The European Concert in the Eastern Question/Chapter 2

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CHAPTER II.


GREECE.


1826–1881.


The Greeks and the Holy Alliance.The struggle for independence, commenced by the Greeks in 1821, was naturally distasteful to the Holy Alliance [1]. Count Nesselrode, in 1823, proposed ‘in order to paralyse the influence of the revolutionary party throughout Greece,’ to divide the country into three distinct governments, with local independence under the suzerainty of the Porte [2]; and conferences of the representatives of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France were held at St. Petersburg in 1824 and 1825 with a view to inducing the Sultan and the insurgents to agree to some such solution of the question. But such a solution pleased neither party, and the Greeks appealed for help to England [3]. The Emperor Alexander died on 1st December, 1825, and with him died the Holy Alliance. Canning now saw his way to a new policy, and sent the Duke of Wellington to be its exponent at The Protocol of 1826.St. Petersburg, where, on 4th April, 1826, the following important Protocol was signed by the representatives of Great Britain and Russia[4]:—

Mediation.
His Britannic Majesty having been requested by the Greeks to interpose his good offices in order to obtain their reconciliation with the Ottoman Porte, having, in consequence, offered his mediation to that Power, and being desirous of concerting the measures of his Government upon this subject with His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; and His Imperial Majesty, on the other hand, being equally animated by the desire of putting an end to the contest of which Greece and the Archipelago are the theatre, by an arrangement which shall be consistent with the principles of religion, justice, and humanity, the Undersigned have agreed: —

1. That the arrangement to be proposed by the Porte, if that Government should accept the proffered mediation, should have for its object to place the Greeks towards the Ottoman Porte in the relation hereafter mentioned:

Greece to be a tributary dependency. Greece should be a dependency of that Empire, and the Greeks should pay to the Porte an annual tribute, the amount of which should be permanently fixed by common consent. They should be exclusively governed by authorities to be chosen and named by themselves, but in the nomination of which authorities the Porte should have a certain influence.

In this state the Greeks should enjoy a complete liberty of conscience, entire freedom of commerce, and should exclusively conduct their own internal government.

In order to effect a complete separation between individuals of the two nations, and to prevent the collisions which must be the necessary consequence of a contest of such duration, the Greeks should purchase the property of Turks, whether situated on the continent of Greece or in the islands.

2. In case the principle of a mediation between Turks and Greeks should have been admitted, in consequence of the steps taken with that view by His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople, His Imperial Majesty would exert, in every case, his influence to forward the object of that mediation. The mode in which, and the time at which. His Imperial Majesty should take part in the ulterior negotiations with the Ottoman Porte, which may be the consequence of that mediation, should be determined hereafter by the common consent of the Governments of His Britannic Majesty and His Imperial Majesty.

3. If the mediation offered by His Britannic Majesty should not have been accepted by the Porte, and whatever may be the nature of the relations between His Imperial Majesty and the Turkish Government, His Britannic Majesty and His Imperial Majesty will still consider the terms of the arrangement specified in No. 1 of this Protocol, as the basis of any reconciliation to be effected by their intervention, whether in concert or separately, between the Porte and the Greeks; and they will avail themselves of every favourable opportunity to exert their influence with both parties, in order to effect this reconciliation on the above-mentioned basis.

4. That His Britannic Majesty and His Imperial Majesty should reserve to themselves to adopt hereafter the measures necessary for the settlement of the details of the arrangement in question, as well as the limits of the territory, and the names of the islands of the Archipelago to which it shall be applicable, and which it shall be proposed to the Porte to comprise under the denomination of 'Greece.'

Self-denying clause

5. That, moreover, His Britannic Majesty and His Imperial Majesty will not seek in this arrangement any increase of territory, nor any exclusive influence nor advantage in commerce for their subjects, which shall not be equally attainable by all other nations.

6. That His Britannic Majesty and His Imperial Majesty being desirous that their allies should become parties to the definitive arrangements of which this Protocol contains the outline, will communicate this instrument confidentially to the Courts of Vienna, Paris, and Berlin, and will propose to them that they should, in concert with the Emperor of Russia, guarantee the Treaty by which the reconciliation of Turks and Greeks shall be effected, as His Britannic Majesty cannot guarantee such a Treaty.

Done at St. Petersburgh, \mathrm \tfrac{March 23}{April 4,} 1826.

(Signed)  WELLINGTON.  NESSELRODE.
LIEVEN.

The mediation thus offered was refused by the Porte, in a manifesto of 9th June, 1827[5]. The Governments of Austria and Prussia declined to accede to the Protocol, but France not only did so but proposed its embodiment in a treaty[6], The Treaty of 6th July, 1827.which was accordingly signed at London, on 6th July, 1827, by the representatives of Great Britain, Russia, and France, to the following effect[7]:—

In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the King of France and Navarre, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, penetrated with the necessity of putting an end to the sanguinary struggle which, while it abandons the Greek Provinces and the Islands of the Archipelago to all the disorders of anarchy, daily causes fresh impediments to the commerce of the States of Europe, and gives opportunity for acts of Piracy which not only expose the subjects of the High Contracting Parties to grievous losses, but also render necessary measures which are burdensome for their observation and suppression.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of France and Navarre, having, moreover, received from the Greeks an earnest invitation to interpose their mediation with the Ottoman Porte; and together with His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being animated with the desire of putting a stop to the effusion of blood, and of preventing the evils of every kind which the continuance of such a state of things may produce;

They have resolved to combine their efforts, and to regulate the operation thereof by a formal Treaty, for the object of re-establishing peace between the contending parties, by means of an arrangement called for, no less by sentiments of humanity, than by interests for the tranquillity of Europe.

For these purposes they have named their Plenipotentiaries to discuss, conclude, and sign the said Treaty, that is to say:—

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland the Right Honourable John William Viscount Dudley, &c., his principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

His Majesty the King of France and Navarre the Prince Jules Count de Polignac, &c., his Ambassador at London;

and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias the Sieur Prince de Lieven, &c., his Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to His Britannic Majesty.

Who having communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following articles.

Mediation.Art. 1. The contracting Powers shall offer their mediation to the Ottoman Porte, with the view of effecting a reconciliation between it and the Greeks. This offer of mediation shall be made to that Power immediately after the ratification of the present treaty, by means of a joint declaration, signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Allied Courts at Constantinople; and, at the same time, a demand for an immediate armistice shall be made to the two contending parties, as a preliminary and indispensable condition to the opening of any negotiation.

Bases of arrangement.Art. 2. The arrangement to be proposed to the Ottoman Porte shall rest upon the following bases:—

The Greeks shall hold under the Sultan as under a Lord paramount; and, in consequence thereof, they shall pay to the Ottoman Empire an annual tribute, the amount of which shall be fixed, once for all, by common agreement. They shall be governed by authorities whom they shall choose and appoint themselves, but in the nomination of whom the Porte shall have a defined right. In order to effect a complete separation between the individuals of the two nations, and to prevent the collisions which would be the inevitable consequence of so protracted a struggle, the Greeks shall become possessors of all Turkish property situated either upon the continent, or in the islands of Greece, on condition of indemnifying the former proprietors, either by an annual sum to be added to the tribute which they shall pay to the Porte, or by some other arrangement of the same nature.

Art. 3. The details of this arrangement, as well as the limits of the territory upon the continent, and the designation of the islands of the Archipelago to which it shall be applicable, shall be settled by a negotiation to be afterwards entered into between the High Powers and the two contending parties.

Art. 4. The contracting Powers engage to pursue the salutary work of the pacification of Greece, upon the bases laid down in the preceding articles, and to furnish, without the least delay, their representatives at Constantinople with all the instructions which are required for the execution of the Treaty which they now sign.

Art. 5. The contracting Powers will not seek in these Self denying clause.arrangements, any augmentation of territory, any exclusive influence, or any commercial advantage for their subjects, which those of every other nation may not equally obtain.
Art. 6. The arrangements for reconciliation and peace, which shall be definitively agreed upon between the contending parties, shall be guaranteed by those of the signing Powers who may judge it expedient or possible to contract that obligation. The operation and the effects of such guarantee shall become the subject of future stipulation between the High Powers.
Art. 7. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in two months, or sooner if possible.
In witness, &c.
Done at London, the 6th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1827.
DUDLEY.
LE PRINCE DE POLIGNAC.
LIEVEN.

Additional Article.

Measures in case of non-acceptance.In case the Ottoman Porte should not, within the space of one month, accept the mediation which is to be proposed to it, the High contracting parties agree upon the following measures:—
1. It shall be declared to the Porte, by their representatives at Constantinople, that the inconveniences and evils described in the Patent Treaty as inseparable from the state of things which has, for six years, existed in the East, and the termination of which, by the means at the command of the Sublime Ottoman Porte, appears to be still distant, impose upon the High contracting parties the necessity of taking immediate measures for forming a connection with the Greeks. It is understood that this shall be effected by establishing commercial relations with the Greeks, and by sending to and receiving from them, for this purpose, consular agents, provided there shall exist in Greece authorities capable of supporting such relations.

2. If, within the said term of one month, the Porte does not accept the armistice proposed in the first article of the Patent Treaty, or if the Greeks refuse to carry it into execution, the High contracting Powers shall declare to either of the contending parties which may be disposed to continue hostilities, or to both of them, that the said High Powers intend to exert all the means which circumstances may suggest to their prudence, for the purpose of obtaining the immediate effects of the armistice of which they desire the execution, by preventing, as far as possible, all collision between the contending parties ; and in consequence, immediately after the above-mentioned declaration, the High Powers will, jointly, exert all their efforts to accomplish the object of such armistice, without, however, taking any part in the hostilities between the two contending parties. Immediately after the signature of the present additional Article, the High contracting Powers will, jointly, transmit to the admirals commanding their respective squadrons in the Levant, conditional instructions in conformity to the arrangements above declared.

3. Finally, if, contrary to all expectation, these measures do not prove sufficient to procure the adoption of the propositions of the High contracting parties by the Ottoman Porte; or if, on the other hand, the Greeks decline the conditions stipulated in their favour, by the Treaty of this date, the High contracting Powers will, nevertheless, continue to pursue the work of pacification, on the bases upon which they have agreed ; and, in consequence, they authorise, from the present moment, their representatives at London to discuss and determine the future measures which it may become necessary to employ.

The present additional article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted, word for word, in the treaty of this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time as those of the said treaty.

In witness, &c.

Done at London, the 6th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1827.

DUDLEY.
LE PRINCE DE POLIGNAC.
LIEVEN.

The Conference of London.In pursuance of the third paragraph of this additional article, a conference of the representatives of the three signatory Powers met at London on 12th July, 1827, and continued to meet, from time to time, for more than ten years[8].

Under the instructions of the Conference of London, conferences were held at Constantinople in 1827, and at Poros in 1828, without much ultimate result[9].

Mediation refused by the Porte.In August 1827 the mediation of the Powers was rejected by the Porte but accepted by the Greeks[10]. On 20th October occurred the destruction of the Turkish fleet at Navarino. Early in December the Ambassadors left Constantinople, and on the 20th of that month the Porte issued a defiant manifesto[11].

The Protocol of 22 March, 1829.At a sitting of 22nd March, 1829, the London Conference sanctioned an arrangement which, though afterwards superseded, marks an important stage in the history of the question[12]. The Ambassadors of the three Powers at Constantinople were directed to open a negotiation with the Porte upon the following bases: Greece to be governed, under the suzerainty of the Porte, by a hereditary Christian prince or chief, not a member of the reigning families of the signatories to the Treaty of 1827, to be chosen by those Powers and the Porte. The new Principality to consist of a specified portion of the mainland and specified islands, and to pay an annual tribute to the Porte of 1,500,000 Turkish piastres. The arrangement to be guaranteed in pursuance of Art. 6 of the Treaty of 1827.

Acceptance by the Porte.Under the pressure of the war with Russia, the Porte on 15th August, 1829, declared its adherence to the Treaty of London, and conditionally to the Protocol of 22nd March. On 9th September it promised to accept all the conclusions of the Conference of London[13].

The Protocols of 3rd Feb. 1830. Independence.A new departure was taken by the Conference in 1830. On 3rd February of that year it adopted three Protocols. By the first of these it was agreed, in substance : that Greece should be wholly independent of the Porte ; that it should be governed by a prince not to be chosen from the reigning families of the signatories to the Treaty of 1837; that the land boundaries of the new state should be somewhat withdrawn from the frontier as defined by the Protocol of 22nd March, 1829; The final list of islands.that certain islands should belong to Greece[14].

The second Protocol decides that Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg should be requested to become Sovereign Prince of Greece.

Religious Equality.The third Protocol provides for religious equality, and the continued enjoyment by the Catholic religion of certain privileges in the new State[15].

Prince Leopold.The Prince accepted on 11th February; but, the Conference having declined, on 20th February[16], to enlarge the continental boundaries of the new Principality, or to stipulate for the good treatment of Cahdia and Samos, withdrew his acceptance in letters dated 15th and 21st May[17].

The Protocol of 26th Sept. 1831.A Protocol of 26th September, 1831[18], decided to vary the frontier again, so as to follow the line proposed on 22nd March, 1829.

Prince Otho to be a King.On 13th February, 1832, the Conference agreed to offer the throne to Otho[19], second son of the King of Bavaria, and a Protocol of 26th April accedes to the wish of the King of Bavaria that the Sovereign of Greece should assume the title of King[20].

