The City of God/Book XIX

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The City of God
Augustine of Hippo
translated by Marcus Dods

Book XIX
Argument—In this book the end of the two cities, the earthly and the heavenly, is discussed. Augustin reviews the opinions of the philosophers regarding the supreme good, and their vain efforts to make for themselves a happiness in this life; and, while he refutes these, he takes occasion to show what the peace and happiness belonging to the heavenly city, or the people of Christ, are both now and hereafter.

Book XIX[edit]

  1. That Varro Has Made Out that Two Hundred and Eighty-Eight Different Sects of Philosophy Might Be Formed by the Various Opinions Regarding the Supreme Good.
  2. How Varro, by Removing All the Differences Which Do Not Form Sects, But are Merely Secondary Questions, Reaches Three Definitions of the Chief Good, of Which We Must Choose One.
  3. Which of the Three Leading Opinions Regarding the Chief Good Should Be Preferred, According to Varro, Who Follows Antiochus and the Old Academy.
  4. What the Christians Believe Regarding the Supreme Good and Evil, in Opposition to the Philosophers, Who Have Maintained that the Supreme Good is in Themselves.
  5. Of the Social Life, Which, Though Most Desirable, is Frequently Disturbed by Many Distresses.
  6. Of the Error of Human Judgments When the Truth is Hidden.
  7. Of the Diversity of Languages, by Which the Intercourse of Men is Prevented; And of the Misery of Wars, Even of Those Called Just.
  8. That the Friendship of Good Men Cannot Be Securely Rested In, So Long as the Dangers of This Life Force Us to Be Anxious.
  9. Of the Friendship of the Holy Angels, Which Men Cannot Be Sure of in This Life, Owing to the Deceit of the Demons Who Hold in Bondage the Worshippers of a Plurality of Gods.
  10. The Reward Prepared for the Saints After They Have Endured the Trial of This Life.
  11. Of the Happiness of the Eternal Peace, Which Constitutes the End or True Perfection of the Saints.
  12. That Even the Fierceness of War and All the Disquietude of Men Make Towards This One End of Peace, Which Every Nature Desires.
  13. Of the Universal Peace Which the Law of Nature Preserves Through All Disturbances, and by Which Every One Reaches His Desert in a Way Regulated by the Just Judge.
  14. Of the Order and Law Which Obtain in Heaven and Earth, Whereby It Comes to Pass that Human Society Is Served by Those Who Rule It.
  15. Of the Liberty Proper to Man’s Nature, and the Servitude Introduced by Sin,—A Servitude in Which the Man Whose Will is Wicked is the Slave of His Own Lust, Though He is Free So Far as Regards Other Men.
  16. Of Equitable Rule.
  17. What Produces Peace, and What Discord, Between the Heavenly and Earthly Cities.
  18. How Different the Uncertainty of the New Academy is from the Certainty of the Christian Faith.
  19. Of the Dress and Habits of the Christian People.
  20. That the Saints are in This Life Blessed in Hope.
  21. Whether There Ever Was a Roman Republic Answering to the Definitions of Scipio in Cicero’s Dialogue.
  22. Whether the God Whom the Christians Serve is the True God to Whom Alone Sacrifice Ought to Be Paid.
  23. Porphyry’s Account of the Responses Given by the Oracles of the gods Concerning Christ.
  24. The Definition Which Must Be Given of a People and a Republic, in Order to Vindicate the Assumption of These Titles by the Romans and by Other Kingdoms.
  25. That Where There is No True Religion There are No True Virtues.
  26. Of the Peace Which is Enjoyed by the People that are Alienated from God, and the Use Made of It by the People of God in the Time of Its Pilgrimage.
  27. That the Peace of Those Who Serve God Cannot in This Mortal Life Be Apprehended in Its Perfection.
  28. The End of the Wicked.