The Civil Service and the Patronage/Appendix D
|←Appendix C. Removals under Tyler after Webster's Resignation||The Civil Service and the Patronage
LIST OF AUTHORITIES.
Most books on United States history contain some reference to the patronage; and during the last thirty years we have been so well supplied with indexes to periodical literature that it has seemed superfluous to reprint here the titles of the hundreds of articles which, while they have contributed to the general conclusions of this monograph, have not been cited or used in its contents. It has been thought best, therefore, to confine this bibliography to those works which contain special information or which show some special excellency of treatment.
The greater part of the research for this volume was made in the Harvard College Library, which, valuable for the whole field, contains a particularly important collection of pamphlets on civil service reform. The library of the Harvard Law School is extremely rich in early editions of state laws. The American Antiquarian Society, at Worcester, possesses a very valuable collection of early newspapers; and the Wisconsin Historical Society has many rare tracts on early politics and much unique material on western history. The Chase manuscripts, to which reference is made in the footnotes, were in the possession of Professor Albert Bushnell Hart when I made use of them; they are now in the Library of Congress, and portions of them have been published by the American Historical Society in its report for 1902. The Foster manuscripts, in the possession of the Rhode Island Historical Society, are very instructive, though they are seldom mentioned in the footnotes: a few of them have recently been published in volume viii. of the Publications of the Society, under the editorship of J. Franklin Jameson. The kindness of Mrs. John R. Bartlett secured access to certain papers of the Hon. Thomas A. Jenckes of Rhode Island; and through Dr. U. B. Phillips was secured the use of some significant letters of William H. Crawford of Georgia.
The letters of application and of recommendation to office under the national government are in the keeping of the bureaus of appointments in the several departments. In the treasury department there is an elaborate system of filing for all current appointments, but those which are obsolete are relegated to the cellar; all matter relating to appointments in this department previous to the twenties was destroyed by fire. The state department has preserved its records from the foundation of the government, and has them all on file for reference. Mr. Gaillard Hunt made use of this material in writing his articles on office-seeking, and he has also prepared a calendar of all the material for the administration of Washington. These letters, however, are regarded as confidential and are not open to general use.
While this monograph was going through the press there appeared the Guide to the Archives of the Government of the United States in Washington, by Van Tyne and Leland, for the Carnegie Institution, in which the records of appointments and removals receive due attention.
Bibliography for the students of Civil Service Reform, recommended by the Executive Committee of the Woman's Auxiliary to the Civil Service Reform Association, 1899.
Bibliography of Civil Service Reform and Related Subjects. New York, 1900.
Foster, W. E. References to the History of Presidential Administrations. New York, 1885.
Hart, Albert Bushnell. Handbook of the History, Diplomacy, and Government of the United States (§§ 21, 101, 108). Cambridge, 1901.
Salmon, Lucy M. Syllabus for the Study of the History of Civil Service Reform. Published for the Massachusetts State Federation of Women's Clubs, 1903.
Every book covering the general history of the United States for any period subsequent to 1789 contains some reference to the history of the civil service. Those which contain the best accounts are Henry Adams's History of the Administrations of Jefferson and Madison; J. F. Rhodes's History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850; and Herman Van Holst's The Constitutional and Political History of the United States.
SPECIAL WORKS ON THE HISTORY OF THE CIVIL SERVICE AND THE PATRONAGE.
Becker, Carl. Nominations in Colonial New York. American Historical Review, vi. 260-275. New York, etc., January, 1901.
Catterall, R. C. H. The Second Bank of the United States. Chicago, 1903.
Chadsey, C. E. The Struggle between President Johnson and Congress over Reconstruction. Columbia University, Studies in History, viii. No. I, pp. 1-142. New York, 1896.
De Witt, D. M. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson. New York, 1903.
Dunning, W. A. Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction, and related topics. New York, etc., 1898.
Eaton, D. B. Civil Service in Great Britain, a History of Abuses and Reforms and their Bearing upon American Politics. New York, 1880. The result of an investigation begun at the request of President Hayes, June 25, 1877.
Fish, C. R. Lincoln and the Patronage. American Historical Review, viii. 53-69. New York, etc., October, 1902.