The Convention of 7th May, 1832.At a sitting of the Conference on 7th May, 1832, a Convention constituting the new kingdom was signed by the representatives of the three Powers, and by the representatives of the King of Bavaria sub spe rati[21]. At a sitting of the 30th June the ratifications were exchanged, and a note on the part of Bavaria, with reference to the guarantee of a loan and some minor matters, together with the reply of the three Powers, was placed on record[22].

The Arrangement of 21 July 1832.The land boundary of the new State was fixed by the following 'Arrangement,' made at Constantinople on 21st July, 1832, between the three Powers and the Porte, and destined to remain in force for nearly half a century[23]:—

The Representatives of the three Powers, parties to the Treaty of London of the 6th of July, 1827, namely, the Right Honourable Sir Stratford Canning, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Britannick Majesty on a Special Mission to the Ottoman Sublime Porte; the Sieur Appolinaire Bouteneff, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; and the Sieur Jacques Edouard, Baron Burignot de Varenne, Chargé d'Affaires of His Majesty the King of the French, having made known to the Sublime Ottoman Porte, the changes which it was necessary to make in the frontier of Greece, and having communicated to it the object of the instructions, and of the powers with which they were furnished, to propose to it a definitive boundary line, upon condition of compensating, by an equitable indemnity, the losses which might result therefrom:— the Sublime Porte, animated with the desire of consolidating the arrangements to which, out of consideration for the three Allied Courts, and relying on their sincere intentions, it had previously agreed, has consented to enter upon a negotiation for this purpose, and has charged therewith two of its Ministers, namely: His Excellency Mustapha Behdjet Effendi, Ex-Cazesker of Roumelia, at the present time first Physician of His Highness, and His Excellency Elhadj Mehemed Akif Efendi, present Reis Efendi.

The above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries, filled with the sentiments of their respective Governments, and having no other object in view than that of terminating the Greek affair in a way that shall be durable, and calculated to prevent all further discussion on this question, have met several times for this salutary purpose; and the complete result of their conferences has been recorded in the present document, exchanged between the parties as the instrument of their final transaction.

It is agreed that:—

1. With respect to boundary; on the eastern side, the extreme point of separation of the two States shall be fixed at the mouth of the little river which flows near the village of Gradiza: the frontier line shall ascend this river to its source, shall thence reach the chain of Mount Othryx, leaving to Greece the passage of Klomo, provided the crest of that chain be not passed: thence it shall follow, in a westerly direction, the crest of the same chain along the whole extent thereof, and especially the peak of Varibovo, in order to attain the height which, under the denomination of Veluchi, forms the point of connexion of the three great chains of mountains of the country. From this height the line shall continue, adapting itself as much as possible to the salient features of the country, across the valley of the Aspropotamos to the Gulf of Arta, terminating at that gulf between Coprina and Menidi, in such manner, as that in any case, the bridge of Tartarina, the defile and the tower of Macrinoros, shall be comprised within the limits of Greece, and that the bridge of Coracos, and the salt springs of Coprina, shall be left to the Ottoman Porte. Thus, the shore of the Gulf of Arta to the north and west of the point where the boundary line meets its waters, will be retained by the Ottoman Empire, and the shore of this gulf to the south and west of the line is assigned to the state of Greece, with the exception of the fort of Punta, which will continue to belong to the Porte, with a radius of territory which shall not be less than half an hour, nor more than an hour.

Alternative as to Zeitoun.Nevertheless, as the Representatives, full of deference for the wish which has been expressed in the name of His Highness, relative to the portion of the district of Zeitoun, situate to the left of the Sperchius, having agreed that reference should be made on the subject to the Conference of London, upon the express condition that the decision and execution of the measures consequent thereupon, should not be retarded thereby; it has become necessary to provide for the possible contingency of that portion of the territory of Zeitoun remaining to the Ottoman Empire.

The boundary line to the east will in that case commence at the mouth of the river Sperchius, and will run up its left bank to the point of contact of the districts of Zeitoun and of Patradjik ; thence it will reach to the summit of the chain of the Othryx, following the common boundary of those two districts, and the most direct line in the event of that common boundary not attaining the summit of the chain of the Othryx.

It will continue in the manner before-mentioned, in order to terminate at the Gulf of Arta.

Alternative as to indemnity.2. With respect to the indemnity, it remains fixed at the sum of forty millions of Turkish piastres, provided the portions of the district of Zeitoun, situate to the left of the river Sperchius, shall have been, in consequence of the decision of the Conference of London, definitively assigned to the Greek State.

If, on the other hand, in consequence of the decision of the Conference of London, those portions of the district of Zeitoun are to continue to belong to the Ottoman Empire, the indemnity which the Porte will receive, remains fixed at the sum of thirty millions of Turkish piastres.

3. The Commissioners of the three Courts shall immediately proceed to the marking out of the boundary now settled. A Commissioner shall be appointed by the Sublime Porte, to join in the labours of this demarcation. It is clearly understood that no delay shall arise in this operation, whether from the absence of one or two of the Commissioners, or from any other cause. A Commissioner appointed by the Greek Government, may co-operate in the same labours, which should be completed in the space of six months, dating from this day. In case of difference of opinion between the Commissioners, the question shall be equitably resolved by a majority of voices.

4. The indemnity which is due to the Sublime Porte in virtue of the present arrangement, shall be paid on the 31st of December of the present year, on which day, in conformity with the following Article, all the territories, without exception, which are to constitute Greece, shall be evacuated, if not sooner, by the Troops and Authorities of the Sublime Porte. This payment shall be effected at Constantinople on the 31st of December, 1832, at the rate of exchange of the day at the signing of this instrument, by Drafts on London, Paris, Vienna, or Petersburgh: and the Porte shall be officially informed on this matter on the arrival of the formal confirmation of this transaction.

5. On the 31st of December of the present year, or sooner if possible, the territories which form the object of the present arrangement, shall be entirely evacuated by the Ottoman Troops and Authorities. With respect to the territories previously assigned to Greece, and which are still occupied by the Sublime Porte, they also shall be evacuated within the same period; so that, on the day specified, the evacuation of all the territories, without exception, which are to constitute Greece, shall have been in every instance completely effected.

Punta.6. The fort of Punta, as has been said above, being intended to remain to the Porte to complete the means of defence of Prévésa, and in order the better to secure the safety of its commerce, they shall only be permitted therein a garrison sufficient for the occupation of that post; it is understood, that the Ottoman Authorities will not oppose any obstacle to the passage of Greek Vessels; and, excepting Customs' dues, and other imposts which would be due to the Sublime Porte in cases where vessels may put into Punta, Prévésa, or other Turkish Ports of the Gulf of Arta, the Authorities shall demand nothing for the passage.

Options of removal and sale.7. A term of eighteen months, dating from the day on which the labours of the demarcation shall have been completed, is accorded to such individuals as may desire to quit the territories which form the object of the present arrangement, and to sell their estates. This term of eighteen months may, in special cases, and under unforeseen circumstances, be prolonged some months, and a commission of arbitration shall determine on the validity of these cases for exception, and shall assist in causing the sales to be effected at a fair price.

The same advantages are accorded to the inhabitants of the Island of Eubea and of Attica, and to the proprietors of Thebes, who would, at the present day, be in the receipt of their rightful revenues, if that district were occupied by the Ottoman troops, at the date of the assent of the Porte to the preceding arrangements of the 3rd of February, 1830.

It is understood that these individuals will alike be allowed to dispose, and within the same period, of any beneficial interest which they may have, either as tenants, or as hereditary administrators, in the vacoufs, the whole of which is transferred to the Greek State.

Commerce with Turkey.8. In conformity with the preceding stipulations, the Government of the new King of Greece will have the power of entering into negotiation for the purpose of regulating its relations of commerce and navigation with the Sublime Porte on a principle of reciprocity ; and agents duly accredited on either side shall be received in the ports of Turkey and Greece, according to the usual forms, so that Ottoman subjects shall have an acknowledged right to traffick at their will in the State of Greece, and that, on their side, the Greeks shall cease to have recourse to foreign protection for frequenting the ports and trading-towns of the Ottoman Empire.

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts, and Settlement of the Greek question.those of the Sublime Porte, having brought to a close the Conferences which they have held for the purpose of effecting the definitive settlement of the boundary of Greece, as above described, declare that, considering the arrangements recorded by common agreement in the present instrument, the object of the Treaty of London of the 6th of July, 1827, and of the Protocols, under different dates, which relate thereto, is completely attained; that the prolonged negotiations, to which those stipulations have given rise, are determined in such a manner as never to be renewed; in fact, that the Greek question is irrevocably settled.

The formal confirmation of the present final arrangement, by the three august Courts, shall be transmitted to the Sublime Porte within the period of four months, dating from this day; and that confirmation shall have, with respect to this Act, all the force of a ratification.
Done at Constantinople, the July, 1832 (the 23rd of the month Safer, 1248 of the Hegira).
(Signed) STRATFORD CANNING.
A. BOUTENEFF.
E. B. VABENNE.

The Protocol of 30th Aug. 1832.The questions left open by the 'Arrangement' were settled, and the arrangement itself was formally confirmed, by the following Protocol, of 30th August, 1832, which also rejects as inadmissible certain demands made by the Turks[24]:—

The Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts, having met in Conference, examined, with the most serious attention, the annexed arrangement (A), concluded on the 21st of July of the present year, at Constantinople, between the Representatives of the Courts of France, of Great Britain, and of Russia, on the one hand, and the Ottoman Porte on the other, for the definitive settlement of the continental limits of Greece.

After this examination, the Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts, without prejudice to the direct sanction which the three Courts themselves might give to the arrangement above-mentioned, acknowledged that it completely answered the instructions with which the Representatives of France, Great Britain, and Russia had been furnished, in the month of September, 1831; and proceeded to the exercise of the power vested in the Conference of London, to choose between the two lines of demarcation, which the said arrangement points out.

The district of Zeitoun.Considering that the arrangement of Constantinople, of the 21st of July, of the present year, is the result of a negotiation, the essential object of which was to determine upon a frontier line between the Ottoman Empire and the new Greek State, which should afford security to the one and the other, as perfect as possible; that the Ottoman Porte has fully assented to this principle; that the second line of demarcation pointed out in the arrangement of Constantinople, of the 21st of July, of the present year, so far from affording this mutual security, would bring about, according to all the opinions which have reached the Conference of London, a state of relative possession which could not but be the source of collisions and troubles; finally, that, for these reasons, the second line, of which mention has just been made, would not fulfil the object of the negotiation which had been opened with the Ottoman Porte, and would not provide for the interests of Turkey and of Greece, which that negotiation ought to secure to both, the Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts, exercising the powers with which they are invested, adopt unanimously the first line of demarcation pointed out in the arrangement of Constantinople, of the 21st of July, of the present year; and declare in consequence, as agreed upon, and irrevocably concluded, that:—

1st. With respect to the boundary:—On the eastern side, the extreme point of separation of the two States (the Ottoman Empire and independent Greece) ' shall be fixed at the mouth of the little river which flows near the village of Gradiza:— the frontier line shall ascend that river to its source, shall thence reach the chain of Mount Othryx, leaving to Greece the passage of Klomo, provided the crest of that chain be not passed. Thence it shall follow in a westerly direction, the crest of the same chain, along the whole extent thereof, and especially the peak of Varibovo, in order to attain the height which, under the denomination of Veluchi, forms the point of connexion of the three great chains of mountains of the country. From this height the line itself shall continue, adapting itself as much as possible to the salient features of the country, across the valley of the Aspropotamos to the Gulf of Arta, terminating at that gulf between Coprina and Menidi, in such manner as that, in any case, the bridge of Tartarina, the defile and the tower of Macrinoros, shall be comprised within the limits of Greece; and that the bridge of Coracos and the salt-springs of Coprina shall be left to the Ottoman Porte. Thus the shore of the Gulf of Arta, to the north and west of the point where the boundary line meets its waters, will be retained by the Ottoman Empire, and the shore of this gulf, to the south and west of the line, is assigned to the State of Greece, with the exception of the fort of Punta, which will continue to belong to the Porte, with a radius of territory which shall not be less than half an hour, nor more than an hour.'

The indemnity.

2nd. With respect to the indemnity to be paid by Greece, it remains fixed at the sum of forty millions of Turkish piastres.

The Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts declared further, that the Conference of London approve and confirm, without any reservation, all the other points in the arrangement of Constantinople, of the 21st of July of the present year; that the said points would have to be observed and executed according to the tenour of that arrangement, and that for this purpose the present Protocol shall be communicated on the one hand to the Ottoman Porte, through the Representatives of the three Courts at Constantinople, and on the other, to the Royal Greek Regency, through the Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of Bavaria.

Proceeding then to the examination of the Protocol hereunto annexed, (B.) which also bears the date of the 21st of July of the present year, and which the Representatives of France, of Great Britain, and of Russia, at the Ottoman Porte, have engaged simply to lay before the Conference of London, the Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts were of opinion that, notwithstanding the readiness with which the Courts willingly yield in general to the wishes expressed to them in the name of the Sultan, they find it utterly impossible to comply with the demands which the said Protocol puts forward on the part of the Ottoman Porte.

Refusal to limit Greek forces.

In fact, as to the first of these demands, it is sufficient to observe, that the right of maintaining forces by land and by sea, without limiting the number of them, is a right inherent in the independence of a State; that the independence of Greece, and all the rights inherent therein, have been sanctioned by the Protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830; that the Ottoman Porte has fully acceded to that Protocol; and that consequently, neither the Courts which have signed it, nor the Ottoman Porte which has acceded thereto, could now, without violating their engagements, curtail any one of those rights which that same Protocol accords to Greece to their full extent.

