The Grammar of English Grammars/Key

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The Grammar of English Grammars by Goold Brown
Key

KEY TO THE IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION, CONTAINED IN THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS, AND DESIGNED FOR ORAL EXERCISES UNDER ALL THE RULES AND NOTES OF THE WORK.

[The various examples of error which are exhibited for oral correction, in the Grammar of English Grammars, are all here explained, in their order, by full amended readings, sometimes with authorities specified, and generally with references of some sort. They are intended to be corrected orally by the pupil, according to the formules given under corresponding heads in the Grammar. Some portion, at least, under each rule or note, should be used in this way; and the rest, perhaps, may be read and compared more simply.]

THE KEY.--PART I.--ORTHOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER I.--OF LETTERS. CORRECTIONS RESPECTING CAPITALS.

UNDER RULE I.--OF BOOKS.

"Many a reader of the Bible knows not who wrote the Acts of the Apostles"--G. B. "The sons of Levi, the chief of the fathers, were written in the book of the Chronicles."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Neh., xii, 23. "Are they not written in the book of the Acts of Solomon?"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: I Kings, xi, 41. "Are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel?"--ALGER CORRECTED: I Kings, xxii, 39. "Are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah."--See ALGER: ib., ver. 45. "Which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms."--ALGER, ET AL.: Luke, xxiv, 44. "The narrative of which maybe seen in Josephus's History of the Jewish War"--Dr. Scott cor. [Obs.--The word in Josephus is "War," not "Wars."--G. Brown.] "This History of the Jewish War was Josephus's first work, and published about A. D. 75."--Whiston cor. "'I have read,' says Photius, 'the Chronology of Justus of Tiberias.'"--Id. "A Philosophical Grammar, written by James Harris, Esquire."--Murray cor. "The reader is referred to Stroud's Sketch of the Slave Laws"--A. S. Mag. cor. "But God has so made the Bible that it interprets itself."--Idem. "In 1562, with the help of Hopkins, he completed the Psalter."--Gardiner cor. "Gardiner says this of Sternhold; of whom the Universal Biographical Dictionary and the American Encyclopedia affirm, that he died in 1549."--G. B. "The title of a book, to wit: 'English Grammar in Familiar Lectures,'" &c.--Kirkham cor. "We had not, at that time, seen Mr. Kirkham's 'Grammar in Familiar Lectures.'"--Id. "When you parse, you may spread the Compendium before you."--Id. right.[516] "Whenever you parse, you may spread the Compendium before you."--Id. cor. "Adelung was the author of a Grammatical and Critical Dictionary of the German Language, and other works." Biog. Dict. cor. "Alley, William, author of 'The Poor Man's Library,' and a translation of the Pentateuch, died in 1570."--Id.


UNDER RULE II.--OF FIRST WORDS.

"Depart instantly;"--"Improve your time;"--"Forgive us our sins."--Murray corrected. EXAMPLES:--"Gold is corrupting;"--"The sea is green;"--"A lion is bold."--Mur. et al. cor. Again: "It may rain;"--"He may go or stay;"--"He would walk;;"--"They should learn."--Iidem. Again: "Oh! I have alienated my friend;"--"Alas! I fear for life."--Iidem. See Alger's Gram., p. 50. Again: "He went from London to York;"--"She is above disguise;" "They are supported by industry."--Iidem. "On the foregoing examples, I have a word to say. They are better than a fair specimen of their kind. Our grammars abound with worse illustrations. Their models of English are generally spurious quotations. Few of their proof-texts have any just parentage. Goose-eyes are abundant, but names scarce. Who fathers the foundlings? Nobody. Then let their merit be nobody's, and their defects his who could write no better."--Author. "Goose-eyes!" says a bright boy; "pray, what are they? Does this Mr. Author make new words when he pleases? Dead-eyes are in a ship. They are blocks, with holes in them. But what are goose-eyes in grammar?" ANSWER: "Goose-eyes are quotation points. Some of the Germans gave them this name, making a jest of their form. The French call them guillemets, from the name of their inventor."--Author. "It is a personal pronoun, of the third person singular."--Comly cor. "Ourselves is a personal pronoun, of the first person plural."--Id. "Thee is a personal pronoun, of the second person singular."--Id. "Contentment is a common noun, of the third person singular."--Id. "Were is a neuter verb, of the indicative mood, imperfect tense."--Id.

UNDER RULE III.--OF DEITY.

"O thou Dispenser of life! thy mercies are boundless."--Allen cor. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?"--ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Gen., xviii, 25. "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."--SCOTT, ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Gen., i, 2. "It is the gift of Him, who is the great Author of good, and the Father of mercies."--Murray cor. "This is thy God that brought thee up out of Egypt."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Neh., ix, 18. "For the LORD is our defence; and the Holy One of Israel is our King."--Psal.. lxxxix, 18. "By making him the responsible steward of Heaven's bounties."--A. S. Mag. cor. "Which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day."--ALGER: 2 Tim., iv, 8. "The cries of them ... entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth."--ALGER, FRIENDS: James, v, 4. "In Horeb, the Deity revealed himself to Moses, as the Eternal 'I AM,' the Self-existent One; and, after the first discouraging interview of his messengers with Pharaoh, he renewed his promise to them, by the awful name, JEHOVAH--a name till then unknown, and one which the Jews always held it a fearful profanation to pronounce."--G. Brown. "And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD: and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them."--SCOTT, ALGER, FRIENDS: Exod., vi, 2. "Thus saith the LORD[517] the King of Israel, and his Redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the First, and I am the Last; and besides me there is no God."--See Isa., xliv, 6.

  "His impious race their blasphemy renew'd,
   And nature's King, through nature's optics view'd."--Dryden cor.


UNDER RULE IV.--OF PROPER NAMES.

"Islamism prescribes fasting during the month Ramadan."--Balbi cor. "Near Mecca, in Arabia, is Jebel Nor, or the Mountain of Light, on the top of which the Mussulmans erected a mosque, that they might perform their devotions where, according to their belief, Mohammed received from the angel Gabriel the first chapter of the Koran."--G. Brown. "In the Kaaba at Mecca there is a celebrated block of volcanic basalt, which the Mohammedans venerate as the gift of Gabriel to Abraham, but their ancestors once held it to be an image of Remphan, or Saturn; so 'the image which fell down from Jupiter,' to share with Diana the homage of the Ephesians, was probably nothing more than a meteoric stone."--Id. "When the Lycaonians at Lystra took Paul and Barnabas to be gods, they called the former Mercury, on account of his eloquence, and the latter Jupiter, for the greater dignity of his appearance."--Id. "Of the writings of the apostolic fathers of the first century, but few have come down to us; yet we have in those of Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, Ignatius, and Polycarp, very certain evidence of the authenticity of the New Testament, and the New Testament is a voucher for the Old."--Id. "It is said by Tatian, that Theagenes of Rhegium, in the time of Cambyses, Stesimbrotus the Thracian, Antimachus the Colophonian, Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Dionysius the Olynthian, Ephorus of Cumæ, Philochorus the Athenian, Metaclides and Chamæleon the Peripatetics, and Zenodotus, Aristophanes, Callimachus, Crates, Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and Apollodorus, the grammarians, all wrote concerning the poetry, the birth, and the age of Homer."--See Coleridge's Introd., p. 57. "Yet, for aught that now appears, the life of Homer is as fabulous as that of Hercules; and some have even suspected, that, as the son of Jupiter and Alcmena has fathered the deeds of forty other Herculeses, so this unfathered son of Critheis, Themisto, or whatever dame--this Melesigenes, Mæonides, Homer--the blind schoolmaster, and poet, of Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodes, Argos, Athens, or whatever place--has, by the help of Lycurgus, Solon, Pisistratus, and other learned ancients, been made up of many poets or Homers, and set so far aloft and aloof on old Parnassus, as to become a god in the eyes of all Greece, a wonder in those of all Christendom."--G. Brown.

  "Why so sagacious in your guesses?
   Your Effs, and Tees, and Ars, and Esses?"--Swift corrected.


UNDER RULE V.--OF TITLES.

"The king has conferred on him the title of Duke."--Murray cor. "At the court of Queen Elizabeth."--Priestley's E. Gram., p. 99; see Bullions's, p. 24. "The laws of nature are, truly, what Lord Bacon styles his aphorisms, laws of laws."--Murray cor. "Sixtus the Fourth was, if I mistake not, a great collector of books."--Id. "Who at that time made up the court of King Charles the Second"--Id. "In case of his Majesty's dying without issue."--Kirkham cor. "King Charles the First was beheaded in 1649."--W. Allen cor. "He can no more impart, or (to use Lord Bacon's word) transmit convictions."--Kirkham cor. "I reside at Lord Stormont's, my old patron and benefactor." Better: "I reside with Lord Stormont, my old patron and benefactor."--Murray cor. "We staid a month at Lord Lyttelton's, the ornament of his country." Much better: "We stayed a month at the seat of Lord Lyttelton, who is the ornament of his country."--Id. "Whose prerogative is it? It is the King-of-Great- Britain's;" [518]--"That is the Duke-of-Bridgewater's canal;"--"The Bishop-of-Landaff's excellent book;"--"The Lord Mayor-of-London's authority."--Id. (See Murray's Note 4th on his Rule 10th.) "Why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?"--Luke, vi, 46. "And of them he chose twelve, whom also he named Apostles."--ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Luke, vi, 13. "And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, Master; and kissed him."--Matt., xxvi, 49. "And he said, Nay, Father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they would repent."--Bible cor.


UNDER RULE VI.--OF ONE CAPITAL.

"Fallriver, a village in Massachusetts, population (in 1830) 3,431."--Williams cor. "Dr. Anderson died at Westham, in Essex, in 1808."--Biog. Dict. cor. "Madriver, the name of two towns in Clark and Champaign counties, Ohio."--Williams cor. "Whitecreek, a town of Washington county, New York."--Id. "Saltcreek, the name of four towns in different parts of Ohio."--Id. "Saltlick, a town of Fayette county, Pennsylvania."--Id. "Yellowcreek, a town of Columbiana county, Ohio."--Id. "Whiteclay, a hundred of Newcastle county, Delaware."-- Id. "Newcastle, a town and half-shire of Newcastle county, Delaware."--Id. "Singsing, a village of Westchester county, New York, situated in the town of Mountpleasant."--Id. "Westchester, a county of New York: East Chester and West Chester are towns in Westchester county."--Id. "Westtown, a village of Orange county, New York."--Id. "Whitewater, a town of Hamilton county, Ohio."--Worcester's Gaz. "Whitewater River, a considerable stream that rises in Indiana, and flowing southeasterly unites with the Miami in Ohio."--See ib. "Blackwater, a village of Hampshire, in England, and a town in Ireland."--See ib. "Blackwater, the name of seven different rivers, in England, Ireland, and the United States."--See ib. "Redhook, a town of Dutchess county, New York, on the Hudson."--Williams cor. "Kinderhook, a town of Columbia county, New York, on the Hudson."--Williams right. "Newfane, a town of Niagara county, New York."--Williams cor. "Lakeport, a town of Chicot county, Arkansas."--Id. "Moosehead Lake, the chief source of the Kennebeck, in Maine."--Id. (See Worcester's Gaz.) "Macdonough, a county of Illinois, population (in 1830) 2,959."--Williams's Univ. Gaz., p 408. "Macdonough, a county of Illinois, with a court-house at Macomb."--Williams cor. "Halfmoon, the name of two towns in New York and Pennsylvania; also of two bays in the West Indies."--S. Williams's Univ. Gaz. "Leboeuf, a town of Erie county, Pennsylvania, near a small lake of the same name."--See ib. "Charlescity, Jamescity, Eiizabethcity, names of counties in Virginia, not cities, nor towns."--See Univ. Gaz., p. 404.[519] "The superior qualities of the waters of the Frome, here called Stroudwater."--Balbi cor.


UNDER RULE VII.--OF TWO CAPITALS.

"The Forth rises on the north side of Ben Lomond, and runs easterly."--Glasgow Geog., 8vo, corrected. "The red granite of Ben Nevis is said to be the finest in the world."--Id. "Ben More, in Perthshire, is 3,915 feet above the level of the sea."--Id. "The height of Ben Cleagh is 2,420 feet."--Id. "In Sutherland and Caithness, are Ben Ormod, Ben Clibeg, Ben Grin, Ben Hope, and Ben Lugal."--Glas. Geog. right. "Ben Vracky is 2,756 feet high; Ben Ledi, 3,009; and Ben Voirloich, 3,300."--Glas. Geog. cor. "The river Dochart gives the name of Glen Dochart to the vale through which it runs."--Id. "About ten miles from its source, it [the Tay] diffuses itself into Loch Dochart."--Glasgow Geog., Vol. ii, p. 314. LAKES:--"Loch Ard, Loch Achray, Loch Con, Loch Doine, Loch Katrine, Loch Lomond, Loch Voil."--Scott corrected. GLENS:--"Glen Finlas, Glen Fruin, Glen Luss, Ross Dhu, Leven Glen, Strath Endrick, Strath Gartney. Strath Ire."--Id. MOUNTAINS:--"Ben An, Ben Harrow, Ben Ledi, Ben Lomond, Ben Voirlich, Ben Venue, or, (as some spell it,) Ben Ivenew."--Id.[520] "Fenelon died in 1715, deeply lamented by all the inhabitants of the Low Countries."--Murray cor. "And Pharaoh Necho[521] made Eliakim, the son of Josiah, king."--See ALGER: 2 Kings, xiii, 34. "Those who seem so merry and well pleased, call her Good Fortune; but the others, who weep and wring their hands, Bad Fortune."--Collier cor.


UNDER RULE VIII.--OF COMPOUNDS.

"When Joab returned, and smote Edom in the Valley of Salt"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Ps. lx, title. "Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars Hill, and said," &c.--Scott cor. "And at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called the Mount of Olives."--Bible cor. "Abgillus, son of the king of the Frisii, surnamed Prester John, was in the Holy Land with Charlemagne."--U. Biog. Dict. cor. "Cape Palmas, in Africa, divides the Grain Coast from the Ivory Coast."--Dict. of Geog. cor. "The North Esk, flowing from Loch Lee, falls into the sea three miles north of Montrose."--Id. "At Queen's Ferry, the channel of the Forth is contracted by promontories on both coasts."--Id. "The Chestnut Ridge is about twenty-five miles west of the Alleghanies, and Laurel Ridge, ten miles further west."--Balbi cor. "Washington City, the metropolis of the United States of America."--Williams, U. Caz., p. 380. "Washington City, in the District of Columbia, population (in 1830) 18,826."--Williams cor. "The loftiest peak of the White Mountains, in New Hampshire, is called Mount Washington."--G. Brown. "Mount's Bay, in the west of England, lies between the Land's End and Lizard Point."--Id. "Salamis, an island of the Egean Sea, off the southern coast of the ancient Attica."--Dict. of Geog. "Rhodes, an island of the Egean Sea, the largest and most easterly of the Cyclades."--Id. cor. "But he overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea."--SCOTT: Ps. cxxxvi, 15. "But they provoked him at the sea, even at the Red Sea."--ALGER, FRIENDS: Ps. cvi, 7.


UNDER RULE IX.--OF APPOSITION.

"At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus."--SCOTT, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Matt., xiv, 1. "Who has been more detested than Judas the traitor?"--G. Brown. "St. Luke the evangelist was a physician of Antioch, and one of the converts of St. Paul."--Id. "Luther, the reformer, began his bold career by preaching against papal indulgences."--Id. "The poet Lydgate was a disciple and admirer of Chaucer: he died in 1440."--Id. "The grammarian Varro, 'the most learned of the Romans,'[522] wrote three books when he was eighty years old."--Id. "John Despauter, the great grammarian of Flanders, whose works are still valued, died in 1520."--Id. "Nero, the emperor and tyrant of Rome, slew himself to avoid a worse death."--Id. "Cicero the orator, 'the Father of his Country,' was assassinated at the age of 64."--Id. "Euripides, the Greek tragedian, was born in the island of Salamis, B. C. 476."--Id. "I will say unto God my rock, Why hast thou forgotten me?"--ALGER, ET AL.: Ps. xlii, 9. "Staten Island, an island of New York, nine miles below New York city."--Williams cor. "When the son of Atreus, king of men, and the noble Achilles first separated."--Coleridge cor.

  "Hermes, his patron-god, those gifts bestow'd,
   Whose shrine with weanling lambs he wont to load."--Pope cor.

UNDER RULE X.--OF PERSONIFICATIONS.

"But Wisdom is justified of all her children."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Luke, vii, 35. "Fortune and the Church are generally put in the feminine gender: that is, when personified." "Go to your Natural Religion; lay before her Mahomet and his disciples."--Bp. Sherlock. "O Death! where is thy sting? O Grave! where is thy victory."--Pope: 1 Cor., xv, 55; Merchant's Gram., p. 172. "Ye cannot serve God and Mammon."--Matt., vi, 24. "Ye cannot serve God and Mammon"--See Luke, xvi, 13. "This house was built as if Suspicion herself had dictated the plan."--Rasselas. "Poetry distinguishes herself from Prose, by yielding to a musical law."--Music of Nature, p. 501. "My beauteous deliverer thus uttered her divine instructions: 'My name is Religion. I am the offspring of Truth and Love, and the parent of Benevolence, Hope, and Joy. That monster, from whose power I have freed you, is called Superstition: she is called the child of Discontent, and her followers are Fear and Sorrow.'"--E. Carter. "Neither Hope nor Fear could enter the retreats; and Habit had so absolute a power, that even Conscience, if Religion had employed her in their favour, would not have been able to force an entrance."--Dr. Johnson.

  "In colleges and halls in ancient days,
   There dwelt a sage called Discipline."--Cowper.


UNDER RULE XI.--OF DERIVATIVES.

"In English, I would have Gallicisms avoided."--Felton. "Sallust was born in Italy, 85 years before the Christian era."--Murray cor.; "Dr. Doddridge was not only a great man, but one of the most excellent and useful Christians, and Christian ministers."--Id. "They corrupt their style with untutored Anglicisms"--Milton. "Albert of Stade, author of a chronicle from the creation to 1286, a Benedictine of the 13th century."--Biog. Dict. cor. "Graffio, a Jesuit of Capua in the 16th century, author of two volumes on moral subjects."--Id. "They Frenchify and Italianize words whenever they can."--Bucke's Gram., p. 86. "He who sells a Christian, sells the grace of God."--Mag. cor. "The first persecution against the Christians, under Nero, began A. D. 64."--Gregory cor. "P. Rapin, the Jesuit, uniformly decides in favour of the Roman writers."--Blair's Rhet., p. 248. "The Roman poet and Epicurean philosopher Lucretius has said," &c.--Cohen cor. Spell "Calvinistic, Atticism, Gothicism, Epicurism, Jesuitism, Sabianism, Socinianism, Anglican, Anglicism, Anglicize, Vandalism, Gallicism, and Romanize."--Webster cor. "The large Ternate bat."--Id. and Bolles cor.

  "Church-ladders are not always mounted best
   By learned clerks, and Latinists profess'd"--Cowper cor.


UNDER RULE XII.--OF I AND O.

"Fall back, fall back; I have not room:--O! methinks I see a couple whom I should know."--Lucian. "Nay, I live as I did, I think as I did, I love you as I did; but all these are to no purpose; the world will not live, think, or love, as I do."--Swift to Pope. "Whither, O! whither shall I fly? O wretched prince! O cruel reverse of fortune! O father Micipsa! is this the consequence of thy generosity?"--Tr. of Sallust. "When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things."--1 Cor., xiii, 11. "And I heard, but I understood not; then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things?"--Dan., xii, 8. "Here am I; I think I am very good, and I am quite sure I am very happy, yet I never wrote a treatise in my life."--Few Days in Athens, p. 127. "Singular, Vocative, O master! Plural, Vocative, O masters!"--Bicknell cor.

  "I, I am he; O father! rise, behold
   Thy son, with twenty winters now grown old!"
       --Pope's Odyssey, B. 24, l. 375.


UNDER RULE XIII.--OF POETRY.

  "Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense,
   Lie in three words--health, peace, and competence;
   But health consists with temperance alone,
   And peace, O Virtue! peace is all thy own."--Pope.
   "Observe the language well in all you write,
   And swerve not from it in your loftiest flight.
   The smoothest verse and the exactest sense
   Displease us, if ill English give offence:
   A barbarous phrase no reader can approve;
   Nor bombast, noise, or affectation love.
   In short, without pure language, what you write
   Can never yield us profit or delight.
   Take time for thinking; never work in haste;
   And value not yourself for writing fast."--Dryden.


UNDER RULE XIV.--OF EXAMPLES.

"The word rather is very properly used to express a small degree or excess of a quality; as, 'She is rather profuse in her expenses.'"--Murray cor. "Neither imports not either; that is, not one nor the other: as, 'Neither of my friends was there.'"--Id. "When we say, He is a tall man,'--This is a fair day,' we make some reference to the ordinary size of men, and to different weather."--Id. "We more readily say, 'A million of men,' than, 'A thousand of men.'"--Id. "So in the instances, Two and two are four;'--The fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books.'"--Id. "The adjective may frequently either precede or follow the verb: as, 'The man is happy;' or, 'Happy is the man;'--'The interview was delightful;' or, Delightful was the interview.'"--Id. "If we say, He writes a pen;'--They ran the river;'--The tower fell the Greeks;'--'Lambeth is Westminster Abbey;'--[we speak absurdly;] and, it is evident, there is a vacancy which must be filled up by some connecting word: as thus, 'He writes with a pen;'--They ran towards the river;'--The tower fell upon the Greeks;'--'Lambeth is over against Westminster Abbey.'"--Id. "Let me repeat it;--He only is great, who has the habits of greatness."--Id. "I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but, Until seventy times seven."--Matt., xviii, 22.

  "The Panther smil'd at this; and, 'When,' said she,
   'Were those first councils disallow'd by me?'"--Dryd. cor.


UNDER RULE XV.--OF CHIEF WORDS.

"The supreme council of the nation is called the Divan."--Balbi cor. "The British Parliament is composed of King, Lords, and Commons."--Comly's Gram., p. 129; and Jaudon's, 127. "A popular orator in the House of Commons has a sort of patent for coining as many new terms as he pleases."--See Campbell's Rhet., p. 169; Murray's Gram., 364. "They may all be taken together, as one name; as, The House of Commons."--Merchant cor. "Intrusted to persons in whom the Parliament could confide."--Murray cor. "For 'The Lords' House,' it were certainly better to say, The House of Lords;' and, in stead of 'The Commons vote,' to say. 'The vote of the Commons.'"--Id. and Priestley cor. "The House of Lords were so much influenced by these reasons."--Iidem. "Rhetoricians commonly divide them into two great classes; Figures of Words, and Figures of Thought. The former, Figures of Words, are commonly called Tropes."--Murray's Gram., p. 337. "Perhaps, Figures of Imagination, and Figures of Passion, might be a more useful distribution."--Ib. "Hitherto we have considered sentences, under the heads of Perspicuity, Unity, and Strength."--See Murray's Gram., p. 356.

  "The word is then depos'd; and, in this view,
   You rule the Scripture, not the Scripture you."--Dryd. cor.


UNDER RULE XVI.--OF NEEDLESS CAPITALS.

"Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid."--FRIENDS' BIBLE, AND SCOTT'S: Matt., xiv, 27. "Between passion and lying, there is not a finger's breadth."--Mur. cor. "Can our solicitude alter the course, or unravel the intricacy, of human events?" "The last edition was carefully compared with the original manuscript."--Id. "And the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the king of the Jews?"--SCOTT: Matt., xxvii, 11. "Let them be turned back for a reward of their shame, that say, Aha, aha!"--SCOTT ET AL.: Ps., lxx, 3. "Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame, that say unto me, Aha, aha!"--IIDEM: Ps., xl, 15. "What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord?"--ALGER: Matt., xxii, 42, 43. "Among all things in the universe, direct your worship to the greatest. And which is that? It is that Being who manages and governs all the rest."--Collier's Antoninus cor. "As for modesty and good faith, truth and justice, they have left this wicked world and retired to heaven; and now what is it that can keep you here?"--Idem.

  "If pulse of verse a nation's temper shows,
   In keen iambics English metre flows."--Brightland cor.


PROMISCUOUS CORRECTIONS RESPECTING CAPITALS.

