vols. 1845. London, 1833 [3 eds.] French. Paris, 1833. 2 vols. German. Frankfort, 1837.

The Dutchman's Fireside. A Tale &hellip 1831. 2 vols. 5th ed., 1837. 1868, 1900. London, 1831, 1839, 1849. German, Frankfort, 1838.

The Old Continental; or, the Price of Liberty &hellip 1846. 2d ed., 1851. German, Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

The Puritan and His Daughter &hellip 1849, 1850. London, 1849, 2 eds. German, Grimma, 1850.

See the bibliographies to Book II, Chaps. I, III, and V.

Paulding, W. I. Literary Life of James K. Paulding. 1867.

Duyckinck, E. A. and G. L. Cyclopaedia of American Literature. 1855. Ed. Simons, M. L. Philadelphia, 1875.

Wilson, J. G. Bryant and his Friends. 1886.

ALBERT PIKE[edit]

Prose Sketches and Poems. Written in the Western Country &hellip Boston &hellip 1834.

SUSANNA HASWELL ROWSON[edit]

The Inquisitor; or, Invisible Rambler &hellip Philadelphia, 1793. 3 vols. in I. 2d American ed., 1794. [London, 1787 (?)].

Charlotte. A Tale of Truth. By Mrs. Rowson, of the new Theatre, Philadelphia; author of Victoria, The Inquisitor, File de Chambre, & c &hellip Philadelphia &hellip M.DCC.XCIV. 2 vols. [First American ed. Of the First London (?) ed., 1790 (?), no copy seems to be known.] 104 eds. listed in Charlotte Temple, ed. Halsey, F. W., New York and London, 1905.

Trials of the Human Heart. A Novel &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1795. 4 vols. in 2.

Reuben and Rachel; or, Tales of Old Times. A Novel &hellip Boston &hellip 1798. 2 vols. in I.

Sarah, or the Exemplary Wife &hellip Boston &hellip 1814. [Reprinted from the Boston Weekly Magazine. 1804.]

Rebecca; or, the fille de Chambre &hellip Boston &hellip 1814. [A rev. ed. of the earlier File de Chambre. London, 1792 (?).]

Charlotte's Daughter: or, the Three Orphans. A Sequel to Charlotte Temple &hellip to which is prefixed a Memoir of the Author &hellip Boston &hellip 1828. [The Memoir, by Knapp, S. L., had appeared in The Boston Gazette.] In England as Lucy Temple; or, The Three Orphans. German, Philadelphia, 1877.

See also Bibliography to Book II, Chap. II.

Dall, Mrs. C. H. The Romance of the Association. ( See under Hannah Foster. )

Nason, E. A Memoir of Mrs. Susanna Rowson, with Elegant and Illustrative Extracts from her Writings in Prose and Poetry &hellip Albany &hellip 1870. [Lists miscellaneous works not fiction, and some of the English editions.]

Sargent, Mary E. Susanna Rowson. In The Medford Historical Review. Medford, Massachusetts, April, 1904.

Cobbett, W. A Kick for a Bite; or, Review upon Review; with a Critical Essay, on the Works of Mrs. S. Rowson; in a Letter to the Editor, or Editors, of the American Monthly Review. Philadelphia, 1795.

CATHARINE MARIA SEDGWICK[edit]

A New–England Tale; or, Sketches of New–England Character and Manners &hellip 1822.

Redwood; a Tale &hellip 1824. London, 1824, 3 vols. New York, 1850, 1854, 1856. French, Paris, 1824. 4 vols. German, Leipzig, 1837.

Hope Leslie; or, Early Times in the Massachusetts &hellip 1827. London, 1828, 3 vols. New York, 1842, 1862. London, 1850, 1852. French, Paris, 1828, 4 vols. German, Leipzig, 1836.

Clarence: or, a Tale of Our Own Times &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1830. Rev. ed., New York, 1849, 1854, 1856. London, 1830, 1839, 1846, 1856.

The Linwoods; or, “Sixty Years Since“ in America &hellip 1835. 2 vols. London, 1835, 1840, 1868. German, Leipzig, 1836.

Tales and Sketches &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1835.

Tales and Sketches. Second Series &hellip 1844, 1858.