Refusal to neutralise,The same arguments militate against the second demand of the Ottoman Government. The right to take part in any war which breaks out between third Powers, is also one of the rights inherent in the independence of a State, unless that State shall have been constituted and declared perpetually neutral. Now Greece has not been constituted and declared perpetually neutral. Therefore, not possessing the advantages of a perpetual neutrality, she could not rightly be called upon to fulfil the obligations of neutrality.

or to require extradition,With respect to the third demand of the Ottoman Government, the Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts were of opinion that it did not come within the province of the Conference of London, the Conference not having the power of mixing itself up with questions which are connected with the internal legislation of Greece.

or to vary the list of islands.The Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts observed finally, with respect to the wishes expressed by the Ottoman Government, that there never was a question, in the late negotiations of Constantinople, of changing the insular limits of Greece; that those limits, which include in the number of Greek Islands, the islands called the Devil's Isles, namely, Skiatho, Skopelo, and Chelidrome, were definitely established by the Protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830, to which the Ottoman Porte acceded; that the position of those three islands presents nothing menacing to the neighbouring Turkish Provinces; and that their cession could not result from a negotiation which was empowered to modify the continental limits only of Greece by means of a pecuniary indemnity.

The Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts have agreed to transmit the present Protocol to the Representatives of France, of Great Britain, and of Russia, at Constantinople, and to the Bavarian Plenipotentiary at the Conference of London, by the despatch and note subjoined (C. D.)

 (Signed)MAREUIL.
PALMERSTON.
LIEVEN.
MATUSZEWIC.


Delimitation.The boundary Commissioners commenced their labours in September 1832, and the territory assigned to the new kingdom was incorporated into it by an act of the Regency, dated 1st February, 1833[25]. The maps prepared by the Commissioners were presented by the representatives of the three Powers to the Porte, and its approval of them was brought to the cognisance of the Conference of London on 30th January, 1836[26].

The guaranteed loan.The Greek Government failing to comply with the provisions of the Convention of 7th May, 1832, with reference to the loan guaranteed by the Powers, meetings of the Conference were held in 1836 and afterwards upon the subject[27]. In 1857 a Commission of representatives of the three Powers sat at Athens to enquire into the state of the finances of the country, and reported, on 24th May, 1859, demanding an annual payment by the Greeks of £36000[28]. An 'Arrangement' in this sense was made in June of the following year[29].

The change of dynasty.In October, 1862, King Otho was deposed, and the vacant throne was eventually offered, by a vote of the National Assembly, on 30th March, 1863, to Prince William, second son of the King of Denmark[30]. Conference of the three Powers.A Conference of the three guaranteeing Powers, held in London from 16th May to 26th June[31], confirmed the choice.

The Protocol of the first sitting of the Conference records the regret of the Plenipotentiaries that, after an experience of thirty years, the order of things established in 1832 had not consolidated itself in Greece under the dynasty which the Convention of 7th May called to the throne, in virtue of the power then delegated by the Greek nation to the courts of France, Great Britain and Russia; 'whose mandate is therefore now at an end.'

At the sitting of 27th May, the King of Bavaria not having accepted the invitation of the Conference to be represented at its meetings, the Plenipotentiaries resolved: 'that their Courts, while released from their trusts by circumstances unprovided for by the Convention of 1832, could not indefinitely defer the time when it would be fitting to replace Greece under a system conformable to the monarchical principles which it is their interest to maintain in the new State founded by their united efforts.'

The Protocol of 5th June, 1863,At a sitting of 5th June, attended by the Plenipotentiary of Denmark, there were read the decree of the National Assembly of Greece, offering the crown to Prince William, and a note, dated 4th June, announcing the acceptance of the offer by the King of Denmark. The three Powers thereupon expressed their approval of the choice, and it was agreed that should the Ionian Parliament vote for annexation to Greece, and should Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia assent to it, Her Britannic Majesty would recommend to that Parliament to appropriate £10,000 to the King's civil list; that each of the three guaranteeing Powers would remit annually £4000 from its claims against the Greek Government for the same purpose; that the legitimate successors of King George I to the Greek throne should, in accordance with the principle recognised by the Treaty of 1852, and proclaimed by the decree of the National Assembly of 30th March, 1863, profess the tenets of the orthodox Church of the East; and that the crowns of Greece and Denmark should in no case be united on the same head.

of 26th June.By a Protocol of 26th June the three Powers place upon record their agreement to continue, and extend to the Ionian Islands, their guarantee of the frontiers of Greece, in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention of 1832, and to watch over in concert the execution of the engagement of the Greek Government made in 1860 with reference to obligations incurred by it under Article 12 of the Convention.

The Treaty of 13th July, 1863.A Treaty, in accordance with the resolutions of the Conference, declaring Prince William to be 'King of the Greeks,' with the title of George I, was signed at London, on 13th July, 1863, on behalf of the three Powers and of the King of Denmark[32].

Protocols varying the Treaty.This Treaty was varied, with reference to the title assumed by the new King, and to the mention of the Greek Senate in Article I, by Protocols signed on behalf of the same Powers on 3rd August and 13th October 2[33].

Conference of the five Powers.The cession of the Ionian Islands required the consent of the signatories of the Treaty of Paris of 5th November, 1815, and a Conference of the representatives of Austria and Prussia, as well as of France, Great Britain, and Russia, accordingly met in London to consider the question[34].

By a Convention signed at Constantinople, 21st March, 1800, between Russia and the Porte, it had been agreed that these islands, which were originally subject to Venice, but had recently been seized by the French, should form a self-governing tributary republic under the suzerainty of the Porte. By the Treaty of Paris of 5th November, 1815, the islands mentioned in the Convention of 1800 were to be 'an independent State, under the denomination of the United States of the Ionian Islands, under the immediate and exclusive protection of the King of Great Britain and Ireland.' This arrangement had been recognised by the Porte in a firman dated 34th April, 1819.

The Ionian islands to be ceded.The Conference now resolved, 1st August, 1863, that the islands should be united to Greece 'under the sanction of a European Act[35];' and the Ionian Parliament having, on 19th October, voted for annexation, The Treaty of 14th November, 1863.the representatives of the five Powers executed at London, on 14th November, 1863, a Treaty in accordance with this resolution[36].

In the following Spring a Conference of the five Powers signed, at London, on 25th January, two Protocols, by the Protocols of the five Powers.former of which it was agreed that the neutralisation of the islands, effected by Article 2 of the Treaty of 14th November, should be confined to Corfu and Paxo[37], by the latter an explanation was given of the effect of Article 4 of the Treaty upon treaties of commerce[38].

The Treaty of 29th March, 1864.On 29th March, 1864, a Treaty was signed at London between the three guaranteeing Powers and the King of the Hellenes, in pursuance of Article 6 of the Treaty of 14th November, with reference to the cession of the islands[39]; The Protocol of same date.and a Protocol of the same date, signed on behalf of the same parties, recorded the decision of His Hellenic Majesty 'to maintain, in all its integrity, that clause of the Decree concerning his election, in virtue of which his legitimate heirs and successors to the throne of Greece must profess the tenets of the orthodox Church of the East[40].' On the same day a Convention was also executed between Great Britain and Greece with reference to the claims of officials in the islands[41]

The accession of the Porte to the Treaty.A Protocol signed at Corfu on 28th May records the cessation of the British Protectorate of the islands[42]. The Porte acceded to the Treaty of 29th March, 1864, by an Act signed at Constantinople on 28th May, 1865[43].

The neutrality of Greece during the Russo-Turkish War was ascribed by it to a wish to conform to the desires of the Great Powers, and was accordingly put forward, both at the Conference of Constantinople in 1876[44] and at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, as a reason for the favourable consideration by those Powers of an extension of the limits of the kingdom. The Congress of Berlin.The 13th Protocol of the Congress of Berlin records the opinion of the Powers that 'the rectification of the Turko-Greek frontier might follow the valley of the Selmyrias (the ancient Peneus) on the side of the Aegaean Sea, that of the Calamos on the side of the Ionian Sea[45].'

The Treaty of Berlin, 1878.Article 24 of the Treaty of Berlin provides that 'In the event of the Sublime Porte and Greece being unable to agree upon the rectification of frontier suggested in the 13th Protocol of the Congress of Berlin, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia reserve to themselves to offer their mediation to the two parties to facilitate negotiations[46].'

The Greeks lost no time in attempting to gain the accession of territory suggested by the Congress. Only four days after the signature of the Treaty of Berlin the Government of Athens addressed a note to the Porte, requesting it to appoint Commissioners for the purpose. After much dilatory diplomacy, a Conference took place at Prévéza between Commissioners of the two Powers, from 8th February to 18th March, 1879, but without result[47]. A Conference held at Constantinople, from 2,2nd August to 17th November of the same year, was equally fruitless[48]; and early in 1880 the Greek Minister was recalled from Constantinople. A new era in the negotiations dates from the appearance on the scene of Mr. Goschen, as British Ambassador to Turkey, in the following May. On 11th June identic notes were presented to the Porte, in which it was informed that the representatives of the Powers accredited to the Emperor of Germany would meet at Berlin, on the 16th of the month, 'in order to decide by a majority of votes, and with the assistance of officers possessed of the necessary technical knowledge, the line of frontier it will be best to adopt[49].'

The Conference of Berlin.The Conference met and traced its line[50], which the Powers, in a collective note of 15th July, invited both Greece and Turkey to accept. The Porte having replied, stating its objections, on 26th July, the Powers, on 25th August, addressed to it another collective note, declining to reopen the question, but expressing a readiness to consider any suggestions which the Porte might wish to make as to the manner in which the cession should be made. About this time the Montenegrin question Became prominent, and little more is heard of the Greek frontier till December 1880, on the 18th of which month a proposal was made by France, which, proving acceptable to neither party, was withdrawn on 17th January of the following year, to the effect that the six Powers should act as final arbitrators upon the matters in dispute. On 28th December an article appeared in the Agence Russe, suggesting that Crete instead of Janina should be ceded to Greece.

A change of policy.In the meantime the Greek army had been mobilized, and the nation, wrought up to a high pitch of excitement, declared that it would accept nothing less than the line of the Berlin Conference. But the policy of the powers had undergone some modification. They were most unwilling to allow any further fighting; and having ascertained the maximum that could be gained from Turkey by merely diplomatic pressure, offered this to the Greek government, in a collective note dated 7th April 1881, in substitution of the line as drawn by the Conference.

Greece replied on the 12th of the same month, by what has been called a 'shuffling acceptance,' which was however doubtless expressed as clearly as it could have been without leading to an immediate change of ministry, and was treated by the Powers as an acceptance, in a collective note, addressed on the 19th April to the Porte, and on the 20th to Greece[51].

Another month was spent in discussions on questions of detail, such as the proportion of the Ottoman debt which ought to be undertaken by Greece in respect of Thessaly, Vakouf, and estates belonging to government in the ceded territory, and guarantees for the Mussulman population there. Turkey, as usual, asked for much more than she was likely to get, but she got something, The Convention of 24th May, 1881.and a Convention carrying out the cession was signed at Constantinople on 24th May and ratified on 14th June by the representatives of the Porte and the Great Powers[52]. A subsidiary Turko-Greek Convention was signed, as was provided in the principal Convention, at the same place on 2nd July[53].

Delimitation.On 6th July the Greek troops crossed the old frontier line, and, section by section, under the careful supervision of military officers delegated by the Powers, in accordance with the Act annexed to the Convention, the territory was peaceably handed over to its new masters. The Delimitation Commission, mentioned in Article 1 of the Convention, had been at work in the meantime, and its final Protocol was signed at Constantinople on 28th November, 1881; the Turks signing under reserve as to four points which they objected to surrender to Greece, viz. Karalik-Dervend, Nezeros, or Analypsis, Kritzovali, and Gounitza[54]. In August, 1882, some fighting occurred between the Ottoman and Greek troops in the neighbourhood of Karalik-Dervend, but an armistice was concluded between them on 6th September, and the difficulty was settled by a Protocol, signed on 9th November, by the Commissioners of both parties, accepting the frontier as it had been laid down by the international Commission.

Greece has received far less territory than she had hoped for, and rather less than she had been led to look upon as her due; but she has received as much as she is likely to be able for the present profitably to assimilate.




TEXTS.[55]


No. I[56].


Protocol, No. 1, of the Conference held at the Foreign Office, London, on 3 February, 1830.

Present:

1830. 3 February.

The Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and Russia.

…The members of the Conference, finding that the Ottoman declarations place them in a situation to concert the measures which may appear to them most desirable in the actual state of things; and being desirous of introducing into the former arrangements of the Alliance whatever improvements might be best adapted to assure new pledges of stability to the work of peace on which it is employed, decided, by common agreement, upon the following Articles:——

Independence.§ 1. Greece shall form an independent State[57], and shall enjoy all the rights, political, administrative, and commercial, attached to complete independence.

Frontier.§ 2. In consideration of these advantages granted to the new State, and in deference to the desire expressed by the Porte to obtain the reduction of the frontiers fixed by the Protocol of the 22nd of March, the line of demarcation of the limits of Greece shall take its departure from the mouth of the River Aspropotamos, ascend that river as far as the latitude of Lake Angelo Castro, and traversing that lake, as well as those of Vrachori and Saurovitza, it shall strike the Mount Artolina, from whence it shall follow the ridge of Mount Oxas, the Valley of Calouri, and the ridge of Mount Œta, as far as the Gulf of Zeitoun, which it shall reach at the mouth of the Sperchius.

All the territories and countries situated lo the south of this line, which the Conference has marked upon the map hereunto annexed—Lit. F., shall belong to Greece; and all the countries and territories situated to the north of this line shall continue to form part of the Ottoman Empire[58].