Fish, C. R. Removal of Officials by the President of the United States. American Historical Association, Report, 1899, i. 67-86. Washington, 1900.
Hunt, Gaillard. Calendar of Applications and Recommendations for Office during the Presidency of George Washington. Washington, 1901.
Hunt, Gaillard. Office-seeking during Washington's Administration. American Historical Review, i. 270-283. New York, etc., January, 1896.
Hunt, Gaillard. Office-seeking during the Administration of John Adams. American Historical Review, ii. 241-261. New York, etc., January, 1897.
Hunt, Gaillard. Office-seeking during Jefferson's Administration. American Historical Review, iii. 270-291. New York, etc., January, 1898. — The material for these three articles is drawn from the files of the state department at Washington, and many letters, heretofore unprinted and at present inaccessible to the student, are given in full.
Hunt, Gaillard. Office-seeking during Washington's Administration. American Historical Review, i. 270-283. New York, etc., January, 1896.
Johnson, E. R. The Early History of the United States Consular Service, 1776-1792. Political Science Quarterly, xiii. 19-40. New York, etc., March, 1898.
Lawton, G. W. The American Caucus System: its Origin, Purpose, and Utility. New York, etc., 1885.
Luetscher, G. D. Early Political Machinery in the United States. Philadelphia, 1903.
Merriam, J. M. Jefferson's Use of the Executive Patronage (abstract). American Historical Association, Papers, ii. No. 1, pp. 47-52. New York, etc., 1887. Contains valuable statistics.
Salmon, Lucy M. History of the Appointing Power of the President. American Historical Association, Papers, i. No. 5. New York, etc., 1886.
Tyler, L. G. Parties and Patronage in the United States. New York, etc., 1891. — An attempt to vindicate President Tyler's administration of the patronage.
White, W. H. History of Civil Service Reform. Brookline, Massachusetts, 1883.
TECHNICAL WORKS ON THE CIVIL SERVICE.
American Calendar (The), or United States Register. Philadelphia, 1794, 1796, 1798.
Bowker, R. R. Civil Service Examinations, being Question Papers with Actual Answers of Successful and Unsuccessful Candidates. New York, 1886.
Comstock, J. M. The Civil Service of the United States; also a description of the Civil Service of the States of New York and Massachusetts, and their Municipalities. New York, 1885.
Crawley, W. J. C. Handbook of Competitive Examinations for Admission to every Department of her Majesty's Service.
De Land, T. L. Tables showing the Number of Positions in the Executive Civil Service of the United States, classified and unclassified, on June 30, 1896. Washington, 1897.
Ewald, A. C. The Complete Guide to the Home Civil Service. 17th edition. London, 1881.
Métérié-Larrey. Les Emplois Publics. Paris, 1881.
Mosher, R. B. Executive Register of the United States, 1789-1902. Baltimore, 1903. — A complete list of the heads of the executive departments from the beginning of the government.
National Calendar (The). Published by Peter Force annually. Washington, 1820-1836.
Saville, Stanley. The Civil Service Coach. The Civil Service Series. London, 1881.
BIOGRAPHIES AND WORKS OF STATESMEN WHICH CONTAIN SOURCE MATERIAL.
The works and reminiscences of almost all the statesmen and prominent men of the period contain some material. In the same way the lives of nearly all statesmen, and many of those of other men, discuss some one phase of the subject, some another; some at length, some slightly. Among the best are those in the Statesmen Series, especially those by A. B. Hart and H. C. Lodge.
Adams, Henry. Life of Albert Gallatin. Philadelphia, 1879.
Adams, John. Works, with a Life of the Author. Edited by C. F. Adams. 10 vols. Boston, 1854-1856.
Adams, John Quincy. Memoirs, comprising parts of his Diary from 1795 to 1848. 12 vols. Philadelphia, 1874-1877. — The Index does not adequately open up these volumes for this subject. At the times when Adams was secretary of state and president almost every page contains some material. At later periods there is less, but still enough to repay a page by page examination.
Benton, T. H. Thirty Years' View; a History of the Working of the American Government for Thirty Years from 1820 to 1850. New York, 1854-1856. — Particularly valuable for the administrations of Jackson and Polk.