A New England Tale, and Miscellanies &hellip 1852. 3d ed., 1852. 1854, 1856.

Married or Single &hellip 1857, 1858. 2 vols. London, 1857. Leipzig (English), 1857. German, Leipzig, 1857.

Beach, S. C. Daughters of the Puritans. Boston, 1906.

Dewey, Mary E. Life and Letters of Catherine M. Sedgwick. 1871. (Refers to most of the many juvenile and miscellaneous writings of Miss Sedgwick.)

WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS[edit]

I. Collected Works[edit]

Border Romances. 1859, 17 vols. 1866, 17 vols. 1879, 17 vols. 1882, 10 vols. Chicago, 1885, 15 vols. Chicago, 1888, 17 vols. Atlanta, [1901?], 17 vols.

II. Single Works[edit]

Monody on General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Charleston, 1825. [No copy is known.]

Lyrical and Other Poems &hellip Charleston &hellip 1827.

Early Lays &hellip Charleston &hellip 1827.

The Vision of Cortes, Cain, and Other Poems &hellip Charleston &hellip 1829.

The Tri–Color; Cain, Three Days of Blood in Paris. With Some Other Pieces London &hellip 1830. [Charleston ?], 1830.

Atalantis. A Story of the Sea. In Three Parts &hellip 1832. Rev. ed. with new matter, Philadelphia, 1848.

The Book of My Lady. A Mèlange. By a Bachelor Knight &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1833.

Martin Faber; the Story of a Criminal &hellip MDCCCXXXIII. 1837, 2 vols.

Memoir of Maynard Davis Richardson. In Remains of Maynard Davis Richardson. Charleston, 1833.

The Cosmoplitan: An Occasional. Charleston, 1834.

Guy Rivers: a Tale of Georgia &hellip 1834. 2 vols. New York and London, 1835, 3 vols. New York, 1837, 2 vols. London, 1841. Rev. ed., 1855, 1860. As Guy Rivers. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

The Yemassee, a Romance of Carolina &hellip 1835. 2 vols. New York and London, 1835, 3 vols. London, 1841. New York, 1844, 1853 [rev. ed.], 1878, 1888, 1898, 1911. Richmond, 1911. As Der Yemassee–Indianer. Leipzig, 1847. 2 vols.

The Partisan: a Tale of the Revolution &hellip 1835. 2 vols. 1843. Rev. ed., 1853, 1854, 1870. Chicago, 1887, 1890. As Der Parteigänger. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Mellichampe. A Legend of the Santee &hellip 1836. 2 vols. Rev. ed., 1854, 1870.

Richard Hurdis; or, the Avenger of Blood. A Tale of Alabama &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1838. 2 vols. Rev. ed., New York, 1855, 1864, 1871. As Richard Hurdis. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Pelayo: a Story of the Goth &hellip 1838. 2 vols. London, 1838.

Carl Werner, an Imaginative Story; with Other Tales of Imagination &hellip 1838. 2 vols.

Slavery in America, being a Brief Review of Miss Martineau on that Subject. Richmond, 1838. Also as The Morals of Slavery, etc. Charleston, 1838. Also in The Pro–Slavery Argument. Charleston, 1852.

Southern Passages and Pictures &hellip MDCCCXXXIX.

The Damsel of Darien &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1839. 2 vols. London, 1845.

Border Beagles; a Tale of Mississippi &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1840. 2 vols. [Sequel to Richard Hurdis.] Rev. ed., New York, 1855. As Die Grenzjagd. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

The History of South Carolina &hellip Charleston &hellip 1840. 2d ed.rev., Charleston, 1842. 3d ed. rev., New York and Charleston, 1860. New York, 1866.

The Kinsmen: or the Black Riders of Congaree. A Tale &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1841. 2 vols. London, 1841. Rev. ed., as The Scout; or the Black Riders of Congaree. New York, 1854, 1856, 1868.

Confession; or, the Blind Heart. A Domestic Story &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1841. 2 vols. London, 1845. Rev. ed., New York, 1856, 1861, 1864.

Beauchampe; or, the Kentucky Tragedy. A Tale of Passion &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1842. 2 vols. London, 1842. Rev. ed., New York, 1856, 1886.