Islands.There shall likewise belong to Greece the whole of the Island of Negropont, with the Devil's Islands and the Island of Skyros, and the islands anciently known by the name of Cyclades, including the Island of Amorgo, situated between the 36th and 39th degrees of north latitude, and the 26th degree of longitude east of the meridian of Greenwich.

Government.§ 3. The Greek Government shall be monarchical, and hereditary according to the order of primogeniture[59]. It shall be confided to a Prince, who shall not be capable of being chosen from among those of the families reigning in the States that signed the Treaty of the 6th July, 1827[60], and shall bear the title of Sovereign Prince of Greece[61]. The choice of that Prince shall form the object of subsequent communications and stipulations.

§ 4. So soon as the Articles of the present Protocol shall have Peace.been conveyed to the knowledge of the parties interested, peace shall he considered as established ipso facto between the Ottoman Empire and Greece; and the subjects of the two States shall be reciprocally treated, in regard to the rights of commerce and navigation, as those of other States at peace with the Ottoman Empire and Greece[62].

§ 5. Acts of full and entire amnesty shall be immediately published by the Ottoman Porte and by the Greek Government.

The Act of amnesty of the Forte shall proclaim, that no Greek in the whole extent of its dominions shall be liable to be deprived of his property, or in any way disturbed, in consequence of the part which he may have taken in the insurrection of Greece.

The Act of amnesty of the Greek Government shall proclaim the same principle in favour of all the Mussulmans or Christians who may have taken part against its cause; and it shall further be understood and promulgated, that the Mussulmans who may be desirous of continuing to inhabit the territories and islands allotted to Greece, shall preserve their properties therein, and invariably enjoy there, with their families, perfect security.

Removals.§ 6. The Ottoman Porte shall grant to those of its Greek subjects who may be desirous of quitting the Turkish territory, a delay of a year, in order to sell their properties and to depart freely from the country.

The Greek Government shall allow the same power to the inhabitants of Greece who may wish to transport themselves to the Turkish territory.

Evacuation.§ 7. All the military and naval forces of Greece shall evacuate the territories, fortresses, and islands which they occupy beyond the line assigned in the second section for the limits of Greece, and shall withdraw behind that line with the least possible delay.

All the Turkish military and naval forces which occupy territories, fortresses, or islands comprized within the limits above mentioned, shall evacuate those islands, fortresses, and territories; and shall, in like manner, retire behind the same limits with the least possible delay.

Guarantees.§ 8. Each of the three Courts shall retain the power, secured to it by the 6th Article of the Treaty of the 6th of July, 1827, of guaranteeing the whole of the foregoing arrangements and Articles. The Acts of guarantee, if there be any, shall he drawn up separately; the operation and effects of these different Acts shall become, in conformity with the above-mentioned Article, the object of further stipulations on the part of the High Powers. Troops of the three Powers.No troops belonging to one of the Contracting Powers shall be allowed to enter the territory of the new Greek State, without the consent of the two other Courts who signed the Treaty.

Delimitation.§ 9. In order to avoid the collisions, which could not fail to result, under existing circumstances, from bringing Ottoman boundary Commissioners and Greek boundary Commissioners into contact, when the line of the frontiers of Greece comes to be laid down on the spot, it is agreed that that task shall he entrusted to British, French, and Russian Commissioners, and that each of the three Courts shall nominate one. These Commissioners, furnished with the instruction hereunto annexed,—Lit. G., shall settle the line of the said frontiers, following, with all possible exactness, the line pointed out in the second section; they shall mark out that line with stakes, and shall draw up two maps thereof, to be signed by them, of which one shall be given to the Ottoman Government, and the other to the Greek Government. They shall he bound to finish their labours in the space of six months. In case of difference of opinion between the three Commissioners, the majority of voices shall decide.

§ 10. The arrangements of the present Protocol shall be immediately communicated to the Ottoman Government by the Plenipotentiaries of the three Courts, who shall be furnished for this purpose with the common instruction hereunto annexed,—Lit. II.

The Residents of the three Courts in Greece shall also receive, on the same subject, the instruction hereunto annexed—Lit. I.

§ 11. The three Courts reserve to themselves to embody the present stipulations in a formal Treaty, which shall be signed at London, be considered as executive of that of the 6th of July, 1827, and be communicated to the other Courts of Europe, with the invitation to accede thereto, should they judge it expedient.

Conclusion.

Having thus arrived at the close of a long and difficult negotiation, the three Courts sincerely congratulate themselves on having come to a perfect agreement, in the midst of the most serious and delicate circumstances.

The maintenance of their union during such periods, offers the best pledge of its permanency; and the three Courts flatter themselves that this union, as firm as it is beneficial, will not cease to contribute to the confirmation of the peace of the world.

 (Signed)ABERDEEN.
MONTMORENCY-LA VAL.
LIEVEN.



No. II.

Protocol, No. 3, of the Conference held at the Foreign Office, London, on 3 February, 1830.

Present:

1830.
3 February.

The Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and Russia.

The Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg having been called, by the united suffrages of the three Courts of the Alliance, to the Sovereignty of Greece, the French Plenipotentiary requested the attention of the Conference to the particular situation in which his Government is placed, relative to a portion of the Greek population.

Catholics in Greece.He represented that for many ages France has been entitled to exercise, in favour of the Catholics subjected to the Sultan, an especial protection, which His Most Christian Majesty deems it to be his duty to deposit at the present moment in the hands of the future Sovereign of Greece, so far as the provinces which are to form the new State are concerned; but in divesting himself of this prerogative, His Most Christian Majesty owes it to himself, and he owes it to a people who have lived so long under the protection of his ancestors, to require that the Catholics of the continent and of the islands shall find in the organization which is about to be given to Greece, guarantees which may be substituted for the influence which France has hitherto exercised in their favour.

The Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain and Russia appreciated the justice of this demand; and it was decided that the Catholic religion should enjoy in the new State the free and public exercise of its worship, that its property should be guaranteed to it, that its bishops should be maintained in the integrity of the functions, rights, and privileges, which they have enjoyed under the protection of the Kings of France, and that, lastly, agreeably to the same principle, the properties belonging to the antient French Missions, or French Establishments, shall be recognized and respected.

Religious equality.The Plenipotentiaries of the three Allied Courts being desirous moreover of giving to Greece a new proof of the benevolent anxiety of their Sovereigns respecting it, and of preserving that country from the calamities which the rivalry of the religions therein professed might excite, agreed that all the subjects of the new State, whatever may be their religion, shall be admissible to all public employments, functions, and honours, and be treated on the footing of a perfect equality, without regard to difference of creed, in all their relations, religious, civil, or political[63].

 (Signed)ABERDEEN.
MONTMOREN Y-LAVAL.
LIEVEN.






No. III[64].

Convention between the Courts of Great Britain, France and Russia on the one part, and the Court of Bavaria on the other part, relative to the Sovereignty of Greece; signed at London, May 7, 1832.

The Courts of France, Great Britain, and Russia, exercising the power conveyed to them by the Greek Nation, to make choice of a Sovereign for Greece, raised to the rank of an independent State, and being desirous of giving to that country a fresh proof of their friendly disposition, by the election of a Prince descended from a Royal House, the friendship and alliance of which cannot fail to be of essential service to Greece, and which has already acquired claims to her esteem and gratitude, have resolved to offer the Crown of the new Greek State to the Prince Frederick Otho of Bavaria, second son of His Majesty the King of Bavaria.

His Majesty the King of Bavaria, on his part, acting in the character of Guardian of the said Prince Otho during his minority, participating in the views of the three Courts, and duly appreciating the motives which have induced them to fix their choice upon a Prince of his house, has determined to accept the Crown of Greece for his second son the Prince Frederick Otho of Bavaria.

In consequence of such acceptance, and for the purpose of agreeing upon the arrangements which it has rendered necessary, their Majesties the King of the French, the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Emperor of all the Russias, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of Bavaria on the other, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, viz.:

His Majesty the King of the French, the Sieur Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, Prince-Duke de Talleyrand, &c., &c.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable Henry John Viscount Palmerston, &c., &c.

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Sieur Christopher Prince of Lieven, &c., &c. And the Sieur Adam Count Matuszewic, &c., &c.

And His Majesty the King of Bavaria, the Sieur Augustus, Baron de Cetto, &c., &c.

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following Articles: —

Prince Otho to be King of Greece.Art. I. The Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, duly authorized for this purpose by the Greek nation, offer the hereditary Sovereignty of Greece to the Prince Frederick Otho of Bavaria, second son of His Majesty the King of Bavaria.

Art. II. His Majesty the King of Bavaria, acting in the name of his said son, a minor, accepts, on his behalf, the hereditary Sovereignty of Greece, on the conditions hereinafter settled.

Art. III. The Prince Otho of Bavaria shall bear the title of King of Greece.

Art. IV. Greece, under the sovereignty of the Prince Otho of Bavaria, and under the guarantee of the three Courts, shall form a monarchical and independent State, according to the terms of the Protocol signed between the said Courts, on the 3rd of February, 1830, and accepted both by Greece and by the Ottoman Porte.

The frontier to be determined.Art. V. The three Courts of the Greek State shall be such as shall be definitely settled by the negotiations which the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, have recently opened with the Ottoman Porte, in execution of the Protocol of the 26th of September, 1831[65].

Art. VI. The three Courts having beforehand determined to convert the Protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830, into a definite Treaty, as soon as the negotiations relative to the limits of Greece shall have terminated, and to communicate such Treaty to all the States with which they have relations, it is hereby agreed that they shall fulfil this engagement, and that His Majesty the King of Greece shall become a Contracting Party to the Treaty in question[66].

Art. VII. The three Courts shall, from the present moment, me their influence to procure the recognition of the Prince Otho of Bavaria as King of Greece, by all the Sovereigns and States with whom they have relations.

The descent of the crown.Art. VIII. The Royal Crown and dignity shall he hereditary in Greece, and shall pass to the direct and lawful descendants and heirs of the Prince Otho of Bavaria, in the order of primogeniture. In the event of the decease of the Prince Otho of Bavaria, without direct and lawful issue, the Crown of Greece shall pass to his younger brother, and to his direct and lawful descendants and heirs, in the order of primogeniture. In the event of the decease of the last-mentioned Prince also, without direct and lawful issue, the Crown of Greece shall pass to his younger brother, and to his direct and lawful descendants and heirs, in the order of primogeniture[67].

In no case shall the Crown of Greece and the Crown of Bavaria be united upon the same head[68].

Art. IX. The majority of the Prince Otho of Bavaria, as King of Greece, is fixed at the period when he shall have completed his twentieth year; that is to say, on the 1st of June, 1835.

Regency.Art. X. During the minority of the Prince Otho of Bavaria, King of Greece, his rights of Sovereignty shall be exercised in their full extent, by a Regency, composed of three Councillors, who shall be appointed by His Majesty the King of Bavaria.

Art. XI. The Prince Otho of Bavaria shall retain the full possession of his appanages in Bavaria. His Majesty the King of Bavaria, moreover, engages to assist, as far as may he in his power, the Prince Otho in his position in Greece, until a revenue shall have been set apart for the Crown in that State.

Engagement to guarantee a loan.Art. XII. In execution of the stipulations of the Protocol of the 20th of February, 1830, His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias engages to guarantee, and their Majesties the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the King of the French engage to recommend, the former to his Parliament[69], the latter to his Chambers[70], to enable their Majesties to guarantee, on the following conditions, a loan to be contracted by the Prince Otho of Bavaria, as King of Greece:—

1. The principal of the loan to be contracted under the guarantee of the three Powers shall not exceed, a total amount of sixty millions of francs.

2. The said loan shall be raised by instalments of twenty millions of francs each.

3. For the present, the first instalment only shall be raised[71], and the three Courts shall each become responsible for the payment of one-third of the annual amount of the interest and sinking fund of the said instalment[72].

4. The second and the third instalments of the said loan may also be raised, according to the necessities of the Greek State, after previous agreement between the three Courts and His Majesty the King of Greece[73].

5. In the event of the second and third instalments of the above-mentioned loan being raised in consequence of such an agreement, the three Courts shall each become responsible for the payment of one-third of the annual amount of the interest and sinking fund of these two instalments, as well as of the first.

6. The Sovereign of Greece and the Greek State shall be bound to appropriate to the payment of the interest and sinking fund of such instalments of the loan as may have been raised under the guarantee of the three Courts, the first revenues of the State, in such manner that the actual receipts of the Greek Treasury shall be devoted, first of all, to the payment of the said interest and sinking fund, and shall not be employed for any other purpose, until those payments on account of the instalments of the loan raised under the guarantee of the three Courts, shall have been completely secured for the current year[74].

The Diplomatic Representatives of the three Courts in Greece shall be specially charged to watch over the fulfilment of the last-mentioned stipulation.

Compensation to the PortArt. XIII. In case a pecuniary compensation in favour of the Ottoman Porte should result from the negotiations which the three Courts have already opened at Constantinople for the definite settlement of the limits of Greece, it is understood that the amount of such compensation shall he defrayed out of the proceeds of the loan which forms the subject of the preceding Article[75].

No. IV[76].

1833, 30th AprilAn Article explanatory of, and supplementary to, Article VIII of the Convention signed at London, the 7th of May, 1832, between the Courts of Great Britain, Bavaria, France, and Russia.