Calhoun, J. C. Correspondence. Edited by J. F. Jameson. American Historical Association, Report, 1899, ii. Washington, 1900. — Somewhat scattered material, particularly valuable for the Tyler administration. Calhoun's works contain only his speech of 1855, which is chiefly constitutional. The most important Calhoun material is in Edwards's History of Illinois.
Carpenter, F. B. Six Months at the White House with Abraham Lincoln. New York, 1865. (The 24th edition, 1867, is entitled “Inner Life of Abraham Lincoln.”) — Contains the best anecdotes of Lincoln and the patronage.
Cary, Edward. George William Curtis. (American Men of Letters Series.) Boston, etc., 1894. — Contains a good account of the beginnings of the reform movement.
Clay, Henry. Private Correspondence. Edited by Calvin Colton. Boston, 1856. — Valuable for beginnings of the administrations from 1816 to 1850. Clay's Works contain nothing on this subject that is not in the congressional publications.
Curtis, G. T. Life of James Buchanan. 2 vols. New York, 1883. — Invaluable for administrations of Polk and Buchanan; also on rotation.
Curtis, G. W. Orations and Addresses. Edited by Charles Eliot Norton. 3 vols. New York, 1894.
Dallas, G. M. Life and Writings of Alexander James Dallas. Philadelphia, 1871. — Intimate correspondence with Madison while Dallas was secretary of the treasury.
Davis, M. L. Memoirs of Aaron Burr. 2 vols. New York, 1836-1837. — Correspondence is valuable about 1801.
Edwards, Ninian. The Edwards Papers, being portions of a collection of the Letters, Papers, and Manuscripts of Ninian Edwards. Edited by E. B. Washburne. Chicago Historical Society, Collections, iii. Chicago, 1884. — Illinois politics and Illinois relations of national statesmen, particularly valuable because of the letters of Duff Green.
Edwards, N. W. History of Illinois from 1778 to 1833, and Life and Times of Ninian Edwards. Springfield, 1870.
Gallatin, Albert. Writings. Edited by Henry Adams. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1879. — Invaluable for the intimate and constant correspondence with Jefferson, 1800-1812.
Gibbs, George. Memoirs of the Administrations of Washington and John Adams. 2 vols. New York, 1846. — Intimate correspondence between Oliver Wolcott and officials and distinguished men, 1789-1800.
Hamilton, J. A. Reminiscences; or Men and Events at Home and Abroad. New York, 1869. — The inaccurate and prejudiced memoirs of a man who was very well acquainted with the Jackson and Van Buren administrations.
Higginson, Stephen. Letters, 1783-1804. American Historical Association, Report, 1896, i. 704-841. Washington, 1897. — Valuable for the whole period of federalist control.
Hunt, C. H. Life of Edward Livingston; with introduction by George Bancroft. New York, 1864. — Interesting correspondence during the period for which he was secretary of state.
Jefferson, Thomas. The Jefferson Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 7th series, i. Boston, 1900. — Much on the patronage.
Jefferson, Thomas. Writings. Edited by P. L. Ford. 10 vols. New York, 1892-1899. — Valuable from 1789 to 1826, particularly 1789-1795 and 1801-1809.
Jefferson, Thomas. Writings. Edited by H. A. Washington. 9 vols. Washington, 1853-1854.
Kendall, Amos. Autobiography. Edited by William Stickney. Boston, 1872. — Invaluable for Jackson's administrations.
King, C. R. The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King. 6 vols. New York, 1894-1900. — Valuable material from 1789 to 1825.
Lincoln, Abraham. Complete Works. Edited by J. G. Nicolay and John Hay. 2 vols. New York, 1894. — Valuable about 1849 and very rich from 1858 to 1865.
Mackenzie, W. L. The Life and Times of Martin Van Buren, etc. Boston, 1846.
Mackenzie, W. L. The Lives and Opinions of B. F. Butler and Jesse Hoyt, etc. Boston, 1845. — Throws a lurid, though untrustworthy, light on New York and national politics under Jackson and Van Buren.
Madison, James. Letters and Other Writings. By order of Congress. 4 vols. New York, 1884.
Madison, James. Papers. Edited by Henry D. Gilpin. 3 vols. Washington, 1840.