Donna Florida. A Tale &hellip Charleston &hellip 1843.

The Social Principle: The True Source of National Permanence. An Oration &hellip Tuscaloosa, 1843.

The Geography of South Carolina: being a Companion to the History of that State &hellip Charleston &hellip 1843.

The Life of Francis Marion &hellip 1844. 11th ed., 1883.

Castle Dismal: or, the Bachelor's Christmas. A Domestic Legend &hellip 1844.

The Prima Donna: a Passage from City Life. Philadelphia, 1844.

The Sources of American Independence. An Oration &hellip Aiken, S. C., 1844.

The Charleston Book: A Miscellany in Prose and Verse. Charleston, 1844. [Edited anonymously by Simms.]

Grouped Thoughts and Scattered Fancies. A Collection of Sonnets &hellip Richmond &hellip 1845.

Helen Halsey: or, the Swamp State of Conelachita. A Tale of the Borders &hellip 1845.

Count Julian; or, the Last Days of the Goth. A Historical Romance &hellip Baltimore &hellip New York &hellip 1845. [A sequel to Pelayo.] London, 1846.

The Wigwam and the Cabin &hellip First Series &hellip 1845. Second Series. 1845. Rev. ed., New York, 1856. As Life in America; or, the Wigwam and the

Cabin. Aberdeen and London, 1848. New York, 1864. As Wigwam und Hütte. Leipzig, 1846.

Views and Reviews in American Literature, History and Fiction &hellip First Series &hellip 1845. Second Series, 1845. London, 1846.

View and Reviews in American Literature, History and Fiction &hellip First Series &hellip 1845. Second Series, 1845. London, 1846.

Areytos: or, Songs of the South &hellip Charleston &hellip MDCCCXLVI. Enlarged ed., New York and Charleston, 1860.

The Life of Captain John Smith. The Founder of Virginia &hellip [1846]. 4th ed., 1846. 7th ed., 1866. Philadelphia; 1867.

Self–Development. An Oration…. Milledgeville, 1847.

The Life of the Chevalier Bayard; “The Good Knight,“ “Sans peur et sans reproche“ &hellip 1847.

Charleston and her Satirists, a Scribblement &hellip Charleston, 1848.

Lays of the Palmetto: a Tribute to the South Carolina Regiment, in the War with Mexico. Charleston, 1848.

A Supplement to the Plays of William Shakespeare: Comprising the Seven Dramas, which have been ascribed to his pen, but which are not included with his writings in modern Editions &hellip Edited, with notes, and an introduction to each play &hellip 1848.

Sabbath Lyrics; or, Songs from Scripture &hellip Charleston &hellip MDCCCXLIX.

Father Abbott; or, the Home Tourist; a Medley &hellip Charleston &hellip 1849.

The Cassique of Accabee. A Tale of Ashley River. With Other Pieces &hellip Charleston &hellip 1849. New York, 1849.

The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major–General in the Army of the Revolution &hellip 1849, 1856.

The City of the Silent: A Poem &hellip Charleston &hellip 1850.

The Lily and the Totem, or, the Huguenots in Florida. A Series of Sketches, Picturesque and Historical, of the Huguenots in Florida. A Series of Sketches, Picturesque and Historical, of the Colonies of Coligni, in North America. 1562–1570 &hellip 1850. 2d ed., 1850.

Flirtation at the Moultrie House, etc. Charleston, 1850.

Katherine Walton; or, the Rebel of Dorchester. An Historical Romance of the Revolution in South Carolina &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1851. Rev. ed., New York, 1854, 1888. As Katherine Walton. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Norman Maurice; or, the Man of the People. An American Drama &hellip Richmond, 1851. 4th ed., Philadelphia, 1853.

The Golden Christmas: a Chronicle of St. John's, Berkeley. Compiled from the Notes of a Briefless Barrister. Charleston &hellip 1852.

As Good as a Comedy; or, the Tennessean's Story. By an Editor. Philadelphia, 1852.