LESSON I.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Come, gentle Spring, ethereal mildness, come."--Thomson's Seasons, p. 29. As, "He is the Cicero of his age;"--"He is reading the Lives of the Twelve Cæsars;"--or, if no particular book is meant,--"the lives of the twelve Cæsars;" (as it is in Fisk's Grammar, p. 57;) for the sentence, as it stands in Murray, is ambiguous. "In the History of Henry the Fourth, by Father Daniel, we are surprised at not finding him the great man."--Smollett's Voltaire, Vol. v, p. 82. "Do not those same poor peasants use the lever, and the wedge, and many other instruments?"--Harris and Mur. cor. "Arithmetic is excellent for the gauging of liquors; geometry, for the measuring of estates; astronomy, for the making of almanacs; and grammar, perhaps, for the drawing of bonds and conveyances."--See Murray's Gram., p. 288. "The [History of the] Wars of Flanders, written in Latin by Famianus Strada, is a book of some note."--Blair cor. "William is a noun. Why? Was is a verb. Why? A is an article. Why? Very is an adverb. Why?" &c.--Merchant cor. "In the beginning was the Word, and that Word was with God, and God was that Word."--See Gospel of John, i, 1. "The Greeks are numerous in Thessaly, Macedonia, Romelia, and Albania."--Balbi's Geog., p. 360. "He [the Grand Seignior] is styled by the Turks, Sultan, Mighty, or Padishah, Lord."--Balbi cor. "I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death. O Death! I will be thy plague; O Grave! I will be thy destruction."--Bible cor. "Silver and gold have I none; but such as I have, give I [unto] thee."--See Acts, iii, 6. "Return, we beseech thee, O God of hosts! look down from heaven, and behold, and visit this vine."--See Psalm lxxx, 14. "In the Attic commonwealth, it was the privilege of every citizen to rail in public."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 316. "They assert, that in the phrases, 'GIVE me that,'--'This is John's,' and, 'Such were some of you,'--the words in Italics are pronouns; but that, in the following phrases, they are not pronouns: 'This book is instructive;'--Some boys are ingenious;'--My health is declining;'--Our hearts are deceitful.'"--Murray partly corrected.[523] "And the coast bends again to the northwest, as far as Farout Head."--Geog. cor. "Dr. Webster, and other makers of spelling-books, very improperly write Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, without capitals."--G. Brown. "The commander in chief of the Turkish navy is styled the Capitan Pacha."--Balbi cor. "Shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live?"--ALGER'S BIBLE: Heb., xii, 9. "He [Dr. Beattie] was more anxious to attain the character of a Christian hero."--Murray cor. "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is Mount Zion."--W. Allen's Gram., p. 393. "The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me."--ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Heb., xiii, 6. "Make haste to help me, O LORD my salvation."--IIDEM: Psalms, xxxviii, 22.

  "The city which thou seest, no other deem
   Than great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth."
       --Paradise Regained, B. iv.


LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"That range of hills, known under the general name of Mount Jura."--Account of Geneva. "He rebuked the Red Sea also, and it was dried up."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Ps. cvi, 9. "Jesus went unto the Mount of Olives."--Bible cor. "Milton's book in reply to the Defence of the King, by Salmasius, gained him a thousand pounds from the Parliament, and killed his antagonist with vexation."--G. B. "Mandeville, Sir John, an Englishman famous for his travels, born about 1300, died in 1372."--B. Dict. cor. "Ettrick Pen, a mountain in Selkirkshire, Scotland, height 2,200 feet."--G. Geog. cor. "The coast bends from Dungsby Head, in a northwest direction, to the promontory of Dunnet Head."--Id. "General Gaines ordered a detachment of nearly 300 men, under the command of Major Twiggs, to surround and take an Indian village, called Fowltown, about fourteen miles from Fort Scott."--Cohen Cor. "And he took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, 'Talitha, cumi.'"--Bible Editors cor. "On religious subjects, a frequent adoption of Scripture language is attended with peculiar force."--Murray cor. "Contemplated with gratitude to their Author, the Giver of all good."--Id. "When he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all [the] truth,"--SCOTT, ALGER, ET AL.: John, xvi, 13. "See the Lecture on Verbs, Rule XV, Note 4th."--Fisk cor. "At the commencement of Lecture 2d, I informed you that Etymology treats, thirdly, of derivation."--Kirkham cor. "This 8th Lecture is a very important one."--Id. "Now read the 11th and 12th lectures, four or five times over."--Id. "In 1752, he [Henry Home] was advanced to the bench, under the title of Lord Kames."--Murray cor. "One of his maxims was, 'Know thyself.'"--Lempriere cor. "Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Matt., xix, 16. "His best known works, however, [John Almon's] are, 'Anecdotes of the Life of the Earl of Chatham,' 2 vols. 4to, 3 vols. 8vo; and 'Biographical, Literary, and Political Anecdotes of several of the Most Eminent Persons of the Present Age; never before printed,' 3 vols. 8vo, 1797."--Biog. Dict. cor. "O gentle Sleep, Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee?"--SHAK.: Kames, El. of Crit., Vol. ii, p. 175. "And peace, O Virtue! peace is all thy own."--Pope et al. cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Fenelon united the characters of a nobleman and a Christian pastor. His book entitled, 'An Explication of the Maxims of the Saints, concerning the Interior Life,' gave considerable offence to the guardians of orthodoxy."--Murray cor. "When Natural Religion, who before was only a spectator, is introduced as speaking by the Centurion's voice."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 347. "You cannot deny, that the great Mover and Author of nature constantly explaineth himself to the eyes of men, by the sensible intervention of arbitrary signs, which have no similitude to, or connexion with, the things signified."--Berkley cor. "The name of this letter is Double-u, its form, that of a double V."--Dr. Wilson cor. "Murray, in his Spelling-Book, wrote Charlestown with a hyphen and two capitals."--G. Brown. "He also wrote European without a capital."--Id. "They profess themselves to be Pharisees, who are to be heard and not imitated."--Calvin cor. "Dr. Webster wrote both Newhaven and New York with single capitals."--G. Brown. "Gay Head, the west point of Martha's Vineyard."--Williams cor. "Write Crab Orchard, Egg Harbour, Long Island, Perth Amboy, West Hampton, Little Compton, New Paltz, Crown Point, Fell's Point, Sandy Hook, Port Penn, Port Royal, Porto Bello, and Porto Rico.'"--G. Brown. "Write the names of the months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December."--Id. "Write the following names and words properly: Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Saturn;--Christ, Christian, Christmas, Christendom, Michaelmas, Indian, Bacchanals;--East Hampton, Omega, Johannes, Aonian, Levitical, Deuteronomy, European."--Id.

  "Eight letters in some syllables we find,
   And no more syllables in words are join'd."--Brightland cor.


CHAPTER II.--OF SYLLABLES.

CORRECTIONS OF FALSE SYLLABICATION.

LESSON I.--CONSONANTS.

1. Correction of Murray, in words of two syllables: civ-il, col-our, cop-y, dam-ask, doz-en, ev-er, feath-er, gath-er, heav-en, heav-y, hon-ey, lem-on, lin-en, mead-ow, mon-ey, nev-er, ol-ive, or-ange, oth-er, pheas-ant, pleas-ant, pun-ish, rath-er, read-y, riv-er, rob-in, schol-ar, shov-el, stom-ach, tim-id, whith-er.

2. Correction of Murray, in words of three syllables: ben-e-fit, cab-i-net, can-is-ter, cat-a-logue, char-ac-ter, char-i-ty, cov-et-ous, dil-i-gence, dim-i-ty, el-e-phant, ev-i-dent, ev-er-green, friv-o-lous, gath-er-ing, gen-er-ous, gov-ern-ess, gov-ern-or, hon-est-y, kal-en-dar, lav-en-der, lev-er-et, lib-er-al, mem-or-y, min-is-ter, mod-est-ly, nov-el-ty, no-bod-y, par-a-dise, pov-er-ty, pres-ent-ly, prov-i-dence, prop-er-ly, pris-on-er, rav-en-ous, sat-is-fy, sev-er-al, sep-ar-ate, trav-el-ler, vag-a-bond;--con-sid-er, con-tin-ue, de-liv-er, dis-cov-er, dis-fig-ure, dis-hon-est, dis-trib-ute, in-hab-it, me-chan-ic, what-ev-er;--rec-om-mend, ref-u-gee, rep-ri-mand.

3. Correction of Murray, in words of four syllables: cat-er-pil-lar, char-i-ta-ble, dil-i-gent-ly, mis-er-a-ble, prof-it-a-ble, tol-er-a-ble;--be-nev-o-lent, con-sid-er-ate, di-min-u-tive, ex-per-i-ment, ex-trav-a-gant, in-hab-i-tant, no-bil-i-ty, par-tic-u-lar, pros-per-i-ty, ri-dic-u-lous, sin-cer-i-ty;--dem-on-stra-tion, ed-u-ca-tion, em-u-la-tion, ep-i-dem-ic, mal-e-fac-tor, man-u-fac-ture, mem-o-ran-dum, mod-er-a-tor, par-a-lyt-ic, pen-i-ten-tial, res-ig-na-tion, sat-is-fac-tion, sem-i-co-lon.

4. Correction of Murray, in words of five syllables: a-bom-i-na-ble, a-poth-e-ca-ry, con-sid-er-a-ble, ex-plan-a-to-ry, pre-par-a-to-ry;-- ac-a-dem-i-cal, cu-ri-os-i-ty, ge-o-graph-i-cal, man-u-fac-tor-y, sat-is-fac-tor-y, mer-i-to-ri-ous;--char-ac-ter-is-tic, ep-i-gram-mat-ic, ex-per-i-ment-al, pol-y-syl-la-ble, con-sid-er-a-tion.

5. Correction of Murray, in the division of proper names: Hel-en, Leon-ard, Phil-ip, Rob-ert, Hor-ace, Thom-as;--Car-o-line, Cath-a-rine, Dan-i-el, Deb-o-rah, Dor-o-thy, Fred-er-ick, Is-a-bel, Jon-a-than, Lyd-i-a, Nich-o-las, Ol-i-ver, Sam-u-el, Sim-e-on, Sol-o-mon, Tim-o-thy, Val-en-tine;--A-mer-i-ca, Bar-thol-o-mew, E-liz-a-beth, Na-than-i-el, Pe-nel-o-pe, The-oph-i-lus.

LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

1. Correction of Webster, by Rule 1st:--ca-price, e-steem, dis-e-steem, o-blige;--a-zure, ma-tron, pa-tron, pha-lanx, si-ren, trai-tor, tren-cher, bar-ber, bur-nish, gar-nish, tar-nish, var-nish, mar-ket, mus-ket, pam-phlet;--bra-ver-y, kna-ver-y, sla-ver-y, e-ven-ing, sce-ner-y, bri-ber-y, ni-ce-ty, chi-ca-ner-y, ma-chin-er-y, im-a-ger-y;--a-sy-lum, ho-ri-zon,--fin-an-cier, her-o-ism, sar-do-nyx, scur-ri-lous,--co-me-di-an, pos-te-ri-or.

2. Correction of Webster, by Rule 2d: o-yer, fo-li-o, ge-ni-al, ge-ni-us, ju-ni-or, sa-ti-ate, vi-ti-ate;--am-bro-si-a, cha-me-le-on, par-he-li-on, con-ve-ni-ent, in-ge-ni-ous, om-nis-ci-ence, pe-cu-li-ar, so-ci-a-ble, par-ti-al-i-ty, pe-cu-ni-a-ry;--an-nun-ci-ate, e-nun-ci-ate, ap-pre-ci-ate, as-so-ci-ate, ex-pa-ti-ate, in-gra-ti-ate, in-i-ti-ate, li-cen-ti-ate, ne-go-ti-ate, no-vi-ti-ate, of-fi-ci-ate, pro-pi-ti-ate, sub-stan-ti-ate.

3. Correction of Cobb and Webster, by each other, under Rule 3d: "dress-er, hast-y, past-ry, seiz-ure, roll-er, jest-er, weav-er, vamp-er, hand-y, dross-y, gloss-y, mov-er, mov-ing, ooz-y, full-er, trust-y, weight-y, nois-y, drows-y, swarth-y."--Webster. Again: "east-ern, ful-ly, pul-let, ril-let, scant-y, need-y."--Cobb.

4. Correction of Webster and Cobb, under Rule 4th: a-wry, a-thwart´, pros-pect´-ive, pa-ren´-the-sis, re-sist-i-bil´-i-ty, hem-i-spher´-ic, mon´-o-stich, hem´-i-stich, to´-wards.

5. Correction of the words under Rule 5th; Eng-land, an oth-er,[524] Beth-es´-da, Beth-ab´-a-ra.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

1. Correction of Cobb, by Rule 3d: bend-er, bless-ing, brass-y, chaff-y, chant-er, clasp-er, craft-y, curd-y, fend-er, film-y, fust-y, glass-y, graft-er, grass-y, gust-y, hand-ed, mass-y, musk-y, rust-y, swell-ing, tell-er, test-ed, thrift-y, vest-ure.

2. Corrections of Webster, mostly by Rule 1st: bar-ber, bur-nish, bris-ket, can-ker, char-ter, cuc-koo, fur-nish, gar-nish, guilt-y, han-ker, lus-ty, por-tal, tar-nish, tes-tate, tes-ty, trai-tor, trea-ty, var-nish, ves-tal, di-ur-nal, e-ter-nal, in-fer-nal, in-ter-nal, ma-ter-nal, noc-tur-nal, pa-ter-nal.

3. Corrections of Webster, mostly by Rule 1st: ar-mor-y, ar-ter-y, butch-er-y, cook-er-y, eb-on-y, em-er-y, ev-er-y, fel-on-y, fop-per-y, frip-per-y, gal-ler-y, his-tor-y, liv-er-y, lot-ter-y, mock-er-y, mys-ter-y,[525] nun-ner-y, or-rer-y, pil-lor-y, quack-er-y, sor-cer-y, witch-er-y.

4. Corrections of Cobb, mostly by Rule 1st: an-kle, bas-ket, blan-ket, buc-kle, cac-kle, cran-kle, crin-kle, Eas-ter, fic-kle, frec-kle, knuc-kle, mar-ket, mon-key, por-tress, pic-kle, poul-tice, pun-cheon, quad-rant, quad-rate, squad-ron, ran-kle, shac-kle, sprin-kle, tin-kle, twin-kle, wrin-kle.

5. Corrections of Emerson, by Rules 1st and 3d: as-cribe, blan-dish, branch-y, cloud-y, dust-y, drear-y, e-ven-ing, fault-y, filth-y, frost-y, gaud-y, gloom-y, health-y, heark-en, heart-y, hoar-y, leak-y, loun-ger, marsh-y, might-y, milk-y, naught-y, pass-ing, pitch-er, read-y, rock-y, speed-y, stead-y, storm-y, thirst-y, thorn-y, trust-y, vest-ry, west-ern, wealth-y.


CHAPTER III.--OF WORDS.

CORRECTIONS RESPECTING THE FIGURE, OR FORM, OF WORDS.

RULE I.--COMPOUNDS.

"Professing to imitate Timon, the manhater."--Goldsmith corrected. "Men load hay with a pitchfork."--Webster cor. "A peartree grows from the seed of a pear."--Id. "A toothbrush is good to brush your teeth."--Id. "The mail is opened at the post-office."--Id. "The error seems to me twofold."--Sanborn cor. "To preëngage means to engage beforehand."--Webster cor. "It is a mean act to deface the figures on a milestone."--Id. "A grange is a farm, with its farm- house."--Id. "It is no more right to steal apples or watermelons, than [to steal] money."--Id. "The awl is a tool used by shoemakers and harness-makers."--Id. "Twenty-five cents are equal to one quarter of a dollar."--Id. "The blowing-up of the Fulton at New York, was a terrible disaster."--Id. "The elders also, and the bringers-up of the children, sent to Jehu."--ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: 2 Kings, x, 5. "Not with eyeservice as menpleasers."--Col., iii, 22. "A good-natured and equitable construction of cases."--Ash cor. "And purify your hearts, ye double-minded."--James, iv, 8. "It is a mean-spirited action to steal; i.e., To steal is a mean-spirited action."--A. Murray cor. "There is, indeed, one form of orthography which is akin to the subjunctive mood of the Latin tongue."--Booth cor. "To bring him into nearer connexion with real and everyday life."--Philological Museum, Vol. i, p. 459. "The commonplace, stale declamation of its revilers would be silenced."--Id. cor. "She [Cleopatra] formed a very singular and unheard-of project."--Goldsmith cor. "He [William Tell] had many vigilant, though feeble-talented and mean-spirited enemies."--R. Vaux cor. "These old-fashioned people would level our psalmody," &c.--Gardiner cor. "This slow-shifting scenery in the theatre of harmony."--Id. "So we are assured from Scripture itself."--Harris cor. "The mind, being disheartened, then betakes itself to trifling."--R. Johnson cor. "Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them."--Bible cor. "Tarry we ourselves how we will."--W. Walker cor. "Manage your credit so, that you need neither swear yourself, nor seek a voucher."--Collier cor. "Whereas song never conveys any of the abovenamed sentiments."--Dr. Rush cor. "I go on horseback."--Guy cor. "This requires purity, in opposition to barbarous, obsolete, or new-coined words."--Adam cor. "May the ploughshare shine."--White cor. "Whichever way we consider it."--Locke cor.

  "Where'er the silent e a place obtains,
   The voice foregoing, length and softness gains."--Brightland cor.


RULE II.--SIMPLES.

"It qualifies any of the four parts of speech above named."--Kirkham cor. "After a while they put us out among the rude multitude."--Fox cor. "It would be a shame, if your mind should falter and give in."--Collier cor. "They stared a while in silence one upon an other."--Johnson cor. "After passion has for a while exercised its tyrannical sway."--Murray cor. "Though set within the same general frame of intonation."--Rush cor. "Which do not carry any of the natural vocal signs of expression."--Id. "The measurable constructive powers of a few associable constituents."--Id. "Before each accented syllable or emphatic monosyllabic word."--Id. "One should not think too favourably of one's self."--Murray's Gram., i, 154. "Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you?"--2 Cor., xiii, 5. "I judge not my own self, for I know nothing of my own self."--See 1 Cor., iv, 3. "Though they were in such a rage, I desired them to tarry a while."--Josephus cor. "A, in stead of an, is now used before words beginning with u long."--Murray cor. "John will have earned his wages by next new year's day."--Id. "A new year's gift is a present made on the first day of the year."--Johnson et al. cor. "When he sat on the throne, distributing new year's gifts."--Id. "St. Paul admonishes Timothy to refuse old wives' fables."--See 1 Tim., iv, 7. "The world, take it all together, is but one."--Collier cor. "In writings of this stamp, we must accept of sound in stead of sense."--Murray cor. "A male child, a female child; male descendants, female descendants."--Goldsbury et al. cor. "Male servants, female servants; male relations, female relations."--Felton cor.

  "Reserved and cautious, with no partial aim,
   My muse e'er sought to blast an other's fame."--Lloyd cor.


RULE III.--THE SENSE.

"Our discriminations of this matter have been but four-footed instincts."--Rush cor. "He is in the right, (says Clytus,) not to bear free-born men at his table."--Goldsmith cor. "To the short-seeing eye of man, the progress may appear little."--The Friend cor. "Knowledge and virtue are, emphatically, the stepping-stones to individual distinction."--Town cor. "A tin-peddler will sell tin vessels as he travels."--Webster cor. "The beams of a wooden house are held up by the posts and joists."--Id. "What you mean by future-tense adjective, I can easily understand."--Tooke cor. "The town has been for several days very well-behaved."--Spectator cor. "A rounce is the handle of a printing-press."--Webster cor. "The phraseology [which] we call thee-and-thouing [or, better, thoutheeing,] is not in so common use with us, as the tutoyant among the French."--Walker cor. "Hunting and other outdoor sports, are generally pursued."--Balbi cor. "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy-laden."--Scott et al. cor. "God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son to save it."--See ALGER'S BIBLE, and FRIENDS': John, iii, 16. "Jehovah is a prayer-hearing God: Nineveh repented, and was spared."--Observer cor. "These are well-pleasing to God, in all ranks and relations."--Barclay cor. "Whosoever cometh anything near unto the tabernacle."--Bible cor. "The words coalesce, when they have a long-established association."--Mur. cor. "Open to me the gates of righteousness: I will go into them."--MODERN BIBLE: Ps. cxviii, 19. "He saw an angel of God coming in to him."--Acts, x, 3. "The consequences of any action are to be considered in a twofold light."--Wayland cor. "We commonly write twofold, threefold, fourfold, and so on up to tenfold, without a hyphen; and, after that, we use one."--G. Brown. "When the first mark is going off, he cries, Turn! the glassholder answers, Done!"--Bowditch cor. "It is a kind of familiar shaking-hands (or shaking of hands) with all the vices."--Maturin cor. "She is a good-natured woman;"--"James is self-opinionated;"--"He is broken-hearted."--Wright cor. "These three examples apply to the present-tense construction only."--Id. "So that it was like a game of hide-and-go-seek."--Gram. cor.

  "That lowliness is young ambition's ladder,
   Whereto the climber-upward turns his face."--Shak.


RULE IV.--ELLIPSES.

"This building serves yet for a schoolhouse and a meeting-house."--G. Brown. "Schoolmasters and schoolmistresses, if honest friends, are to be encouraged."--Discip. cor. "We never assumed to ourselves a faith-making or a worship-making power."--Barclay cor. "Potash and pearlash are made from common ashes."--Webster cor. "Both the ten-syllable and the eight-syllable verses are iambics."--Blair cor. "I say to myself, thou say'st to thyself, he says to himself, &c."--Dr. Murray cor. "Or those who have esteemed themselves skillful, have tried for the mastery in two-horse or four-horse chariots."--Ware cor. "I remember him barefooted and bareheaded, running through the streets."--Edgeworth cor. "Friends have the entire control of the schoolhouse and dwelling-house." Or:--"of the schoolhouses and dwelling-houses" Or:--"of the schoolhouse and the dwelling-houses" Or:--"of the schoolhouses and the dwelling-house." Or:--"of the school, and of the dwelling-houses." [For the sentence here to be corrected is so ambiguous, that any of these may have been the meaning intended by it.]--The Friend cor. "The meeting is held at the first-mentioned place in Firstmonth; at the last-mentioned, in Secondmonth; and so on."--Id. "Meetings for worship are held, at the same hour, on Firstday and Fourthday." Or:--"on Firstdays and Fourthdays."--Id. "Every part of it, inside and outside, is covered with gold leaf."--Id. "The Eastern Quarterly Meeting is held on the last Seventhday in Secondmonth, Fifthmonth, Eighthmonth, and Eleventhmonth."--Id. "Trenton Preparative Meeting is held on the third Fifthday in each month, at ten o'clock; meetings for worship [are held,] at the same hour, on Firstdays and Fifthdays."--Id. "Ketch, a vessel with two masts, a mainmast and a mizzenmast."--Webster cor. "I only mean to suggest a doubt, whether nature has enlisted herself [either] as a Cis-Atlantic or [as a] Trans-Atlantic partisan."--Jefferson cor. "By large hammers, like those used for paper-mills and fulling-mills, they beat their hemp."--Johnson cor. "ANT-HILL, or ANT-HILLOCK, n. A small protuberance of earth, formed by ants, for their habitation."-- Id. "It became necessary to substitute simple indicative terms called pronames or pronouns."

  "Obscur'd, where highest woods, impenetrable
   To light of star or sun, their umbrage spread."--Milton cor.


RULE V.--THE HYPHEN.

"Evil-thinking; a noun, compounded of the noun evil and the imperfect participle thinking; singular number;" &c.--Churchill cor. "Evil-speaking; a noun, compounded of the noun evil and the imperfect participle speaking."--Id. "I am a tall, broad-shouldered, impudent, black fellow."--Spect, or Joh. cor. "Ingratitude! thou marble-hearted fiend."--Shak. or Joh. cor. "A popular license is indeed the many-headed tyranny."--Sydney or Joh. cor. "He from the many-peopled city flies."--Sandys or Joh. cor. "He many-languaged nations has surveyed."--Pope or Joh. cor. "The horse-cucumber is the large green cucumber, and the best for the table."--Mort. or Joh. cor. "The bird of night did sit, even at noon-day, upon the market-place."--Shak. or Joh. cor. "These make a general gaol-delivery of souls not for punishment."--South or Joh. cor. "Thy air, thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first."--Shak. or Joh. cor. "His person was deformed to the highest degree; flat-nosed and blobber-lipped."--L'Estr. or Joh. cor. "He that defraudeth the labourer of his hire, is a blood-shedder."--Ecclus., xxxiv, 22. "Bloody-minded, adj., from bloody and mind; Cruel, inclined to bloodshed."--Johnson cor. "Blunt-witted lord, ignoble in demeanour."--Shak. or Joh. cor. "A young fellow, with a bob-wig and a black silken bag tied to it."--Spect. or Joh. cor. "I have seen enough to confute all the bold-faced atheists of this age."--Bramhall or Joh. cor. "Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound."--Joh. Dict., w. Bolt. "For what else is a red-hot iron than fire? and what else is a burning coal than red-hot wood?"--Newton or Joh. cor. "Poll-evil is a large swelling, inflammation, or imposthume, in the horse's poll, or nape of the neck, just between the ears."--Far. or Joh. cor.

  "Quick-witted, brazen-fac'd, with fluent tongues,
   Patient of labours, and dissembling wrongs."--Dryden cor.


RULE VI.--NO HYPHEN.

"From his fond parent's eye a teardrop fell."--Snelling cor. "How great, poor jackdaw, would thy sufferings be!"--Id. "Placed, like a scarecrow in a field of corn."--Id. "Soup for the almshouse at a cent a quart."--Id. "Up into the watchtower get, and see all things despoiled of fallacies."--Donne or Joh. cor. "In the daytime she [Fame] sitteth in a watchtower, and flieth most by night."--Bacon or Joh. cor. "The moral is the first business of the poet, as being the groundwork of his instruction."--Dryd. or Joh. cor. "Madam's own hand the mousetrap baited."--Prior or Joh. cor. "By the sinking of the airshaft, the air has liberty to circulate."--Ray or Joh. cor. "The multiform and amazing operations of the airpump and the loadstone."--Watts or Joh. cor. "Many of the firearms are named from animals."--Johnson cor. "You might have trussed him and all his apparel into an eelskin"--Shak. or Joh. cor. "They may serve as landmarks, to show what lies in the direct way of truth."--Locke or Joh. cor. "A packhorse is driven constantly in a narrow lane and dirty road."--Locke or Joh. cor. "A millhorse, still bound to go in one circle."--Sidney or Joh. cor. "Of singing birds, they have linnets, goldfinches, ruddocks, Canary birds, blackbirds, thrushes, and divers others."--Carew or Joh. cor. "Cartridge, a case of paper or parchment filled with gunpowder; [or, rather, containing the entire charge of a gun]."--Joh. cor.