Morris, Gouverneur. Diary and Letters. Edited by Anne Gary Morris. 2 vols. New York, 1888. — Useful from 1789 to 1803.
Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson. 3 vols. New York, 1860. — Contains much source material of varying value.
Quincy, Edmund. Life of Josiah Quincy. Boston, 1867. — Valuable for reform efforts of 1811.
Quincy, Josiah. Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Boston, 1858. — Special information on the opening of J. Q. Adams's administration.
Ravenel, Mrs. St. Julien. Life and Times of William Lowndes of South Carolina, 1782-1822. Boston, etc., 1901. — Valuable about 1812.
Seaton, W. W. William Winston Seaton of the “National Intelligencer”: a Biographical Sketch [by his son]. Boston, 1871. — Valuable letters from 1809 to 1860, particularly for Adams's administration.
Seward, F. W. William H. Seward. 3 vols. (i. Autobiography, 1831-1846; ii.-iii. Seward at Washington, 1846-1872.) New York, 1890. — Particularly valuable for Taylor's administration.
Shepard, E. M. Martin Van Buren. (American Statesmen Series.) New York, 1888. — One of the best secondary accounts of the spoils system.
Sumner, W. G. Andrew Jackson as a Public Man. (American Statesmen Series) Boston, etc., 1882. — A good account of the origin of the spoils system, but not so good as that in Shepard's Van Buren.
Tarbell, Ida M. Life of Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. New York, 1900. — Contains invaluable source material for Lincoln's administration.
Tyler, L. G. The Letters and Times of the Tylers. 3 vols. Richmond, 1884-1896.
Washington, George. Writings. Edited by W. C. Ford. 14 vols. New York, 1889-1893. — Full of details of the patronage; notes valuable.
Washington, George. Writings. Edited by Jared Sparks. 12 vols. Boston, 1837.
Webb, S. B. Correspondence and Journals, 1772-1806. Edited by W. C. Ford. 3 vols. New York, 1893-1894. — Valuable correspondence relating to Washington's administration and to Georgia and New York politics.
Webster, Daniel. Letters. Edited by C. H. Van Tyne. New York, 1902.
Webster, Daniel. Private Correspondence. Edited by Fletcher Webster. 2 vols. Boston, 1857. — Particularly valuable for Adams's administration.
Weed, Thurlow. Autobiography. Edited by Harriet A. Weed. Boston, 1884. — Very valuable for period 1848-1870.
Welles, Gideon, Lincoln and Seward. New York, 1874. — Very important account of a cabinet meeting in 1861.
PAMPHLETS AND OTHER CONTEMPORARY DISCUSSION.
Adams, Charles Francis. An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs in consequence of the Senate's course, and particularly Mr. Webster's Speech upon the Executive Patronage Bill. Boston, 1835.
Adams, John, and Cunningham, William. Correspondence between the Hon. John Adams, late President of the United States, and the late William Cunningham, Esq., beginning in 1803, and ending in 1812. Boston, 1823. — Chiefly important for the dismissal of Pickering.
Address of the State Committee of Republicans, appointed to correspond with the Committees of the Several Counties of the State of Pennsylvania on the Concerns of the Election of 1802. Printed by William Duane. [Philadelphia], 1802.
Address to the People of the American States who Choose Electors . . . to which is added a short sketch of the Biography of General George Clinton, and several Essays. Washington, 1808. — On rotation.
Andrews, C. C. Administration Reform as an Issue in the next Presidential Canvass. Cambridge, 1888.
Austin, Benjamin, Jr. Constitutional Republicanism in Opposition to Fallacious Federalism. Boston, 1803.
Bernard, G. S. Civil Service Reform versus Spoils System. New York, 1885. — Contains a bibliography.
Bonaparte, C. J. Civil Service Reform as a Moral Question. New York, 1889.
Brown, Willard. Civil Service Reform in the New York Custom-House. New York, 1882.
Callender, J. T. The Prospect before Us. Richmond, 1800.
Callender, J. T. Sedgwick & Co., or a Key to the Six Per Cent Cabinet. Philadelphia, 1798.
Callender, “Tom.” Letters to Alexander Hamilton. New York, 1802.
