The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/New Testament Chronology
NEW TESTAMENT CHRONOLOGY, the approximate dates of the events recorded in the gospels and other books of the New Testament summarized according to the findings of the best scholarship of recent years. The unity in diversity of the different texts of the evangelists is synchronized by chapter and verse references to related incidents. Allowing for the preparatory incidents which led early chroniclers to approximate the beginnings of the Christian Era at 9-8 B.C., the principal events may be outlined as follows:
B.C. 9-8. — Zacharias, priest at Jerusalem, husband of Elisabeth received a prophecy that he would be the father of John the Baptist, Luke i, 5-25. At Nazareth, Mary espoused to Joseph of the house of David, received a prophecy that she would be the mother of the Messiah, Luke i, 26-29.
B.C 7. — Elisabeth, Zacharias' wife, made a similar prophecy to Mary, when the latter visited her for a stay of three months in a hill town of Judea, Luke i, 39-56.
B.C. 6. — John the Baptist was born, Luke i, 57-80.
B.C 5-4. — The census at Jerusalem; the birth of Jesus at Bethlehem. Matthew i, 18-25, Luke ii, 1-7. The vision and visit of the shepherds to the manger, Luke ii, 8-20. The circumcision of Jesus at Bethlehem, and his presentation in the temple at Jerusalem, Luke ii, 21-24. Simeon and Anna's prophecies, Luke ii, 25-38. The visit of the Magi to Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Matthew ii, 1-12. The warning and flight of the Holy Family into Egypt; Herod's slaughter of the innocents; Matthew ii.13-18; Luke ii, 39-40.
B.C. 3-2. — Sojourn of Joseph, Mary and Jesus in Egypt and return to Nazareth, Matthew ii, 19-23.
A.D. 1-7. — Jesus accompanied his parents when they “went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the Passover,” Luke ii, 41.
A.D. 8. — “Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem” without his parents' knowledge, and they returning “after three days found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions,” Luke ii, 41-50.
A.D. 9-26. — Jesus lived with his parents in Nazareth “and was subject to them . . . and Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man,” Luke ii, 51-52.
A.D. 26. — John the Baptist son of Zacharias, received the word of God in the wilderness and went “into all the country about the Jordan preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.” Luke iii, 3; Matthew iii, 1-12; Mark i, 1-8; John i, 1-28; Acts i, 5.
A.D. 27. — The baptism of Jesus by John in the Jordan, Matthew iii, 13-17; Mark i, 9-11; Luke iii, 21-22; John i, 29-34. The temptation of Jesus in the desert of Judea, Matthew iv, 1-11; Mark i, 12-13; Luke iv, 1-13; Jesus gains disciples at the Jordan and in Galilee, John i, 35-51. The marriage at Cana in Galilee, John ii, 1-12.
A.D. 28. — Jesus drives the traders out of the temple at the Passover, John ii, 13-25. Nicodemus a ruler of the Jews, confers with Jesus, John iii, 1-21. Jesus leaves Jerusalem but remains in Judea and baptizes; Further testimony to Christ by John the Baptist, John iii, 22-36. John is imprisoned, and Jesus departs into Galilee and “from that time began to preach,” Matthew iv, 12; xiv, 3-5; Mark i, 14; vi, 17-20; Luke iii, 19-20; iv. 14; John iv, 1-3. Jesus goes to Samaria, discourses with the Samaritan woman; and many Samaritans acknowledge “that this is indeed Christ, the Saviour of the world,”, John iv, 1-42. Jesus teaches publicly in Galilee, Matthew iv, 17; Mark i, 14-15; Luke iv, 14-15; John iv, 43-45. Jesus again visits Cana, where he heals the son of a nobleman lying ill at Capernaum, John iv, 46-54. Jesus returns to Nazareth “where he had been brought up; and, as his custom was he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and stood up for to read,” then he began to preach and all “wondered at the gracious words;” but as he proceeded “they were filled with wrath” and would have killed him “but he passing through the midst of them went his way and fixed his abode in Capernaum,” Luke iv, 16-31; Matthew iv, 13-16. The call of Simon Peter and Andrew, of James and John the sons of Zebedee, and the miraculous draught of fishes on the Sea of Galilee near Capernaum, Matthew iv, 18-22; Mark i, 16-20; Luke v, 1-11. The healing of a demoniac in the synagogue at Capernaum, Mark i, 21-28; Luke iv, 31-37. The healing of Peter's mother-in-law and others, Matthew viii, 14-17; Mark i, 29-34; Luke iv, 38-41. Jesus goes with his disciples from Capernaum throughout Galilee, Matthew iv. 23-25; Mark i, 35-39; Luke iv, 42-44. The healing of a leper, Matthew viii, 2-4; Mark i, 40-45; Luke v, 12-16. The healing of a paralytic at Capernaum, Matthew ix, 2-8; Mark ii, 1-12; Luke v, 17-26. The call of Matthew, Matthew, ix, 9; Mark ii, 13-14; Luke v, 27-28.