The succession to the crownThe Courts of Great Britain, Bavaria, France, and Russia, recognising the utility of better defining the sense, and of rendering complete the terms of Article VIII of the Convention signed between the said Courts at London on the 7th of May, 1832, have agreed together upon what follows:—

Single Art. The succession to the regal Crown and dignity in Greece, in the branch of Prince Otho of Bavaria, King of Greece, as in the branches of his younger brothers the Princes Luitpold and Adalbert of Bavaria, who have been contingently substituted for the branch of the said Prince Otho of Bavaria, by Article VIII of the Convention of London, of the 7th of May, 1832, will take place from male to male, in order of primogeniture.

Females shall not be able to succeed to the Greek Crown, except in the event of the total extinction of legitimate male heirs in all the three branches of the House of Bavaria pointed out above: and it is understood that, in such case, the regal Crown and dignity in Greece shall pass to the Princess, or to the legitimate descendants of the Princess, who, in the order of succession, shall be the nearest to the last King of Greece.

If the Greek Crown should happen to pass to the head of a female, her legitimate male descendants shall obtain, in their turn, precedence of the female, and shall ascend the throne of Greece in order of primogeniture. In any case, the Greek Crown cannot be united on the same head with the Crown of a foreign country[77].

The present explanatory and supplementary Article shall have the same force and value as if it were inserted word for word in the Convention of the 7th of May, 1832. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged as soon as possible.

In faith of which the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and have affixed thereto the Seal of their arms.

Done at London, the thirtieth of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three.

(Signed) A. DE CETTO.
PALMERSTON.
TALLEYRAND.
LIEVEN.




No. V[78].

1863, 13th July.Treaty between Her Majesty, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of Russia, on the one part, and the King of Denmark, on the other part, relative to the Accession of Prince William of Denmark to the Throne of Greece.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

Their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of all the Russias, being anxious to smooth the difficulties which have occurred in the Kingdom of Greece, placed under their common guarantee, have judged it necessary to come to an understanding with regard to the arrangements to be taken in order to give effect to the wish of the Greek nation, which calls the Prince William of Denmark to the Hellenic Throne.

His Majesty the King of Denmark, on his part, responding to the invitation of their said Majesties, has consented to afford them his co-operation with a view to that result, conformable to the interests of the general peace.

In consequence, their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of all the Russias, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of Denmark on the other, have resolved to conclude a Treaty, and have for that purpose named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:—

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable John Earl Russell, &c., &c.. Her Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, the Sieur John Baptist Louis Baron Gros, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c., &c.

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Sieur Philip Baron de Brunnow, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c., &c.;

And His Majesty the King of Denmark, the Sieur Torben de Bille, &c., &c.. His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty;

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following Articles:—

Prince William of Denmark to be KingArt. I. His Majesty the King of Denmark, in accordance with the Prince Christian of Denmark, acting in the character of guardian of his second son the Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George, accepts for that Prince, a minor, the hereditary sovereignty of Greece, which is offered to him by the Senate and[79] the National Assembly of Greece in the name of the Hellenic nation.

as George I.Art. II. The Prince William of Denmark shall bear the as title of George I, King of the Greeks[80].

Art. III. Greece, under the sovereignty of Prince William of Denmark, and the guarantee of the three Courts, forms a monarchical, independent, and constitutional State.

The Ionian Islands to be ceded to Greece,Art. IV. The limits of the Greek territory, determined by the arrangement concluded at Constantinople between the three Courts and the Ottoman Porte on the 21st of July, 1832, shall receive an extension by the union of the Ionian Islands with the Hellenic Kingdom, when such union, proposed by the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, shall have been found to be in accordance with the wishes of the Ionian Parliament[81], and shall have obtained the assent of the Courts of Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia[82].

and to be comprised in the guarantee.Art. V. The Ionian Islands, when their union with the Kingdom of Greece shall have been effected, shall be comprised in the guarantee stipulated by Article III of the present Treaty.

The crowns of Greece and Denmark separate.Art. VI. In no case shall the Crown of Greece and the Crown of Denmark be united on the same head[83].
The King's successors to be of the Orthodox faith.Art. VII. In conformity with the principle of the Hellenic Constitution recognized by the Treaty signed at London on the 2oth of November, 1852[84], and proclaimed by the Decree of the National Assembly of Greece of the 30th of March, 1863, the legitimate successors of King George I must profess the tenets of the Orthodox Church of the East[85].

The King's majority.Art. VIII. The majority of Prince William of Denmark, fixed by the law of the Royal family at eighteen years complete, that is to say, on the 24th of December, 1863, shall be considered as attained before that date, if a Decree of the National Assembly should recognize the necessity thereof[86].

Augumentations of the Civil List:Art. IX. At the moment when the union of the Ionian Islands with the Hellenic Kingdom shall take place, according to the terms of Article IV of the present Treaty, from the Ionian Islands;Her Britannic Majesty will recommend to the Government of the United States of the Ionian Islands to appropriate annually a sum of ten thousand pounds sterling[87] to augment the civil list of His Majesty George I, King of the Greeks[88].

from the Powers.Art. X. Each of the three Courts will give up in favour of Prince William of Denmark four thousand pounds a year out of the sums which the Greek Treasury has engaged to pay annually to each of them, in pursuance of the arrangement concluded at Athens by the Greek Government, with the concurrence of the Chambers, in the month of June, 1860[89].

It is expressly understood that these three sums, forming a total of twelve thousand pounds sterling annually, shall be destined to constitute a personal dotation of His Majesty the King, in addition to the civil list fixed by the law of the State[90].

The guaranteed loan.Art. XI. The accession of Prince William to the Hellenic Throne shall not involve any change in the financial engagements which Greece has contracted by Article XII of the Convention signed at London on the 7th of May, 1832, towards the Powers guarantees of the loan[91].

It is equally understood that the Powers will in concert watch over the execution of the engagement taken by the Hellenic Government in the month of June, 1860, upon the representation of the three Courts[92].

Art. XII. The three Courts shall, from this moment, use their influence in order to procure the recognition of Prince William of Denmark in the character of King of the Greeks[93] by all the Sovereigns and States with whom they have relations.

Art. XIII. His Majesty the King of Denmark reserves to himself to take the measures which may be most proper for facilitating the arrival of King George I in his dominions as soon as possible[94].

Art. XIV. The three Courts will bring the present Treaty to the knowledge of the Greek Government, and will afford to that Government all the support in their power, while awaiting the speedy arrival of His Majesty the King.

Art. XV. The present Treaty shall he ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London in six weeks, or sooner if possible[95].

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done at London, the thirteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three.

 (Signed) RUSSELL.
Bon. GROS.
BRUNNOW.
BILLE.





No. VI.[96].

1863, 13th October.Protocol of Conference held at the Foreign Office, October 13, 1863.

Present:

The Plenipotentiaries of France, Great Britain, Russia, and Denmark.

Modifications of No. V.By the Protocol of the 3rd of August the Plenipotentiary of Russia reserved to himself to announce to his Court the intention of His Majesty King George I to assume the title of King of the Hellenes, instead of that of King of the Greeks, mentioned in Articles II, IX, and XII of the Treaty of the 13th of July.

The Plenipotentiary of Russia now declared that his Court accedes to that change of title, which had already obtained the assent of the two other guaranteeing Powers.

As to the title of the King.In consequence, it was agreed by common consent to substitute in Articles II, IX, and XII the title of King of the Hellenes for that of King of the Greeks.

The Plenipotentiaries deemed it proper to place, moreover, upon record the unanimous accession of their Courts to the further verbal alteration indicated hereinafter.

As to mention of the Senate.The Decree of the 1830th of March, 1863, referred to in Article I, having been issued by the National Assembly only, it was agreed to omit in the text of the said Article the mention of the 'Senate,' whose legislative functions had ceased at the time when the wish of the Hellenic nation called Prince William of Denmark to the Throne of Greece.

The Plenipotentiaries assembled in Conference recorded by the present Protocol these alterations made, by order of their Courts, in Articles I, II, IX, and XII subsequently to the exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty signed at London on the 13th of July.

The Representatives of the Courts of France, Great Britain, and Russia at Athens will be instructed to bring this Protocol to the knowledge of the Hellenic Government.

 (Signed)Bon. GROS.
RUSSELL.
BRUNNOW.
BILLE.





No. VII[97]

1863, 14th November.Treaty between Her Majesty, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, relative to the Ionian Islands.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland having made known to their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, that the Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands, having been duly informed of the intention of Her Majesty to consent to the union of those Islands to the Kingdom of Greece, has unanimously pronounced in favour of that union[98]; and the condition prescribed by the last clause of the Protocol signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the Five Powers on the 1st of August last[99] being thus fulfilled; their said Majesties, that is to say, the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, have resolved to record in a solemn Treaty the assent which they have given to that union, stipulating at the same time the conditions under which it shall be effected.

For this purpose their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:—

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable John Earl Russell, &c.. Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the Count Felix de Wimpffen, &c., Chargé d'Affaires to the Government of Her Britannic Majesty;

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, the Sieur Camille de Nompère de Champagny, Marquis de Cadore, &c.. Chargé d'Affaires to the Government of Her Britannic Majesty;

His Majesty the King of Prussia, the Sieur Albert Count de Bernstorff-Stintenburg, &c.. His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty;

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Sieur Philip Baron de Brunnow, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c.;

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have concluded and signed the following Articles:—

Renunciation of Protectorate.Art. I. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland renounces on the conditions hereinafter specified, the Protectorate over the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, with their dependencies, which, by the Treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November, 1815, by the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, were constituted a single free and independent State, under the denomination of the United States of the Ionian Islands, placed under the immediate and exclusive protection of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors[100].

Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, accept, on the conditions hereinafter specified, the renunciation by Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland of the Protectorate of the Ionian Islands; and, in conjunction with Her Majesty, recognize the union of the said States with the Hellenic Kingdom.

Neutralisation.Art. II. The Ionian Islands after their union to the Kingdom of Greece, shall enjoy the advantages of a perpetual neutrality; Exclusion of armed forces.consequently no armed force, either naval or military, shall at any time be assembled or stationed upon the territory or in the waters of those Islands, beyond the number that may be strictly necessary for the maintenance of public order, and to secure the collection of the public revenue.

The High Contracting Parties engage to respect the principle of neutrality stipulated by the present Article[101].

Fortifications to be demolishedArt. III. As a necessary consequence of the neutrality to be thus enjoyed by the United States of the Ionian Islands the fortifications constructed in the Island of Corfu and its immediate dependencies, having no longer any object, shall be demolished, and the demolition thereof shall be effected previously to the withdrawal of the troops employed by Great Britain for the occupation of those Islands in her character as Protecting Power. This demolition shall take place in such manner as Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain shall deem sufficient to fulfil the intentions of the High Contracting Parties.

Commercial Treaties.Art. IV. The union of the Ionian Islands to the Hellenic Kingdom shall not involve any change as to the advantages conceded to foreign commerce and navigation in virtue of Treaties and Conventions concluded by foreign Powers with the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, in her character of Protector of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

All the engagements which result from the said transactions, as well as from the regulations actually in force, shall be maintained and strictly observed as hitherto.

In consequence, it is expressly understood that foreign vessels and commerce in Ionian ports, and, reciprocally, Ionian vessels and commerce in foreign ports, as well as the navigation between Ionian ports and the ports of Greece, shall continue to be subject to the same treatment, and placed under the same conditions, as before the union of the Ionian Islands to Greece[102].

Religious equality.Art. V. The union of the United States of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece shall in no wise invalidate the principles established by the existing legislation of those Islands with regard to freedom of worship and religious toleration; accordingly the rights and immunities established in matters of religion by Chapters 1 and 5 of the Constitutional Charter of the United States of the Ionian Islands, and specifically the recognition of the Orthodox Greek Church as the dominant religion in those Islands; the entire liberty of worship granted to the Established Church of the Protecting Power; and the perfect toleration promised to other Christian communions,—shall, after the union, be maintained in their full force and effect.

The special protection guaranteed to the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the advantages of which that Church is actually in possession, shall be equally maintained; and the subjects belonging to that communion shall enjoy in the Ionian Islands the same freedom of worship which is recognized in their favour by the Protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830[103].

The principle of entire civil and political equality between subjects belonging to different creeds, established in Greece by the same Protocol, shall be likewise in force in the Ionian Islands[104].

Art. VI. The Courts of France, Great Britain, and Russia, A Treaty to be made with Greecein their character of guaranteeing Powers of the Kingdom of Greece, reserve to themselves to conclude a Treaty with the Hellenic Government with regard to the arrangements which may be rendered necessary by the union of the Ionian Islands to Greece[105].

The military forces of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland shall be withdrawn from the territory of the United States of the Ionian Islands in three months, or sooner if possible, after the ratification of the said Treaty[106].

Art. VII. The Courts of France, Great Britain, and Russia engage to communicate to the Courts of Austria and Prussia the Treaty which they shall have concluded with the Hellenic Government in conformity with the preceding Article.

Art. VIII. The High Contracting Parties agree that from The Treaty of 1815.and after the coming into operation of the arrangements comprised in the present Treaty, the stipulations of the Treaty of the 5th of November, 1815, concluded between the Courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, relative to the United States of the Ionian Islands, shall cease to be in force, with the exception of the clause whereby the Courts of Austria, Prussia, and Russia renounced every right or particular pretension which they might have formed in respect to all or any of those Islands or their dependencies, recognized by the Treaty of the 5th of November, 1815, as forming a single free and independent State under the denomination of the United States of the Ionian Islands. By the present Treaty their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, renew and confirm the said renunciation in their name, for their heirs and successors.

Art. IX. The present Treaty shall he ratified, and the ratification shall be exchanged at London in six weeks, or sooner if possible[107].

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the fourteenth day of November, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three.

   (Signed)  RUSSELL.
WIMPFFEN.
CADORE.
BERNSTORFF.
BRUNNOW.