Camillus. A History of French Influence in the United States, to which is added an Exposition of the Congressional Caucus. Philadelphia, 1812.
Carpenter, G. M. The Reform of the Civil Service considered from the Party Standpoint. Read before the Rhode Island Historical Society, March 25, 1890. No title-page.
[Coleman, William.] An Examination of the President's Reply to the New Haven Remonstrance . . . together with a List of Removals and New Appointments made since the Fourth of March, 1801. New York, 1801.
Curtis, G. W. The Situation. New York, 1886.
Dayton, Jonathan. Public Speculation Unfolded: in sixteen letters addressed to F. Childs and J. H. Lawrence of New York, by Jonathan Dayton of New Jersey, while Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States. New York, 1800.
Derby, J. B. Political Reminiscences. Boston, 1835. — Giving an account of the situation in Washington in 1829, with letters of recommendation, etc.
Earle, A. L. Our Revenue System and the Civil Service: shall they be reformed? Economic Monographs, No. 5. New York, 1878.
Elliot, Jonathan. The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 4 vols. Washington, 1836.
Federalist (The). Edited by P. L. Ford. New York, 1898.
Foote, Ebenezer. Cheetham's View of the Political Conduct of Aaron Burr, Esq., Vice-President of the United States. New York, 1802.
Ford, P. L., editor. Essays on the Constitution of the United States. Brooklyn, 1892.
Ford, P. L., editor. Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States. Brooklyn, 1888.
Foster, W. E. The Situation of Civil Service Reform in the United States. Boston, 1881.
Frieze, Jacob. A Concise History of the Efforts to obtain an Extension Suffrage in Rhode Island from the Year 1811 to 1842. Providence, 1842.
Fullerton, Alexander. How you may aid Civil Service Reform. Civil Service Reform Association of Philadelphia, Publications, No. 8. Philadelphia .
Grey, Earl. Reciprocity and Civil Service Reform, with comments by M. M. Trumbull. Chicago, 1893.
Rowland, C. G. Civil Service Reform. Address read before the Michigan Conference of the Unitarian Churches in Detroit, October 21, 1880.
Lambert, Henry. The Progress of Civil Service Reform in the United States. Boston, 1885.
[Lowell, John.] The New-England Patriot, being a Candid Comparison of the Principles and Conduct of the Washington and Jefferson Administrations. Boston, 1810.
May, Joseph. Reform of the Civil Service a Moral Duty. Sermon preached in Philadelphia, November 28, 1889. Philadelphia, 1889.
New York Civil Service Reform Association. Letters addressed to the Various Candidates for the Governorship, and for Congress, the Assembly, and City Offices during the Campaign of 1882. New York, 1882.
Observations upon the Duties and Emoluments of Certain Public Offices. New York, 1822. Criticism of the New York courts.
Pillsbury, A. E. Soldiers' Exemption Bill. Speech in the Massachusetts Senate. No title-page.
Political Mirror, or Review of Jacksonism. New York, 1835. Newspaper extracts, etc.
Princeton Review. History and Literature of Civil Service Reform. Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, xlii. 1-21. New York, January, 1870.
Report of the Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, appointed to investigate the Administration of the Civil Service Laws of the State of New York. Albany, 1895.
Richmond, H. A. The Workingmen's Interest in Civil Service Reform: the Spoils System in the Public Schools. Address before the Central Labor Union of Buffalo, April 4, 1888. [Buffalo, 1888.]
Russell, C. T. Address before the National League of the Civil Service Reform Association. Boston, 1892.
Shepard, E. M. The Competitive Test and the Civil Service of States and Cities. (Economic Tracts, No. 14.) New York, 1884.
Stickney, Albert. Government Machinery. New York, 1880.
Tacitus [Thomas Evans]. A Series of Letters addressed to Thomas Jefferson, Esq., President of the United States. Philadelphia, 1802.
Three Patriots (The); or the Cause and Cure of Present Evils. Addressed to the voters of Maryland. Baltimore, 1811.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Translated by Henry Reeve, and revised by Henry Bowen. 2 vols. Boston, 1863.
Van Buren, Martin. [Pamphlets on Van Buren, 1832-1848, passim. Harvard College Library, shelf number 7393.23.] On the Post-Office Removals in 1820.