The Sword and the Distaff; or, Fair, Fat and Forty. A Story of the South, at the Close of the Revolution &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1853. [This had already appeared in The Southern Literary Gazette. 28 Feb.–6 Nov.,1852.] Rev. ed., as Woodcraft, or, Hawks about the Dovecote, etc., New York, 1854, 1859. As Schwert und Spindel. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Michael Bonham; or, the Fall of Bexar. A Tale of Texas. Richmond &hellip 1852. [A tragedy.]

Marie de Berniere: a Tale of the Crescent City &hellip Philadelphia &hellip 1853. As The Maroon: a Legend of the Caribbees, and Other Tales. Philadelphia, 1855. As The Ghost of My Husband, a Tale of the Crescent City. New York, 1866. As Marie de Berniere. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Vasconselos; a Romance of the New World, by Frank Cooper &hellip 1853. 1857, 1859, 1868.

Egeria; or, Voices of Thought and Counsel, for the Woods and Wayside&hellip Philadelphia…1853.

Poems Descriptive, Dramatic, Legendary, and Cintemplative…Charleston…1853. 2 vols. New York, 1853.

South Carolina in the Revolutionary War: being a Reply to Certain Misrepresentations and Mistakes of Recent Writers, in relation to the Course and Conduct of this State. By a Southron. Charleston…1853.

Southward Ho! a Spell of Sunshine…1854. 1865.

The Forayers or the Raid of the Dog–Days…1855. 1886.

The Spartanburg Female College. Inauguration of the Spartanburg College, on the 22d August, 1855, with the Address, on that Occasion, by W. Gilmore Simms…Spartanburg…1855.

Charlemont or the Pride of the Village. A Tale of Kentucky…1856. 1885.

Eutaw a Sequel to the Forayers, or the Raid of the Dog–Days. A Tale of the Revolution…1856. 1885.

The Cassique of Kiawah. A Colonial Romance…1859. 1884. As Der Kassike von Kiawa. Leipzig, c. 1853–64.

Sack and Destruction of the City of Columbia, S. C.…Columbia, 1865.

War Poetry of the South…1867. [Ed. by Simms.]

Memoir of Colonel John Laurens. In Memoir and Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens. 1867. [Bradford Club Series, No.1.] Also a Succinct Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Colonel John Laurens.. Williamstadt, 1867.

The Sense of the Beautiful. An Address…Charleston, 1870.

III. Contributions to Periodicals[edit]

(1) American Criticism and Critics. Southern Literary Journal. July, 1836. (2) Logoochie, or the Branch of Sweet Water. The Magnolia [an annual], 1839. (3) Early Lays. Southern Literary Messenger, 1839–41, (4) Queen Mary. Democratic Review. Feb., I842. (5) Bulwer's Genius and Writings. Magnolia, Dec., I842. (6) The Writings of Washington Allston. Southern Quarterly Review. Oct., I843. (7) The Moral Character of Hamlet. Orion. I844. (8) Letters on International Copyright. Southern Literary Messenger. I844. (9) The New Spirit of the Age. Southern Quarterly. Apr., I845. (10) A Year of Consolation. Review of Mrs. Butler's book. Southern Quarterly. July, I847. (11) John Rutledge. American Whig Review. Aug.–Sep., I847. (12) Prescott's Conquest of Peru. Southern Quarterly. Jan. and Apr., I848. (13) Stevens' History of Georgia. Southern Quarterly. Apr., I848. (14) Headley's Life of Cromwell. Southern Quarterly. Oct., I848. (15) Modern Prose Fiction. Southern Quarterly. Apr., I849. (16) Guizot's Democracy in France. Southern Quarterly. Apr., I849. (17) Later Poems of Henry Taylor. Southern Quarterly. July, I849. (18) Recent American Poets. Southern Quarterly. Oct., I849. (19) Kennedy's Life of Wirt. Southern Quarterly. Apr., I850. (20) Ellets Women of the Revolution. Southern Quarterly. July, I850 (21) Sentimental Prose Fiction. Southern Quarterly. July, I850. (22) Tuckerman's Essays and Essayists. Southern Quarterly. July, I850. (23) Summer Travel in the South. Southern Quarterly. Sep., I850. (24) Topics in History of South Carolina. Southern Quarterly. Sep., I850. (25) The Southern Convention. Southern Quarterly. Sep., I850. (26) Pickett's History of Alabama. Southern Quarterly. Jan., I852. (27) Home Sketches, or Life along the Highways and Byways of the South. Literary World. I852. (28) Domestic Histories of the South.

