The City of God/Book XVIII

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The City of God
Augustine of Hippo
translated by Marcus Dods

Book XVIII
Argument—Augustin traces the parallel courses of the earthly and heavenly cities from the time of Abraham to the end of the world; and alludes to the oracles regarding Christ, both those uttered by the Sibyls, and those of the sacred prophets who wrote after the foundation of Rome, Hosea, Amos, Isaiah, Micah, and their successors.

Book XVIII[edit]

  1. Of Those Things Down to the Times of the Saviour Which Have Been Discussed in the Seventeen Books.
  2. Of the Kings and Times of the Earthly City Which Were Synchronous with the Times of the Saints, Reckoning from the Rise of Abraham.
  3. What Kings Reigned in Assyria and Sicyon When, According to the Promise, Isaac Was Born to Abraham in His Hundredth Year, and When the Twins Esau and Jacob Were Born of Rebecca to Isaac in His Sixtieth Year.
  4. Of the Times of Jacob and His Son Joseph.
  5. Of Apis King of Argos, Whom the Egyptians Called Serapis, and Worshipped with Divine Honors.
  6. Who Were Kings of Argos, and of Assyria, When Jacob Died in Egypt.
  7. Who Were Kings When Joseph Died in Egypt.
  8. Who Were Kings When Moses Was Born, and What Gods Began to Be Worshipped Then.
  9. When the City of Athens Was Founded, and What Reason Varro Assigns for Its Name.
  10. What Varro Reports About the Term Areopagus, and About Deucalion’s Flood.
  11. When Moses Led the People Out of Egypt; And Who Were Kings When His Successor Joshua the Son of Nun Died.
  12. Of the Rituals of False Gods Instituted by the Kings of Greece in the Period from Israel’s Exodus from Egypt Down to the Death of Joshua the Son of Nun.
  13. What Fables Were Invented at the Time When Judges Began to Rule the Hebrews.
  14. Of the Theological Poets.
  15. Of the Fall of the Kingdom of Argos, When Picus the Son of Saturn First Received His Father’s Kingdom of Laurentum.
  16. Of Diomede, Who After the Destruction of Troy Was Placed Among the Gods, While His Companions are Said to Have Been Changed into Birds.
  17. What Varro Says of the Incredible Transformations of Men.
  18. What We Should Believe Concerning the Transformations Which Seem to Happen to Men Through the Art of Demons.
  19. That Æneas Came into Italy When Abdon the Judge Ruled Over the Hebrews.
  20. Of the Succession of the Line of Kings Among the Israelites After the Times of the Judges.
  21. Of the Kings of Latium, the First and Twelfth of Whom, Æneas and Aventinus, Were Made Gods.
  22. That Rome Was Founded When the Assyrian Kingdom Perished, at Which Time Hezekiah Reigned in Judah.
  23. Of the Erythræan Sibyl, Who is Known to Have Sung Many Things About Christ More Plainly Than the Other Sibyls.
  24. That the Seven Sages Flourished in the Reign of Romulus, When the Ten Tribes Which Were Called Israel Were Led into Captivity by the Chaldeans, and Romulus, When Dead, Had Divine Honors Conferred on Him.
  25. What Philosophers Were Famous When Tarquinius Priscus Reigned Over the Romans, and Zedekiah Over the Hebrews, When Jerusalem Was Taken and the Temple Overthrown.
  26. That at the Time When the Captivity of the Jews Was Brought to an End, on the Completion of Seventy Years, the Romans Also Were Freed from Kingly Rule.
  27. Of the Times of the Prophets Whose Oracles are Contained in Books and Who Sang Many Things About the Call of the Gentiles at the Time When the Roman Kingdom Began and the Assyrian Came to an End.
  28. Of the Things Pertaining to the Gospel of Christ Which Hosea and Amos Prohesied.
  29. What Things are Predicted by Isaiah Concerning Christ and the Church.
  30. What Micah, Jonah, and Joel Prophesied in Accordance with the New Testament.
  31. Of the Predictions Concerning the Salvation of the World in Christ, in Obadiah, Nahum, and Habakkuk.
  32. Of the Prophecy that is Contained in the Prayer and Song of Habakkuk.
  33. What Jeremiah and Zephaniah Have, by the Prophetic Spirit, Spoken Before Concerning Christ and the Calling of the Nations.
  34. Of the Prophecy of Daniel and Ezekiel, Other Two of the Greater Prophets.
  35. Of the Prophecy of the Three Prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
  36. About Esdras and the Books of the Maccabees.
  37. That Prophetic Records are Found Which are More Ancient Than Any Fountain of the Gentile Philosophy.
  38. That the Ecclesiastical Canon Has Not Admitted Certain Writings on Account of Their Too Great Antiquity, Lest Through Them False Things Should Be Inserted Instead of True.
  39. About the Hebrew Written Characters Which that Language Always Possessed.
  40. About the Most Mendacious Vanity of the Egyptians, in Which They Ascribe to Their Science an Antiquity of a Hundred Thousand Years.
  41. About the Discord of Philosophic Opinion, and the Concord of the Scriptures that are Held as Canonical by the Church.
  42. By What Dispensation of God’s Providence the Sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament Were Translated Out of Hebrew into Greek, that They Might Be Made Known to All the Nations.
  43. Of the Authority of the Septuagint Translation, Which, Saving the Honor of the Hebrew Original, is to Be Preferred to All Translations.
  44. How the Threat of the Destruction of the Ninevites is to Be Understood Which in the Hebrew Extends to Forty Days, While in the Septuagint It is Contracted to Three.
  45. That the Jews Ceased to Have Prophets After the Rebuilding of the Temple, and from that Time Until the Birth of Christ Were Afflicted with Continual Adversity, to Prove that the Building of Another Temple Had Been Promised by Prophetic Voices.
  46. Of the Birth of Our Saviour, Whereby the Word Was Made Flesh; And of the Dispersion of the Jews Among All Nations, as Had Been Prophesied.
  47. Whether Before Christian Times There Were Any Outside of the Israelite Race Who Belonged to the Fellowship of the Heavenly City.
  48. That Haggai’s Prophecy, in Which He Said that the Glory of the House of God Would Be Greater Than that of the First Had Been, Was Really Fulfilled, Not in the Rebuilding of the Temple, But in the Church of Christ.
  49. Of the Indiscriminate Increase of the Church, Wherein Many Reprobate are in This World Mixed with the Elect.
  50. Of the Preaching of the Gospel, Which is Made More Famous and Powerful by the Sufferings of Its Preachers.
  51. That the Catholic Faith May Be Confirmed Even by the Dissensions of the Heretics.
  52. Whether We Should Believe What Some Think, That, as the Ten Persecutions Which are Past Have Been Fulfilled, There Remains No Other Beyond the Eleventh, Which Must Happen in the Very Time of Antichrist.
  53. Of the Hidden Time of the Final Persecution.
  54. Of the Very Foolish Lie of the Pagans, in Feigning that the Christian Religion Was Not to Last Beyond Three Hundred and Sixty-Five Years.