The City of God/Book IV

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The City of God
Augustine of Hippo
translated by Marcus Dods

Book IV[1]
Argument—In this book it is proved that the extent and long duration of the Roman empire is to be ascribed, not to Jove or the gods of the heathen, to whom individually scarce even single things and the very basest functions were believed to be entrusted, but to the one true God, the author of felicity, by whose power and judgment earthly kingdoms are founded and maintained.

Book IV[edit]

  1. Of the Things Which Have Been Discussed in the First Book.
  2. Of Those Things Which are Contained in Books Second and Third.
  3. Whether the Great Extent of the Empire, Which Has Been Acquired Only by Wars, is to Be Reckoned Among the Good Things Either of the Wise or the Happy.
  4. How Like Kingdoms Without Justice are to Robberies.
  5. Of the Runaway Gladiators Whose Power Became Like that of Royal Dignity.
  6. Concerning the Covetousness of Ninus, Who Was the First Who Made War on His Neighbors, that He Might Rule More Widely.
  7. Whether Earthly Kingdoms in Their Rise and Fall Have Been Either Aided or Deserted by the Help of the Gods.
  8. Which of the Gods Can the Romans Suppose Presided Over the Increase and Preservation of Their Empire, When They Have Believed that Even the Care of Single Things Could Scarcely Be Committed to Single Gods.
  9. Whether the Great Extent and Long Duration of the Roman Empire Should Be Ascribed to Jove, Whom His Worshippers Believe to Be the Chief God.
  10. What Opinions Those Have Followed Who Have Set Divers Gods Over Divers Parts of the World.
  11. Concerning the Many Gods Whom the Pagan Doctors Defend as Being One and the Same Jove.
  12. Concerning the Opinion of Those Who Have Thought that God is the Soul of the World, and the World is the Body of God.
  13. Concerning Those Who Assert that Only Rational Animals are Parts of the One God.
  14. The Enlargement of Kingdoms is Unsuitably Ascribed to Jove; For If, as They Will Have It, Victoria is a Goddess, She Alone Would Suffice for This Business.
  15. Whether It is Suitable for Good Men to Wish to Rule More Widely.
  16. What Was the Reason Why the Romans, in Detailing Separate Gods for All Things and All Movements of the Mind, Chose to Have the Temple of Quiet Outside the Gates.
  17. Whether, If the Highest Power Belongs to Jove, Victoria Also Ought to Be Worshipped.
  18. With What Reason They Who Think Felicity and Fortune Goddesses Have Distinguished Them.
  19. Concerning Fortuna Muliebris.
  20. Concerning Virtue and Faith, Which the Pagans Have Honored with Temples and Sacred Rites, Passing by Other Good Qualities, Which Ought Likewise to Have Been Worshipped, If Deity Was Rightly Attributed to These.
  21. That Although Not Understanding Them to Be the Gifts of God, They Ought at Least to Have Been Content with Virtue and Felicity.
  22. Concerning the Knowledge of the Worship Due to the Gods, Which Varro Glories in Having Himself Conferred on the Romans.
  23. Concerning Felicity, Whom the Romans, Who Venerate Many Gods, for a Long Time Did Not Worship with Divine Honor, Though She Alone Would Have Sufficed Instead of All.
  24. The Reasons by Which the Pagans Attempt to Defend Their Worshipping Among the Gods the Divine Gifts Themselves.
  25. Concerning the One God Only to Be Worshipped, Who, Although His Name is Unknown, is Yet Deemed to Be the Giver of Felicity.
  26. Of the Scenic Plays, the Celebration of Which the Gods Have Exacted from Their Worshippers.
  27. Concerning the Three Kinds of Gods About Which the Pontiff Scævola Has Discoursed.
  28. Whether the Worship of the Gods Has Been of Service to the Romans in Obtaining and Extending the Empire.
  29. Of the Falsity of the Augury by Which the Strength and Stability of the Roman Empire Was Considered to Be Indicated.
  30. What Kind of Things Even Their Worshippers Have Owned They Have Thought About the Gods of the Nations.
  31. Concerning the Opinions of Varro, Who, While Reprobating the Popular Belief, Thought that Their Worship Should Be Confined to One God, Though He Was Unable to Discover the True God.
  32. In What Interest the Princes of the Nations Wished False Religions to Continue Among the People Subject to Them.
  33. That the Times of All Kings and Kingdoms are Ordained by the Judgment and Power of the True God.
  34. Concerning the Kingdom of the Jews, Which Was Founded by the One and True God, and Preserved by Him as Long as They Remained in the True Religion.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. In Augustin’s letter to Evodius (169), which was written towards the end of the year 415, he mentions that this fourth book and the following one were begun and finished during that same year.