No. VIII[108].

1864 25th January.

Protocol (A) of Conference held at the Foreign Office,

January 25, 1864.

Present:

The Plenipotentiaries of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia.

The Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Her Britannic Majesty having come to an understanding with the Plenipotentiaries of France and Russia, announced that the three Protecting Courts are unanimously of opinion —

Rescision of exclusion of armed forces.  I. That it is not necessary to insist upon the limitation prescribed by Article II of the Treaty of the 14th of November, as to the naval and military forces to be maintained by Greece in the Ionian Islands.

Restriction of neutralisation.  2. That the advantages of neutrality established by the same Article in favour of the seven islands shall apply only to the Islands of Corfu and Paxo and their dependencies.

In order to carry out the intention of the signing Powers of the Treaty of the 14th of November, the Principal Secretary of State was of opinion that it would be sufficient to insert in the Treaty to be concluded with Greece an Article in the following terms; —

'The Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in their character of guaranteeing Powers of Greece, declare, with the assent of the Courts of Austria and Prussia, that the Islands of Corfu and Paxo, as well as their dependencies, shall, after their union to the Hellenic Kingdom, enjoy the advantages of perpetual neutrality.'

The Plenipotentiaries of Austria and Prussia gave their adhesion to the two modifications above mentioned, as well as to the wording of the Article as proposed by the Plenipotentiaries of the three Protecting Powers.

   (Signed)  APPONYI.
LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE.
RUSSELL.
BERNSTORFF.
BRUNNOW.




No. IX[109].

1864, 29th March

Treaty between Her Majesty, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of Russia, on the one part, and the King of the Hellenes on the other part, respecting the Union of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland made known to the Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands that, with a view to the eventual union of those Islands to the Kingdom of Greece, she was prepared, if the Ionian Parliament should express a wish to that effect, to abandon the Protectorate of those Islands, confided to Her Majesty by the Treaty concluded at Paris on the 5th of November, 1815, between the Courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Such wish having been expressed by a vote of the said Legislative Assembly passed unanimously on the 7th/19th October, 1863, Her Britannic Majesty consented, by Article I of the Treaty concluded on the 14th of November, 1863[110], between Her Majesty, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, to renounce the said Protectorate under certain conditions specified in that Treaty, and since defined by subsequent Protocols.

On their part, their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, consented by the same Article, and under the same conditions, to accept such renunciation, and to recognize, in conjunction with Her Britannic Majesty, the union of those Islands to the Kingdom of Greece.

In virtue of Article V of the Treaty signed at London on the 13th of July, 1863[111], it was moreover agreed by common consent between Her Britannic Majesty and their Majesties the Emperor of the French and the Emperor of all the Russias, that the Ionian Islands, when their union to the Kingdom of Greece should have been effected, as contemplated by Article IV of the same Treaty, should be comprised in the guarantee stipulated in favour of Greece by the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in virtue of the Convention signed at London on the 7th of May, 1832.

In consequence, and in accordance with the stipulations of the Treaty of the 13th of July, 1863, and with the terms of Article VI of the Treaty of the 14th of November, 1863, whereby the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in their character of Guaranteeing Powers of the Kingdom of Greece, reserved to themselves to conclude a Treaty with the Hellenic Government as to the arrangements which might become necessary in consequence of the union of the Ionian Islands to Greece, their said Majesties have resolved to proceed to negotiate with His Majesty the King of the Hellenes a Treaty for the purpose of carrying into execution the stipulations above mentioned.

His Majesty the King of the Hellenes having given his assent to the conclusion of such Treaty, their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:—

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable John Earl Russell, &c.. Her Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, the Sieur Godefroy Bernard Henry Alphonse, Prince de la Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c.

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Sieur Philip Baron de Brunnow, His Actual Privy Councillor, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, &c.

And His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, the Sieur Charilaüs S. Tricoupi, a Representative in the National Assembly of the Hellenes;

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following Articles:—

Renunciation of Protectorate.Art. I. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, desiring to realize the wish expressed by the Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands, that those Islands should be united to Greece, has consented, on the conditions hereinafter specified, to renounce the Protectorate over the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, with their dependencies, which, in virtue of the Treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November, 1815, by the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, were constituted a single free and independent State, under the denomination of 'the United States of the Ionian Islands,' placed under the immediate and exclusive protection of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors.

In consequence, Her Britannic Majesty, His Majesty the Union to Greece.Emperor of the French, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, in their character of signing parties to the Convention of the 7th of May, 1832, recognize such union, and declare that Greece, within the limits determined by the arrangement concluded at Constantinople between the Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, and the Ottoman Porte on the 21st of July, 1832[112],—including the Ionian Islands,—shall form a monarchical, independent, and constitutional State, under the Sovereignty of His Majesty King George and under the guarantee of the three Courts.

Neutralisation.Art. II. The Courts of Great Britain, France, and Russia, in their character of guaranteeing Powers of Greece, declare, with the assent of the Courts of Austria and Prussia, that the Islands of Corfu and Paxo, as well as their dependencies, shall, after their union to the Hellenic Kingdom, enjoy the advantages of perpetual neutrality[113].

His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages, on his part, to maintain such neutrality.

Commercial Treaties.Art. III. The union of the Ionian Islands to the Hellenic Kingdom shall not involve any change as to the advantages conceded to foreign commerce and navigation in virtue of Treaties and Conventions concluded by foreign Powers with Her Britannic Majesty, in her character of Protector of the Ionian Islands.

All the engagements which result from the said transactions as well as from the regulations actually in force in relation thereto, shall be maintained and strictly observed as hitherto.

In consequence, it is expressly understood that foreign vessels and commerce in Ionian ports, as well as the navigation between Ionian ports and the ports of Greece, shall continue to be subject to the same treatment, and placed under the same conditions, as before the union of the Ionian Islands to Greece[114], until the conclusion of new formal Conventions, or of arrangements destined to regulate between the parties concerned, questions of commerce and navigation, as well as questions relating to the regular service of communication by post.

Such new Conventions shall be concluded in fifteen years, or sooner if possible [115].

Religious equalityArt. IV. The union of the United States of the Ionian Religious Islands to the Kingdom of Greece shall in no wise invalidate the principles established by the existing legislation of those Islands with regard to freedom of worship and religious toleration; accordingly the rights and immunities established in matters of religion by Chapters I and V of the Constitutional Charter of the United States of the Ionian Islands [116], and specifically the recognition of the Orthodox Greek Church as the dominant religion in those Islands; the entire liberty of worship granted to the Established Church of the Protecting Power; and the perfect toleration promised to other Christian communions,—shall, after the union, be maintained in their full force and effect.

The special protection guaranteed to the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the advantages of which that Church is actually in possession, shall be equally maintained; and the subjects belonging to that communion shall enjoy in the Ionian Islands the same freedom of worship which is recognized in their favour by the Protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830.

The principle of entire civil and political equality between subjects belonging to different creeds, established in Greece by the same Protocol, shall be likewise in force in the Ionian Islands [117].

Augmentation of Civil listArt. V. The Legislative Assembly of the United States of the Ionian Islands has decreed by a resolution passed on the ⅞th of October, 1863, that the sum of ten thousand pounds sterling a year shall be appropriated, in monthly payments, to the augmentation of the Civil List of His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, so as to constitute the first charge upon the revenue of the Ionian Islands, unless provision be made for such payment, according to the Constitutional forms, out of the revenues of the Kingdom of Greece[118].

In consequence, His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages to carry that Decree duly into execution.

Relinquishment by the Powers of part of their claims in favour of the King.Art. VI. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, agree to relinquish in favour of His Majesty King George I, each four thousand pounds sterling a year, out of the sums which the Greek Treasury has engaged to pay annually to each of them, in virtue of the arrangement concluded at Athens by the Greek Government, with the concurrence of the Greek Chambers, in the month of June, 1860.

It is expressly understood that these three sums, forming a total of twelve thousand pounds sterling annually, shall be destined to constitute a personal dotation of His Majesty King George I, in addition to the Civil List fixed by the law of the State[119]. The accession of His Majesty to the Hellenic Throne shall not otherwise involve any change in the financial engagements which Greece has contracted by Article XII of the Convention of May 7, 1832, towards the Powers guarantees of the loan, nor in the execution of the engagement taken by the Hellenic Government in the month of June, 1860, upon the representation of the three Courts[120].

Treaties and Contracts.Art. VII. His Majesty the King of the Hellenes engages to take upon himself all the engagements and contracts lawfully concluded by the Government of the United States of the Ionian Islands, or in their name by the Protecting Power of those Islands, conformably to the Constitution of the Ionian Islands, whether with foreign Governments, with Companies and Associations, or with private individuals; and promises to fulfil the said engagements and contracts fully and completely, as if they had been concluded by His Majesty or by the Hellenic Government. Under this head are specially included: the public debt of the Ionian Islands; the privileges conceded to the Ionian Bank, to the Navigation Company known under the name of the Austrian Lloyds, in conformity with the Postal Convention of the 1st of December, 1853, and to the Malta and Mediterranean Gas Company.

Pensions to Officials.Art. VIII. His Majesty the King of the Hellenes promises to take upon himself,—

1. The pensions granted to British subjects by the Ionian Government, in conformity with the rules established in the Ionian Islands respecting pensions.

2. The compensation allowances due to certain individuals actually in the service of the Ionian Government, who will lose their employments in consequence of the union of the Islands to Greece.

3. The pensions which several Ionian subjects are in the enjoyment of, in remuneration of services rendered to the Ionian Government.

A special Convention to be concluded between Her Britannic Majesty and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes shall determine the amounts of these different heads, and shall regulate the mode of their payment[121].

Evacuation.Art. IX. The civil authorities and the military forces of Her Britannic Majesty shall he withdrawn from the territory of the United States of the Ionian Islands in three months, or sooner if possible, after the ratification of the present Treaty[122].

Art. X. The present Treaty shall he ratified, and the ratifications shall he exchanged at London in six weeks, or sooner if possible[123].

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done at London, the twenty-ninth of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four.

(Signed) RUSSELL.
LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE.
BRUNNOW.
CH. TRICOUPI.




No. X[124].

1864, 29th March.Protocol of the Conference held at the Foreign Office, London, on 29th March, 1864.

Present:

The orthodox faith.The Plenipotentiaries of France, Great Britain, and Russia, and of the King of the Hellenes.

The Plenipotentiary of His Hellenic Majesty declared that King George had decided to maintain, in all its integrity, that clause of the Decree concerning his election in virtue of which his legitimate heirs and successors to the throne of Greece must profess the tenets of the Orthodox Church of the East.

The Plenipotentiaries of France, Great Britain, and Russia, resolved to record this present declaration among the Acts of the Conference.

(Signed) LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE.
RUSSELL.
BRUNNOW.
CH. TRICOUPI.




No. XI[125].

1865, 8th April.Act containing the Accession of the Sultan to the Treaty concluded March 29, 1864, between Great Britain, France, Russia, and Greece, for the Union of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece; and containing also the Acceptance of that Accession by the four Contracting Parties to the Treaty.

In the Name of Almighty God.

Their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of all the Russias, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes on the other part, having concluded between them on the 29th of March, 1864, a Treaty for the union of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece: and Their said Majesties, with reference to the Act under date of the 24th of April, 1819[126], whereby the Sublime Ottoman Porte recognised the Protectorate of Great Britain over the Ionian Islands, having proposed to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan to accede to the aforesaid Treaty; and His Imperial Majesty having accepted that proposal, the Plenipotentiaries of the High Powers, that is to say:—

On the part of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Honourable William Stuart, Her Chargé d'Affaires to the Sublime Ottoman Porte;

On the part of His Majesty the Emperor of the French, the Sieur Lionel Marquis de Moustier, &c.. Ambassador of His Majesty the Emperor of the French to the Sublime Ottoman Porte;

On the part of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Sieur Nicholas Ignatieff, Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte, &c.;

On the part of His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, the Sieur Peter Delyanni, His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte, &c.

And on the part of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, His Highness Mohammed Emin Aali Pasha, His Minister for Foreign Affairs, &c.;

Met together for the purpose of recording in due form the Accession of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, and the Acceptance of that Accession by the four Courts Parties to the Treaty.

Accession of Sultan to Treaty of 29th March, 1864.In consequence the Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Sultan declares, in virtue of his full powers, that the Sublime Porte formally accedes to the above-mentioned Treaty signed at London on the 29th of March, 1864, between Their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of the French, and the Emperor of all the Russias, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes on the other part, for the union of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of Greece, which Treaty is, word for word, as follows:—

[Here the Treaty is set out.]

Acceptance thereof.The Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, Russia, and Greece, in virtue of their full powers, formally accept, in the name of their respective Courts, the said Accession of the Sublime Ottoman Porte.

The present Act of Accession and Acceptance shall be ratified, and the acts of ratification thereof shall be exchanged at Constantinople in two months from this date, or sooner if possible[127].

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done at Constantinople, the eighth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five.

(Signed) W. STUART.
MOUSTIER.
N. IGNATIEFF.
P. DELYANNI.
AALI.




No. XII[128].

1881, 24th May.Convention between Her Majesty, the German Emperor, the Emperor of Austria, the President of the French Republic, the King of Italy, the Emperor of Russia, and the Sultan, for the Settlement of the Frontier between Greece and Turkey.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., and Apostolic King of Hungary; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, exercising the mediation contemplated by Article XXIV of the Treaty signed at Berlin on the 13th July, 1878[129], of the one part; and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, of the other part; being equally animated by the desire to regulate, in the interest of European order, the questions relative to the rectification of the Turco-Greek frontiers, have determined to conclude a Convention destined to give a definitive solution to this question.