  "Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night,
   The time of night when Troy was set on fire,
   The time when screechowls cry, and bandogs howl."
       SHAKSPEARE: in Johnson's Dict., w. Screechowl.


PROMISCUOUS CORRECTIONS IN THE FIGURE OF WORDS.

LESSON I.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"They that live in glass houses, should not throw stones."--Adage. "If a man profess Christianity in any manner or form whatsoever."--Watts cor. "For Cassius is aweary of the world." Better: "For Cassius is weary of the world."--Shak. cor. "By the coming-together of more, the chains were fastened on."--W. Walker cor. "Unto the carrying-away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month."--Bible cor. "And the goings-forth of the border shall be to Zedad."--Id. "And the goings-out of it shall be at Hazar Enan."--See Walker's Key "For the taking-place of effects, in a certain particular series."--West cor. "The letting-go of which was the occasion of all that corruption."--Owen cor. "A falling-off at the end, is always injurious."--Jamieson cor. "As all holdings-forth were courteously supposed to be trains of reasoning."--Dr. Murray cor. "Whose goings-forth have been from of old, from everlasting."--Bible cor. "Sometimes the adjective becomes a substantive."--Bradley cor. "It is very plain, that I consider man as visited anew."--Barclay cor. "Nor do I anywhere say, as he falsely insinuates."--Id. "Everywhere, anywhere, elsewhere, somewhere, nowhere"--L. Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 115. "The world hurries off apace, and time is like a rapid river."--Collier cor. "But to new-model the paradoxes of ancient skepticism."--Dr. Brown cor. "The southeast winds from the ocean invariably produce rain."--Webster cor. "Northwest winds from the highlands produce cold clear weather."--Id. "The greatest part of such tables would be of little use to Englishmen."--Priestley cor. "The ground-floor of the east wing of Mulberry-street meeting-house was filled."--The Friend cor. "Prince Rupert's Drop. This singular production is made at the glasshouses."--Barnes cor.

  "The lights and shades, whose well-accorded strife
   Gives all the strength and colour of our life."--Pope.


LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"In the twenty-seventh year of Asa king of Judah, did Zimri reign seven days in Tirzah."--Bible cor. "In the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah, began Omri to reign over Israel."--Id. "He cannot so deceive himself as to fancy that he is able to do a rule-of-three sum." Better--"a sum in the rule of three."--Qr. Rev. cor. "The best cod are those known under the name of Isle-of-Shoals dun-fish."--Balbi cor. "The soldiers, with downcast eyes, seemed to beg for mercy."--Goldsmith cor. "His head was covered with a coarse, wornout piece of cloth."--Id. "Though they had lately received a reinforcement of a thousand heavy-armed Spartans."--Id. "But he laid them by unopened; and, with a smile, said, 'Business to-morrow.'"--Id. "Chester Monthly Meeting is held at Moorestown, on the Thirdday following the second Secondday"--The Friend cor. "Eggharbour Monthly Meeting is held on the first Secondday."--Id. "Little-Eggharbour Monthly Meeting is held at Tuckerton on the second Fifthday in each month."--Id. "At three o'clock, on Firstday morning, the 24th of Eleventhmonth, 1834," &c.--Id. "In less than one fourth part of the time usually devoted."--Kirkham cor. "The pupil will not have occasion to use it one tenth part so much."--Id. "The painter dips his paintbrush in paint, to paint the carriage."--Id. "In an ancient English version of the New Testament."--Id. "The little boy was bareheaded."--Red Book cor. "The man, being a little short-sighted, did not immediately know him."--Id. "Picture-frames are gilt with gold."--Id. "The parkkeeper killed one of the deer."--Id. "The fox was killed near the brickkiln."--Id. "Here comes Esther, with her milkpail"--Id. "The cabinet-maker would not tell us."--Id. "A fine thorn-hedge extended along the edge of the hill."--Id. "If their private interests should be everso little affected."--Id. "Unios are fresh-water shells, vulgarly called fresh-water clams."--Id.

  "Did not each poet mourn his luckless doom,
   Jostled by pedants out of elbow-room."--Lloyd cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"The captive hovers a while upon the sad remains."--Johnson cor. "Constantia saw that the hand-writing agreed with the contents of the letter."--Id. "They have put me in a silk night-gown, and a gaudy foolscap"--Id. "Have you no more manners than to rail at Hocus, that has saved that clod-pated, numb-skulled ninny-hammer of yours from ruin, and all his family?"--Id. "A noble, (that is, six shillings and eight pence,) is [paid], and usually hath been paid."--Id. "The king of birds, thick-feathered, and with full-summed wings, fastened his talons east and west."--Id. "To-morrow. This--supposing morrow to mean morning, as it did originally--is an idiom of the same kind as to-night, to-day."--Johnson cor. "To-day goes away, and to-morrow comes."--Id. "Young children, who are tried in Gocarts, to keep their steps from sliding."--Id. "Which, followed well, would demonstrate them but goers-backward"--Id. "Heaven's golden-winged herald late he saw, to a poor Galilean virgin sent."--Id. "My pent-house eyebrows and my shaggy beard offend your sight."--Id. "The hungry lion would fain have been dealing with good horseflesh."--Id. "A broad-brimmed hat ensconsed each careful head."--Snelling cor. "With harsh vibrations of his three-stringed lute."--Id. "They magnify a hundred-fold an author's merit."--Id. "I'll nail them fast to some oft-opened door."--Id. "Glossed over only with saintlike show, still thou art bound to vice."--Johnson's Dict., w. Saintlike. "Take of aqua-fortis two ounces, of quicksilver two drachms."--Id. cor. "This rainbow never appears but when it rains in the sunshine."--Id. cor.

  "Not but there are, who merit other palms;
   Hopkins and Sternhold glad the heart with psalms."--Pope.


CHAPTER IV.--OF SPELLING.

CORRECTIONS OF FALSE SPELLING.

RULE I.--FINAL F, L, OR S.

"He will observe the moral law, in his conduct."--Webster corrected. "A cliff is a steep bank, or a precipitous rock."--Walker cor. "A needy man's budget is full of schemes."--Maxim cor. "Few large publications, in this country, will pay a printer."--N. Webster cor. "I shall, with cheerfulness, resign my other papers to oblivion."--Id. "The proposition was suspended till the next session of the legislature."--Id. "Tenants for life will make the most of lands for themselves."--Id. "While every thing is left to lazy negroes, a state will never be well cultivated."--Id. "The heirs of the original proprietors still hold the soil."--Id. "Say my annual profit on money loaned shall be six per cent."--Id. "No man would submit to the drudgery of business, if he could make money as fast by lying still."--Id. "A man may as well feed himself with a bodkin, as with a knife of the present fashion."--Id. "The clothes will be ill washed, the food will be badly cooked; you will be ashamed of your wife, if she is not ashamed of herself."--Id. "He will submit to the laws of the state while he is a member of it."--Id. "But will our sage writers on law forever think by tradition?"--Id. "Some still retain a sovereign power in their territories."--Id. "They sell images, prayers, the sound of bells, remission of sins, &c."--Perkins cor. "And the law had sacrifices offered every day, for the sins of all the people."--Id. "Then it may please the Lord, they shall find it to be a restorative."--Id. "Perdition is repentance put off till a future day."--Maxim cor. "The angels of God, who will good and cannot will evil, have nevertheless perfect liberty of will."--Perkins cor. "Secondly, this doctrine cuts off the excuse of all sin."--Id. "Knell, the sound of a bell rung at a funeral."--Dict. cor.

  "If gold with dross or grain with chaff you find,
   Select--and leave the chaff and dross behind."--G. Brown.


RULE II.--OTHER FINALS.

"The mob hath many heads, but no brains."--Maxim cor. "Clam; to clog with any glutinous or viscous matter."--See Webster's Dict. "Whur; to pronounce the letter r with too much force." "Flip; a mixed liquor, consisting of beer and spirit sweetened." "Glyn; a hollow between two mountains, a glen."--See Walker's Dict. "Lam, or belam; to beat soundly with a cudgel or bludgeon."--See Red Book. "Bun; a small cake, a simnel, a kind of sweet bread."--See Webster's Dict. "Brunet, or Brunette; a woman with a brown complexion."--See ib., and Scott's Dict. "Wadset; an ancient tenure or lease of land in the Highlands of Scotland."--Webster cor. "To dod sheep, is to cut the wool away about their tails."--Id. "In aliquem arietare. Cic. To run full butt at one."--W. Walker cor. "Neither your policy nor your temper would permit you to kill me."--Phil. Mu. cor. "And admit none but his own offspring to fulfill them."--Id. "The sum of all this dispute is, that some make them Participles."--R. Johnson cor. "As the whistling winds, the buzz and hum of insects, the hiss of serpents, the crash of falling timber."--Murray's Gram., p. 331. "Van; to winnow, or a fan for winnowing."--See Scott. "Creatures that buzz, are very commonly such as will sting."--G. Brown. "Beg, buy, or borrow; but beware how yon find."--Id. "It is better to have a house to let, than a house to get." "Let not your tongue cut your throat."--Precept cor. "A little wit will save a fortunate man."--Adage cor. "There is many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip."--Id. "Mothers' darlings make but milksop heroes."--Id. "One eye-witness is worth ten hearsays."--Id.

  "The judge shall job, the bishop bite the town,
   And mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown."
       POPE: in Johnson's Dict., w. Job.


RULE III.--DOUBLING.

"Friz, to curl; frizzed, curled; frizzing, curling."--Webster cor. "The commercial interests served to foster the principles of Whiggism."--Payne cor. "Their extreme indolence shunned every species of labour."--Robertson cor. "In poverty and strippedness, they attend their little meetings."--The Friend cor. "In guiding and controlling the power you have thus obtained."--Abbott cor. "I began, Thou begannest or beganst, He began, &c."--A. Murray cor. "Why does began change its ending; as, I began, Thou begannest or beganst?"--Id. "Truth and conscience cannot be controlled by any methods of coercion."--Hints cor. "Dr. Webster nodded, when he wrote knit, knitter, and knitting-needle, without doubling the t."--G. Brown. "A wag should have wit enough to know when other wags are quizzing him." "Bonny; handsome, beautiful, merry."--Walker cor. "Coquettish; practising coquetry; after the manner of a jilt."--See Worcester. "Pottage; a species of food made of meat and vegetables boiled to softness in water."--See Johnson's Dict. "Pottager; (from pottage;) a porringer, a small vessel for children's food." "Compromit, compromitted, compromitting; manumit, manumitted, manumitting."--Webster cor. "Inferrible; that may be inferred or deduced from premises."--Walker. "Acids are either solid, liquid, or gasseous."--Gregory cor. "The spark will pass through the interrupted space between the two wires, and explode the gasses."--Id. "Do we sound gasses and gasseous like cases and caseous? No: they are more like glasses and osseous."--G. Brown. "I shall not need here to mention Swimming, when he is of an age able to learn."--Locke cor. "Why do lexicographers spell thinnish and mannish with two Ens, and dimmish and rammish with one Em, each?"--G. Brown. "Gas forms the plural regularly, gasses."--Peirce cor. "Singular, gas; Plural, gasses."--Clark cor. "These are contractions from shedded, bursted."--Hiley cor. "The Present Tense denotes what is occurring at the present time."--Day cor. "The verb ending in eth is of the solemn or antiquated style; as, He loveth, He walketh, He runneth."--Davis cor.

  "Thro' Freedom's sons no more remonstrance rings,
   Degrading nobles and controlling kings."--Johnson.


RULE IV--NO DOUBLING.

"A bigoted and tyrannical clergy will be feared."--See Johnson, Walker, &c. "Jacob worshiped his Creator, leaning on the top of his staff."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 165. "For it is all marvellously destitute of interest."--See Johnson, Walker, and Worcester. "As, box, boxes; church, churches; lash, lashes; kiss, kisses; rebus, rebuses."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 40. "Gossiping and lying go hand in hand."--See Webster's Dict., and Worcester's, w. Gossiping. "The substance of the Criticisms on the Diversions of Purley was, with singular industry, gossiped by the present precious Secretary at [of] war, in Payne the bookseller's shop."--Tooke's Diversions, Vol. i, p. 187. "Worship makes worshiped, worshiper, worshiping; gossip, gossiped, gossiper, gossiping; fillip, filliped, filliper, filliping."--Web. Dict. "I became as fidgety as a fly in a milk-jug."--See ib. "That enormous error seems to be riveted in popular opinion." "Whose mind is not biased by personal attachments to a sovereign."--See ib. "Laws against usury originated in a bigoted prejudice against the Jews."--Webster cor. "The most critical period of life is usually between thirteen and seventeen."--Id. "Generalissimo, the chief commander of an army or military force."--Every Dict. "Tranquilize, to quiet, to make calm and peaceful."--Webster's Dict. "Pommelled, beaten, bruised; having pommels, as a sword-hilt."--Webster et al. cor. "From what a height does a jeweller look down upon his shoemaker!"--Red Book cor. "You will have a verbal account from my friend and fellow traveller."--Id. "I observe that you have written the word counselled with one l only."--Ib. "They were offended at such as combated these notions."--Robertson cor. "From libel, come libelled, libeller, libelling, libellous; from grovel, grovelled, groveller, grovelling; from gravel, gravelled, and gravelling."--Webster cor. "Woolliness, the state of being woolly."--Worcester's Dict. "Yet he has spelled chapelling, bordeller, medalist, metaline, metalist, metalize, clavellated, etc, with ll, contrary to his rule."--Webster cor. "Again, he has spelled cancellation and snivelly with single l, and cupellation, pannellation wittolly, with ll."--Id. "Oily, fatty, greasy, containing oil, glib."--Walker cor. "Medalist, one curious in medals; Metalist, one skilled in metals."--Walker's Rhym. Dict. "He is benefited."--Webster. "They travelled for pleasure."--Clark cor.

  "Without you, what were man? A grovelling herd,
   In darkness, wretchedness, and want enchain'd."--Beattle cor.


RULE V.--FINAL CK.

"He hopes, therefore, to be pardoned by the critic."--Kirkham corrected. "The leading object of every public speaker should be, to persuade."--Id. "May not four feet be as poetic as five; or fifteen feet as poetic as fifty?"--Id. "Avoid all theatrical trick and mimicry, and especially all scholastic stiffness."--Id. "No one thinks of becoming skilled in dancing, or in music, or in mathematics, or in logic, without long and close application to the subject."--Id. "Caspar's sense of feeling, and susceptibility of metallic and magnetic excitement, were also very extraordinary."--Id. "Authorship has become a mania, or, perhaps I should say, an epidemic."--Id. "What can prevent this republic from soon raising a literary standard?"--Id. "Courteous reader, you may think me garrulous upon topics quite foreign to the subject before me."--Id. "Of the Tonic, Subtonic, and Atonic elements."--Id. "The subtonic elements are inferior to the tonics, in all the emphatic and elegant purposes of speech."--Id. "The nine atonics and the three abrupt subtonics cause an interruption to the continuity of the syllabic impulse." [526]--Id. "On scientific principles, conjunctions and prepositions are [not] one [and the same] part of speech."--Id. "That some inferior animals should be able to mimick human articulation, will not seem wonderful."--L. Murray cor.

  "When young, you led a life monastic,
   And wore a vest ecclesiastic;
   Now, in your age, you grow fantastic."--Denham's Poems, p. 235.


RULE VI.--RETAINING.

"Fearlessness; exemption from fear, intrepidity."--Johnson cor. "Dreadlessness; fearlessness, intrepidity, undauntedness."--Id. "Regardlessly, without heed; Regardlessness, heedlessness."--Id. "Blamelessly, innocently; Blamelessness, innocence."--Id. "That is better than to be flattered into pride and carelessness."--Id. "Good fortunes began to breed a proud recklessness in them."--Id. "See whether he lazily and listlessly dreams away his time."--Id. "It maybe, the palate of the soul is indisposed by listlessness or sorrow."--Id. "Pitilessly, without mercy; Pitilessness, unmercifulness."--Id. "What say you to such as these? abominable, accordable, agreeable, etc."-- Tooke cor. "Artlessly; naturally, sincerely, without craft."--Johnson cor. "A chillness, or shivering of the body, generally precedes a fever."--See Webster. "Smallness; littleness, minuteness, weakness."--Walker's Dict., et al. "Galless, adj. Free from gall or bitterness."--Webster cor. "Tallness; height of stature, upright length with comparative slenderness."--Webster's Dict. "Willful; stubborn, contumacious, perverse, inflexible."--See ib. "He guided them by the skillfulness of his hands."--See ib. "The earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Ps. xxiv, 1. "What is now, is but an amassment of imaginary conceptions."--Glanville cor. "Embarrassment; perplexity, entanglement."--Walker. "The second is slothfulness, whereby they are performed slackly and carelessly."-- Perkins cor. "Installment; induction into office, part of a large sum of money, to be paid at a particular time."--See Webster's Dict. "Inthrallment; servitude, slavery, bondage."--Ib.

  "I, who at some times spend, at others spare,
   Divided between carelessness and care."--Pope cor.


RULE VII.--RETAINING.

"Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretells."--Lowth's Gram., p. 41; Comly's, 38; Cooper's, 51; Lennie's, 26. "There are a few compound irregular verbs, as befall, bespeak, &c."--Ash cor. "That we might frequently recall it to our memory."--Calvin cor. "The angels exercise a constant solicitude that no evil befall us."--Id. "Inthrall; to enslave, to shackle, to reduce to servitude."--Johnson. "He makes resolutions, and fulfills them by new ones."--See Webster. "To enroll my humble name upon the list of authors on Elocution."--See Webster. "Forestall; to anticipate, to take up beforehand."--Johnson. "Miscall; to call wrong, to name improperly."--Webster. "Bethrall; to enslave, to reduce to bondage."--Id. "Befall; to happen to, to come to pass."--Walkers Dict. "Unroll; to open what is rolled or convolved."--Webster's Dict. "Counterroll; to keep copies of accounts to prevent frauds."--See ib. "As Sisyphus uprolls a rock, which constantly overpowers him at the summit."--G. Brown. "Unwell; not well, indisposed, not in good health."--Webster. "Undersell; to defeat by selling for less, to sell cheaper than an other."--Johnson. "Inwall; to enclose or fortify with a wall."--Id. "Twibill; an instrument with two bills, or with a point and a blade; a pickaxe, a mattock, a halberd, a battleaxe."--Dict. cor. "What you miscall their folly, is their care."--Dryden cor. "My heart will sigh when I miscall it so."--Shak. cor. "But if the arrangement recalls one set of ideas more readily than an other."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 334.

  "'Tis done; and since 'tis done, 'tis past recall
   And since 'tis past recall, must be forgotten."--Dryden cor.


RULE VIII.--FINAL LL.

"The righteous is taken away from the evil to come."--Isaiah, lvii, 1. "Patrol; to go the rounds in a camp or garrison, to march about and observe what passes."--See Joh. Dic. "Marshal; the chief officer of arms, one who regulates rank and order."--See ib. "Weevil; a destructive grub that gets among corn."--See ib. "It much excels all other studies and arts."--W. Walker cor. "It is essential to all magnitudes, to be in one place."--Perkins cor. "By nature I was thy vassal, but Christ hath redeemed me."--Id. "Some being in want, pray for temporal blessings."--Id. "And this the Lord doth, either in temporal or in spiritual benefits."--Id. "He makes an idol of them, by setting his heart on them." "This trial by desertion serveth for two purposes."--Id. "Moreover, this destruction is both perpetual and terrible."--Id. "Giving to several men several gifts, according to his good pleasure." "Until; to some time, place, or degree, mentioned."--See Dict. "Annul; to make void, to nullify, to abrogate, to abolish."--See Dict. "Nitric acid combined with argil, forms the nitrate of argil."--Gregory cor.

  "Let modest Foster, if he will, excel
   Ten metropolitans in preaching well."--Pope cor.


RULE IX.--FINAL E.

"Adjectives ending in able signify capacity; as, comfortable, tenable, improvable."--Priestly cor. "Their mildness and hospitality are ascribable to a general administration of religious ordinances."-- Webster cor. "Retrench as much as possible without obscuring the sense."--J. Brown cor. "Changeable, subject to change; Unchangeable, immutable."--Walker cor. "Tamable, susceptive of taming; Untamable, not to be tamed."--Id. "Reconcilable, Unreconcilable, Reconcilableness; Irreconcilable, Irreconcilably, Irreconcilableness."--Johnson cor. "We have thought it most advisable to pay him some little attention."-- Merchant cor. "Provable, that may be proved; Reprovable, blamable, worthy of reprehension."--Walker cor. "Movable and Immovable, Movably and Immovably, Movables and Removal, Movableness and Improvableness, Unremovable and Unimprovable, Unremovably and Removable, Provable and Approvable, Irreprovable and Reprovable, Unreprovable and Improvable, Unimprovableness and Improvably."--Johnson cor. "And with this cruelty you are chargeable in some measure yourself."--Collier cor. "Mothers would certainly resent it, as judging it proceeded from a low opinion of the genius of their sex."--Brit. Gram. cor. "Tithable, subject to the payment of tithes; Salable, vendible, fit for sale; Losable, possible to be lost; Sizable, of reasonable bulk or size."--See Webster's Dict. "When he began this custom, he was puting and very tender."--Locke cor.

  "The plate, coin, revenues, and movables,
   Whereof our uncle Gaunt did stand possess'd."--Shak. cor.


RULE X.--FINAL E.

"Diversely; in different ways, differently, variously."--See Walker's Dict. "The event thereof contains a wholesome instruction."--Bacon cor. "Whence Scaliger falsely concluded that Articles were useless."--Brightland cor. "The child that we have just seen is wholesomely fed."--Murray cor. "Indeed, falsehood and legerdemain sink the character of a prince."--Collier cor. "In earnest, at this rate of management, thou usest thyself very coarsely."--Id. "To give them an arrangement and a diversity, as agreeable as the nature of the subject would admit."--Murray cor. "Alger's Grammar is only a trifling enlargement of Murray's little Abridgement."--G. Brown. "You ask whether you are to retain or to omit the mute e in the words, judgement, abridgement, acknowledgement, lodgement, adjudgement, and prejudgement."--Red Book cor. "Fertileness, fruitfulness; fertilely, fruitfully, abundantly."--Johnson cor. "Chastely, purely, without contamination; Chasteness, chastity, purity."--Id. "Rhymester, n. One who makes rhymes; a versifier; a mean poet."--Walker, Chalmers, Maunder, Worcester. "It is therefore a heroical achievement to disposess [sic--KTH] this imaginary monarch."--Berkley cor. "Whereby is not meant the present time, as he imagines, but the time past."--R. Johnson cor. "So far is this word from affecting the noun, in regard to its definiteness, that its own character of definiteness or indefiniteness, depends upon the name to which it is prefixed."--Webster cor.

  "Satire, by wholesome lessons, would reclaim,
   And heal their vices to secure their fame "--Brightland cor.


RULE XI.--FINAL Y.

"Solon's the veriest fool in all the play."--Dryden cor. "Our author prides himself upon his great sliness and shrewdness."--Merchant cor. "This tense, then, implies also the signification of debeo."--R. Johnson cor. "That may be applied to a subject, with respect to something accidental."--Id. "This latter author accompanies his note with a distinction."--Id. "This rule is defective, and none of the annotators have sufficiently supplied its deficiencies."--Id. "Though the fancied supplement of Sanctius, Scioppius, Vossius, and Mariangelus, may take place."--Ib. "Yet, as to the commutableness of these two tenses, which is denied likewise, they [the foregoing examples] are all one [; i.e., exactly equivalent]"--Id. "Both these tenses may represent a futurity, implied by the dependence of the clause."--Id. "Cry, cries, crying, cried, crier, decrial; Shy, shier, shiest, shily, shiness; Fly, flies, flying, flier, high-flier; Sly, slier, sliest, slily, sliness; Spy, spies, spying, spied, espial; Dry, drier, driest, drily, driness."--Cobb, Webster, and Chalmers cor. "I would sooner listen to the thrumming of a dandizette at her piano."--Kirkham cor. "Send her away; for she crieth after us."--Matt., v, 23. "IVIED, a. overgrown with ivy."--Cobb's Dict., and Maunders.

  "Some drily plain, without invention's aid,
   Write dull receipts how poems may be made."--Pope cor.


RULE XII.--FINAL Y.

