The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Schaffhausen

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SCHAFFHAUSEN, shäf'how-zĕn, Switzerland: (1) Capital of the canton of its own name, situated on an eminence overlooking the Rhine, 24 miles north of Zürich. It is quaintly and irregularly built. The buildings most worthy of notice are the feudal castle of Munot, of Roman construction, standing on a commanding height; the parish or Saint John's Church; and the cathedral (1052), a massive basilica containing a bell whose inscription suggested Schiller's ‘Song of the Bell,’ and Longfellow's ‘Golden Legend’; the town-house (1412); the Imthurneum, containing theatre, concert rooms, etc., the museum containing manuscript collections of Johann von Müller, who was born here, the town library, etc. There are primary and high schools. The environs are beautiful; three miles distant are the celebrated falls of the Rhine, almost 300 feet broad, falling more than 70 feet in three cascades formed by two pillars of rock. The Fäsenstaub is a fashionable promenade. The principal industrial works are the wagon and carriage factories, cotton and woolen manufactories, iron works, distilleries and breweries. Pop. about 15,957. (2) The canton of Schaffhausen covers an area of 114 square miles, and occupies the most northern angle of the Swiss territory. It belongs to the Swabian Jura, and the population uses almost exclusively the German tongue. The canton entered the Swiss Confederation in 1501, and by the constitution of 1876 became exceedingly democratic. Education is compulsory. The taxes are very low. Financially it is the most favored among the Swiss cantons. All the cereals are raised, besides hemp and flax. There is abundance of fruit, especially grapes. The principal manufactures are aluminum, wagons, wool, ropes and watches. Pop. about 47,270.