Their said Majesties and the President of the French Republic have, to this effect, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India: the Right Honourable George J. Goschen, Her Special Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia: Paul, Count de Hatzfeldt Wildenburg, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., and Apostolic King of Hungary: Henry, Baron Calice, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

The President of the French Republic: Charles Tissot, Ambassador of the French Republic at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

His Majesty the King of Italy: Louis, Count Corti, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias: Eugene Novikow, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans;

And His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans: Mahmoud Server Pasha, President of his Council of State; the Mushir Ghazi Ahmed Moukhtar Pasha, President of the Commission of Inspection of Military Reforms; the Mushir Aly Nyzami Pasha; Artin Effendi Dadian, Under-Secretary of State in the Department for Foreign Affairs;

Who, furnished with the necessary powers, have agreed to the following Articles:—

The new frontier.Art. I. The new frontiers of Turkey and Greece are fixed as follows:—

The new frontier-line starting from a point near the defile of Karalik-Dervend, between the mouth of the Salamvrias and Platamona, about 4 kilom. to the south of the latter point, follows in a westerly direction the crest of the mountains, passes first between Krania and Avarnitza, then between Nezeros and Analipsis, arrives at the summit of Mount Godaman, then descends towards the south, following the crest of Olympus, reaches the summit of Kokkinopetra, and, taking a westerly direction from this point without leaving the same crest, passes between Ligara and Derveni-Melona, and arrives at the summit of Mount Kritiri. Thence turning towards the south the line gains the right bank of the Xeraghis, and, following the line of watershed towards the south-west, gains the summit of the heights situated to the north of the village of Zarko, then turns to the north-west in the direction of Diminitza and keeps to the line of watershed, leaving to Turkey the village of Elevtherokhorion. Before reaching Diminitza, at a distance of about 18 kilom. from that place, the frontier-line turns towards the west, still on the line of watershed, and passes by the villages of Flamouristi, Gavronon, and Georgitza to the summit of Mount Kratchovo. Then turning southwards by the crest, it passes by the summits of Mount Zygos, Dokini, and Peristeri, and gains the River Arta, following the stream which carries off by the shortest way the rainfall from the summit of Mount Peristeri to this river, and passing near the villages of Kalarrhytes and Mikalitzi. Beyond these last points the line follows the thalweg of the River Arta to its mouth.

Delimitation.This delimitation will he fixed on the spot by a Commission composed of the Delegates of the Six Powers and of the two parties interested.

The Delimitation Commission will pass their Resolutions by a majority of votes, each power having but one vote.

It should meet within eight days after the ratification of the present Convention, or sooner if possible, so as to commence its labours[130].

Punta.Art. II. Punta and its territory, as it was determined by the first Article of the Act signed at Constantinople on the 21st July, 1832[131], will be ceded to Greece.

Gulf of Arta.All the fortifications commanding the entrance to the Gulf of Arta, both on the side of Prevesa as well as on that of Punta, will be disarmed within three months after the signature of this Convention[132], and will remain disarmed in time of peace between the two States.

The navigation of the Gulf of Arta will be free.

Inhabitants of ceded territory.Art. III. The lives, property, honour, religion, and customs of those of the inhabitants of the localities ceded to Greece who shall remain under the Hellenic administration will be scrupulously respected. They will enjoy exactly the same civil and political rights as Hellenic subjects of origin.

Property.Art. IV. The rights of property on the farms, as well on the pasturages, meadows, grazing grounds ('kechlak'), forests, and every kind of lands or other real estate, held by private individuals and communes in virtue of firmans, hodjets, tapous, and other titles, or else by the Ottoman law, in the district ceded to Greece, will be recognized by the Hellenic Government.

The titles of property called vacoufs, which serve to keep up the mosques, colleges, schools, and other pious or charitable institutions, will be equally recognized.

Estates of the Sultan.Art. V. His Majesty the Sultan shall be enabled, as in the past, to dispose of the Imperial estates, the revenues of which are collected on behalf of His Majesty or of the Imperial family.

In the case of the nature and destination of these properties being contested, the question shall be submitted to the examination of the Commission of which the appointment is contemplated by Article IX of the present Convention, and, eventually, according to the terms of the said Article, to the decision of the Mediating Powers.

Expropriation.Art. VI. No one may be deprived of his property except for some object of public utility, duly established, in the cases and in the manner provided by law, and in exchange for a fair and prepaid compensation.

No landlord shall be obliged to sell his goods to the cultivators of the soil or to third parties, nor to hand over any portion of them; nor shall any alteration be introduced into the relations between landlords and the cultivators of the soil, except by a general law, applicable to the whole Kingdom.

Land-owners settled outside the Kingdom, and possessing real property in the ceded territories, may let their lands under a lease, or have them administered through third parties.

Pasturage.Art. VII. The inhabitants of the provinces bordering on the territories ceded to Greece, who have been for a long time in the habit of sending their flocks to the meadows and pasture lands, as well as on to the farms situated within those territories, shall continue to enjoy these privileges as in the past.

Religious freedom.Art. VIII. Freedom of religion and of public worship is secured to Mussulmans in the territories ceded to Greece.

No interference shall take place with the autonomy or hierarchical organization of Mussulman religious bodies now existing, or which may hereafter be formed; nor with the management of the funds and real property belonging to them.

No obstacle shall be placed in the way of the relations of those bodies with their spiritual heads in matters of religion.

The local Courts of the Chéri shall continue to exercise their jurisdiction in matters purely religious.

Controversies.Art. IX. A Turco-Hellenic Commission shall be entrusted with the settlement, within two years, of all matters concerning the property of the State, as well as of questions relating to the interests of private individuals, who may happen to be connected with them.

This Commission will have to decide on the indemnity which Greece is to pay to Turkey from the lands which shall be admitted to belong bonâ fide to the Ottoman Government, and to fix the annual revenue to be paid on them.

Those questions on which an understanding cannot be come to shall be submitted to the decision of the Mediating Powers.

Share of Ottoman debt.Art. X. Greece shall bear a part of the Ottoman Public Debt proportionate to the revenues of the ceded territories. This portion shall be determined ultimately between the Sublime Porte and the Representatives of the Mediating Powers at Constantinople[133].

Disarmament.Art. XI. No exclusive and exceptional measure of disarmament shall be taken with regard to Mussulmans.

Brigandage.Art. XII. The Hellenic Government shall propose to the Chamber a Law for the renewal of the Convention of 1856 (1272), relating to the suppression of brigandage.

Removal.Art. XIII. The natives of the territories ceded to Greece, or persons actually domiciled in these provinces, who intend to retain Ottoman nationality, shall, for the spoace of three years from the exchange of the ratifications, and by a preliminary declaration made before a competent authority, enjoy the right of transferring their residence into the Ottoman Empire, and of establishing themselves there, in which case they shall retain their character of Ottoman subjects.

Those persons emigrating within the above-mentioned period of three years shall continue to enjoy the privilege stipulated for in the third paragraph of Article VI of the present Convention in favour of proprietors settled outside the limits of the Kingdom.

During the same period of three years Mussulmans shall not he liable to military service.

Arrears of taxes.Art. XIV. The Commission created in virtue of Article IX of the present Convention is entrusted with the settlement, within the shortest period possible, of the questions relating to arrears of taxes due to the Ottoman Government in the ceded territories, as well as those which might arise from the collection of the taxes during the current year.

Evacuation.Art. XV. The details of the evacuation and transfer of the ceded territories are settled in a separate Act, which is, and remainis, annexed to the present Convenition, and will have the same force and value as if it formed part of it.

The Imperial Ottoman troops are bound to evacuate the ceded territories within the period fixed by this Act.

The Imperial Ottoman Government will, however, endeavour to shorten that period as far as possible.

Technical Commissioners.Art. XVI. It is understood that the Mediating Powers reserve to themselves the power to appoint Technical Commissioners for the purpose of superintending the operations connected with the cession of the territories[134].

Amnesty.Art. XVII. A full and entire amnesty shall be granted by Turkey and Greece to all persons implicated or compromised in political events anterior to the present Convention, and relating to the question which is settled by it.

Art. XVIII. The Convention concluded this day between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., Apostolic King of Hungary; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty A Convention between Turkey and Greece.the Emperor of all the Russias; and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans shall he immediately followed by the stipulation of a Convention, containing the same provisions, between His Turkey and Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes[135].

Art. XIX. The present Convention shall be ratified and its ratifications exchanged at Constantinople within three weeks, or sooner, if possible[136].

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done at Constantinople, the twenty-fourth day of May, in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one.

(Signed) GEORGE J. GOSCHEN.
V. HATZFELDT.
CALICE.
TISSOT.
L. CORTI.
NOVIKOW.
SERVER.
MOUKHTAR.
ALY.
ARTIN DADIAN.




Annexe.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., Apostolic King of Hungary; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, being desirous of settling the details and the mode of evacuation, and of the taking possession of the territories ceded to Greece in virtue of the Convention signed this day, have resolved with this view to sign a separate Act in accordance with the terms of Article XV of the said Convention, and have to this effect appointed:—

[Names as in the Principal Convention.]

Who, furnished with the necessary powers, have agreed to the following Articles:—

Evacuation.Art. I. The territories to he ceded to Greece are divided into six sections, in accordance with the indications marked upon the annexed map.

Art. II. The evacuation of one of these sections shall take place within three weeks from the date fixed for the exchange of the ratifications of the Convention signed this day.

Four other sections shall he completely evacuated within three months from the same date.

The sixth section, which comprises Volo, and constitutes the only means of exit by which the Ottoman Government can remove its war material, shall be evacuated during the two following months, that is to say, within the whole period of five months from the date fixed for the exchange of the ratifications of the Convention[137].

It is understood that these various periods shall be abridged if possible.

The Ottoman authorities will draw up an inventory of that portion of the war material which cannot he removed during the said period of five months.

Art. III. The Mediating Powers will name Military Delegates, who will constitute a Commission, destined to act as intermediary,for the evacuation by the Ottoman authorities, and the taking over by the Hellenic authorities of the ceded territories.

This Commission will exercise a general supervision over the evacuation and occupation of the ceded territories. It will intervene for the purpose of establishing an agreement between the Commanders on both sides, both as regards the military movements on either side, the fixing the distance which must always divide the troops of the two Powers, and the period which must elapse between the evacuation and the taking over of the different points to be ceded[138]. Art. IV. It will be the duty of the Ottoman and Greek authorities to afford aid and protection to this Commission during the accomplishment of its mission.

Art. V. The present Act forms an integral part of the Convention signed this day at Constantinople, and will have the same force and value. In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.

Done at Constantinople, the twenty-fourth day of the month of May, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one.

(Signed) GEORGE J. GOSCHEN.
V. HATZFELDT.
CALICE.
TISSOT.
L. CORTI.
NOVIKOW.
SERVER.
MOUKHTAR.
ALY
ARTIN DADIAN.