"The gayety of youth should be tempered by the precepts of age."--Murray cor. "In the storm of 1703, two thousand stacks of chimneys were blown down in and about London."--Red Book cor. "And the vexation was not abated by the hackneyed plea of haste."--Id. "The fourth sin of our days is lukewarmness."--Perkins cor. "God hates the workers of iniquity, and destroys them that speak lies."--Id. "For, when he lays his hand upon us, we may not fret."--Id. "Care not for it; but if thou mayst be free, choose it rather."--Id. "Alexander Severus saith, 'He that buyeth, must sell; I will not suffer buyers and sellers of offices.'"--Id. "With these measures, fell in all moneyed men."--See Johnson's Dict. "But rattling nonsense in full volleys breaks."--Murray's Reader, q. Pope. "Valleys are the intervals betwixt mountains."--Woodward cor. "The Hebrews had fifty-two journeys or marches."--Wood cor. "It was not possible to manage or steer the galleys thus fastened together."--Goldsmith cor. "Turkeys were not known to naturalists till after the discovery of America."--Gregory cor. "I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys."--SHAK.: in Johnson's Dict. "Men worked at embroidery, especially in abbeys."--Constable cor. "By which all purchasers or mortgagees may be secured of all moneys they lay out."--Temple cor. "He would fly to the mines or the galleys, for his recreation."--South cor. "Here pulleys make the pond'rous oak ascend."--Gay cor.

   ------"You need my help, and you say,
   Shylock, we would have moneys."--Shak. cor.


RULE XIII.--IZE AND ISE.

"Will any able writer authorize other men to revise his works?"--G. B. "It can be made as strong and expressive as this Latinized English."--Murray cor. "Governed by the success or failure of an enterprise."--Id. "Who have patronized the cause of justice against powerful oppressors."--Id., et al. "Yet custom authorizes this use of it."--Priestley cor. "They surprise myself, ****; and I even think the writers themselves will be surprised."--Id. "Let the interest rise to any sum which can be obtained."--Webster cor. "To determine what interest shall arise on the use of money."--Id. "To direct the popular councils and check any rising opposition,"--Id. "Five were appointed to the immediate exercise of the office."--Id. "No man ever offers himself as a candidate by advertising."--Id. "They are honest and economical, but indolent, and destitute of enterprise."--Id. "I would, however, advise you to be cautious."--Id. "We are accountable for what we patronize in others."--Murray cor. "After he was baptized, and was solemnly admitted into the office."--Perkins cor. "He will find all, or most, of them, comprised in the exercises."--Brit. Gram. cor. "A quick and ready habit of methodizing and regulating their thoughts."--Id. "To tyrannize over the time and patience of his readers."--Kirkham cor. "Writers of dull books, however, if patronized at all, are rewarded beyond their deserts."--Id. "A little reflection will show the reader the reason for emphasizing the words marked."--Id. "The English Chronicle contains an account of a surprising cure."--Red Book cor. "Dogmatize, to assert positively; Dogmatizer, an assertor, a magisterial teacher."--Chalmers cor. "And their inflections might now have been easily analyzed."--Murray cor. "Authorize, disauthorize, and unauthorized; Temporize, contemporize, and extemporize."--Walker cor. "Legalize, equalize, methodize, sluggardize, womanize, humanize, patronize, cantonize, gluttonize, epitomize, anatomize, phlebotomize, sanctuarize, characterize, synonymize, recognize, detonize, colonize."--Id. cor.

  "This beauty sweetness always must comprise,
   Which from the subject, well express'd, will rise."--Brightland cor.


RULE XIV.--COMPOUNDS.

"The glory of the Lord shall be thy rear-ward."--SCOTT, ALGER: Isa., lviii, 8. "A mere van-courier to announce the coming of his master."--Tooke cor. "The party-coloured shutter appeared to come close up before him."--Kirkham cor. "When the day broke upon this handful of forlorn but dauntless spirits."--Id. "If, upon a plumtree, peaches and apricots are engrafted, nobody will say they are the natural growth of the plumtree.'--Berkley cor. "The channel between Newfoundland and Labrador is called the Straits of Belleisle."--Worcester cor. "There being nothing that more exposes to the headache:"--or, (perhaps more accurately,) "headake."--Locke cor. "And, by a sleep, to say we end the heartache:"--or, "heartake."--Shak. cor. "He that sleeps, feels not the toothache:"--or, "toothake."--Id. "That the shoe must fit him, because it fitted his father and grandfather."--Phil. Museum cor. "A single word misspelled [or misspelt] in a letter is sufficient to show that you have received a defective education."--C. Bucke cor. "Which misstatement the committee attributed to a failure of memory."--Professors cor. "Then he went through the Banqueting-House to the scaffold."--Smollet cor. "For the purpose of maintaining a clergyman and a schoolmaster."--Webster cor. "They however knew that the lands were claimed by Pennsylvania."--Id. "But if you ask a reason, they immediately bid farewell to argument."--Barnes cor. "Whom resist, steadfast in the faith."--Alger's Bible. "And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine."--Id. "Beware lest ye also fall from your own steadfastness."--Ib. "Galiot, or Galliot, a Dutch vessel carrying a main-mast and a mizzen-mast."--Webster cor. "Infinitive, to overflow; Preterit, overflowed; Participle, overflowed."--Cobbett cor. "After they have misspent so much precious time."--Brit. Gram. cor. "Some say, 'two handsful;" some, 'two handfuls; and others, 'two handful.' The second expression is right."--G. Brown. "Lapful, as much as the lap can contain."--Webster cor. "Dareful, full of defiance."--Walker cor. "The road to the blissful regions is as open to the peasant as to the king."--Mur. cor. "Misspell is misspelled [or misspelt] in every dictionary which I have seen."--Barnes cor. "Downfall; ruin, calamity, fall from rank or state."--Johnson cor. "The whole legislature likewise acts as a court."--Webster cor. "It were better a millstone were hanged about his neck."--Perkins cor. "Plumtree, a tree that produces plums; Hogplumtree, a tree."--Webster cor. "Trissyllables ending in re or le, accent the first syllable."--Murray cor.

  "It happened on a summer's holyday,
   That to the greenwood shade he took his way."--Dryden.


RULE XV.--USAGE.

"Nor are the moods of the Greek tongue more uniform."--Murray cor. "If we analyze a conjunctive preterit, the rule will not appear to hold."--Priestley cor. "No landholder would have been at that expense."--Id. "I went to see the child whilst they were putting on its clothes."--Id. "This style is ostentatious, and does not suit grave writing."--Id. "The king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, sat each on his throne."--1 Kings, xxii, 10; 2 Chron., xviii, 9. "Lysias, speaking of his friends, promised to his father never to abandon them."--Murray cor. "Some, to avoid this error, run into its opposite."--Churchill cor. "Hope, the balm of life soothes us under every misfortune."--Jaudon's Gram., p. 182. "Any judgement or decree might be heard and reversed by the legislature."--N. Webster cor. "A pathetic harangue will screen from punishment any knave."--Id. "For the same reason the women would be improper judges."--Id. "Every person is indulged in worshiping as he pleases."--Id. "Most or all teachers are excluded from genteel company."--Id. "The Christian religion, in its purity, is the best institution on earth."--Id. "Neither clergymen nor human laws have the least authority over the conscience."--Id. "A guild is a society, fraternity, or corporation."--Barnes cor. "Phillis was not able to untie the knot, and so she cut it."--Id. "An acre of land is the quantity of one hundred and sixty perches."--Id. "Ochre is a fossil earth combined with the oxyd of some metal."--Id. "Genii, when denoting aërial spirits; geniuses, when signifying persons of genius."--Murray cor.; also Frost; also Nutting. "Acrisius, king of Argos, had a beautiful daughter, whose name was Danäe."--Classic Tales cor. "Phäeton was the son of Apollo and Clymene."--Id.--"But, after all, I may not have reached the intended goal."--Buchanan cor. "'Pittacus was offered a large sum.' Better: 'To Pittacus was offered a large sum.'"--Kirkham cor. "King Micipsa charged his sons to respect the senate and people of Rome."--Id. "For example: 'Galileo greatly improved the telescope.'"--Id. "Cathmor's warriors sleep in death."--Macpherson's Ossian. "For parsing will enable you to detect and correct errors in composition."--Kirkham cor.

  "O'er barren mountains, o'er the flow'ry plain,
   Extends thy uncontrolled and boundless reign."--Dryden cor.


PROMISCUOUS CORRECTIONS OF FALSE SPELLING.

LESSON I.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"A bad author deserves better usage than a bad critic."--Pope (or Johnson) cor. "Produce a single passage, superior to the speech of Logan, a Mingo chief, to Lord Dunmore, governor of this state."--Jefferson's Notes, p. 94. "We have none synonymous to supply its place."--Jamieson cor. "There is a probability that the effect will be accelerated."--Id. "Nay, a regard to sound has controlled the public choice."--Id. "Though learnt [better, learned] from the uninterrupted use of guttural sounds."--Id. "It is by carefully filing off all roughness and all inequalities, that languages, like metals, must be polished."--Id. "That I have not misspent my time in the service of the community."--Buchanan cor. "The leaves of maize are also called blades."--Webster cor. "Who boast that they know what is past, and can foretell what is to come."--Robertson cor. "Its tasteless dullness is interrupted by nothing but its perplexities."--Abbott, right. "Sentences constructed with the Johnsonian fullness and swell."--Jamieson, right. "The privilege of escaping from his prefatory dullness and prolixity."--Kirkham, right. "But, in poetry, this characteristic of dullness attains its full growth."--Id. corrected. "The leading characteristic consists in an increase of the force and fullness."--Id cor. "The character of this opening fullness and feebler vanish."--Id. cor. "Who, in the fullness of unequalled power, would not believe himself the favourite of Heaven?"--Id. right. "They mar one an other, and distract him."--Philol. Mus. cor. "Let a deaf worshiper of antiquity and an English prosodist settle this."--Rush cor. "This Philippic gave rise to my satirical reply in self-defence."--Merchant cor. "We here saw no innuendoes, no new sophistry, no falsehoods."--Id. "A witty and humorous vein has often produced enemies."--Murray cor. "Cry hollo! to thy tongue, I pray thee:[527] it curvets unseasonably."--Shak. cor. "I said, in my sliest manner, 'Your health, sir.'"--Blackwood cor. "And attorneys also travel the circuit in pursuit of business."--Barnes cor. "Some whole counties in Virginia would hardly sell for the value of the debts due from the inhabitants."--Webster cor. "They were called the Court of Assistants, and exercised all powers, legislative and judicial."--Id. "Arithmetic is excellent for the gauging of liquors."--Harris's Hermes, p. 295. "Most of the inflections may be analyzed in a way somewhat similar."--Murray cor.

  "To epithets allots emphatic state,
   While principals, ungrac'd, like lackeys wait."
       --T. O. Churchill's Gram., p. 326.


LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Hence less is a privative suffix, denoting destitution; as in fatherless, faithless, penniless."--Webster cor. "Bay; red, or reddish, inclining to a chestnut colour."--Id. "To mimick, to imitate or ape for sport; a mimic, one who imitates or mimicks."--Id. "Counterroll, a counterpart or copy of the rolls; Counterrollment, a counter account."--Id. "Millennium, [from mille and annus,] the thousand years during which Satan shall be bound."--See Johnson's Dict. "Millennial, [like septennial, decennial, &c.,] pertaining to the millennium, or to a thousand years."--See Worcester's Dict. "Thralldom; slavery, bondage, a state of servitude."--Webster's Dict. "Brier, a prickly bush; Briery, rough, prickly, full of briers; Sweetbrier, a fragrant shrub."--See Ainsworth's Dict., Scott's, Gobb's, and others. "Will, in the second and third persons, barely foretells."--Brit. Gram. cor. "And therefore there is no word false, but what is distinguished by Italics."--Id. "What should be repeated, is left to their discretion."--Id. "Because they are abstracted or separated from material substances."--Id. "All motion is in time, and therefore, wherever it exists, implies time as its concomitant."-- Harris's Hermes, p. 95. "And illiterate grown persons are guilty of blamable spelling."--Brit. Gram. cor. "They will always be ignorant, and of rough, uncivil manners."--Webster cor. "This fact will hardly be believed in the northern states."--Id. "The province, however, was harassed with disputes."--Id. "So little concern has the legislature for the interest of learning."--Id. "The gentlemen will not admit that a schoolmaster can be a gentleman."--Id. "Such absurd quid-pro-quoes cannot be too strenuously avoided."--Churchill cor. "When we say of a man, 'He looks slily;' we signify, that he takes a sly glance or peep at something."--Id. "Peep; to look through a crevice; to look narrowly, closely, or slily"--Webster cor. "Hence the confession has become a hackneyed proverb."--Wayland cor. "Not to mention the more ornamental parts of gilding, varnish, &c."--Tooke cor. "After this system of self-interest had been riveted."--Dr. Brown cor. "Prejudice might have prevented the cordial approbation of a bigoted Jew."--Dr. Scott cor.

  "All twinkling with the dewdrop sheen,
   The brier-rose fell in streamers green."--Sir W. Scott cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"The infinitive mood has, commonly, the sign to before it."--Harrison cor. "Thus, it is advisable to write singeing, from the verb to singe, by way of distinction from singing, the participle of the verb to sing."--Id. "Many verbs form both the preterit tense and the preterit participle irregularly."--Id. "Much must be left to every one's taste and judgement."--Id. "Verses of different lengths, intermixed, form a Pindaric poem."--Priestley cor. "He'll surprise you."--Frost cor. "Unequalled archer! why was this concealed?"-- Knowles. "So gayly curl the waves before each dashing prow."--Byron cor. "When is a diphthong called a proper diphthong?"--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "How many Esses would the word then end with? Three; for it would be goodness's."--Id. "Qu. What is a triphthong? Ans. A triphthong is a coalition of three vowels in one syllable."--Bacon cor. "The verb, noun, or pronoun, is referred to the preceding terms taken separately."--Murray. "The cubic foot of matter which occupies the centre of the globe."--Cardell cor. "The wine imbibes oxygen, or the acidifying principle, from the air."--Id. "Charcoal, sulphur, and nitre, make gunpowder."--Id. "It would be readily understood, that the thing so labelled was a bottle of Madeira wine."--Id. "They went their ways, one to his farm, an other to his merchandise."--Matt., xxii, 5. "A diphthong is the union of two vowels, both in one syllable."--Russell cor. "The professors of the Mohammedan religion are called Mussulmans."--Maltby cor. "This shows that let is not a mere sign of the imperative mood, but a real verb."--Id. "Those preterits and participles which are first mentioned in the list, seem to be the most eligible."--Murray's Gram., p. 107; Fisk's, 81; Ingersoll's, 103. "Monosyllables, for the most part, are compared by er and est, and dissyllables, by more and most."--Murray's Gram., p. 47. "This termination, added to a noun or an adjective, changes it into a verb: as, modern, to modernize; a symbol, to symbolize."-- Churchill cor. "An Abridgement of Murray's Grammar, with additions from Webster, Ash, Tooke, and others."--Maltby's Gram., p. 2. "For the sake of occupying the room more advantageously, the subject of Orthography is merely glanced at."--Nutting cor. "So contended the accusers of Galileo."--O. B. Peirce cor. Murray says, "They were travelling post when he met them."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 69. "They fulfill the only purposes for which they were designed."--Peirce cor.--See Webster's Dict. "On the fulfillment of the event."--Peirce, right. "Fullness consists in expressing every idea."--Id. "Consistently with fullness and perspicuity."--Peirce cor. "The word veriest is a regular adjective; as, 'He is the veriest fool on earth.'"--Wright cor. "The sound will recall the idea of the object."--Hiley cor. "Formed for great enterprises."--Hiley's Gram., p. 113. "The most important rules and definitions are printed in large type, Italicized."--Hart cor. "HAMLETED, a., accustomed to a hamlet, countrified."--Webster, and Worcester. "Singular, spoonful, cupful, coachful, handful; plural, spoonfuls, cupfuls, coachfuls, handfuls."--Worcester's Universal and Critical Dictionary.

  "Between superlatives and following names,
   Of, by grammatic right, a station claims."--Brightland cor.


THE KEY.--PART II.--ETYMOLOGY.

CHAPTER I.--PARTS OF SPEECH.

The first chapter of Etymology, as it exhibits only the distribution of words into the ten Parts of Speech, contains no false grammar for correction. And it may be here observed, that as mistakes concerning the forms, classes, or modifications of words, are chiefly to be found in sentences, rather than in any separate exhibition of the terms; the quotations of this kind, with which I have illustrated the principles of etymology, are many of them such as might perhaps with more propriety be denominated false syntax. But, having examples enough at hand to show the ignorance and carelessness of authors in every part of grammar, I have thought it most advisable, so to distribute them as to leave no part destitute of this most impressive kind of illustration. The examples exhibited as false etymology, are as distinct from those which are called false syntax, as the nature of the case will admit.


CHAPTER II.--ARTICLES.

CORRECTIONS RESPECTING A, AN, AND THE.

LESSON I.--ARTICLES ADAPTED.

"Honour is a useful distinction in life."--Milnes cor. "No writer, therefore, ought to foment a humour of innovation."--Jamieson cor. "Conjunctions [generally] require a situation between the things of which they form a union."--Id. "Nothing is more easy than to mistake a u for an a."--Tooke cor. "From making so ill a use of our innocent expressions."--Penn cor. "To grant thee a heavenly and incorruptible crown of glory."--Sewel cor. "It in no wise follows, that such a one was able to predict."--Id. "With a harmless patience, they have borne most heavy oppressions."--Id. "My attendance was to make me a happier man."--Spect. cor. "On the wonderful nature of a human mind."--Id. "I have got a hussy of a maid, who is most craftily given to this."--Id. "Argus is said to have had a hundred eyes, some of which were always awake."--Stories cor. "Centiped, having a hundred feet; centennial, consisting of a hundred years."--Town cor. "No good man, he thought, could be a heretic."--Gilpin cor. "As, a Christian, an infidel, a heathen."--Ash cor. "Of two or more words, usually joined by a hyphen."--Blair cor. "We may consider the whole space of a hundred years as time present."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 138. "In guarding against such a use of meats and drinks."--Ash cor. "Worship is a homage due from man to his Creator."--Monitor cor. "Then a eulogium on the deceased was pronounced."--Grimshaw cor. "But for Adam there was not found a help meet for him."--Bible cor. "My days are consumed like smoke, and my bones are burned as a hearth."--Id. "A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof."--Id. "The hill of God is as the hill of Bashan; a high hill, as the hill of Bashan."--Id. "But I do declare it to have been a holy offering, and such a one too as was to be once for all."--Penn cor. "A hope that does not make ashamed those that have it."--Barclay cor. "Where there is not a unity, we may exercise true charity."--Id. "Tell me, if in any of these such a union can be found?"--Dr. Brown cor.

  "Such holy drops her tresses steeped,
   Though 'twas a hero's eye that weeped."--Sir W. Scott cor.


LESSON II.--ARTICLES INSERTED.

"This veil of flesh parts the visible and the invisible world."--Sherlock cor. "The copulative and the disjunctive conjunctions operate differently on the verb."--L. Murray cor. "Every combination of a preposition and an article with the noun."--Id. "Either signifies, 'the one or the other:' neither imports, 'not either;' that is, 'not the one nor the other.'"--Id. "A noun of multitude may have a pronoun or a verb agreeing with it, either of the singular number or of the plural."--Bucke cor. "The principal copulative conjunctions are, and, as, both, because, for, if, that, then, since."--Id. "The two real genders are the masculine and the feminine."--Id. "In which a mute and a liquid are represented by the same character, th."--Gardiner cor. "They said, John the Baptist hath sent us unto thee."--Bible cor. "They indeed remember the names of an abundance of places."--Spect. cor. "Which created a great dispute between the young and the old men."--Goldsmith cor. "Then shall be read the Apostles' or the Nicene Creed."--Com. Prayer cor. "The rules concerning the perfect tenses and the supines of verbs are Lily's."--K. Henry's Gr. cor. "It was read by the high and the low, the learned and the illiterate."--Dr. Johnson cor. "Most commonly, both the pronoun and the verb are understood."--Buchanan cor. "To signify the thick and the slender enunciation of tone."--Knight cor. "The difference between a palatial and a guttural aspirate is very small."--Id. "Leaving it to waver between the figurative and the literal sense."--Jamieson cor. "Whatever verb will not admit of both an active and a passive signification."--Alex. Murray cor. "The is often set before adverbs in the comparative or the superlative degree."--Id. and Kirkham cor. "Lest any should fear the effect of such a change, upon the present or the succeeding age of writers."--Fowle cor. "In all these measures, the accents are to be placed on the even syllables; and every line is, in general, the more melodious, as this rule is the more strictly observed."--L. Murray et al. cor. "How many numbers do nouns appear to have? Two: the singular and the plural."--R. C. Smith cor. "How many persons? Three; the first, the second, and the third."--Id. "How many cases? Three; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Id.

  "Ah! what avails it me, the flocks to keep,
   Who lost my heart while I preserv'd the sheep:"--or, "my sheep."


LESSON III.--ARTICLES OMITTED.

"The negroes are all descendants of Africans."--Morse cor. "Sybarite was applied as a term of reproach to a man of dissolute manners."--Id. "The original signification of knave was boy."--Webster cor. "The meaning of these will be explained, for greater clearness and precision."--Bucke cor. "What sort of noun is man? A noun substantive, common."--Buchanan cor. "Is what ever used as three kinds of pronoun?"--Kirkham's Question cor. [Answer: "No; as a pronoun, it is either relative or interrogative."--G. Brown.] "They delighted in having done it, as well as in the doing of it."--R. Johnson cor. "Both parts of this rule are exemplified in the following sentences."--Murray cor. "He has taught them to hope for an other and better world."--Knapp cor. "It was itself only preparatory to a future, better, and perfect revelation."--Keith cor. "Es then makes an other and distinct syllable."--Brightland cor. "The eternal clamours of a selfish and factious people."--Dr. Brown cor. "To those whose taste in elocution is but little cultivated."--Kirkham cor. "They considered they had but a sort of gourd to rejoice in."--Bennet cor. "Now there was but one such bough, in a spacious and shady grove."--Bacon cor. "Now the absurdity of this latter supposition will go a great way towards making a man easy."--Collier cor. "This is true of mathematics, with which taste has but little to do."--Todd cor. "To stand prompter to a pausing yet ready comprehension."--Rush cor. "Such an obedience as the yoked and tortured negro is compelled to yield to the whip of the overseer."--Chalmers cor. "For the gratification of a momentary and unholy desire."--Wayland cor. "The body is slenderly put together; the mind, a rambling sort of thing."--Collier cor. "The only nominative to the verb, is officer."--Murray cor. "And though in general it ought to be admitted, &c."--Blair cor. "Philosophical writing admits of a polished, neat, and elegant style."--Id. "But notwithstanding this defect, Thomson is a strong and beautiful describer."--Id. "So should he be sure to be ransomed, and many poor men's lives should be saved."--Shak. cor.

  "Who felt the wrong, or feared it, took alarm,
   Appealed to law, and Justice lent her arm."--Pope cor.


LESSON IV.--ARTICLES CHANGED.

"To enable us to avoid too frequent a repetition of the same word."--Bucke cor. "The former is commonly acquired in a third part of the time."--Burn cor. "Sometimes an adjective becomes a substantive; and, like other substantives, it may have an adjective relating to it: as, 'The chief good.'"--L. Murray cor. "An articulate sound is a sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech."--Id. "A tense is a distinction of time: there are six tenses."--Maunder cor. "In this case, an ellipsis of the last article would be improper."--L. Hurray cor. "Contrast always has the effect to make each of the contrasted objects appear in a stronger light."--Id. et al. "These remarks may serve to show the great importance of a proper use of the articles."--Lowth et al. cor. "'Archbishop Tillotson,' says the author of a history of England, 'died in this year.'"--Dr. Blair cor. "Pronouns are used in stead of substantives, to prevent too frequent a repetition of them."--A. Murray cor. "THAT, as a relative, seems to be introduced to prevent too frequent a repetition of WHO and WHICH."--Id. "A pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun, to prevent too frequent a repetition of it."--L. Murray cor. "THAT is often used as a relative, to prevent too frequent a repetition of WHO and WHICH."--Id. et al. cor. "His knees smote one against the other."--Logan cor. "They stand now on one foot, then on the other."--W. Walker cor. "The Lord watch between thee and me, when we are absent one from the other."--Bible cor. "Some have enumerated ten parts of speech, making the participle a distinct part."--L. Murray cor. "Nemesis rides upon a hart because the hart is a most lively creature."--Bacon cor. "The transition of the voice from one vowel of the diphthong to the other."--Dr. Wilson cor. "So difficult it is, to separate these two things one from the other."--Dr. Blair cor. "Without a material breach of any rule."--Id. "The great source of looseness of style, in opposition to precision, is an injudicious use of what are termed synonymous words."--Blair cor.; also Murray. "Sometimes one article is improperly used for the other."--Sanborn cor.

  "Satire of sense, alas! can Sporus feel?
   Who breaks a butterfly upon the wheel?"--Pope cor.