Warren, J. C. An Antidote to John Wood's Poison. New York, 1802.
Waters, E. F. The Great Struggle in England for Honest Government, . . . with a Letter on Reform in New York City by Thomas B. Musgrove. New York, 1881.
Webster, Pelatiah. Political Essays on the Nature and Operation of Money, Public Finances, etc. Philadelphia, 1791.
Whig Convention of Young Men in New York City. New York, 1834.
Whitridge, F. W. The Four Years' Term, or Rotation in Office. New York, 1883.
Whitridge, F. W. Rotation in Office. Political Science Quarterly, iv. 279-295. New York, etc., June, 1889.
Who shall be Governor, Strong or Sullivan? or the Sham-Patriot Unmasked. 1806.
Wise, H. A. Seven Decades of the Union. Philadelphia, 1876. Tyler administration.
Wood, John. The History of the Administration of John Adams. New York, 1802.
PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS.
At the time of the first issue of Poole's Index the civil service was prominently before the public, and consequently all articles in the periodicals which the index includes have been made so easily accessible that it is unnecessary to recapitulate them here. The two most useful periodical publications are Niles's Register, which furnishes contemporary comment and episode throughout the period of the establishment of the spoils system, and the Nation, the date of whose foundation (1865) coincides with the beginning of the effective reform movement. A useful list is found in the Fifteenth Report of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, pp. 511-517.
North, S. N. D. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. (Census Report, 1880.) Washington, 1881.
Albany Argus. Albany, 1813, etc. Edited by Jesse Buel, and afterward by Leake and Croswell. — Often had the state printing, and was for many years the chief regency organ.
Boston Courier. Boston, 1824, etc. — Chiefly commercial; Whig in politics, but not violent; valuable during the forties.
Cincinnati Chronicle. Cincinnati, 1836-1850. Whig.
City Gazette or Daily Advertiser. Charleston, South Carolina, 1 788-1 817. — Jeffersonian Republican.
Civil Service Chronicle. Indianapolis, 1889-1896.
Civil Service Record. Boston, 1881-1892. — Organ of the Boston and Cambridge Civil Service Reform Associations.
Civil Service Reformer. Baltimore, 1885-1892. — Organ of the Baltimore Civil Service Reform Association. In 1892 it was united with the Civil Service Record, under the title “Good Government.”
Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser. Philadelphia, 1791-1800.
Columbian Centinel. Boston, 1790-1840. — Published and edited by Benjamin Russell for about forty years, ending 1828. Advocated the adoption of the constitution; Federalist, anti-Jacksonian, strongly partisan; very progressive, and the source of news for many New England papers, until the retirement of Mr. Russell.
Connecticut Courant. Hartford, 1764, etc. — Representative of Connecticut Federalism in its successive forms; generally reliable and up to date.
Courier and Enquirer. New York, 1829-1861. — Edited by Mordecai M. Noah. Supported Jackson strongly in 1828.
Daily National Journal. Washington, 1822, etc. — Published and edited by Peter Force. In 1825, Clay transferred the printing under his control from Gales and Seaton to Force, who continued to be very near the administration for the next four years. The paper was very ably conducted, though of course partisan.
Globe. Washington, 1830-1845. — Published and edited by Blair and Rives. The official Democratic paper from its inception to its end; extremely partisan and unreliable.
Good Government. New York, 1892, etc. — Organ of the National Civil Service Reform League.
Jackson Gazette. Jackson, Tennessee, 1824-1830. — Valuable between 1825 and 1830.
Lancaster Journal. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1794-1839. — Strongly Federalist; used about 1800.
Lexington Reporter. Lexington, Kentucky, 1807-1873. — Supported Adams in 1828.
Louisiana Advertiser. New Orleans, 1825, etc. — Supported Jackson.
Madisonian. Washington, 1842, etc. — Published and edited by Thomas Allen. Violently partisan, and supported the spoils system; official Whig paper in 1841, but followed Tyler in his break with that party; important only during this administration. Mr. Allen later became editor of the Union.
Massachusetts Centinel. Boston, 1784-1790. — In 1790 the name was changed to Columbian Centinel.