  1. See the declaration addressed by the Greeks to the monarchs assembled at Verona, 28th August, 1822, and published in the following year, Martens, Nouveau Recueil, t. vi. p. 233.
  2. See the Russian memoir of 1824, British and Foreign State Papers, vol. xi. p. 826.
  3. See manifesto of 2nd August, 1835, Martens, N.R., t. vi. p. 781.
  4. Parliamentary Papers, 1863, Correspondence relative to the affairs of Greece, p. 4.
  5. Brit. and For. State Papers, xiv. p. 1042.
  6. See Parl. Papers, 1863, u. s., p. 22.
  7. Parl. Papers, 1828; N. R. vii, 282, 465.
  8. See the Protocols of the Conference in the Parliamentary Papers for 1830, 1832, and 1843; also in Martens, Nouveau Recueil, xii, xvi, xvii; and in the British and Foreign State Papers, xvii, xviii, xix, xxii, xxv.
  9. See the Protocols of the Conference at Constantinople (16th August- 4th December, 1827), and of Poros (28th December, 1828) in the Parliamentary Papers for 1830.
  10. Brit. and For. State Papers, xiv. p. 1048.
  11. Ib., p. 1042.
  12. Prot. No. 17.
  13. By Art. 10 of the Treaty of Adrianople, made with Russia 14th September, 1829, the Porte also declares its 'entire adhesion to the Treaty of London,' and 'equally accedes to the Act of 22nd March, 1829.'
  14. Prot. No. 23, q. v. infra, Texts, No. I.
  15. Prot. No. 25, Texts, No. II.
  16. Prot. No. 26.
  17. Prot. No. 30.
  18. Prot. No. 36
  19. Prot. No. 39
  20. Prot. No. 44.
  21. Prot. No. 45, Annexe A, q.v. infra, Texts, No. III. This Convention is to be read with an explanatory article annexed to the Protocol of 30th April, 1833, No. 57, q. v. infra, Texts, No. IV, and with the Convention of London of 20th Nov. 1852 (see N. R. G. xvii, 2 P. 69), which, relating wholly to the Bavarian dynasty, is now inoperative.
  22. Prot. No. 48.
  23. Prot. No. 52, Annexe A.
  24. Prot. No. 52.
  25. Hertslet, Map of Europe by Treaty, p. 917.
  26. Prot. No. 58.
  27. Prot. Nos. 60-97.
  28. Parl. Papers, 1860.
  29. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 2.
  30. A previous choice of Prince Alfred of England was maintained by the Three Powers to be excluded by the Protocol of 3rd February, 1830. See Parl Papers, 1863; and Hansard, clxix. p. 1470.
  31. Parl. Papers, 1863, Greece, Nos. 2 and 4; N. R. G. xvii, P. 2, p. 73.
  32. Parl. Papers, 1864; N. R. G. xvii, 2 P., 223; q. v. infra, Texts, No. V.
  33. Parl. Papers, 1864; N. R. G. xviii, 16, 47; q. v. infra, Texts, No. VI.
  34. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 4.
  35. Parl. Papers, 1863; N. R. G. xviii, 53.
  36. Parl. Papers, 1864; N. R. G. xviii, 47; q.v. infra, Texts, No. VII.
  37. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 1; N. R. G. xviii, 60; q. v. infra, Texts, No. VIII.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Parl. Papers, 1864; N. R. G. xviii, 63; q. v. infra, Texts, No. IX.
  40. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 1; N. R. G. xviii, 48; q. v. infra, Texts, No. X. Cf. the Protocol of 5th June 1863, Art 1 of the Treaty of 20 November 1852, the Protocol of 5th June 1863, Art 7 of the Treaty of 13th July 1863.
  41. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 1; N. R. G. xviii, 72.
  42. N. R. G. xviii, 68.
  43. Parl. Papers, 1865, N. R. G. xx, 86; q. v. infra, Texts, No. XI.
  44. Parl. Papers, 1877, Turkey, No. 2, pp. 70, 173.
  45. Prot. No. 13, Parl. Papers, 1878.
  46. Infra, chapter VI.
  47. Martens, N. R. G., 2me série, vi, pp. 1-14.
  48. Ib. pp. 14-95.
  49. Parl. Papers, 1880, Turkey, No. 9.
  50. Parl. Papers, 1880, Turkey, No. 9; N. R. G., 2me Série, vi. 95. The new frontier is defined as follows: 'La frontière suivra le thalweg du Kalamas depuis l'embouchure de cette rivière dans la Mer lonienne jusqu'à sa source dans le voisinage de Han-Kalabaki, puis les crêtes qui fonnent la ligne de séparation entre les bassins: Au Nord, de la Vouitza, de l'Haliacmon, et du Mavroneri et leurs tributaires: Au sud, du Kalamas, de l'Arta, de l'Aspropotamos et du Salambryas (Pénée ancien), et leurs tributaires; pour aboutir à l'Olympe, dont elle suivra la crête jusqu'à son extrémité orientale sur la Mer Egée. Cette ligne laisse au sud le Lac de Janina et tous ses afflents, ainsi que Metzovo, qui resteront acquis à la Grèce.'
  51. Parl. Papers, 1881, Greece, No. 6.
  52. Parl. Papers, 1881, Greece, No. 7; N. R. G., 2me Série, vi, 753; q. v. infra, Texts, No. XII.
  53. Parl. Papers, 1882, Greece, No. 2; N. R. G., 2me Série, viii, 6.
  54. Parl. Papers, 1882, Greece, No. 1; N. R. G. u. s. p. 44.
  55. Such portions of the following diplomatic Acts as have ceased to be operative are printed in Italic type.
  56. Parl. Papers, 1830.
  57. Superseded by the Convention of 7th May, 1832 (Texts, No. III), Art. 4; and now by the Treaty of 13th July, 1863 (Texts, No. V), Art. 3.
  58. Superseded by the 'Arrangement' of 21 July, 1832 (supra, p. 13), which has in its turn been superseded by the Convention of 1881 (Texts, No. XII).
  59. Cf. the Convention of 7 May, 1832 (Texts, No. Ill), Art. 8, and Explanatory Article (Texts, No. IV); also the Treaty of 13th July, 1863 (Texts, No. V), Art. 3.
  60. During the discussions with reference to the choice of Prince Alfred of England in 1862 it was maintained by Greece that this clause was no longer in force. Cf. supra, p. 21.
  61. Superseded by the Convention of 7 May, 1832, Art. 3, and Treaty of 13 July, 1863, Art. 2.
  62. An armistice was accordingly proclaimed by the Greeks on 1 6th April, and the Protocol was accepted by the Porte on 24th April. See Annexes C and F to Protocol No. 29.
  63. Cf. Art. 5 of Treaty of 14th Nov. 1863, and Art. 4 of Treaty of 29th March, 1864 (Texts, Nos. VII and IX).
  64. Annexe A to Prot. No. 45; N. R. x, 550.
  65. The continental limits of Greece were accordingly settled by the Arrangement of 2 1st July, 1832, supra p. 13, which remained in force till the Convention of 1881 (Texts, No. XII).
  66. This was not done.
  67. Cf. the 'Explanatory Article' (Texts, No. IV).
  68. Cf. the Treaty of 13th July, 1863 (Texts, No. V), Art. 6.
  69. The Statute 2 and 3 Will. IV. c. 121 (i6th August 1832) was accordingly passed. It enables the King to guarantee the loan, and directs a statement of receipts and expenditure on account of it to be annually laid before Parliament by the Treasury.
  70. A law was passed on 14th June, 1833, under which the King gave his guarantee, on 9th July, 1833, and subsequently.
  71. A note of 30th August, 1832, from the representatives of the Powers at London, authorized the immediate realization of the two first instalments, amounting to 40,000,000 fr. This sum was advanced at 5 per cent, with 1 per cent as a sinking fund, by Messrs. Rothschild of Paris under a contract signed by King Otho on 12th January, 1833.
  72. Prot. 55 explains that the responsibility of the Powers is not collective for each bond, but separate for one third of the bonds issued for each instalment of the loan.
  73. In June, 1835, the Greek government pressed for the issue of the third instalment. This Great Britain was prepared to authorize, and the Stat. 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 94 (19th August, 1836) was passed to remove a doubt as to the authority given to the King by the preceding Statute to guarantee one third of such instalment, unless the other Powers also guaranteed their respective shares of it. France and Russia were reluctant to do so; but eventually concurred in guaranteeing the whole instalment to meet saccessive advances by Messrs. Rothschild, see Prot. Nos. 60, 61, 62, 64, 66, &c.
  74. Such sums as were necessary for the due payment of the interest and sinking fund of the whole loan of 60,000,000 fr. were duly provided by the Powers, in a series of annual payments ending in 1871. The total amount thus paid by Great Britain being £1,351,071 8s. 0d. The repayments by Greece are still greatly in arrear. In 1847 she paid something over £23,000, and in 1848 something over £7000. In 1857 a commission of representatives of the Powers investigated the state of the finances of the country, and reported on 24th May, 1859 (Parl. Papers, i860), recommending that Greece should be required to make an annual payment to the three Powers of 900,000 fr. (£36,000). The representatives of those Powers at Athens accordingly announced to the Greek Government in the following year that 'the three protecting Powers have in concert, with all due regard to the wants of the State, fixed the minimum of the sum to be paid at first by Greece towards meeting the charges on the loan, at 900,000 fr.; that sum to be afterwards increased in proportion to the improved state of the Greek finances, at periods to be afterwards determined when the question respecting the sinking fund shall be arranged.' This temporary arrangement, in lieu of the provisions of the Treaty, was accepted by the Greek Government in a note dated 21st June, 1860. Since that date Greece has paid to Great Britain nearly £8000 annually. By the end of 1883 her total repayments amounted to £193,329 0s. 6d. (see the account of moneys paid and received on account of the Greek loan, presented to Parliament in February, 1884); in addition to which she is also credited with £76,000 being the amount relinquished in her favour by Great Britain, at the rate of £4000 per annum, under the provisions of Art. 6 of the Treaty of 29th March, 1864 (Texts, No. IX), out of the £12,000 per annum payable to that Power under the arrangement of 1860.
  75. Such a compensation, to the extent of 40,000,000 Turkish piastres, was agreed upon by Prot. 52 of the Conference (supra p. 19); and a rum of 11,220,598 fr. was accordingly paid to the Porte in 1834, out of the proceeds of the first and second instalments of the guaranteed loan.
  76. Prot. 57, Annexe B.
  77. Cf. the Treaty of 13th July, 1863 (Texts, No. V), Art. 6.
  78. Parl. Papers, 1864, N. R. G., 2 P. 223.
  79. See Prot. of 13th Oct. 1863 (Texts, No. VIII).
  80. Ibid.
  81. Given by a vote of 19th October, 1863.
  82. Given by the Treaty of 14th November, 1863 (Texts, No. VII).
  83. Cf. Texts, No. IV.
  84. This Treaty provided: (1) that Bavarian Princes, succeeding in default of heirs of King Otho, must profess the faith of the orthodox Church of the East, (2) that Queen Marie-Amélie, if left a widow, is to be Regent. N. R. G, xvii, P. 2, 69.
  85. Cf. the Protocol of 29th March, 1864 (Texts, No. X).
  86. This was done by a Decree of 27th June, 1863.
  87. This appropriation was made by a vote of 19th October, 1863.
  88. See Protocol of 13th October, 1863; and the Treaty of 29th March, 1864. Art. 5 (Texts, No. IX).
  89. Effected by the Treaty of 29th March, 1864, Art. 6 (Texts, No. IX).
  90. Under the Constitution of 28th November, 1864, a Civil List of £40,178 was settled on King George, in addition to the £12,000 released by the Powers.
  91. Vide supra, p. 28 n.
  92. Vide supra, pp. 21, 38 n.
  93. See Protocol of 13th October, 1863 (Texts, No. VI).
  94. The King arrived on 1st October, 1863.
  95. The ratifications were exchanged at London, on 3rd August.
  96. Parl. Papers, 1864, N. R. G. xviii, 47.
  97. Parl. Papers 1864; N. R. G. xvii, 2 P., 223.
  98. On 19th October 1863.
  99. Supra, p. 23.
  100. Supra, p. 23.
  101. The exclusion of armed forces was rescinded, and neutralisation of the islands was restricted to Corfu and Paxo, by a protocol signed by the five Powers, 25th January, 1860; infra, Texts No. VIII. Cf. Art. 2 of the Treaty of 29th March, 1864, between the three Powers and the King of the Hellenes (Texts, No. IX).
  102. This Article was interpreted by the protocol of the sitting of 25th January, 1864, of the Conference of the five Powers, and is repeated in Art. 3 of the Treaty of 29th March, 1864.
  103. Supra, Texts, No. II.
  104. Cf. Art. 2 of Texts, No. IX.
  105. This was done by the Treaty of 29th March, 1864 (Texts, No. IX).
  106. Vide supra, p. 24.
  107. The Ratifications were exchanged on 2nd January, 1864.
  108. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece, No. 1; N.R.G. xviii. 60.
  109. Parl. Papers, 1864, N.R.G. xviii. 63.
  110. Supra, Texts, No. VII.
  111. Supra, Texts, No. V.
  112. Supra, p. 13, now superseded by the Convention of 8th April, 1881 (Texts, No. XII).
  113. Cf. supra, note to Art. 2 of the Treaty of 14th November, 1863.
  114. This Article thus far is identical with Art. 4 of the Treaty of 14th November, 1863. What follows is new.
  115. Greece became a party to the General Postal Union of 1874, and the Universal Postal Union of 1878; she has concluded Commercial Conventions with Italy (1877), with Egypt (1884), and probably with some other countries.
  116. The Charter is set out in Brit, and For. State Papers, iv, pp. 647-725. It was ratified 26th August, and communicated to the Assembly 27th November, 1817.
  117. This whole Article is identical with Art. 5 of the Treaty of 14th November, 1863 (Texts, No. VII).
  118. Cf. Art. 9 of the Treaty of 13th July, 1863. The existing Constitution of Greece was adopted on 28th November, 1864.
  119. Cf. Art. 10 of the Treaty of 13th July, 1863.
  120. Cf. Art. 11 of the Treaty of 13th July, 1863, and supra, pp. 21, 38 n. By 27 and 28 Vict. cap. 40, the Treasury was authorized to give effect to the relinquishment agreed upon in this Article.
  121. This was effected by a Convention of 29th March, 1864; supra, p. 24.
  122. The British occupation ceased on 28th May, 1864; cf. supra, p. 24.
  123. The ratifications were exchanged on 25th April, 1864.
  124. Parl. Papers, 1864, Greece No. 1; N. R. G. xvii, 48. Cf. Art. 7 of the Treaty of 13th July 1863 (Texts No. V).
  125. Parl. Papers, 1865; N. R. G. xx., 86.
  126. Supra, p. 23.
  127. The ratifications were exchanged on 15th June, 1865.
  128. Parl. Papers, 1881, Greece, No. 7; N. R. G. 2me Série, vi. 753.
  129. Supra, p. 25; infra, chap. vi.
  130. This Commission, on which Major Ardagh was the British representative, held its sittings partly in Greece and partly at Constantinople, from 6th July to 28th November, when its final Protocol was signed, the Turkish Commissioner signing under reserve as to four points in the new frontier (Parl. Papers, 1882, Greece, No. 1 ; N. R. G. 2me Série, viii. 44). The questions thus left outstanding were eventually disposed of by a Protocol signed on behalf of Turkey and Greece in November, 1882. Cf. supra, p. 27.
  131. Supra, p. 14.
  132. This had been done by the beginning of November, 1881.
  133. Down to the end of 1884 no steps appear to have been taken towards carrying out the provisions of Arts. IX and X.
  134. See Art. III of Annexe.
  135. Such a convention was signed accordingly on and July, l881. Parl. Papers, 1882, Greece, No. 2; N. R. G. 2me Série, vi., 753.
  136. The ratifications were exchanged on 14th June, 1881.
  137. The Greek troops entered the first section (Arta) on 6th July, and the cession of the sixth (Volo) was completed on 13th November.
  138. This Commission, on which Major Ardagh was the British representative arrived on 30th June at Prévésa, and its final Act was signed at Volo on 14th November. Parl. Papers, 1882, Greece, No. 1.