LESSON V.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"He hath no delight in the strength of a horse."--Maturin cor. "The head of it would be a universal monarch."--Butler cor. "Here they confound the material and the formal object of faith."--Barclay cor. "The Irish [Celtic] and the Scottish Celtic are one language; the Welsh, the Cornish, and the Armorican, are an other."--Dr. Murray cor. "In a uniform and perspicuous manner."--Id. "SCRIPTURE, n. Appropriately, and by way of distinction, the books of the Old and the New Testament; the Bible."--Webster cor. "In two separate volumes, entitled, 'The Old and New Testaments.'"--Wayland cor. "The Scriptures of the Old and the New Testament, contain a revelation from God."--Id. "Q has always a u after it; which, in words of French origin, is not sounded."--Wilson cor. "What should we say of such a one? that he is regenerate? No."--Hopkins cor. "Some grammarians subdivide the vowels into simple and compound."--L. Murray cor. "Emphasis has been divided into the weaker and the stronger emphasis."--Id. "Emphasis has also been divided into the superior and the inferior emphasis."--Id. "Pronouns must agree with their antecedents, or the nouns which they represent, in gender, number, and person."--Merchant cor. "The adverb where is often used improperly, for a relative pronoun and a preposition": as, "Words where [in which] the h is not silent."--Murray, p. 31. "The termination ish imports diminution, or a lessening of the quality."--Merchant cor. "In this train, all their verses proceed: one half of a line always answering to the other."--Dr. Blair cor. "To a height of prosperity and glory, unknown to any former age."--L. Murray cor. "Hwilc, who, which, such as, such a one, is declined as follows."--Gwilt cor. "When a vowel precedes the y, s only is required to form the plural; as, day, days."--Bucke cor. "He is asked what sort of word each is; whether a primitive, a derivative, or a compound."--British Gram. cor. "It is obvious, that neither the second, the third, nor the fourth chapter of Matthew, is the first; consequently, there are not 'four first chapters.'"--Churchill cor. "Some thought, which a writer wants the art to introduce in its proper place."--Dr. Blair cor. "Groves and meadows are the most pleasing in the spring."--Id. "The conflict between the carnal and the spiritual mind, is often long."--Gurney cor. "A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful"--Burke cor.

  "Silence, my muse! make not these jewels cheap,
   Exposing to the world too large a heap."--Waller cor.


CHAPTER III.--NOUNS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE MODIFICATIONS OF NOUNS.

LESSON I.--NUMBERS.

"All the ablest of the Jewish rabbies acknowledge it."--Wilson cor. "Who has thoroughly imbibed the system of one or other of our Christian rabbies."--Campbell cor. "The seeming singularities of reason soon wear off."--Collier cor. "The chiefs and arikies, or priests, have the power of declaring a place or object taboo."--Balbi cor. "Among the various tribes of this family, are the Pottawatomies, the Sauks and Foxes, or Saukies and Ottogamies."--Id. "The Shawnees, Kickapoos, Menom'onies, Miamies, and Delawares, are of the same region."--Id. "The Mohegans and Abenaquies belonged also to this family."--Id. "One tribe of this family, the Winnebagoes, formerly resided near lake Michigan."--Id. "The other tribes are the Ioways, the Otoes, the Missouries, the Quapaws."--Id." The great Mexican family comprises the Aztecs, the Toltecs, and the Tarascoes."--Id." The Mulattoes are born of negro and white parents; the Zamboes, of Indians and Negroes."--Id. "To have a place among the Alexanders, the Cæsars, the Louises, or the Charleses,--the scourges and butchers of their fellow-creatures."--Burgh cor." Which was the notion of the Platonic philosophers and the Jewish rabbies."--Id. "That they should relate to the whole body of virtuosoes."--Cobbeti cor." What thanks have ye? for sinners also love those that love them."--Bible cor." There are five ranks of nobility; dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons."--Balbi cor." Acts which were so well known to the two Charleses."--Payne cor. "Courts-martial are held in all parts, for the trial of the blacks."--Observer cor. "It becomes a common noun, and may have the plural number; as, the two Davids, the two Scipios, the two Pompeys."--Staniford cor. "The food of the rattlesnake is birds, squirrels, hares, rats, and reptiles."--Balbi cor. "And let fowls multiply in the earth."--Bible cor. "Then we reached the hillside, where eight buffaloes were grazing."--Martineau cor. "CORSET, n. a bodice for a woman."--Worcester cor. "As, the Bees, the Cees, the Double-ues."--Peirce cor. "Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity."--Pope cor. "You have disguised yourselves like tipstaffs."--Gil Bias cor. "But who, that has any taste, can endure the incessant quick returns of the alsoes, and the likewises, and the moreovers, and the howevers, and the notwithstandings?"--Campbell cor.

  "Sometimes, in mutual sly disguise,
   Let ays seem noes, and noes seem ays."--Gay cor.


LESSON II.--CASES.

"For whose name's sake, I have been made willing."--Penn cor. "Be governed by your conscience, and never ask any body's leave to be honest."--Collier cor. "To overlook nobody's merit or misbehaviour."-- Id. "And Hector at last fights his way to the stern of Ajax's ship."--Coleridge cor. "Nothing is lazier, than to keep one's eye upon words without heeding their meaning."--Museum cor. "Sir William Jones's division of the day."--Id. "I need only refer here to Voss's excellent account of it."--Id. "The beginning of Stesichorus's palinode has been preserved."--Id. "Though we have Tibullus's elegies, there is not a word in them about Glyc~era."--Id. "That Horace was at Thaliarchus's country-house."--Id. "That Sisyphus's foot-tub should have been still in existence."--Id. "How everything went on in Horace's closet, and Mecenas's antechamber."--Id. "Who, for elegant brevity's sake, put a participle for a verb."--W. Walker cor. "The country's liberty being oppressed, we have no more to hope."--Id. "A brief but true account of this people's principles."--Barclay cor. "As, The Church's peace, or, The peace of the Church; Virgil's Æneid, or, The Æneid of Virgil."--Brit. Gram. cor. "As, Virgil's Æneid, for, The Æneid of Virgil; The Church's peace, for, The peace of the Church."--Buchanan cor. "Which, with Hubner's Compend, and Well's Geographia Classica, will be sufficient."--Burgh cor. "Witness Homer's speaking horses, scolding goddesses, and Jupiter enchanted with Venus's girdle."--Id. "Dr. Watts's Logic may with success be read to them and commented on."--Id. "Potter's Greek, and Kennet's Roman Antiquities, Strauchius's and Helvicus's Chronology."--Id. "SING. Alice's friends, Felix's property; PLUR. The Alices' friends, the Felixes' property."--Peirce cor. "Such as Bacchus's company--at Bacchus's festivals."--Ainsworih cor. "Burns's inimitable Tam o' Shanter turns entirely upon such a circumstance."--Scott cor. "Nominative, men; Genitive, [or Possessive,] men's; Objective, men."--Cutler cor. "Men's happiness or misery is mostly of their own making."--Locke cor. "That your son's clothes be never made strait, especially about the breast."--Id. "Children's minds are narrow and weak."--Id. "I would not have little children much tormented about punctilios, or niceties of breeding."--Id. "To fill his head with suitable ideas."--Id. "The Burgusdisciuses and the Scheiblers did not swarm in those days, as they do now."--Id. "To see the various ways of dressing--a calf's head!"--Shenstone cor.

  "He puts it on, and for decorum's sake
   Can wear it e'en as gracefully as she."--Cowper cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Simon the wizard was of this religion too"--Bunyan cor. "MAMMODIES, n. Coarse, plain, India muslins."--Webster cor. "Go on from single persons to families, that of the Pompeys for instance."--Collier cor. "By which the ancients were not able to account for phenomena."--Bailey cor. "After this I married a woman who had lived at Crete, but a Jewess by birth."--Josephus cor. "The very heathens are inexcusable for not worshiping him."--Todd cor. "Such poems as Camoens's Lusiad, Voltaire's Henrinde, &c."--Dr. Blair cor. "My learned correspondent writes a word in defence of large scarfs."--Sped. cor. "The forerunners of an apoplexy are dullness, vertigoes, tremblings."--Arbuthnot cor." Vertigo, [in Latin,] changes the o into ~in=es, making the plural vertig~in=es:" [not so, in English.]--Churchill cor. "Noctambulo, [in Latin,] changes the o into =on=es, making the plural noctambul=on=es:" [not so in English.]--Id. "What shall we say of noctambuloes? It is the regular English plural."--G. Brown. "In the curious fretwork of rocks and grottoes."--Blair cor. "Wharf makes the plural wharfs, according to the best usage."--G. Brown. "A few cents' worth of macaroni supplies all their wants."--Balbi cor. "C sounds hard, like k, at the end of a word or syllable."--Blair cor. "By which the virtuosoes try The magnitude of every lie."--Butler cor. "Quartoes, octavoes, shape the lessening pyre."--Pope cor. "Perching within square royal roofs"--Sidney cor. "Similes should, even in poetry, be used with moderation."--Dr. Blair cor. "Similes should never be taken from low or mean objects."--Id. "It were certainly better to say, The House of Lords,' than, The Lords' House.'"--Murray cor. "Read your answers. Units' figure? 'Five.' Tens? 'Six.' Hundreds? 'Seven.'"--Abbott cor. "Alexander conquered Darius's army."--Kirkham cor. "Three days' time was requisite, to prepare matters."--Dr. Brown cor. "So we say, that Cicero's style and Sallust's were not one; nor Cæsar's and Livy's; nor Homer's and Hesiod's; nor Herodotus's and Thucydides's; nor Euripides's and Aristophanes's; nor Erasmus's and Budæus's."--Puttenham cor. "LEX (i.e., legs, a law,) is no other than our ancestors' past participle loeg, laid down"--Tooke cor. "Achaia's sons at Ilium slain for the Atridoe's sake."--Cowper cor. "The corpses of her senate manure the fields of Thessaly."--Addison cor.

  "Poisoning, without regard of fame or fear;
   And spotted corpses load the frequent bier."--Dryden cor.


CHAPTER IV.--ADJECTIVES.

CORRECTIONS IN THE FORMS OF COMPARISON, &c.

LESSON I.--DEGREES.

"I have the real excuse of the most honest sort of bankrupts."--Cowley corrected. "The most honourable part of talk, is, to give the occasion."--Bacon cor. "To give him one of the most modest of his own proverbs."--Barclay cor. "Our language is now, certainly, more proper and more natural, than it was formerly."--Burnet cor. "Which will be of the greatest and most frequent use to him in the world."--Locke cor. "The same is notified in the most considerable places in the diocese."--Whitgift cor. "But it was the most dreadful sight that ever I saw."--Bunyan cor. "Four of the oldest, soberest, and discreetest of the brethren, chosen for the occasion, shall regulate it."--Locke cor. "Nor can there be any clear understanding of any Roman author, especially of more ancient time, without this skill."--W. Walker cor. "Far the most learned of the Greeks."--Id. "The more learned thou art, the humbler be thou."--Id. "He is none of the best, or most honest."--Id. "The most proper methods of communicating it to others."--Burn cor. "What heaven's great King hath mightiest to send against us."--Milton cor. "Benedict is not the most unhopeful husband that I know."--Shakspeare cor. "That he should immediately do all the meanest and most trifling things himself."--Ray cor. "I shall be named among the most renowned of women."--Milton cor. "Those have the most inventive heads for all purposes."--Ascham cor. "The more wretched are the contemners of all helps."--B. Johnson cor. "I will now deliver a few of the most proper and most natural considerations that belong to this piece."--Wotton cor. "The most mortal poisons practised by the West Indians, have some mixture of the blood, fat, or flesh of man."--Bacon cor. "He so won upon him, that he rendered him one of the most faithful and most affectionate allies the Medes ever had."--Rollin cor. "'You see before you,' says he to him, 'the most devoted servant, and the most faithful ally, you ever had.'"--Id. "I chose the most flourishing tree in all the park."--Cowley cor. "Which he placed, I think, some centuries earlier than did Julius Africanus afterwards."--Bolingbroke cor. "The Tiber, the most noted river of Italy."--Littleton cor.

  "To farthest shores th' ambrosial spirit flies."--Pope.
   ----"That what she wills to do or say,
   Seems wisest, worthiest, discreetest, best."--Milton cor.


LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"During the first three or four years of its existence."--Taylor cor. "To the first of these divisions, my last ten lectures have been devoted."--Adams cor. "There are, in the twenty-four states, not fewer than sixty thousand common schools."--J. O. Taylor cor. "I know of nothing which gives teachers more trouble, than this want of firmness."--Id. "I know of nothing else that throws such darkness over the line which separates right from wrong."--Id. "None need this purity and this simplicity of language and thought, more than does the instructor of a common school."--Id. "I know of no other periodical that is so valuable to the teacher, as the Annals of Education."--Id. "Are not these schools of the highest importance? Should not every individual feel a deep interest in their character and condition?"--Id. "If instruction were made a liberal profession, teachers would feel more sympathy for one an other."--Id. "Nothing is more interesting to children, than novelty, or change."--Id. "I know of no other labour which affords so much happiness as the teacher's."--Id. "Their school exercises are the most pleasant and agreeable duties, that they engage in."--Id. "I know of no exercise more beneficial to the pupil than that of drawing maps."--Id. "I know of nothing in which our district schools are more defective, than they are in the art of teaching grammar."--Id. "I know of no other branch of knowledge, so easily acquired as history."--Id. "I know of no other school exercise for which pupils usually have such an abhorrence, as for composition."--Id. "There is nothing belonging to our fellow-men, which we should respect more sacredly than their good name."--Id. "Surely, never any other creature was so unbred as that odious man."--Congreve cor. "In the dialogue between the mariner and the shade of the deceased."--Phil. Museum cor. "These master-works would still be less excellent and finished."--Id. "Every attempt to staylace the language of polished conversation, renders our phraseology inelegant and clumsy."--Id. "Here are a few of the most unpleasant words that ever blotted paper."--Shakespeare cor. "With the most easy and obliging transitions."--Broome cor. "Fear is, of all affections, the least apt to admit any conference with reason."--Hooker cor. "Most chymists think glass a body less destructible than gold itself."--Boyle cor. "To part with unhacked edges, and bear back our barge undinted."--Shak. cor. "Erasmus, who was an unbigoted Roman Catholic, was transported with this passage."--Addison cor. "There are no fewer than five words, with any of which the sentence might have terminated."--Campbell cor. "The ones preach Christ of contention; but the others, of love." Or, "The one party preach," &c.--Bible cor. "Hence we find less discontent and fewer heart-burnings, than where the subjects are unequally burdened."--H. Home, Ld. Kames, cor.

  "The serpent, subtlest beast of all the field."
       --Milton, P. L., B. ix, l. 86.
   "Thee, Serpent, subtlest beast of all the field,
   I knew, but not with human voice indued."
       --Id., P. L., B. ix, l. 560.
   "How much more grievous would our lives appear.
   To reach th' eight-hundredth, than the eightieth year!"
       --Denham cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Brutus engaged with Aruns; and so fierce was the attack, that they pierced each other at the same time."--Lempriere cor. "Her two brothers were, one after the other, turned into stone."--Kames cor. "Nouns are often used as adjectives; as, A gold ring, a silver cup."--Lennie cor. "Fire and water destroy each other"--Wanostrocht cor. "Two negatives, in English, destroy each other, or are equivalent to an affirmative."--Lowth, Murray, et al. cor. "Two negatives destroy each other, and are generally equivalent to an affirmative."--Kirkham and Felton cor. "Two negatives destroy each other, and make an affirmative."--Flint cor. "Two negatives destroy each other, being equivalent to an affirmative."--Frost cor. "Two objects, resembling each other, are presented to the imagination."--Parker cor. "Mankind, in order to hold converse with one an other, found it necessary to give names to objects."--Kirkham cor. "Derivative words are formed from their primitives in various ways."--Cooper cor. "There are many different ways of deriving words one from an other."--Murray cor. "When several verbs have a joint construction in a sentence, the auxiliary is usually expressed with the first only."--Frost cor. "Two or more verbs, having the same nominative case, and coming in immediate succession, are also separated by the comma."--Murray et al. cor. "Two or more adverbs, coming in immediate succession, must be separated by the comma."--Iidem. "If, however, the two members are very closely connected, the comma is unnecessary."--Iidem. "Gratitude, when exerted towards others, naturally produces a very pleasing sensation in the mind of a generous man."--L. Murray cor. "Several verbs in the infinitive mood, coming in succession, and having a common dependence, are also divided by commas."--Comly cor. "The several words of which it consists, have so near a relation one to an other."--Murray et al. cor. "When two or more verbs, or two or more adverbs,[528] occur in immediate succession, and have a common dependence, they must be separated by the comma."--Comly cor. "One noun frequently follows an other, both meaning the same thing."--Sanborn cor. "And these two tenses may thus answer each other."--R. Johnson cor. "Or some other relation which two objects bear to each other."--Jamieson cor. "That the heathens tolerated one an other is allowed."--A. Fuller cor. "And yet these two persons love each other tenderly."--E. Reader cor. "In the six hundred and first year."--Bible cor. "Nor is this arguing of his, any thing but a reiterated clamour."--Barclay cor. "In several of them the inward life of Christianity is to be found."--Ib. "Though Alvarez, Despauter, and others, do not allow it to be plural."--R. Johnson cor. "Even the most dissipated and shameless blushed at the sight."--Lempriere cor. "We feel a higher satisfaction in surveying the life of animals, than [in contemplating] that of vegetables."-- Jamieson cor. "But this man is so full-fraught with malice."--Barclay cor. "That I suggest some things concerning the most proper means."--Dr. Blair cor.

  "So, hand in hand, they passed, the loveliest pair
   That ever yet in love's embraces met."--Milton cor.
   "Aim at supremacy; without such height,
   Will be for thee no sitting, or not long."--Id. cor.


CHAPTER V.--PRONOUNS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE FORMS AND USES OF PRONOUNS.

LESSON I.--RELATIVES.

"While we attend to this pause, every appearance of singsong must be carefully avoided."--Murray cor. "For thou shalt go to all to whom I shall send thee."--Bible cor. "Ah! how happy would it have been for me, had I spent in retirement these twenty-three years during which I have possessed my kingdom."--Sanborn cor. "In the same manner in which relative pronouns and their antecedents are usually parsed."--Id. "Parse or explain all the other nouns contained in the examples, after the very manner of the word which is parsed for you."--Id. "The passive verb will always have the person and number that belong to the verb be, of which it is in part composed."--Id. "You have been taught that a verb must always agree in person and number with it subject or nominative."--Id. "A relative pronoun, also, must always agree in person, in number, and even in gender, with its antecedent."--Id. "The answer always agrees in case with the pronoun which asks the question."--Id. "One sometimes represents an antecedent noun, in the definite manner of a personal pronoun." [529]--Id. "The mind, being carried forward to the time at which the event is to happen, easily conceives it to be present." "SAVE and SAVING are [seldom to be] parsed in the manner in which EXCEPT and EXCEPTING are [commonly explained]."--Id. "Adverbs qualify verbs, or modify their meaning, as adjectives qualify nouns [and describe things.]"--Id. "The third person singular of verbs, terminates in s or es, like the plural number of nouns."--Id. "He saith further: that, 'The apostles did not baptize anew such persons as had been baptized with the baptism of John.'"--Barclay cor. "For we who live,"--or, "For we that are alive, are always delivered unto death for Jesus' sake."--Bible cor. "For they who believe in God, must be careful to maintain good works."--Barclay cor. "Nor yet of those who teach things that they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake."--Id. "So as to hold such bound in heaven as they bind on earth, and such loosed in heaven as they loose on earth."--Id. "Now, if it be an evil, to do any thing out of strife; then such things as are seen so to be done, are they not to be avoided and forsaken?"--Id. "All such as do not satisfy themselves with the superfices of religion."--Id. "And he is the same in substance, that he was upon earth,--the same in spirit, soul, and body."--Id. "And those that do not thus, are such, as the Church of Rome can have no charity for." Or: "And those that do not thus, are persons toward whom the Church of Rome can have no charity."--Id. "Before his book, he places a great list of what he accounts the blasphemous assertions of the Quakers."--Id. "And this is what he should have proved."--Id. "Three of whom were at that time actual students of philosophy in the university."--Id. "Therefore it is not lawful for any whomsoever * * * to force the consciences of others."--Id. "Why were the former days better than these?"--Bible cor. "In the same manner in which"--or, better, "Just as--the term my depends on the name books."--Peirce cor. "Just as the term HOUSE depends on the [preposition to, understood after the adjective] NEAR."--Id. "James died on the day on which Henry returned."--Id.


LESSON II.--DECLENSIONS.

"OTHER makes the plural OTHERS, when it is found without its substantive."--Priestley cor. "But his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, have evidently the form of the possessive case."--Lowth cor. "To the Saxon possessive cases, hire, ure, eower, hira, (that is, hers, ours, yours, theirs,) we have added the s, the characteristic of the possessive case of nouns."--Id. "Upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours."--Friends cor. "In this place, His is clearly preferable either to Her or to Its."--Harris cor. "That roguish leer of yours makes a pretty woman's heart ache."--Addison cor. "Lest by any means this liberty of yours become a stumbling-block."--Bible cor. "First person: Sing. I, my or mine, me; Plur. we, our or ours, us."--Wilbur and Livingston cor. "Second person: Sing, thou, thy or thine, thee; Plur. ye or you, your or yours, you."--Iid. "Third person: Sing, she, her or hers, her; Plur. they, their or theirs, them."--Iid. "So shall ye serve strangers in a land that is not yours."--ALGER, BRUCE, ET AL.; Jer., v, 19. "Second person, Singular: Nom. thou, Poss. thy or thine, Obj. thee."--Frost cor. "Second person, Dual; Nom. Gyt, ye two; Gen. Incer, of you two; Dat. Inc, incrum, to you two; Acc. Inc, you two; Voc. Eala inc, O ye two; Abl. Inc, incrum, from you two."--Gwilt cor. "Second person, Plural: Nom. Ge, ye; Gen. Eower, of you; Dat. Eow, to you; Acc. Eow, you; Voc Eala ge, O ye; Abl. Eow, from you."--Id. "These words are, mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, and whose."--Cardell cor. "This house is ours, and that is yours. Theirs is very commodious."--Murray's Gram., p. 55. "And they shall eat up thy harvest, and thy bread; they shall eat up thy flocks and thy herds."--Bible cor. "Whoever and Whichever are thus declined: Sing. Nom. whoever, Poss. whosever, Obj. whomever; Plur. Nom. whoever, Poss. whosever, Obj. whomever. Sing. Nom. whichever, Poss. (wanting,) Obj. whichever; Plur. Nom. whichever, Poss. (wanting,) Obj. whichever."--Cooper cor. "The compound personal pronouns are thus declined: Sing. Nom. myself, Poss. (wanting,) Obj. myself; Plur. Nom. ourselves, Poss. (wanting,) Obj. ourselves. Sing. Nom. thyself or yourself, Poss. (wanting,) Obj. thyself, &c."--Perley cor. "Every one of us, each for himself, laboured to recover him."--Sidney cor. "Unless when ideas of their opposites manifestly suggest themselves."--Wright cor. "It not only exists in time, but is itself time." "A position which the action itself will palpably confute."--Id. "A difficulty sometimes presents itself."--Id. "They are sometimes explanations in themselves."--Id. "Ours, Yours, Theirs, Hers, Its."--Barrett cor.

  "Theirs, the wild chase of false felicities;
   His, the composed possession of the true."
       --Young, N. Th., N. viii, l. 1100.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"It is the boast of Americans, without distinction of parties, that their government is the most free and perfect that exists on the earth."--Dr. Allen cor. "Children that are dutiful to their parents, enjoy great prosperity."--Sanborn cor. "The scholar that improves his time, sets an example worthy of imitation."--Id. "Nouns and pronouns that signify the same person, place, or thing, agree in case."--Cooper cor. "An interrogative sentence is one that asks a question."--Id. "In the use of words and phrases that in point of time relate to each other, the order of time should be duly regarded."--Id. "The same observations that show the effect of the article upon the participle, appear to be applicable [also] to the pronoun and participle."--Murray cor. "The reason why they have not the same use of them in reading, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous method in which the art of reading is taught."--Id. "Ever since reason began to exert her powers, thought, during our waking hours, has been active in every breast, without a moment's suspension or pause."--Id. et al. cor. "In speaking of such as greatly delight in the same."--Pope cor. "Except him to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live."--Bible cor. "But the same day on which Lot went out of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all."--Bible cor. "In the next place, I will explain several constructions of nouns and pronouns, that have not yet come under our notice."--Kirkham cor. "Three natural distinctions of time are all that can exist."--Hall cor. "We have exhibited such only as are obviously distinct; and these seem to be sufficient, and not more than sufficient."--Murray et al. cor. "The parenthesis encloses a phrase or clause that may be omitted without materially injuring the connexion of the other members."--Hall cor. "Consonants are letters that cannot be sounded without the aid of a vowel."--Bucke cor. "Words are not mere sounds, but sounds that convey a meaning to the mind."--Id. "Nature's postures are always easy; and, what is more, nothing but your own will can put you out of them."--Collier cor. "Therefore ought we to examine our own selves, and prove our own selves."--Barclay cor. "Certainly, it had been much more natural, to have divided Active verbs into Immanent, or those whose action is terminated within itself, and Transient, or those whose action is terminated in something without itself."--R. Johnson cor. "This is such an advantage as no other lexicon will afford."--Dr. Taylor cor. "For these reasons, such liberties are taken in the Hebrew tongue, with those words which are of the most general and frequent use."--Pike cor. "While we object to the laws which the antiquarian in language would impose on us, we must also enter our protest against those authors who are too fond of innovations."--L. Murray cor.


CHAPTER VI.--VERBS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE FORMS OF VERBS.

LESSON I.--PRETERITS.