Massachusetts Spy and Worcester County Advertiser. Worcester, 1771-1904. — Federalist and anti-Jacksonian; contains many long and violent communications, but its editorial and news columns are not unfair.
Nashville Gazette. Nashville. Jacksonian.
Nation. New York, 1865, etc.
National Intelligencer. Washington, 1800-1869. — Published and edited by Samuel H. Smith and Joseph Gales, and later by Joseph Gales, Jr., and William Seaton. The administrative organ until 1825, when Clay took his patronage from it; it still supported Adams, however, and had the printing of the House. In 1843 it became the mouthpiece of the Whigs. After this date its importance diminished.
National Republican and Ohio Political Register. Cincinnati, 1823, etc. — From 1799 to 1823 its name was Western Spy and Hamilton Gazette.
New York Evening Post. New York, 1801, etc. — Established and edited by William Coleman under the direction of Alexander Hamilton. Strongly Federalist, but not scurrilous. In 1828, William Cullen Bryant became editor. The paper supported Jackson, and remained Democratic during the period for which it is used here.
New York Herald. New York, 1802, etc. — Published in the century in the interest of the Federalists.
New York Herald. New York, 1835, etc. — The Herald, edited by James Gordon Bennett, and the Tribune (see below), edited by Horace Greeley, tended, in the fifties, to supplant the official organs at Washington. They were enabled to do this by the introduction of the telegraph, and by the energy and alertness of their skilled Washington reporters.
New York Observer. New York, 1820-1850. — Religious. Its political notes are generally fair.
New York Tribune. New York, 1841, etc. — Invaluable for Washington correspondence during the fifties and sixties. Independent and Republican.
Niles's Register. Baltimore, 1811-1849. — Edited by Hezekiah Niles until 1846. On the whole non-partisan, but violent on particular issues.
Oracle of Dauphin and Harrisburgh Advertiser. Harrisburgh, 1791, etc. — Jeffersonian Republican.
Pennsylvania Eagle. Huntington, Pennsylvania. Republican.
Philadelphia Gazette and Universal Daily Advertiser. Philadelphia, 1794-1840. — Strongly Federalist.
Poulson's American Daily Advertiser. Philadelphia, 1800-1839. Federalist. — A continuation of Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser.
Republic. Washington, 1848-. Official Whig journal.
Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, 1804, etc. Published and edited by Thomas Ritchie. From early in the century until 1845, when Ritchie was transferred to the Union, the exponent of Virginian principles. The best newspaper in the South; well gotten out, quoting many other papers, and fairly reliable.
Springfield Gazette. Springfield, 1879, etc. — Whig.
Truth's Advocate and Monthly Anti-Jackson Expositor. Cincinnati, January to October, 1828.
Union. Washington, 1845, etc. — Established, with Thomas Ritchie as editor, to supplant the Globe as the official organ of the Democratic administration, because of the attitude of Blair on Texas and slavery. It continued to be the organ of the party until 1857, when the practice of having such a mouthpiece practically died out, although the Union continued to the close of the Buchanan administration.
United States Telegraph. Washington, 1826, etc. — Published and edited by General Duff Green. Strongly partisan, and supporter of the spoils system; official Democratic paper from 1828 to 1833, when the Globe was established to take its place because of Green's strenuous support of Calhoun.
Worcester Palladium. Worcester. — Democratic.
PUBLICATIONS OF SOCIETIES.
So scattered is the material on this subject that it would be difficult to name a learned society whose publications could not furnish some little information. Only those specially useful will be mentioned here.
Boston Civil Service Reform Association. Publications.
Cambridge Civil Service Reform Association. Prize Essays on Municipal Reform. Boston, 1884.
Cambridge Civil Service Reform Association. Purposes, with Constitution and Officers. Cambridge, 1881.
Cincinnati Civil Service Reform Association. Publication.
Cleveland Municipal Association. Bulletins.
Massachusetts Reform Club. Publications, 1888-1900. Boston.
Missouri Civil Service Reform Association. Reports, 1883-1891. St. Louis.
National Civil Service Reform League. Proceedings, 1882-1903. New York.
National Civil Service Reform League. Six Reports of the Special Investigating Committee. Boston, 1891.