Southern Quarterly. Apr., I852. (29) The Baron De Kalb. Southern Quarterly. July, I852. (30) Charleston, the Palmetto City. Harper's Magazine. June, I857. (31) Literary Prospects of the South. Russell's Magazine. June, I858. (32) Marion, the Carolina Partisan. Russell's Oct.–Nov., I858. (33) Paddy McGann, or the Demon of the Stump. The Southern Illustrated News. Richmond, I863. [Serial.] (34) Joscelyn: a Tale of the Revolution. The Old Guard. New York, I867. [Serial.] (35) The Story of Chastelard. Lippincott's Magazine. Mar., I868. (36) The Cub of the Panther: a Mountain Legend. The Old Guard. I869. [Serial.] (37) Voltmeier, or the Mountain Men. A Tale of the Old North State. The Illuminated Western World. New York, I869. [Serial.] (38) How Sharp Snaffles Got His Capital and Wife. Harper's Magazine. Oct., I870. As The Big Lie. In Short Stories. May, I891.

This list contains only the more important items of Simms's large journalistic output, and closely follows Professor Trent's bibliography.

IV. Biography and Criticism[edit]

Davidson, J. W. The Living Writers of the South. I869.

Erskine, J. Leading American Novelists. I910.

Duyckinck, E. A. and G. L. Cyclopaedia of American Literature. I855.

Evans, E. P. Beitrage zur amerikanischen Literatur–und Kulturgeschichte. Stuttgart, I898.

Link, S. A. Pioneers of Southern Literature. Nashville and Dallas, I899–I900. 2 vols.

The Literary World. 21 Oct., I882. Works of William Gilmore Simms. [A bibliography.]

Trent, W. P. William Gilmore Simms. [American Men of Letters.] Boston and New York, I892. [An excellent bibliography.]

Wegelin, O. A List of the Separate Writings of William Gilmore Simms of South Carolina, I806–I870. I906.

The Southern Literary Messenger. May, I859. William Gilmore Simms, Esq. Wilson, J. G. William Gilmore Simms. In The Book News Monthly, June, I9I2.

DABITHA GILMAN TENNEY[edit]

Female Quixotism: exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dorcasina Sheldon. Newburyport…I808. 2 vols. [This may not be the Ist ed.] Several eds. Boston, I829.

Duyckinck, E. A. and G. L. Cyclopaedia of American Literature. I855

DANIEL PIERCE THOMPSON[edit]

Collected Works. Boston, I847–52, 4 vols. Boston, I876, 4 vols. Boston, I9I2, 4 vols.

The Adventures of Timothy Peacock, Esquire, or, Freemasonry Practically Illustrated in a series of Amusing Adventures of a Masonic Quixot. By a member of the Vermont Bar…Middlebury…I835.

May Martin; or, the Money Diggers…montpelier…I835. London, I841. Boston, I848. 3d[?] ed., Burlington, I850. Over 50 eds. by I860. Rev. ed. in May Martin, and Other Tales of the Green Mountains. Boston, I852.

The Green Mountain Boys:a Historical Tale of the Early Settlement of Vermont&hellip Montpelier&hellip 1839. 2 vols. Rev. ed., Boston, 1848, 1857, 2 vols. New York, 1896, 1898. 50 eds. by 1860. 7 eds. in print in 1912. German. Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

Locke Amsden, or the Schoolmaster: a Tale&hellip Boston&hellip 1847.

The Rangers; or, the Tory`s Daughter. A Tale, Illustrative of the Revolutionary History of Vermont, and the Northern Campaign of 1777&hellip Boston&hellip 1851. 2 vols. 4th ed., 1856.

Gaut Gurley; or, the Trappers of Umbagog. A Tale of Border Life&hellip Boston&hellip Cleveland&hellip 1857. 4th thousand Philadelphia, 1860. As The Demon Trapper of Umbagog. Philadelphia, 1890. German. Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

The Doomed Chief; or, Two Hundred Years Ago&hellip Philadelphia&hellip 1860. Philadelphia, 1870.

Centeola; and Other Tales&hellip 1864.