"In speaking on a matter which touched their hearts."--Phil. Museum cor. "Though Horace published it some time after."--Id. "The best subjects with which the Greek models furnished him."--Id. "Since he attached no thought to it."--Id. "By what slow steps the Greek alphabet reached its perfection."--Id. "Because Goethe wished to erect an affectionate memorial."--Id. "But the Saxon forms soon dropped away."--Id. "It speaks of all the towns that perished in the age of Philip."--Id. "This enriched the written language with new words."--Id. "He merely furnished his friend with matter for laughter."--Id. "A cloud arose, and stopped the light."--Swift cor. "She slipped spadillo in her breast."--Id. "I guessed the hand."--Id. "The tyrant stripped me to the skin; My skin he flayed, my hair he cropped; At head and foot my body lopped."--Id. "I see the greatest owls in you, That ever screeched or ever flew."--Id. "I sat with delight, From morning till night."--Id. "Dick nimbly skipped the gutter."--Id. "In at the pantry door this morn I slipped."--Id." Nobody living ever touched me, but you."--W. Walker cor. "Present, I ship; Preterit, I shipped; Perf. Participle, shipped."--A. Murray cor. "Then the king arose, and tore his garments."--Bible cor. "When he lifted up his foot, he knew not where he should set it next."--Bunyan cor. "He lifted up his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time."--Bible cor. "Upon this chaos rode the distressed ark."--Burnet cor. "On whose foolish honesty, my practices rode easy."--Shakspeare cor. "That form of the first or primogenial Earth, which rose immediately out of chaos."--Burnet cor. "Sir, how came it, you have helped to make this rescue?"--Shak. cor. "He swore he would rather lose all his father's images, than that table."--Peacham cor. "When our language dropped its ancient terminations."--Dr. Murray cor. "When themselves they vilified."--Milton cor. "But I chose rather to do thus."--Barclay cor. "When he pleaded (or pled) against the parsons."--Hist. cor. "And he that saw it, bore record." Or: "And he that saw it, bare record."--John, xix, 35. "An irregular verb has one more variation; as, drive, drivest, [driveth,] drives, drove, drovest, driving, driven."--Matt. Harrison cor. "Beside that village, Hannibal pitched his camp."--W. Walker cor. "He fetched it from Tmolus."--Id. "He supped with his morning-gown on."--Id. "There stamped her sacred name."--Barlow cor.

  "Fix'd[530] on the view the great discoverer stood;
   And thus address'd the messenger of good."--Barlow cor.


LESSON II.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"Three freemen were on trial"--or, "were receiving their trial--at the date of our last information."--Editor cor. "While the house was building, many of the tribe arrived."--Cox cor. "But a foundation has been laid in Zion, and the church is built--(or, continues to be built--) upon it."--The Friend cor. "And one fourth of the people are receiving education."--E. I. Mag. cor. "The present [tense,] or that [form of the verb] which [expresses what] is now doing."--Beck cor. "A new church, called the Pantheon, is about being completed, in an expensive style."--Thompson cor. "When I last saw him, he had grown considerably."--Murray cor. "I know what a rugged and dangerous path I have got into."--Duncan cor. "You might as well preach ease to one on the rack."--Locke cor. "Thou hast heard me, and hast become my salvation."--Bible cor. "While the Elementary Spelling-Book was preparing (or, was in progress of preparation) for the press."--Cobb cor. "Language has become, in modern times, more correct."--Jamieson cor. "If the plan has been executed in any measure answerable to the author's wishes."--Robbins cor. "The vial of wrath is still pouring out on the seat of the beast."--Christian Ex. cor. "Christianity had become the generally-adopted and established religion of the whole Roman Empire."--Gurney cor. "Who wrote before the first century had elapsed."--Id. "The original and analogical form has grown quite obsolete."--Lowth cor. "Their love, and their hatred, and their envy, have perished."--Murray cor. "The poems had got abroad, and were in a great many hands."--Waller cor. "It is more harmonious, as well as more correct, to say, 'The bubble is ready to burst.'"--Cobbett cor. "I drove my suitor from his mad humour of love."--Shak. cor. "Se viriliter expedivit."--Cic. "He has played the man."--Walker cor. "Wilt thou kill me, as thou didst the Egyptian yesterday?"--Bible cor. "And we, methought, [or thought I] looked up to him from our hill"--Cowley cor. "I fear thou dost not think so much of the best things as thou ought."--Memoir cor. "When this work was commenced."--Wright cor. "Exercises and a Key to this work are about being prepared."--Id. "James is loved by John."--Id. "Or that which is exhibited."--Id. "He was smitten."--Id. "In the passive voice we say, 'I am loved.'"--Id. "Subjunctive Mood: If I be smitten, If thou be smitten, If he be smitten."--Id. "I shall not be able to convince you how superficial the reformation is."--Chalmers cor. "I said to myself, I shall be obliged to expose the folly."--Chazotte cor. "When Clodius, had he meant to return that day to Rome, must have arrived."--J. Q. Adams cor. "That the fact has been done, is doing, or will be done."--Peirce cor. "Am I to be instructed?"--Wright cor. "I choose him."--Id. "John, who respected his father, was obedient to his commands."--Barrett cor.

  "The region echoes to the clash of arms."--Beattie cor.
   "And sitst on high, and mak'st creation's top
   Thy footstool; and beholdst below thee--all."--Pollok cor.
   "And see if thou canst punish sin and let
   Mankind go free. Thou failst--be not surprised."--Idem.


LESSON III--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"What follows, might better have been wanting altogether."--Dr. Blair cor. "This member of the sentence might much better have been omitted altogether."--Id. "One or the other of them, therefore, might better have been omitted."--Id. "The whole of this last member of the sentence might better have been dropped."--Id. "In this case, they might much better be omitted."--Id. "He might better have said 'the productions.'"--Id. "The Greeks ascribed the origin of poetry to Orpheus, Linus, and Musæus."--Id. "It was noticed long ago, that all these fictitious names have the same number of syllables."--Phil. Museum cor. "When I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, I determined to send him."--Bible cor. "I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God."--Id. "As for such, I wish the Lord would open their eyes." Or, better: "May the Lord open (or, I pray the Lord to open) their eyes."--Barclay cor. "It would have made our passage over the river very difficult."--Walley cor. "We should not have been able to carry our great guns."--Id. "Others would have questioned our prudence, if we had."--Id. "Beware thou be not BECÆSARED; i.e., Beware that thou do not dwindle--or, lest thou dwindle--into a mere Cæsar."--Harris cor. "Thou raisedst (or, familiarly, thou raised) thy voice to record the stratagems of needy heroes."--Arbuthnot cor. "Life hurries off apace; thine is almost gone already."--Collier cor. "'How unfortunate has this accident made me!' cries such a one."--Id. "The muse that soft and sickly woos the ear."--Pollok cor. "A man might better relate himself to a statue."--Bacon cor. "I heard thee say but now, thou liked not that."--Shak. cor. "In my whole course of wooing, thou criedst, (or, familiarly, thou cried,) Indeed!"--Id. "But our ears have grown familiar with I have wrote, I have drank,' &c., which are altogether as ungrammatical."--Lowth et al. cor. "The court was in session before Sir Roger came"--Addison cor. "She needs--(or, if you please, need,--) be no more with the jaundice possessed"--Swift cor. "Besides, you found fault with our victuals one day when you were here."--Id. "If spirit of other sort, So minded, hath (or has) o'erleaped these earthy bounds."--Milton cor. "It would have been more rational to have forborne this."--Barclay cor. "A student is not master of it till he has seen all these."--Dr. Murray cor. "The said justice shall summon the party."--Brevard cor. "Now what has become of thy former wit and humour?"--Spect. cor. "Young stranger, whither wanderst thou?"--Burns cor. "SUBJ. Pres. If I love, If thou love, If he love. Imp. If I loved, If thou loved, If he loved."--Merchant cor. "SUBJ. If I do not love, If thou do not love, If he do not love."--Id. "If he has committed sins, they shall be forgiven him."--Bible cor. "Subjunctive Mood of the verb to call, second person singular: If thou call, (rarely, If thou do call,) If thou called."--Hiley cor. "Subjunctive Mood of the verb to love, second person singular: If thou love, (rarely, If thou do love,) If thou loved."--Bullions cor. "I was; thou wast; he, she, or it, was: We, you or ye, they, were."--White cor. "I taught, thou taughtest, (familiarly, thou taught,) he taught."-- Coar cor. "We say, If it rain,' 'Suppose it rain?' 'Lest it rain,' 'Unless it rain. This manner of speaking is called the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD."--Weld cor. "He has arrived at what is deemed the age of manhood."--Priestley cor. "He might much better have let it alone."--Tooke cor. "He were better without it. Or: He would be better without it."--Locke cor. "Hadst thou not been by. Or: If thou hadst not been by. Or, in the familiar style: Had not thou been by,"--Shak. cor. "I learned geography. Thou learned arithmetic. He learned grammar."--Fuller cor. "Till the sound has ceased."--Sheridan cor. "Present, die; Preterit, died; Perf. Participle, died."--Six English Grammars corrected.

  "Thou bow'dst thy glorious head to none, fear'dst none." Or:--
   "Thou bowed thy glorious head to none, feared none."
       --Pollok cor.
   "Thou lookst upon thy boy as though thou guess'd it."
       --Knowles cor.
   "As once thou slept, while she to life was formed."
       --Milton cor.
   "Who finds the partridge in the puttock's nest,
   But may imagine how the bird was killed?"
       --Shak. cor.
   "Which might have well become the best of men."
       --Idem cor.


CHAPTER VII.--PARTICIPLES.

CORRECTIONS IN THE FORMS OF PARTICIPLES.

LESSON I.--IRREGULARS.

"Many of your readers have mistaken that passage."--Steele cor. "Had not my dog of a steward run away."--Addison cor. "None should be admitted, except he had broken his collarbone thrice."--Id. "We could not know what was written at twenty."--Waller cor. "I have written, thou hast written, he has written; we have written, you have written, they have written."--Ash cor. "As if God had spoken his last words there to his people."--Barclay cor. "I had like to have come in that ship myself."--Observer cor. "Our ships and vessels being driven out of the harbour by a storm."--Hutchinson cor. "He will endeavour to write as the ancient author would have written, had he written in the same language."--Bolingbroke cor. "When his doctrines grew too strong to be shaken by his enemies."--Atterbury cor. "The immortal mind that hath forsaken her mansion."--Milton cor. "Grease that's sweated (or sweat) from the murderer's gibbet, throw into the flame."--Shak. cor. "The court also was chidden (or chid) for allowing such questions to be put."--Stone cor. "He would have spoken."--Milton cor. "Words interwoven (or interweaved) with sighs found out their way."--Id. "Those kings and potentates who have strived (or striven.)"--Id. "That even Silence was taken."--Id. "And envious Darkness, ere they could return, had stolen them from me."--Id. "I have chosen this perfect man."--Id. "I shall scarcely think you have swum in a gondola."--Shak. cor. "The fragrant brier was woven (or weaved) between."--Dryden cor. "Then finish what you have begun."--Id. "But now the years a numerous train have run."--Pope cor. "Repeats your verses written (or writ) on glasses."--Prior cor. "Who by turns have risen."--Id. "Which from great authors I have taken."--Id. "Even there he should have fallen."--Id.

  "The sun has ris'n, and gone to bed.
   Just as if Partridge were not dead."--Swift cor.
   "And, though no marriage words are spoken,
   They part not till the ring is broken."--Swift cor.


LESSON II.--REGULARS.

"When the word is stripped of all the terminations."--Dr. Murray cor. "Forgive him, Tom; his head is cracked."--Swift cor. "For 'tis the sport, to have the engineer hoised (or hoisted) with his own petar."--Shak. cor. "As great as they are, I was nursed by their mother."--Swift cor. "If he should now be cried down since his change."--Id. "Dipped over head and ears--in debt."--Id. "We see the nation's credit cracked."--Id. "Because they find their pockets picked."--Id. "O what a pleasure mixed with pain!"--Id. "And only with her brother linked."--Id. "Because he ne'er a thought allowed, That might not be confessed."--Id. "My love to Sheelah is more firmly fixed."--Id. "The observations annexed to them will be intelligible."--Phil. Mus. cor. "Those eyes are always fixed on the general principles."--Id. "Laborious conjectures will be banished from our commentaries."--Id. "Tiridates was dethroned, and Phraates was reestablished, in his stead."--Id. "A Roman who was attached to Augustus."--Id. "Nor should I have spoken of it, unless Baxter had talked about two such."--Id. "And the reformers of language have generally rushed on."--Id. "Three centuries and a half had then elapsed since the date,"--Ib. "Of such criteria, as has been remarked already, there is an abundance."--Id. "The English have surpassed every other nation in their services."--Id. "The party addressed is next in dignity to the speaker."--Harris cor. "To which we are many times helped."--W. Walker cor. "But for him, I should have looked well enough to myself."--Id. "Why are you vexed, Lady? why do frown?"--Milton cor. "Obtruding false rules pranked in reason's garb."--Id. "But, like David equipped in Saul's armour, it is encumbered and oppressed."--Campbell cor.

  "And when their merchants are blown up, and cracked,
   Whole towns are cast away in storms, and wrecked."--Butler cor.


LESSON III.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"The lands are held in free and common soccage."--Trumbull cor. "A stroke is drawn under such words."--Cobbett's Gr., 1st Ed. "It is struck even, with a strickle."--W. Walker cor. "Whilst I was wandering, without any care, beyond my bounds."--Id. "When one would do something, unless hindered by something present."--B. Johnson cor. "It is used potentially, but not so as to be rendered by these signs."--Id. "Now who would dote upon things hurried down the stream thus fast?"--Collier cor. "Heaven hath timely tried their growth."--Milton cor. "O! ye mistook, ye should have snatched his wand."--Id. "Of true virgin here distressed."--Id. "So that they have at last come to be substituted in the stead of it."--Barclay cor. "Though ye have lain among the pots."--Bible cor. "And, lo! in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off."--Scott's Bible, and Alger's. "Brutus and Cassius Have ridden, (or rode,) like madmen, through the gates of Rome."--Shak. cor. "He shall be spit upon."--Bible cor. "And are not the countries so overflowed still situated between the tropics?"--Bentley. "Not tricked and frounced as she was wont, But kerchiefed in a comely cloud."--Milton cor. "To satisfy his rigour, Satisfied never."--Id. "With him there crucified."--Id. "Th' earth cumbered, and the wing'd air darked with plumes."--Id. "And now their way to Earth they had descried."--Id. "Not so thick swarmed once the soil Bedropped with blood of Gorgon."--Id. "And in a troubled sea of passion tossed."--Id. "The cause, alas! is quickly guessed."--Swift cor. "The kettle to the top was hoised, or hoisted."--Id. "In chains thy syllables are linked."--Id. "Rather than thus be overtopped, Would you not wish their laurels cropped."--Id. "The HYPHEN, or CONJOINER, is a little line drawn to connect words, or parts of words."--Cobbett cor. "In the other manners of dependence, this general rule is sometimes broken."--R. Johnson cor. "Some intransitive verbs may be rendered transitive by means of a preposition prefixed to them."--Grant cor. "Whoever now should place the accent on the first syllable of Valerius, would set every body a laughing."--J. Walker cor. "Being mocked, scourged, spit upon, and crucified."--Gurney cor.

  "For rhyme in Greece or Rome was never known,
   Till barb'rous hordes those states had overthrown."--Roscommon cor.
   "In my own Thames may I be drowned,
   If e'er I stoop beneath the crowned." Or thus:--
   "In my own Thames may I be drown'd dead,
   If e'er I stoop beneath a crown'd head."--Swift cor.


CHAPTER VIII.--ADVERBS.

CORRECTIONS RESPECTING THE FORMS OF ADVERBS.

"We can much more easily form the conception of a fierce combat."--Blair corrected. "When he was restored agreeably to the treaty, he was a perfect savage."--Webster cor. "How I shall acquit myself suitably to the importance of the trial."--Duncan cor. "Can any thing show your Holiness how unworthily you treat mankind?"--Spect. cor. "In what other, consistently with reason and common sense, can you go about to explain it to him?"--Lowth cor. "Agreeably to this rule, the short vowel Sheva has two characters."--Wilson cor. "We shall give a remarkably fine example of this figure."--See Blair's Rhet., p. 156. "All of which is most abominably false."--Barclay cor. "He heaped up great riches, but passed his time miserably."--Murray cor. "He is never satisfied with expressing any thing clearly and simply."--Dr. Blair cor. "Attentive only to exhibit his ideas clearly and exactly, he appears dry."--Id. "Such words as have the most liquids and vowels, glide the most softly." Or: "Where liquids and vowels most abound, the utterance is softest."--Id. "The simplest points, such as are most easily apprehended."--Id. "Too historical to be accounted a perfectly regular epic poem."--Id. "Putting after them the oblique case, agreeably to the French construction."--Priestley cor. "Where the train proceeds with an extremely slow pace."--Kames cor. "So as scarcely to give an appearance of succession."--Id. "That concord between sound and sense, which is perceived in some expressions, independently of artful pronunciation."--Id. "Cornaro had become very corpulent, previously to the adoption of his temperate habits."--Hitchcock cor. "Bread, which is a solid, and tolerably hard, substance."--Day cor. "To command every body that was not dressed as finely as himself."--Id. "Many of them have scarcely outlived their authors."--J. Ward cor. "Their labour, indeed, did not penetrate very deeply."--Wilson cor. "The people are miserably poor, and subsist on fish."--Hume cor. "A scale, which I took great pains, some years ago, to make."--Bucke cor. "There is no truth on earth better established than the truth of the Bible."--Taylor cor. "I know of no work more wanted than the one which Mr. Taylor has now furnished."--Dr. Nott cor. "And therefore their requests are unfrequent and reasonable."--Taylor cor. "Questions are more easily proposed, than answered rightly."--Dillwyn cor. "Often reflect on the advantages you possess, and on the source from which they are all derived."--Murray cor. "If there be no special rule which requires it to be put further forward."--Milnes cor. "The masculine and the neuter have the same dialect in all the numbers, especially when they end alike."--Id.

  "And children are more busy in their play
   Than those that wiseliest pass their time away."--Butler cor.


CHAPTER IX.--CONJUNCTIONS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS.

"A Verb is so called from the Latin verbum, a word."--Bucke cor. "References are often marked by letters or figures."--Adam and Gould cor. (1.) "A Conjunction is a word which joins words or sentences together."--Lennie, Bullions and Brace, cor. (2.) "A Conjunction is used to connect words or sentences together."--R. C. Smith cor. (3.) "A Conjunction is used to connect words or sentences."--Maunder cor. (4.) "Conjunctions are words used to join words or sentences."--Wilcox cor. (5.) "A Conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences."--M'Culloch, Hart, and Day, cor. (6.) "A Conjunction joins words or sentences together."--Macintosh and Hiley cor. (7.) "The Conjunction joins words or sentences together."--L. Murray cor. (8.) "Conjunctions connect words or sentences to each other."--Wright cor. (9.) "Conjunctions connect words or sentences."--Wells and Wilcox cor. (10.) "The conjunction is a part of speech, used to connect words or sentences."--Weld cor. (11.) "A conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences together."--Fowler cor. (12.) "Connectives are particles that unite words or sentences in construction."--Webster cor. "English Grammar is miserably taught in our district schools; the teachers know little or nothing about it."--J. O. Taylor cor. "Lest, instead of preventing diseases, you draw them on."--Locke cor. "The definite article the is frequently applied to adverbs in the comparative or the superlative degree."--Murray et al. cor. "When nouns naturally neuter are assumed to be masculine or feminine."--Murray cor. "This form of the perfect tense represents an action as completely past, though often as done at no great distance of time, or at a time not specified."--Id. "The Copulative Conjunction serves to connect words or clauses, so as to continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, or a consequence."--Id. "The Disjunctive Conjunction serves, not only to continue a sentence by connecting its parts, but also to express opposition of meaning, either real or nominal."--Id. "If we open the volumes of our divines, philosophers, historians, or artists, we shall find that they abound with all the terms necessary to communicate the observations and discoveries of their authors."--Id. "When a disjunctive conjunction occurs between a singular noun or pronoun and a plural one, the verb is made to agree with the plural noun or pronoun."--Murray et al. cor. "Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents, or the nouns for which they stand, in gender and number."--Murray cor. "Neuter verbs do not express action, and consequently do not govern nouns or pronouns."--Id. "And the auxiliary of the past imperfect as well as of the present tense."--Id. "If this rule should not appear to apply to every example that has been produced, or to others which might be cited."--Id. "An emphatical pause is made, after something of peculiar moment has been said, on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention."--Murray and Hart cor. "An imperfect[531] phrase contains no assertion, and does not amount to a proposition, or sentence."--Murray cor. "The word was in the mouth of every one, yet its meaning may still be a secret."--Id. "This word was in the mouth of every one, and yet, as to its precise and definite idea, this may still be a secret,"--Harris cor. "It cannot be otherwise, because the French prosody differs from that of every other European language."--Smollet cor. "So gradually that it may be engrafted on a subtonic."--Rush cor. "Where the Chelsea and Malden bridges now are." Or better: "Where the Chelsea or the Malden bridge now is."--Judge Parker cor. "Adverbs are words added to verbs, to participles, to adjectives, or to other adverbs."--R. C. Smith cor. "I could not have told you who the hermit was, or on what mountain he lived."--Bucke cor. "AM and BE (for they are the same verb) naturally, or in themselves, signify being."--Brightland cor. "Words are signs, either oral or written, by which we express our thoughts, or ideas."--Mrs. Bethune cor. "His fears will detect him, that he shall not escape."--Comly cor. "Whose is equally applicable to persons and to things"--Webster cor. "One negative destroys an other, so that two are equivalent to an affirmative."--Bullions cor.

  "No sooner does he peep into the world,
   Than he has done his do."--Hudibras cor.


CHAPTER X.--PREPOSITIONS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS.

"Nouns are often formed from participles."--L. Murray corrected. "What tenses are formed from the perfect participle?"--Ingersoll cor. "Which tense is formed from the present, or root of the verb?"--Id. "When a noun or a pronoun is placed before a participle, independently of the rest of the sentence."--Churchill's Gram., p. 348. "If the addition consists of two or more words."--Mur. et al. cor. "The infinitive mood is often made absolute, or used independently of the rest of the sentence."--Lowth's Gram., 80; Churchill's, 143; Bucke's, 96; Merchant's, 92. "For the great satisfaction of the reader, we shall present a variety of false constructions."--Murray cor. "For your satisfaction, I shall present you a variety of false constructions."-- Ingersoll cor. "I shall here present [to] you a scale of derivation."-- Bucke cor. "These two manners of representation in respect to number."--Lowth and Churchill cor. "There are certain adjectives which seem to be derived from verbs, without any variation."--Lowth cor. "Or disqualify us for receiving instruction or reproof from others."--Murray cor. "For being more studious than any other pupil in the school."-- Id. "Misunderstanding the directions, we lost our way."--Id. "These people reduced the greater part of the island under their own power."-- Id. "The principal accent distinguishes one syllable of a word from the rest."--Id. "Just numbers are in unison with the human mind."--Id. "We must accept of sound in stead of sense."--Id. "Also, in stead of consultation, he uses consult."--Priestley cor. "This ablative seems to be governed by a preposition understood."--W. Walker cor. "Lest my father hear of it, by some means or other."--Id. "And, besides, my wife would hear of it by some means."--Id. "For insisting on a requisition so odious to them."--Robertson cor. "Based on the great self-evident truths of liberty and equality."--Manual cor. "Very little knowledge of their nature is acquired from the spelling-book."--Murray cor. "They do not cut it off: except from a few words; as, due, duly, &c."--Id. "Whether passing at such time, or then finished."--Lowth cor. "It hath disgusted hundreds with that confession."--Barclay cor. "But they have egregiously fallen into that inconveniency."--Id. "For is not this, to set nature at work?"--Id. "And, surely, that which should set all its springs at work, is God."--Atterbury cor. "He could not end his treatise without a panegyrie on modern learning."--Temple cor. "These are entirely independent of the modulation of the voice."--J. Walker cor. "It is dear at a penny. It is cheap at twenty pounds."--W. Walker cor. "It will be despatched, on most occasions, without resting."--Locke cor. "Oh the pain, the bliss of dying!"--Pope. "When the objects or the facts are presented to him."--R. C. Smith cor. "I will now present you a synopsis."--Id. "The disjunctive conjunction connects words or sentences, and suggests an opposition of meaning, more or less direct."--Id. "I shall now present to you a few lines."--Bucke cor. "Common names, or substantives, are those which stand for things assorted."--Id. "Adjectives, in the English language, are not varied by genders, numbers, or cases; their only inflection is for the degrees of comparison."--Id. "Participles are [little more than] adjectives formed from verbs."--Id. "I do love to walk out on a fine summer evening."--Id. "Ellipsis, when applied to grammar, is the elegant omission of one or more words of a sentence."--Merchant cor. "The preposition to is generally required before verbs in the infinitive mood, but after the following verbs it is properly omitted; namely, bid, dare, feel, need, let, make, hear, see: as, 'He bid me do it;' not, 'He bid me to do it.'"--Id. "The infinitive sometimes follows than, for the latter term of a comparison; as, ['Murray should have known better than to write, and Merchant, better than to copy, the text here corrected, or the ambiguous example they appended to it.']"--Id. "Or, by prefixing the adverb more or less, for the comparative, and most or least, for the superlative."--Id. "A pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun."--Id. "From monosyllables, the comparative is regularly formed by adding r or er."--Perley cor. "He has particularly named these, in distinction from others."--Harris cor. "To revive the decaying taste for ancient literature."--Id. "He found the greatest difficulty in writing."--Hume cor.