A.D. 29. — Jesus goes to Jerusalem and at the pool of Bethsaida, heals the infirm man. Jesus subsequent discourse, John v. 1-47. The Pharisees censure the disciples for plucking ears of wheat on the Sabbath day, Matthew xii, 1-8; Mark ii, 23-28; Luke vi, 1-5. Jesus heals the withered hand on the sabbath day in the synagogue of Capernaum, Matthew xii, 9-14; Mark iii, 1-6: Luke vi. 6-11. Jesus arrives at the sea of Tiberias, followed by multitudes, Matthew xii, 15-21; Mark iii, 7-12. Jesus retires to the mountain near Capernaum and chooses the 12 disciples; multitudes follow him, Matthew x, 2-4; Mark iii, 13-19; Luke vi, 12-19. The Sermon on the Mount, Matthew v, 1-13; Luke vi, 20-49. The centurion's servant at Capernaum is healed, Matthew viii, 5-13; Luke vii, 1-10. The raising of the widow's son at Nain, Luke vii, 11-17. John the Baptist in prison sends disciples to Jesus, Matthew xi, 2-19; Luke vii, 18-35. The testimony of Jesus concerning John and the marvelous works of the day, Matthew xi, 20-30. Jesus eating by invitation with a Pharisee is anointed by a repentant sinful woman. The parable of the two debtors, Luke vii. 36-50. Jesus and the 12 disciples make a second journey around Galilee, Luke viii, 1-3. The healing of a demoniac; The Scribes and Pharisees blaspheme; Matthew xii, 22-37; Mark iii. 19-30; Luke xi 14- 15; 17-23. The Scribes and Pharisees seek a sign Jesus' comments, Matthew xii, 38-45; Luke xi, 16; 24-36 Jesus declares that the true disciples of Christ are his nearest relatives. Matthew xii, 46-50; Mark iii, 31-35; Luke viii, 19-21. Jesus prophesies woes against the Pharisees and others at a Pharisee's table, Luke xi, 37-54. Jesus discourses to his disciples and the multitude, Luke xii, 1-59. The slaughter of certain Galileans; parable of the barren fig tree; Luke xiii, 1-9. Parable of the sower, Matthew xiii, 1-23; Mark iv, 1-25; Luke viii, 4-18. Parable of the tares and other parables, Matthew xiii, 21-53, Mark iv, 26-34. Jesus crosses the Lake of Galilee; incidents; the tempest stilled; Matthew viii, 18-27; Mark iv, 35-41; Luke viii, 22-25. The two demoniacs of Gadara, Matthew viii, 28-34; ix, 1; Mark v, 1-21; Luke viii, 26-40. Levi's feast; Discourse on fasting; Matthew ix, 10-17; Mark ii, 15-22; Luke v, 29-39. The raising of Jairus' daughter; the woman with an issue of blood; Matthew ix, 18-26; Mark v, 22-43; Luke viii, 41-56. Two blind men healed, and a dumb spirit cast out, Matthew ix, 27-34. Jesus visits Nazareth and is again rejected, Matthew xiii, 54-58; Mark vi, 1-6. The third journey around Galilee; the 12 disciples instructed and sent forth; Matthew ix, 35-38; x, 1, 5-42; xi. 1; Mark vi, 6-13; Luke ix, 1-6. Herod perplexed, believes Jesus to be John the Baptist who had been beheaded at his command “for Herodias' sake,” Matthew xiv, 1-12; Mark vi, 14-29; Luke ix, 7-9. The 12 disciples