National Municipal League. Publications, 1894-1895. Philadelphia.
New York Civil Service Reform Association. Publications and Annual Reports, 1883-1901. New York.
Of the societies not specially devoted to this subject, the American Historical Society has published the most valuable material. Several collections of sources and several special articles are especially referred to elsewhere.
UNITED STATES DOCUMENTS.
Good Government, Vol. xvi. No. 4, p. 48, gives a list of public documents on the subject. The most important is the Executive Journal of the Senate, which contains all nominations sent by the president to the Senate with the action upon them. In addition it gives all the rules proposed and adopted in the Senate for the regulation of its relations with the president. The portion recently published, including the period from 1869 to 1892, is particularly rich in this latter kind of material.
The annual reports of the United States Civil Service Commission are very satisfactory, as they are exhaustive and well arranged.
The Blue Book or Official Register containing a complete biennial list of officials is indispensable.
The reports to the Senate on the patronage in 1826 and 1835, with Mr. Jenckes^s report to the House in 1868, are the only special reports of much definite value, but there is hardly a report on an administrative question which does not yield some material.
MATERIAL VALUABLE FOR THE STUDY OF STATE CONDITIONS.
Few state histories contain material on the patronage, and the works and lives of statesmen contain little on state conditions. The most useful sources are found in the newspapers, the laws, and the following works.
Amory, T. C. Life and Writings of James Sullivan. 2 vols. Boston, 1859.
Austin, J. T. Life of Elbridge Gerry. 2 vols. Boston, 1828-1829.
Larned, Ellen D. History of Windham County, Connecticut. 2 vols. Worcester, 1874-1880.
Clinton, George. Military Papers. 5 vols. New York, etc., 1899-1902.
Gonterman, J. T. New York Council of Appointment.
Hammond, J. D. The History of Political Parties in the State of New York. 2 vols. Cooperstown, 1846.
Hammond, J. D. The Life and Times of Silas Wright. Syracuse, 1848.
Leake, I. Q. Memoir of the Life and Times of General John Lamb. Albany, 1857.
Myers, Gustavus. The History of Tammany Hall. New York, 1901.
New York Council of Appointment. Military Minutes, 1783-1821. Edited by Hugh Hastings. 4 vols. Albany, 1901.
Speeches of the Different Governors to the Legislature of New York, commencing with those of George Clinton. Albany, 1898.
Tompkins, D. D. Public Papers. Vol. i, Military. New York, etc., 1898.
Armor, William. Lives of the Governors of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1872. Correspondence of Governor McKean.
Biddle, Charles. Autobiography, 1745-1821. [Edited by J. S. Biddle.] Philadelphia, 1883.
Binns, John. Recollections of his Life, written by himself. Philadelphia, 1854.
Brown, D. P. The Forum. Philadelphia, 1851.
Buchanan, Roberdeau. Life of the Hon. Thomas McKean. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1890.
Graydon, Alexander. Memoirs of his Own Times, with Reminiscences of the Men and Events of the Revolution. Philadelphia, 1846.
Harding, S. B. Party Struggles over the First Pennsylvania Constitution. American Historical Association, Report, 1894, pp. 371-402. Washington, 1895.
Lincoln, C. H. The Revolutionary Movement in Pennsylvania, 1760-1776. University of Pennsylvania, Series in History, No. 1. Philadelphia, 1901.
McMaster, J. B., and Stone, F. D. Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788. [Philadelphia], 1888.
Marshall, Christopher. Passages from his Diary, kept in Philadelphia and Lancaster during the American Revolution. Edited by William Duane. Philadelphia, 1839-1849.
Meigs, W. M. Pennsylvania Politics early in this Century. Pennsylvania Magazine, xvii. 462-490. Philadelphia, January, 1894.
Rhode Island and Georgia.
[Gilmer, G. R.] Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia, of the Cherokees, and the author. New York, etc., 1855.
Jernegan, N. W. The Tammany Societies of Rhode Island. Brown University Historical Seminary, Papers, No. 8. Providence, 1897.
Rhode Island. Report [to the General Assembly] of the Committee on the Subject of the Extension of Suffrage, June, 1829. [Providence, 1829.]