  "And the tear, that is wiped with a little address,
   May be followed perhaps by a smile."--Cowper, i, 216.

CHAPTER XI.--INTERJECTIONS.

CORRECTIONS IN THE USE OF INTERJECTIONS.

"Of chance or change, O let not man complain."--Beattie's Minstrel, B. ii, l. 1. "O thou persecutor! O ye hypocrites!"--Russell's Gram., p. 92. "O thou my voice inspire, Who touch'd Isaiah's hallow'd lips with fire!"--Pope's Messiah. "O happy we! surrounded by so many blessings!"--Merchant cor. "O thou who art so unmindful of thy duty!"--Id. "If I am wrong, O teach my heart To find that better way."--Murray's Reader, p. 248. "Heus! evocate huc Davum."--Ter. "Ho! call Davus out hither."--W. Walker cor. "It was represented by an analogy (O how inadequate!) which was borrowed from the ceremonies of paganism."--Murray cor. "O that Ishmael might live before thee!"--Friends' Bible, and Scott's. "And he said unto him, O let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak."--Alger's Bible, and Scott's. "And he said, O let not the Lord be angry."--Alger; Gen., xviii. 32. "O my Lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word."--Scott's Bible. "O Virtue! how amiable thou art!"--Murray's Gram., p. 128. "Alas! I fear for life."--See Ib. "Ah me! they little know How dearly I abide that boast so vain!"--See Bucke's Gram., p. 87. "O that I had digged myself a cave!"--Fletcher cor. "Oh, my good lord! thy comfort comes too late."--Shak. cor. "The vocative takes no article: it is distinguished thus: O Pedro! O Peter! O Dios! O God!"--Bucke cor. "Oho! But, the relative is always the same."--Cobbett cor. "All-hail, ye happy men!"--Jaudon cor. "O that I had wings like a dove!'--Scott's Bible. "O glorious hope! O bless'd abode!"--O. B. Peirce's Gram., p. 304. "Welcome friends! how joyous is your presence!"--T. Smith cor. "O blissful days!--but, ah! how soon ye pass!"--Parker and Fox cor.

  "O golden days! O bright unvalued hours!--
   What bliss, did ye but know that bliss, were yours!"--Barbauld cor.
   "Ah me! what perils do environ
   The man that meddles with cold iron!"--Hudibras cor.


THE KEY.--PART III.--SYNTAX.

CHAPTER I.--SENTENCES.

The first chapter of Syntax, being appropriated to general views of this part of grammar, to an exhibition of its leading doctrines, and to the several forms of sentential analysis, with an application of its principal rules in parsing, contains no false grammar for correction; and has, of course, nothing to correspond to it, in this Key, except the title, which is here inserted for form's sake.


CHAPTER II.--ARTICLES.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE I.

UNDER NOTE I.--AN OR A.

"I have seen a horrible thing in the house of Israel."--Bible cor. "There is a harshness in the following sentences."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 152. "Indeed, such a one is not to be looked for."--Dr. Blair cor. "If each of you will be disposed to approve himself a useful citizen."--Id. "Land with them had acquired almost a European value."--Webster cor. "He endeavoured to find out a wholesome remedy."--Neef cor. "At no time have we attended a yearly meeting more to our own satisfaction."--The Friend cor. "Addison was not a humorist in character."--Kames cor. "Ah me! what a one was he!"--Lily cor. "He was such a one as I never saw before"--Id. "No man can be a good preacher, who is not a useful one."--Dr. Blair cor. "A usage which is too frequent with Mr. Addison."--Id. "Nobody joins the voice of a sheep with the shape of a horse."--Locke cor. "A universality seems to be aimed at by the omission of the article."--Priestley cor. "Architecture is a useful as well as a fine art."--Kames cor. "Because the same individual conjunctions do not preserve a uniform signification."-- Nutting cor. "Such a work required the patience and assiduity of a hermit."--Johnson cor. "Resentment is a union of sorrow with malignity."--Id. "His bravery, we know, was a high courage of blasphemy."--Pope cor. "HYSSOP; an herb of bitter taste."--Pike cor.

  "On each enervate string they taught the note
   To pant, or tremble through a eunuch's throat."--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--AN OR A WITH PLURALS.

"At a session of the court, in March, it was moved," &c.--Hutchinson cor. "I shall relate my conversations, of which I kept memoranda."--D. D'Ab. cor. "I took an other dictionary, and with a pair of scissors cut out, for instance, the word ABACUS."--A. B. Johnson cor. "A person very meet seemed he for the purpose, and about forty-five years old."--Gardiner cor. "And it came to pass, about eight days after these sayings."--Bible cor. "There were slain of them about three thousand men."--1 Macc. cor. "Until I had gained the top of these white mountains, which seemed other Alps of snow."--Addison cor. "To make them satisfactory amends for all the losses they had sustained."--Goldsmith cor. "As a first-fruit of many that shall be gathered."--Barclay cor. "It makes indeed a little amend, (or some amends,) by inciting us to oblige people."--Sheffield cor. "A large and lightsome back stairway (or flight of backstairs) leads up to an entry above."--Id. "Peace of mind is an abundant recompense for any sacrifices of interest."--Murray et al. cor. "With such a spirit, and such sentiments, were hostilities carried on."--Robertson cor. "In the midst of a thick wood, he had long lived a voluntary recluse."--G. B. "The flats look almost like a young forest."--Chronicle cor. "As we went on, the country for a little way improved, but scantily."--Freeman cor. "Whereby the Jews were permitted to return into their own country, after a captivity of seventy years at Babylon."--Rollin cor. "He did not go a great way into the country."--Gilbert cor.

  "A large amend by fortune's hand is made,
   And the lost Punic blood is well repay'd."--Rowe cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--NOUNS CONNECTED.

"As where a landscape is conjoined with the music of birds, and the odour of flowers."--Kames cor. "The last order resembles the second in the mildness of its accent, and the softness of its pause."--Id. "Before the use of the loadstone, or the knowledge of the compass."--Dryden cor. "The perfect participle and the imperfect tense ought not to be confounded."--Murray cor. "In proportion as the taste of a poet or an orator becomes more refined."--Blair cor. "A situation can never be more intricate, so long as there is an angel, a devil, or a musician, to lend a helping hand."--Kames cor. "Avoid rude sports: an eye is soon lost, or a bone broken."--Inst., p. 262. "Not a word was uttered, nor a sign given."--Ib. "I despise not the doer, but the deed."--Ib. "For the sake of an easier pronunciation and a more agreeable sound."--Lowth cor. "The levity as well as the loquacity of the Greeks made them incapable of keeping up the true standard of history."-- Bolingbroke cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"It is proper that the vowels be a long and a short one."--Murray cor. "Whether the person mentioned was seen by the speaker a long or a short time before."--Id. et al. "There are three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter."--Adam cor. "The numbers are two; the singular and the plural."--Id. et al. "The persons are three; the first, the second, and the third."--Iidem. "Nouns and pronouns have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."-- Comly and Ing. cor. "Verbs have five moods; namely, the infinitive, the indicative, the potential, the subjunctive, and the imperative."-- Bullions et al. cor. "How many numbers have pronouns? Two, the singular and the plural."--Bradley cor. "To distinguish between an interrogative and an exclamatory sentence."--Murray et al. cor. "The first and the last of which are compound members."--Lowth cor. "In the last lecture, I treated of the concise and the diffuse, the nervous and the feeble manner."--Blair cor. "The passive and the neuter verbs I shall reserve for some future conversation."--Ingersoll cor. "There are two voices; the active and the passive."--Adam et al. cor. "WHOSE is rather the poetical than the regular genitive of WHICH."--Johnson cor. "To feel the force of a compound or a derivative word."--Town cor. "To preserve the distinctive uses of the copulative and the disjunctive conjunctions."--Murray et al. cor. "E has a long and a short sound in most languages."--Bicknell cor. "When the figurative and the literal sense are mixed and jumbled together."--Dr. Blair cor. "The Hebrew, with which the Canaanitish and the Phoenician stand in connexion."--Conant and Fowler cor. "The languages of Scandinavia proper, the Norwegian and the Swedish."--Fowler cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"The path of truth is a plain and safe path."--Murray cor. "Directions for acquiring a just and happy elocution."--Kirkham cor. "Its leading object is, to adopt a correct and easy method."--Id. "How can it choose but wither in a long and sharp winter?"--Cowley cor. "Into a dark and distant unknown."--Dr. Chalmers cor. "When the bold and strong enslaved his fellow man."--Chazotte cor. "We now proceed to consider the things most essential to an accurate and perfect sentence."--Murray cor. "And hence arises a second and very considerable source of the improvement of taste."--Dr. Blair cor. "Novelty produces in the mind a vivid and agreeable emotion."--Id. "The deepest and bitterest feeling still is that of the separation."--Dr. M'Rie cor. "A great and good man looks beyond time."--See Brown's Inst., p. 263. "They made but a weak and ineffectual resistance."--Ib. "The light and worthless kernels will float."--Ib. "I rejoice that there is an other and better world."--Ib. "For he is determined to revise his work, and present to the public an other and better edition."--Kirkham cor. "He hoped that this title would secure to him an ample and independent authority."--L. Murray cor. et al. "There is, however, an other and more limited sense."--J. Q. Adams cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--ARTICLES OR PLURALS.

"This distinction forms what are called the diffuse style and the concise."--Dr. Blair cor. "Two different modes of speaking, distinguished at first by the denominations of the Attic manner and the Asiatic."--Adams cor. "But the great design of uniting the Spanish and French monarchies under the former, was laid."--Bolingbroke cor. "In the solemn and poetic styles, it [do or did] is often rejected."--Allen cor. "They cannot be, at the same time, in both the objective case and the nominative." Or: "They cannot be, at the same time, in both the objective and the nominative case." Or: "They cannot be, at the same time, in the nominative case, and also in the objective." Or: "They cannot be, at the same time, in the nominative and objective cases."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 148. Or, better: "They cannot be, at the same time, in both cases, the nominative and the objective."--Murray et al. cor. "They are named the positive, comparative, and superlative degrees."--Smart cor. "Certain adverbs are capable of taking an inflection; namely, that of the comparative and superlative degrees."--Fowler cor. "In the subjunctive mood, the present and imperfect tenses often carry with them a future sense."--Murray et al. cor. "The imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first-future tense, of this mood, are conjugated like the same tenses of the indicative."--Kirkham bettered. "What rules apply in parsing personal pronouns of the second and third persons?"--Id. "Nouns are sometimes in the nominative or the objective case after the neuter verb be, or after an active-intransitive or a passive verb." "The verb varies its ending in the singular, in order to agree with its nominative, in the first, second, and third persons."--Id. "They are identical in effect with the radical and the vanishing stress."--Rush cor. "In a sonnet, the first, the fourth, the fifth, and the eighth line, usually rhyme to one an other: so do the second, third, sixth, and seventh lines; the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth lines; and the tenth, twelfth, and fourteenth lines."--Churchill cor. "The iron and golden ages are run; youth and manhood are departed."--Wright cor. "If, as you say, the iron and the golden age are past, the youth and the manhood of the world."--Id. "An Exposition of the Old and New Testaments."--Henry cor. "The names and order of the books of the Old and the New Testament."--Bible cor. "In the second and third persons of that tense."--Murray cor. "And who still unites in himself the human and the divine nature."--Gurney cor. "Among whom arose the Italian, Spanish, French, and English languages."--Murray cor. "Whence arise these two numbers, the singular and the plural."--Burn cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--CORRESPONDENT TERMS.

"Neither the definitions nor the examples are entirely the same as his."--Ward cor. "Because it makes a discordance between the thought and the expression."--Kames cor. "Between the adjective and the following substantive."--Id. "Thus Athens became both the repository and the nursery of learning."--Chazotte cor. "But the French pilfered from both the Greek and the Latin."--Id. "He shows that Christ is both the power and the wisdom of God."--The Friend cor. "That he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living."--Bible cor. "This is neither the obvious nor the grammatical meaning of his words."--Blair cor. "Sometimes both the accusative and the infinitive are understood."--Adam and Gould cor. "In some cases, we can use either the nominative or the accusative, promiscuously."--Iidem. "Both the former and the latter substantive are sometimes to be understood."--Iidem. "Many of which have escaped both the commentator and the poet himself."--Pope cor. "The verbs MUST and OUGHT, have both a present and a past signification."--L. Murray cor. "How shall we distinguish between the friends and the enemies of the government?"--Dr. Webster cor. "Both the ecclesiastical and the secular powers concurred in those measures."--Dr. Campbell cor. "As the period has a beginning and an end within itself, it implies an inflection."--J. Q. Adams cor. "Such as ought to subsist between a principal and an accessory."--Ld. Kames cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--CORRESPONDENCE PECULIAR.

"When both the upward and the downward slide occur in the sound of one syllable, they are called a CIRCUMFLEX, or WAVE."--Kirkham cor. "The word THAT is used both in the nominative and in the objective case."--Sanborn cor. "But in all the other moods and tenses, both of the active and of the passive voice [the verbs] are conjugated at large."--Murray cor. "Some writers on grammar, admitting the second-future tense into the indicative mood, reject it from the subjunctive."--Id. "After the same conjunction, to use both the indicative and the subjunctive mood in the same sentence, and under the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety."--Id. "The true distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative mood in this tense."--Id. "I doubt of his capacity to teach either the French or the English language."--Chazotte cor. "It is as necessary to make a distinction between the active-transitive and the active-intransitive verb, as between the active and the passive."--Nixon cor.


UNDER NOTE IX.--A SERIES OF TERMS.

"As comprehending the terms uttered by the artist, the mechanic, and the husbandman."--Chazotte cor. "They may be divided into four classes; the Humanists, the Philanthropists, the Pestalozzians, and the Productives."--Smith cor. "Verbs have six tenses; the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the first-future, and the second-future."--Murray et al. cor. "Is it an irregular neuter verb [from be, was, being, been; found in] the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and singular number."--Murray cor. "SHOULD GIVE is an irregular active-transitive verb [from give, gave, given, giving; found] in the potential mood, imperfect tense, first person, and plural number."--Id. "US is a personal pronoun, of the first person, plural number, masculine gender, and objective case."--Id. "THEM is a personal pronoun, of the third person, plural number, masculine gender, and objective case."--Id. "It is surprising that the Jewish critics, with all their skill in dots, points, and accents, never had the ingenuity to invent a point of interrogation, a point of admiration, or a parenthesis."--Dr. Wilson cor. "The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth verses." Or: "The fifth, the sixth, the seventh, and the eighth verse."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Substitutes have three persons; the First, the Second, and the Third."--Id. "JOHN'S is a proper noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and possessive case: and is governed by 'WIFE,' according to Rule" [4th, which says, &c.]--Smith cor. "Nouns, in the English language, have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Bar. and Alex. cor. "The potential mood has four tenses; viz., the present, the imperfect, the perfect, and the pluperfect."--Ingersoll cor.

  "Where Science, Law, and Liberty depend,
   And own the patron, patriot, and friend."--Savage cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--SPECIES AND GENUS.

"The pronoun is a part of speech[532] put for the noun."--Paul's Ac. cor. "The verb is a part of speech declined with mood and tense."--Id. "The participle is a part of speech derived from the verb."--Id. "The adverb is a part of speech joined to verbs, [participles, adjectives, or other adverbs,] to declare their signification."--Id. "The conjunction is a part of speech that joins words or sentences together."--Id. "The preposition is a part of speech most commonly set before other parts."--Id. "The interjection is a part of speech which betokens a sudden emotion or passion of the mind."--Id. "The enigma, or riddle, is also a species of allegory."--Blair and Murray cor. "We may take from the Scriptures a very fine example of the allegory."--Iidem. "And thus have you exhibited a sort of sketch of art."--Harris cor. "We may 'imagine a subtle kind of reasoning,' as Mr. Harris acutely observes."--Churchill cor. "But, before entering on these, I shall give one instance of metaphor, very beautiful, (or, one very beautiful instance of metaphor,) that I may show the figure to full advantage."--Blair cor. "Aristotle, in his Poetics, uses metaphor in this extended sense, for any figurative meaning imposed upon a word; as the whole put for a part, or a part for the whole; a species for the genus, or the genus for a species."--Id. "It shows what kind of apple it is of which we are speaking."--Kirkham cor. "Cleon was an other sort of man."--Goldsmith cor. "To keep off his right wing, as a kind of reserved body."--Id. "This part of speech is called the verb."--Mack cor. "What sort of thing is it?"--Hiley cor. "What sort of charm do they possess?"--Bullions cor.

  "Dear Welsted, mark, in dirty hole,
   That painful animal, the mole."--Dunciad cor.


UNDER NOTE XI.--ARTICLES NOT REQUISITE.

"Either thou or the boys were in fault."--Comly cor. "It may, at first view, appear to be too general."--Murray et al. cor. "When the verb has reference to future time."--Iidem. "No; they are the language of imagination, rather than of passion."--Blair cor. "The dislike of English Grammar, which has so generally prevailed, can be attributed only to the intricacy of [our] syntax."--Russell cor. "Is that ornament in good taste?"--Kames cor. "There are not many fountains in good taste." Or: "Not many fountains are [ornamented] in good taste."--Id. "And I persecuted this way unto death."--Bible cor. "The sense of feeling can, indeed, give us a notion of extension."--Addison, Spect., No. 411. "The distributive adjectives, each, every, either, agree with nouns, pronouns, or verbs, of the singular number only."--Murray cor. "Expressing by one word, what might, by a circumlocution, be resolved into two or more words belonging to other parts of speech."--Blair cor. "By certain muscles which operate [in harmony, and] all at the same time."--Murray cor. "It is sufficient here to have observed thus much in general concerning them."--Campbell cor. "Nothing disgusts us sooner than empty pomp of language."--Murray cor.


UNDER NOTE XII.--TITLES AND NAMES.

"He is entitled to the appellation of gentleman."--G. Brown. "Cromwell assumed the title of Protector"--Id. "Her father is honoured with the title of Earl."--Id. "The chief magistrate is styled President."-- Id. "The highest title in the state is that of Governor."--Id. "That boy is known by the name of Idler."--Murray cor. "The one styled Mufti, is the head of the ministers of law and religion."--Balbi cor. "Ranging all that possessed them under one class, he called that whole class tree."--Blair cor. "For oak, pine, and ash, were names of whole classes of objects."--Id. "It is of little importance whether we give to some particular mode of expression the name of trope, or of figure."--Id. "The collision of a vowel with itself is the most ungracious of all combinations, and has been doomed to peculiar reprobation under the name of hiatus."--Adams cor. "We hesitate to determine, whether Tyrant alone is the nominative, or whether the nominative includes the word Spy."--Cobbett cor. "Hence originated the customary abbreviation of twelve months into twelvemonth; of seven nights into sennight; of fourteen nights into fortnight."--Webster cor.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--COMPARISONS AND ALTERNATIVES.

"He is a better writer than reader."--W. Allen. "He was an abler mathematician than linguist."--Id. "I should rather have an orange than an apple."--G. Brown. "He was no less able as a negotiator, than courageous as a warrior."--Smollett cor. "In an epic poem, we pardon many negligences that would not be permitted in a sonnet or an epigram."--Kames cor. "That figure is a sphere, globe, or ball."--Churchill's Gram., p. 357.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--ANTECEDENTS TO WHO OR WHICH.

"The carriages which were formerly in use, were very clumsy."--Key to Inst. "The place is not mentioned by the geographers who wrote at that time."--Ib. "Those questions which a person puts to himself in contemplation, ought to be terminated with points of interrogation."-- Mur. et al. cor. "The work is designed for the use of those persons who may think it merits a place in their libraries."--Mur. cor. "That those who think confusedly, should express themselves obscurely, is not to be wondered at."--Id. "Those grammarians who limit the number to two, or three, do not reflect."--Id. "The substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession." Or: "Those substantives which end in ian, are such as signify profession."--Id. "To these may be added those verbs which, among the poets, usually govern the dative."--Adam and Gould cor. "The consonants are those letters which cannot be sounded without the aid of a vowel."--Bucke cor. "To employ the curiosity of persons skilled in grammar:"--"of those who are skilled in grammar:"--"of persons that are skilled in grammar:"--"of such persons as are skilled in grammar:" or--"of those persons who are skilled in grammar."--L. Murray cor. "This rule refers only to those nouns and pronouns which have the same bearing, or relation."--Id. "So that the things which are seen, were not made of things that do appear."--Bible cor. "Man is an imitative creature; he may utter again the sounds which he has heard."--Dr. Wilson cor. "But those men whose business is wholly domestic, have little or no use for any language but their own."--Dr. Webster cor.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PARTICIPIAL NOUNS.

"Great benefit may be reaped from the reading of histories."--Sewel cor. "And some attempts were made towards the writing of history."--Bolingbroke cor. "It is an invading of the priest's office, for any other to offer it"--Leslie cor. "And thus far of the forming of verbs."--W. Walker cor. "And without the shedding of blood there is no remission."--Bible cor. "For the making of measures, we have the best method here in England."--Printer's Gram. cor. "This is really both an admitting and a denying at once."--Butler cor. "And hence the origin of the making of parliaments."--Dr. Brown cor. "Next thou objectest, that the having of saving light and grace presupposes conversion. But that I deny: for, on the contrary, conversion presupposes the having of light and grace."--Barclay cor. "They cried down the wearing of rings and other superfluities, as we do."--Id. "Whose adorning, let it not be that outward adorning, of the plaiting of the hair, and of the wearing of gold, or of the putting-on of apparel."--Bible cor. "In the spelling of derivative words, the primitives must be kept whole."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan's cor. "And the princes offered for the dedicating of the altar."--Numb. cor. "Boasting is not only a telling of lies, but also of many unseemly truths."--Sheffield cor. "We freely confess that the forbearing of prayer in the wicked is sinful."--Barclay cor. "For the revealing of a secret, there is no remedy."--G. Brown. "He turned all his thoughts to the composing of laws for the good of the State."--Rollin cor.


UNDER NOTE XVI.--PARTICIPLES, NOT NOUNS.

"It is salvation to be kept from falling into a pit, as truly as to be taken out of it after falling in."--Barclay cor. "For in receiving and embracing the testimony of truth, they felt their souls eased."--Id. "True regularity does not consist in having but a single rule, and forcing every thing to conform to it."--Phil. Museum cor. "To the man of the world, this sound of glad tidings appears only an idle tale, and not worth attending to."--Say cor. "To be the deliverer of the captive Jews, by ordering their temple to be rebuilt," &c.--Rollin cor. "And for preserving them from being defiled."--Discip. cor. "A wise man will forbear to show any excellence in trifles."--Kames cor. "Hirsutus had no other reason for valuing a book."--Johnson, and Wright, cor. "To being heard with satisfaction, it is necessary that the speaker should deliver himself with ease." Perhaps better: "To be heard, &c." Or: "In order to be heard, &c."--Sheridan cor. "And, to the end of being well heard and clearly understood, a good and distinct articulation contributes more, than can even the greatest power of voice."--Id.

  "Potential purports, having power or will;
   As, If you would improve, you should be still."--Tobitt cor.


UNDER NOTE XVII.--VARIOUS ERRORS.

"For the same reason, a neuter verb cannot become passive."--Lowth cor. "A period is a whole sentence complete in itself."--Id. "A colon, or member, is a chief constructive part, or the greatest division, of a sentence."--Id. "A semicolon, or half-member, is a smaller constructive part, or a subdivision, of a sentence or of a member."--Id. "A sentence or a member is again subdivided into commas, or segments."--Id. "The first error that I would mention is, too general an attention to the dead languages, with a neglect of our own tongue."--Webster cor. "One third of the importations would supply the demands of the people."--Id. "And especially in a grave style."--Murray's Gram., i, 178. "By too eager a pursuit, he ran a great risk of being disappointed."--Murray cor. "The letters are divided into vowels and consonants."--Mur. et al. cor. "The consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels."--Iidem. "The first of these forms is the most agreeable to the English idiom."--Murray cor. "If they gain, it is at too dear a rate."--Barclay cor. "A pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun, to prevent too frequent a repetition of it."--Maunder cor. "This vulgar error might perhaps arise from too partial a fondness for the Latin."--Ash cor. "The groans which too heavy a load extorts from her."--Hitchcock cor. "The numbers of a verb are, of course, the singular and the plural."--Bucke cor. "To brook no meanness, and to stoop to no dissimulation, are indications of a great mind."--Murray cor. "This mode of expression rather suits the familiar than the grave style."--Id. "This use of the word best suits a familiar and low style."--Priestley cor. "According to the nature of the composition, the one or the other may be predominant."--Blair cor. "Yet the commonness of such sentences prevents in a great measure too early an expectation of the end."--Campbell cor. "A eulogy or a philippic may be pronounced by an individual of one nation upon a subject of an other."--J. Q. Adams cor. "A French sermon is, for the most part, a warm animated exhortation."--Blair cor. "I do not envy those who think slavery no very pitiable lot."--Channing cor. "The auxiliary and the principal united constitute a tense."--Murray cor. "There are some verbs which are defective with respect to the persons."--Id. "In youth, habits of industry are the most easily acquired."--Id. "The apostrophe (') is used in place of a letter left out."--Bullions cor.


CHAPTER III.--CASES, OR NOUNS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE II; OF NOMINATIVES.