return, and Jesus retires with them across the lake; 5,000 people are fed; Matthew xiv, 13-21; Mark vi, 30-44; Luke ix, 10-17; John vi, 1-14. Jesus walks at night on the Sea of Galilee-Gennesareth, Matthew xiv, 22-26; Mark vi, 45-56; Luke vi, 15-21. Jesus' discourse to the multitude in the synagogue at Capernaum; many disciples turn back; Peter's profession of faith, John vi, 22-71. Jesus' discourse relating to eating with unwashed hands; Pharisaic traditions; Matthew xv, 1-20; Mark vii, 1-23. The daughter of a Syrophenician woman is healed, Matthew xv, 21-28; Mark vii, 24-30. A deaf and dumb man healed and several others; 4,000 people fed; Matthew xv, 29-38; Mark vii, 31-37; viii, 1-9. The Pharisees and Sadducees near Magdala again require a sign; Matthew xv, 39; xvi, 1-4; Mark viii, 10-12. The disciples on the northeast coast of the Sea of Galilee warned against the Pharisees and Sadducees; Matthew xvi, 4-12; Mark viii, 13-21. A blind man healed at Bethsaida, Mark viii, 22-26. Near Cæsarea Philippi, Peter and the other disciples again profess their faith in Christ, Matthew xvi, 13-20; Mark viii, 27-30; Luke ix, 18-21. Jesus foretells his death and resurrection, and the trials of his followers, Matthew xvi. 21-28; Mark viii. 31-38; ix, 1; Luke ix, 22-27. The transfiguration and the vision of Moses and Elias; Jesus' discourse with Peter, John and James; Matthew xvii, 1-13; Mark ix, 2-13; Luke ix, 28-36. The healing of a demoniac, whom the disciples could not heal, Matthew xvii, 14-21; Mark ix. 14-29; Luke ix, 37-43. Jesus again foretells his death and resurrection, Matthew xvii, 22-23; Mark ix, 30-32; Luke ix, 43-45. The provision of the tribute money at Capernaum, Matthew xvii, 24-27. The disciples contend who should be the greatest; Jesus counsels humility, forbearance and brotherly love, Matthew xviii, 1-35; Mark ix, 33-50; Luke ix, 46-50. Jesus goes to the festival of tabernacles; his final departure from Galilee; incidents in Samaria; Luke ix, 51-62; John vii, 2-10. The 70 instructed and sent out from Samaria, Luke x, 1-16. Ten lepers cleansed in Samaria, Luke xvii, 11-19. Jesus at the festival of tabernacles; his public teaching at Jerusalem; Luke vii, 11-53; viii, 1. The woman taken in adultery, Luke viii, 2-11. Further public teaching of Jesus; he reproves the Jews and escapes from their hands; Luke viii, 12-59. A lawyer instructed; Love to a neighbor defined; Parable of the Good Samaritan, Luke x, 25-37. Jesus in the house of Mary and Martha at Bethany, Luke x, 38-42. The disciples again taught how to pray, Luke xi, 1-13. The 70 disciples return to Jerusalem, Luke x, 17-24. A man born blind is healed on the Sabbath; Jesus' subsequent discourses; John ix, 1-41; x, 1-21. Jesus at the Festival of Dedication in Jerusalem; he retires beyond the Jordan, John x, 22-42. The raising of Lazarus at Bethany, John xi, 1-46.