Duyckinck, E. A. and G. L. Cyclopaedia of American Literature. 1855.

GEORGE TUCKER[edit]

The Valley of Shenandoah; or, Memoirs of the Graysons&hellip 1824. 2 vols. 2d ed., 1828.

A Voyage to the Moon: with Some Account of the Manners and Customs, Science and Philosophy, of the People of Morosofia, and Other Lunarians. By Joseph Atterley&hellip 1827.

Dunglinson, R. Review of A Voyage to the Moon. In The American Quarterly Review. March, 1828.

——An Obituary Notice of Prof. George Tucker. In Proceedings of The American Philosophical Society. 3 Oct., 1862.

NATHANIEL BEVERLEY TUCKER[edit]

George Balcombe. A Novel&hellip 1836. 2 vols. German. Leipzig, c. 1853–8.

The Partisan Leader; a Tale of the Future. By Edward William Sidney&hellip Printed for the Publishers, by J. Caxton, 1856 [i.e., Washington. Printed by Green, D. 1836]. 2 vols. Reissued as A Key to the Disunion Conspiracy. The Partisan Leader&hellip 1861. 2 vols. in I. Republished, Richmond, 1862, ed. Wise, Rev. T.A.

Trent, W. P. William Gilmore Simms. Boston and New York, 1892. [Contains correspondence between Simms and Tucker.]

ROYALL TYLER[edit]

The Algerine Captive; or, the Life and Adventures of Doctor Updike Underhill: Six Years a Prisoner among the Algerines&hellip Walpole, Newhampshire&hellip 1797. London, 1802. 2 vols. in I. Hartford, 1816.

For Tyler`s other writings See bibliography to Book II, Chaps. II and III. Gilman, M.D. The Bibliography of Vermont. Burlington, 1897.

WILLIAM WARE[edit]

Works, 1876, 3 vols. Boston, 1904, 3 vols.

Letters of Lucius M. Piso from Palmyra, to his Friend Marcus Curtius, at Rome

now first translated and published&hellip New York&hellip Boston&hellip 1837. 2 vols. As Letters from Palmyra. London, 1837. 2 vols. As Zenobia, Queen of the East; or, Letters from Palmyra. London, 1838 [2 vols.], 1844. As Zenobia; or, the Fall of Palmyra; an Historical Romance. New York, 1838 [2 vols.], 1839. As Palmyra. Being Letters of Lucius M. Piso from Palmyra, to his Friend Marcus Curtius at Rome. Edinburgh, 1851. London, 1860. As Letters from Palmyra etc. London, 1852. As The Fall of Palmyra. London, 1853. As Zenobia; or, The Fall of Palmyra. 6th ed., New York, 1846. 9th ed., 1854. 1866, 1869, 1879, 1886, 1896, 1904, 1905. London, 1868, 1874, 1879. As The Last Days and Fall of Palmyra. London, 1885, 1890. Boston, 1892. As Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. London, 1889.

Probus: or, Rome in the Third Century. In Letters of Lucius M. Piso from Rome, to Fausta the Daughter of Gracchus, at Palmyra&hellip 1838. 2 vols. As The Last Days of Aurelian. London, 1838, 1868. As Aurelian: or, Rome in the Third Century, etc. New York, 1848. 5th ed., 1854. 1866, 1869, 1879, 1886, 1905. As Rome and The Early Christians, etc. Edinburgh, 1851. London, 1852, 1853, 1860, 1872, 1879, 1886.

Julian: or Scenes in Judea&hellip New York&hellip Boston&hellip 1841. 2 vols. London, 1840 [?], 1869, 1874. London and Edinburgh, 1853, 1860. 3rd ed., New York, 1856. 1869, 1870, 1874, 1884. Boston, 1895. Mill, J.S. Letters from Palmyra. In The Westminster Review. Jan., 1838.

SAMUEL WOODWORTH[edit]

The Champions of Freedom, or the Mysterious Chief. A Romance of the Nineteenth Century, founded on the Events of the War, between the United States and Great Britain, which terminated in March, 1815&hellip 1816. 2 vols. 2d ed., 1817. For Woodworth`s other writings See bibliography to Book II, Chaps. II and v.