A.D. 30. — The counsel of Caiaphas against Jesus; he retires from Jerusalem to Ephraim, John xi, 47-54. Jesus is followed by multitudes beyond Jordan; he heals the infirm woman on the Sabbath; Matthew xix, 1-2; Mark x, 1; Luke xiii, 10-21. Jesus goes teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem; Pharisees warn him against Herod; Luke xiii, 22-35. Jesus dines with a chief Pharisee on the Sabbath; incidents; Luke xiv, 1-24. What is required of true disciples, Luke xiv, 25-35. Parables of the lost sheep; the prodigal son; etc.; Luke xv, 1-32. Parable of the unjust steward, Luke xvi, 1-13. The Pharisees reproved; parable of the rich man and Lazarus; Luke xvi, 14-31. Jesus inculcates forbearance, faith, humility. Luke xvii, 1-10. The coming of Christ will be as sudden as the lightning, Luke, xvii, 20-37. The parable of the importunate widow; the Pharisee and the publican; Luke xviii, 1-14. Jesus' teachings regarding divorce, Matthew xix, 3-12; Mark x, 2-12. Jesus receives and blesses little children, Matthew xix, 13-15; Mark x, 13-16; Luke xviii, 15-17. The rich young man; parable of the laborers in the vineyard; Matthew xix, 16-30; xx, 1-16; Mark x, 17-31; Luke xviii, 18-30. Jesus for the third time foretells his death and resurrection, Matthew xx, 17-19; Mark x, 32-34; Luke xviii, 31-34. James and John make their ambitious request, Matthew xx, 20-28; Mark x, 35-45. The healing of two blind men near Jericho. Matthew xx. 29-34; Mark x, 46-52; Luke xviii, 35-43; xix, 1. The visit to Zaccheus the wealthy chief of the publicans at Jericho; the parable of the 10 pieces of money; Luke xix, 2-28. Jesus arrives in Bethany six days before the Passover, John xi, 55-57; xii, 1, 9-11. Jesus' entry into Jerusalem amid public rejoicings, Matthew xxi, 1-11, 14-17; Mark xi, 1-11; Luke xix, 29-44; John xii, 12-19. The barren fig tree; the cleansing of the temple; Matthew xxi, 12-13, 18-19, Mark xi, 12-19; Luke xix, 45-48; xxi, 37-38. The barren fig tree withers away, Matthew xxi, 20-22; Mark xi, 20-26. Christ's mission questioned; parable of the two sons; Matthew xxi, 23-32; Mark xi, 27-33; Luke xx, 1-8. Parable of the wicked husbandman, Matthew xxi, 33-46; Mark xii, 1-12; Luke xx, 9-19. Parable of the marriage of the King's son, Matthew xxii, 1-14. Insidious questions of the Pharisees and Herodians; tribute to Cæsar; Matthew xxii, 15-22; Mark xii, 13-17; Luke xx, 20-26. Insidious question of the Sadducees; the resurrection; Matthew xxii, 23-33; Mark xii, 18-27; Luke xx, 27-40. A lawyer questions Jesus; the two great commandments; Matthew xxii, 34-40; Mark xii, 28-34. Christ is the son of David by the Holy Ghost; Matthew xxii, 41-46; Mark xii, 35-37; Luke xx, 41-44. Warnings against the evil example of the Scribes and Pharisees, Matthew xxiii, 1-12; Mark xii, 38-39; Luke xx, 45-46. Woes prophesied on the Scribes and Pharisees; Lamentations over Jerusalem; Matthew xxiii, 13-39; Mark xii, 40; Luke xx, 47. The widow's mite, Mark xii, 41-44; Luke xxi, 1-4. Greek visitors at the feast request through Philip of Bethsaida to see Jesus, John xii, 20-36. Comments upon the unbelief of the Jews, John xii, 37-50. Jesus on taking leave of the temple foretells its destruction and the persecution of his disciples, Matthew xxiv, 1-14; Mark xiii, 1-13; Luke xxi, 5-19. Christ's advent to be signalized by the destruction of Jerusalem and the overthrow of the Jewish state, Matthew xxiv, 15-42; Mark xiii, 14-37; Luke xxi, 20-36. The final hour of the coming of Christ; Exhortations to watchfulness; The parables of the 10 virgins; and of the 10 talents; Matthew xxiv, 43-51; xxv, 1-30. Scenes of the judgment day described, Matthew xxv, 31-46. The rulers conspire against Christ; the supper at Bethany; the treachery of Judas; Matthew xxvi, 1-16; Mark xiv, 1-11; Luke xxii, 1-6; John xii, 2-8. Preparation for the Passover at Bethany and Jerusalem, Matthew xxvi, 17-19; Mark xiv, 12-16; Luke xxii, 7-13. The Passover meal; contention among the 12 disciples; Matthew xxvi, 20; Mark xiv, 17; Luke xxii, 14-18, 24-30. Jesus washes the feet of his disciples; John xiii, 1-20. Jesus indicates the traitor; Judas retires; Matthew xxvi, 21-25; Mark xiv, 18-21; Luke xxii, 21-23; John xiii, 21-35. Jesus foretells the denial of Peter and the dispersion of the 12 disciples, Matthew xxvi, 31-35; Mark xiv, 27-31; Luke xxii, 31-38; John xii, 36-38. The Last Supper, Matthew xxvi, 26-29; Mark xiv, 22-25; Luke xxii, 19-20; 1 Corinthians xi, 23-25. Jesus' last discourse with his disciples, comforting them, promising the Holy Spirit, foretelling persecution, and assuring them of joy and peace, John xiv, 1-31; xv, 1-27; xvi, 1-33. Jesus' prayer with his disciples, John xvii, 1-26. The agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, Matthew xxvi, 30, 36-46; Mark xiv, 26, 32-42; Luke xxii, 39-46; John xviii, 1. Jesus betrayed and made prisoner, Matthew xxvi, 47-56; xiv, 43-52; Luke xxii, 47-53: John xviii, 2-12. Jesus taken before Caiaphas; Peter denies him thrice; Matthew xxvi, 57-58, 69-75; Mark xiv, 53, 54, 66-72; Luke xxii, 54-62; John xviii, 13-18, 25-27. Jesus before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrim, is condemned and mocked, Matthew xxvi, 59-68; Mark xiv, 55-65; Luke xxii, 63-71; John xviii, 19-24. The Sanhedrim lead Jesus away to Pilate, Matthew xxvii, 1, 2, 11-14; Mark xv, 1-5; Luke xxiii, 1-5; John xviii, 28-38. Jesus before Herod, Luke xxiii, 6-12. Pilate seeks to release Jesus; the Jewish rabble demand the release of Barabbas the thief; Matthew xxvii, 15-26; Mark xv, 6-15; Luke xxiii, 13-25; John xviii, 39, 40. Pilate yields Jesus to be scourged and mocked, Matthew xxvii, 26-30; Mark xv, 15-19; John xix, 1-3. Pilate, after again seeking to release Jesus, delivers him to be crucified, John xix, 4-16. Judas in remorse hangs himself, Matthew xxvii, 3-10; Acts i, 18-19.
Friday 7 April. 30 A.D. — The Crucifixion, Death and Burial of Jesus Christ, Matthew xxvii; Mark xv; Luke xxiii; John xix. The Resurrection of Jesus Christ, Matthew xxviii; Mark xvi; Luke xxiv; John xx. Christ's subsequent appearances. He is seen by Peter; then by two disciples on the way to Emmaus, 1 Corinthians xv, 5; Mark xvi, 12-13; Luke xxiv, 13-35. Jesus appears in the midst of the apostles at Jerusalem. Thomas being absent, 1 Corinthians xv, 5; Mark xvi, 14-18; Luke xxiv, 36-49; John xx, 19-23. Christ again appears, Thomas being present, John xx, 26-29. The apostles go to Galilee. Jesus appears to nine of them at the Sea of Tiberias, Matthew xxviii, 16; John xxi, 1-24. Jesus appears to the apostles and a gathering of about 500 brethren on a mountain in Galilee, Matthew xxviii, 16-20; 1 Corinthians xv, 6. Christ is seen of James, then of all the apostles, Acts i, 3-8; John xv, 7. The Ascension at Bethany, Mark xvi, 19-20; Luke xxiv. 50-53; Acts i, 9-12.
For the extension of New Testament Chronology, see Christian Doctrine, Development of, and other special articles in this work on Bible; Biblical Criticism; Christianity; Christology; Jesus Christ; Mary; on the books of the New Testament, and related references.