"The whole need not a physician, but they that are sick."--Bunyan cor. "He will in no wise cast out whosoever cometh unto him." Better: "He will in no wise cast out any that come unto him."--Hall cor. "He feared the enemy might fall upon his men, who, he saw, were off their guard."--Hutchinson cor. "Whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain."--Matt., v, 41. "The ideas of the author have been conversant with the faults of other writers."--Swift cor. "You are a much greater loser than I, by his death." Or: "Thou art a much greater loser by his death than I."--Id. "Such peccadilloes pass with him for pious frauds."--Barclay cor. "In whom I am nearly concerned, and who, I know, would be very apt to justify my whole procedure."--Id. "Do not think such a man as I contemptible for my garb."--Addison cor. "His wealth and he bid adieu to each other."--Priestley cor. "So that, 'He is greater than I,' will be more grammatical than, 'He is greater than me.'"--Id. "The Jesuits had more interests at court than he."--Id. and Smollett cor. "Tell the Cardinal that I understand poetry better than he."--Iid. "An inhabitant of Crim Tartary was far more happy than he."--Iid. "My father and he have been very intimate since."--Fair Am. cor. "Who was the agent, and who, the object struck or kissed?"--Mrs. Bethune cor. "To find the person who, he imagined, was concealed there."--Kirkham cor. "He offered a great recompense to whosoever would help him." Better: "He offered a great recompense to any one who would help him."--Hume and Pr. cor. "They would be under the dominion, absolute and unlimited, of whosoever (or any one who) might exercise the right of judgement."--Haynes cor. "They had promised to accept whosoever (or any one who) should be born in Wales."--Croker cor. "We sorrow not as they that have no hope."--Maturin cor. "If he suffers, he suffers as they that have no hope."--Id. "We acknowledge that he, and he only, hath been our peacemaker."--Gratton cor. "And what can be better than he that made it?"--Jenks cor. "None of his school-fellows is more beloved than he."--Cooper cor. "Solomon, who was wiser than they all."--Watson cor. "Those who the Jews thought were the last to be saved, first entered the kingdom of God."--Tract cor. "A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath is heavier than both."--Bible cor. "A man of business, in good company, is hardly more insupportable, than she whom they call a notable woman."--Steele cor. "The king of the Sarmatians, who we may imagine was no small prince, restored to him a hundred thousand Roman prisoners."--Life of Anton. cor. "Such notions would be avowed at this time by none but rosicrucians, and fanatics as mad as they."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 203. "Unless, as I said, Messieurs, you are the masters, and not I."--Hall cor. "We had drawn up against peaceable travellers, who must have been as glad as we to escape."--Burnes cor. "Stimulated, in turn, by their approbation and that of better judges than they, she turned to their literature with redoubled energy."--Quarterly Rev. cor. "I know not who else are expected."--Scott cor. "He is great, but truth is greater than we all." Or: "He is great, but truth is greater than any of us."--H. Mann cor.. "He I accuse has entered." Or, by ellipsis of the antecedent, thus: "Whom I accuse has entered."--Fowler cor.; also Shakspeare.

  "Scotland and thou did each in other live."--Dryden cor.
   "We are alone; here's none but thou and I."--Shak. cor.
   "I rather would, my heart might feel your love,
   Than my unpleas'd eye see your courtesy."--Shak. cor.
   "Tell me, in sadness, who is she you love?"--Shak. cor.
   "Better leave undone, than by our deeds acquire
   Too high a fame, when he we serve's away."--Shak. cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE III; OF APPOSITION.

"Now, therefore, come thou, let us make a covenant, thee and me."--Bible cor. "Now, therefore, come thou, we will make a covenant, thou and I."--Variation corrected. "The word came not to Esau, the hunter, that stayed not at home; but to Jacob, the plain man, him that dwelt in tents."--Penn cor. "Not to every man, but to the man of God, (i.e.,) him that is led by the spirit of God."--Barclay cor. "For, admitting God to be a creditor, or him to whom the debt should be paid, and Christ him that satisfies or pays it on behalf of man the debtor, this question will arise, whether he paid that debt as God, or man, or both?"--Penn cor. "This Lord Jesus Christ, the heavenly Man, the Emmanuel, God with us, we own and believe in: him whom the high priests raged against," &c.--Fox cor. "Christ, and He crucified, was the Alpha and Omega of all his addresses, the fountain and foundation of his hope and trust."--Exp. cor. "Christ, and He crucified, is the head, and the only head, of the church."--Denison cor. "But if Christ, and He crucified, is the burden of the ministry, such disastrous results are all avoided."--Id. "He never let fall the least intimation, that himself, or any other person whosoever, was the object of worship."--View cor. "Let the elders that rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, especially them who labour in the word and doctrine."--Bible cor. "Our Shepherd, he who is styled King of saints, will assuredly give his saints the victory."--Sermon cor. "It may seem odd, to talk of us subscribers."--Fowle cor. "And they shall have none to bury them: they, their wives, nor their sons, nor[533] their daughters; for I will pour their wickedness upon them."--Bible cor. "Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but your messenger, and him that ministered to my wants."--Bible cor.

  "Amidst the tumult of the routed train,
   The sons of false Antimachus were slain;
   Him who for bribes his faithless counsels sold,
   And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold."--Pope cor.
   "See the vile King his iron sceptre bear--
   His only praise attends the pious heir;
   Him in whose soul the virtues all conspire,
   The best good son, from the worst wicked sire."--Lowth cor.
   "Then from thy lips poured forth a joyful song
   To thy Redeemer!--yea, it poured along
   In most melodious energy of praise,
   To God, the Saviour, him of ancient days."--Arm Chair cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE IV; OF POSSESSIVES.

UNDER NOTE I.--THE POSSESSIVE FORM.

"Man's chief good is an upright mind."--Key to Inst. "The translator of Mallet's History has the following note."--Webster cor. "The act, while it gave five years' full pay to the officers, allowed but one year's pay to the privates."--Id. "For the study of English is preceded by several years' attention to Latin and Greek."--Id. "The first, the Court-Baron, is the freeholders' or freemen's court."--Coke cor. "I affirm that Vaugelas's definition labours under an essential defect."--Campbell cor.; and also Murray. "There is a chorus in Aristophanes's plays."--Blair cor. "It denotes the same perception in my mind as in theirs."--Duncan cor. "This afterwards enabled him to read Hickes's Saxon Grammar."--Life of Dr. Mur. cor. "I will not do it for ten's sake."--Ash cor. Or: "I will not destroy it for ten's sake."--Gen., xviii, 32. "I arose, and asked if those charming infants were hers."--Werter cor. "They divide their time between milliners' shops and the taverns."--Dr. Brown cor. "The angels' adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud."--Sale cor. "Quarrels arose from the winners' insulting of those who lost."--Id. "The vacancy occasioned by Mr. Adams's resignation."--Adv. to Adams's Rhet. cor. "Read, for instance, Junius's address, commonly called his Letter to the King."--Adams cor. "A perpetual struggle against the tide of Hortensius's influence."--Id. "Which, for distinction's sake, I shall put down severally."--R. Johnson cor. "The fifth case is in a clause signifying the matter of one's fear."--Id. "And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field."--Alger cor. "Arise for thy servants' help, and redeem them for thy mercy's sake."--Jenks cor. "Shall not their cattle, their substance, and every beast of theirs, be ours?"--COM. BIBLE: Gen., xxxiv, 23. "Its regular plural, bullaces, is used by Bacon."--Churchill cor. "Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house."--Scott cor. "Behold, they that wear soft clothing, are in kings' houses."--Alger's Bible. "Then Jethro, Moses's father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses's wife, and her two sons; and Jethro, Moses's father-in-law, came, with his sons and his wife, unto Moses."--Scott's Bible. "King James's translators merely revised former translations."--Frazee cor. "May they be like corn on houses' tops."--White cor.

  "And for his Maker's image' sake exempt."--Milton cor.
   "By all the fame acquired in ten years' war."--Rowe cor.
   "Nor glad vile poets with true critics' gore."--Pope cor.
   "Man only of a softer mold is made,
   Not for his fellows' ruin, but their aid."--Dryden cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--POSSESSIVES CONNECTED.

"It was necessary to have both the physician's and the surgeon's advice."--L. Murray's False Syntax, Rule 10. "This outside fashionableness of the tailor's or the tirewoman's making."--Locke cor. "Some pretending to be of Paul's party, others of Apollos's, others of Cephas's, and others, (pretending yet higher,) to be of Christ's."--Wood cor. "Nor is it less certain, that Spenser and Milton's spelling agrees better with our pronunciation."--Phil. Museum cor. "Law's, Edwards's, and Watts's Survey of the Divine Dispensations." Or thus: "Law, Edwards, and Watts's, Surveys of the Divine Dispensations."--Burgh cor. "And who was Enoch's Saviour, and the prophets'?"--Bayly cor. "Without any impediment but his own, his parents', or his guardian's will."--Journal corrected. "James relieves neither the boy's nor the girl's distress."--Nixon cor. "John regards neither the master's nor the pupil's advantage."--Id. "You reward neither the man's nor the woman's labours."--Id. "She examines neither James's nor John's conduct."--Id. "Thou pitiest neither the servant's nor the master's injuries."--Id. "We promote England's or Ireland's happiness."--Id. "Were Cain's and Abel's occupation the same?"--G. Brown. "Were Cain and Abel's occupations the same?"--Id. "What was Simon and Andrew's employment?"--Id. "Till he can read for himself Sanctius's Minerva with Scioppius's and Perizonius's Notes."--Locke cor.

  "And love and friendship's finely-pointed dart
   Falls blunted from each indurated heart." Or:--
   "And love's and friendship's finely-pointed dart
   Fall blunted from each indurated heart."--Goldsmith cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--CHOICE OF FORMS.

"But some degree of trouble is the portion of all men."--L. Murray et al. cor. "With the names of his father and mother upon the blank leaf."--Abbott cor. "The general, in the name of the army, published a declaration."--Hume cor. "The vote of the Commons."--Id. "The House of Lords."--Id. "A collection of the faults of writers;"--or, "A collection of literary faults."--Swift cor. "After ten years of wars."--Id. "Professing his detestation of such practices as those of his predecessors."--Pope cor. "By that time I shall have ended my year of office."--W. Walker cor. "For the sake of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip."--Bible and Mur. cor. "I endure all things for the sake of the elect, that they may also obtain salvation."--Bibles cor. "He was heir to the son of Louis the Sixteenth."--W. Allen. "The throne we honour is the people's choice."--Rolla. "An account of the proceedings of Alexander's court."--Inst. "An excellent tutor for the child of a person of fashion!"--Gil Blas cor. "It is curious enough, that this sentence of the Bishop's is, itself, ungrammatical."--Cobbett cor. "The troops broke into the palace of the Emperor Leopold."--Nixon cor. "The meeting was called by desire of Eldon the Judge."--Id. "The occupation of Peter, John, and Andrew, was that of fishermen."--Murray's Key, R. 10. "The debility of the venerable president of the Royal Academy, has lately increased."--Maunder cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--NOUNS WITH POSSESSIVES PLURAL.

"God hath not given us our reason to no purpose."--Barclay cor. "For our sake, no doubt, this is written."--Bible cor. "Are not health and strength of body desirable for their own sake?"--Harris and Murray cor. "Some sailors who were boiling their dinner upon the shore."--Day cor. "And they, in their turn, were subdued by others."--Pinnock cor. "Industry on our part is not superseded by God's grace."--Arrowsmith cor. "Their health perhaps may be pretty well secured."--Locke cor. "Though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor."--See 2 Cor., viii, 9. "It were to be wished, his correctors had been as wise on their part."--Harris cor. "The Arabs are commended by the ancients for being most exact to their word, and respctful to their kindred."--Sale cor. "That is, as a reward of some exertion on our part."--Gurney cor. "So that it went ill with Moses for their sake."--Ps. cor. "All liars shall have their part in the burning lake."--Watts cor. "For our own sake as well as for thine."--Pref. to Waller cor. "By discovering their ability to detect and amend errors."--L. Murray cor.

  "This world I do renounce; and, in your sight,
   Shake patiently my great affliction off."--Shak. cor.
   "If your relenting anger yield to treat,
   Pompey and thou, in safety, here may meet."--Rowe cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--POSSESSIVES WITH PARTICIPLES.

"This will encourage him to proceed without acquiring the prejudice."--Smith cor. "And the notice which they give of an action as being completed or not completed."--L. Mur. et al. cor. "Some obstacle, or impediment, that prevents it from taking place."--Priestley and A. Mur. cor. "They have apostolical authority for so frequently urging the seeking of the Spirit."--The Friend cor. "Here then is a wide field for reason to exert its powers in relation to the objects of taste."--Dr. Blair cor. "Now this they derive altogether from their greater capacity of imitation and description."--Id. "This is one clear reason why they paid a greater attention to that construction."--Id. "The dialogue part had also a modulation of its own, which was capable of being set to notes."--Id. "Why are we so often frigid and unpersuasive in public discourse?"--Id. "Which is only a preparation for leading his forces directly upon us."--Id. "The nonsense about which, as relating to things only, and having no declension, needs no refutation."--Fowle cor. "Who, upon breaking it open, found nothing but the following inscription."--Rollin cor. "A prince will quickly have reason to repent of having exalted one person so high."--Id. "Notwithstanding it is the immediate subject of his discourse."--Churchill cor. "With our definition of it, as being synonymous with time."--Booth cor. "It will considerably increase our danger of being deceived."--Campbell cor. "His beauties can never be mentioned without suggesting his blemishes also."--Dr. Blair cor. "No example has ever been adduced, of a man conscientiously approving an action, because of its badness." Or:--"of a man who conscientiously approved of an action because of its badness."--Gurney cor. "The last episode, of the angel showing to Adam the fate of his posterity, is happily imagined."--Dr. Blair cor. "And the news came to my son, that he and the bride were in Dublin."--M. Edgeworth cor. "There is no room for the mind to exert any great effort."--Dr. Blair cor. "One would imagine, that these critics never so much as heard that Homer wrote first."--Pope cor. "Condemn the book, for not being a geography;" or,--"because it is not a geography."--Peirce cor. "There will be in many words a transition from being the figurative to being the proper signs of certain ideas."--Campbell cor. "The doctrine that the Pope is the only source of ecclesiastical power."--Rel. World cor. "This was the more expedient, because the work was designed for the benefit of private learners."--L. Murray cor. "This was done, because the Grammar, being already in type, did not admit of enlargement."--Id.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE V; OF OBJECTIVES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE OBJECTIVE FORM.

"Whom should I meet the other day but my old friend!"--Spect. cor. "Let not him boast that puts on his armour, but him that takes it off."--Barclay cor. "Let none touch it, but them who are clean."--Sale cor. "Let the sea roar, and the fullness thereof; the world, and them that dwell therein."--Ps. cor. "Pray be private, and careful whom you trust."--Mrs. Goffe cor. "How shall the people know whom to entrust with their property and their liberties?"--J. O. Taylor cor. "The chaplain entreated my comrade and me to dress as well as possible."--World cor. "And him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out."--John, vi, 37. "Whom, during this preparation, they constantly and solemnly invoke."--Hope of Is. cor. "Whoever or whatever owes us, is Debtor; and whomever or whatever we owe, is Creditor."--Marsh cor. "Declaring the curricle was his, and he should have in it whom he chose."--A. Ross cor. "The fact is, Burke is the only one of all the host of brilliant contemporaries, whom we can rank as a first-rate orator."--Knickerb. cor. "Thus you see, how naturally the Fribbles and the Daffodils have produced the Messalinas of our time."--Dr. Brown cor. "They would find in the Roman list both the Scipios."--Id. "He found his wife's clothes on fire, and her just expiring."--Observer cor. "To present you holy, and unblamable, and unreprovable in his sight."--Colossians, i, 22. "Let the distributer do his duty with simplicity; the superintendent, with diligence; him who performs offices of compassion, with cheerfulness."--Stuart cor. "If the crew rail at the master of the vessel, whom will they mind?"--Collier cor. "He having none but them, they having none but him"--Drayton cor.

  "Thee, Nature, partial Nature, I arraign;
   Of thy caprice maternal I complain."--Burns cor.
   "Nor weens he who it is, whose charms consume
   His longing soul, but loves he knows not whom"--Addison cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--OF VERBS TRANSITIVE.

"When it gives that sense, and also connects sentences, it is a conjunction."--L. Murray cor. "Though thou wilt not acknowledge thyself to--be guilty, thou canst not deny the fact stated."--Id. "They specify some object, like many other adjectives, and also connect sentences."--Kirkham cor. "A violation of this rule tends so much to perplex the reader and obscure the sense, that it is safer to err by using too many short sentences."--L. Murray cor. "A few exercises are subjoined to each important definition, for him [the pupil] to practise upon as he proceeds in committing the grammar to memory."--Nutting cor. "A verb signifying an action directly transitive, governs the accusative."--Adam et al. cor. "Or, any word that can be conjugated, is a verb."--Kirkham cor. "In these two concluding sentences, the author, hastening to a close, appears to write rather carelessly."--Dr. Blair cor. "He simply reasons on one side of the question, and then leaves it."--Id." Praise to God teaches us to be humble and lowly ourselves."--Atterbury cor. "This author has endeavoured to surpass his rivals."--R. W. Green cor. "Idleness and pleasure fatigue a man as soon as business."--Webster cor." And, in conjugating any verb,"--or, "And in learning conjugations, you must pay particular attention to the manner in which these signs are applied."--Kirkham cor. "He said Virginia would have emancipated her slaves long ago."--Lib. cor. "And having a readiness"--or, "And holding ourselves in readiness"--or," And being in readiness--to revenge all disobedience."--Bible cor. "However, in these cases, custom generally determines what is right."--Wright cor. "In proof, let the following cases be taken."--Id. "We must marvel that he should so speedily have forgotten his first principles."--Id. "How should we wonder at the expression, 'This is a soft question!' "--Id. "And such as prefer this course, can parse it as a possessive adjective."--Goodenow cor. "To assign all the reasons that induced the author to deviate from other grammarians, would lead to a needless prolixity."--Alexander cor. "The Indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 63.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF VERBS INTRANSITIVE.

"In his seventh chapter he expatiates at great length."--Barclay cor. "He quarrels with me for adducing some ancient testimonies agreeing with what I say."--Id. "Repenting of his design."--Hume cor. "Henry knew, that an excommunication could not fail to produce the most dangerous effects."--Id. "The popular lords did not fail to enlarge on the subject,"--Mrs. Macaulay cor. "He is always master of his subject, and seems to play with it:" or,--"seems to sport himself with it."--Blair cor. "But as soon as it amounts to real disease, all his secret infirmities show themselves."--Id. "No man repented of his wickedness."--Bible cor. "Go one way or other, either on the right hand, or on the left,"--Id. "He lies down by the river's edge." Or: "He lays himself down on the river's brink"--W. Walker cor. "For some years past, I have had an ardent wish to retire to some of our American plantations."--Cowley cor. "I fear thou wilt shrink from the payment of it."--Ware cor. "We never retain an idea, without acquiring some combination."--Rippingham cor.

  "Yet more; the stroke of death he must abide,
   Then lies he meekly down, fast by his brethren's side."
       --Milton cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--OF VERBS MISAPPLIED.

"The parliament confiscated the property of all those who had borne arms against the king."--Hume cor. "The practice of confiscating ships that had been wrecked"'--Id. "The nearer his military successes brought him to the throne." Or: "The nearer, through his military successes, he approached the throne."--Id. "In the next example, you' represents 'ladies; therefore it is plural."--Kirkham cor. "The first its' stands for 'vale; the second its represents stream."-- Id. "Pronouns do not always prevent the repetition of nouns."--Id. "Very is an adverb of degree; it relates to the adjective good"--Id. "You will please to commit to memory the following paragraph."--Id. "Even the Greek and Latin passive verbs form some of their tenses by means of auxiliaries."--L. Mur. cor. "The deponent verbs in Latin also employ auxiliaries to form several of their tenses."--Id. "I have no doubt he made as wise and true proverbs, as any body has made since."--Id. "Monotonous delivery assumes as many set forms, as ever Proteus did of fleeting shapes."--Kirkham cor. "When words in apposition are uttered in quick succession."--Nixon cor. "Where many such sentences occur in succession."--L. Mur. cor. "Wisdom leads us to speak and do what is most proper."--Blair and L. Murray cor.

  "Jul. Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?
   Rom. Neither, fair saint, if either thee displease." Or:--
   "Neither, fair saint, if either thou dislike."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--OF PASSIVE VERBS.

"To us, too, must be allowed the privilege of forming our own laws." Or: "We too must have the privilege," &c.--L. Murray cor. "For not only is the use of all the ancient poetic feet allowed [to] us," &c.--Id. et al. cor. "By what code of morals is the right or privilege denied me?"--Bartlett cor. "To the children of Israel alone, has the possession of it been denied."--Keith cor. "At York, all quarter was refused to fifteen hundred Jews."--Id. "He would teach the French language in three lessons, provided there were paid him fifty-five dollars in advance."--Prof. Chazotte cor. "And when it was demanded of him by the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come." Or: "And when the Pharisees demanded of him," &c.--Bible cor. "A book has been shown me."--Dr. Campbell cor. "To John Horne Tooke admission was refused, only because he had been in holy orders."--W. Duane cor. "Mr. Horne Tooke having taken orders, admission to the bar was refused him."--Churchill cor. "Its reference to place is disregarded."--Dr. Bullions cor. "What striking lesson is taught by the tenor of this history?"--Bush cor. "No less a sum than eighty thousand pounds had been left him by a friend."--Dr. Priestley cor. "Where there are many things to be done, there must be allowed to each its share of time and labour."--Dr. Johnson cor. "Presenting the subject in a far more practical form, than has heretofore been given it."--Kirkham cor. "If to a being of entire impartiality should be shown the two companies."--Dr. Scott cor. "The command of the British army was offered to him."--Grimshaw cor. "To whom a considerable sum had been unexpectedly left."--Johnson cor. "Whether such a privilege may be granted to a maid or a widow."--Spect. cor. "Happily, to all these affected terms, the public suffrage has been denied."--Campbell cor. "Let the parsing table next be shown him."--Nutting cor. "Then the use of the analyzing table may be explained to him."--Id. "To Pittacus there was offered a great sum of money."--Sanborn cor. "More time for study had been allowed him."--Id. "If a little care were bestowed on the walks that lie between them."--Blair's Rhet., p. 222. "Suppose an office or a bribe be offered me."--Pierpont cor.

  "Is then one chaste, one last embrace denied?
   Shall I not lay me by his clay-cold side?"--Rowe cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--OF PASSIVE VERBS TRANSITIVE.

"The preposition TO is used before nouns of place, when they follow verbs or participles of motion."--Murray et al. cor. "They were not allowed to enter the house."--Mur. cor. "Their separate signification has been overlooked."--Tooke cor. "But, whenever YE is used, it must be in the nominative case, and not in the objective."--Cobbett cor. "It is said, that more persons than one receive handsome salaries, to see that acts of parliament are properly worded."--Churchill cor. "The following Rudiments of English Grammar have been used in the University of Pennsylvania."--Dr. Rogers cor. "It never should be forgotten."-- Newman cor. "A very curious fact has been noticed by those expert metaphysicians."--Campbell cor. "The archbishop interfered that Michelet's lectures might be stopped."--The Friend cor. "The disturbances in Gottengen have been entirely quelled."--Daily Adv. cor. "Besides those which are noticed in these exceptions."--Priestley cor. "As one, two, or three auxiliary verbs are employed."--Id. "The arguments which have been used."--Addison cor. "The circumstance is properly noticed by the author."--Blair cor. "Patagonia has never been taken into possession by any European nation."--Cumming cor. "He will be censured no more."--Walker cor. "The thing was to be terminated somehow."--Hunt cor. "In 1798, the Papal Territory was seized by the French."--Pinnock cor. "The idea has not for a moment escaped the attention of the Board."--C. S. Journal cor. "I shall easily be excused from the labour of more transcription."--Johnson cor. "If I may be allowed to use that expression."--Campbell cor. "If without offence I may make the observation."--Id. "There are other characters, which are frequently used in composition."--Mur. et al. cor. "Such unaccountable infirmities might be overcome, in many cases, and perhaps in most."--Beattie cor. "Which ought never to be employed, or resorted to."--Id. "That care may be taken of the widows." Or: "That the widows may be provided for."--Barclay cor. "Other cavils will yet be noticed."--Pope cor. "Which implies, that to all Christians is eternal salvation offered."--West cor. "Yet even the dogs are allowed to eat the crumbs which fall from their master's table."--Campbell cor. "For we say, the light within must be heeded."--Barclay cor. "This sound of a is noticed in Steele's Grammar."--J. Walker cor. "One came to receive ten guineas for a pair of silver buckles."--M. Edgeworth cor. "Let therefore the application of the several questions in the table be carefully shown [to] him."--Nutting cor. "After a few times, it is no longer noticed by the hearers."--Sheridan cor. "It will not admit of the same excuse, nor receive the same indulgence, from people of any discernment."--Id. "Of inanimate things, property may be made." Or: "Inanimate things may be made property;" i.e., "may become property."--Beattie cor.

  "And, when some rival bids a higher price,
   Will not be sluggish in the work, or nice."--Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--OF PERFECT PARTICIPLES.

"All the words employed to denote spiritual or intellectual things, are in their origin metaphors."--Dr. Campbell cor. "A reply to an argument commonly brought forward by unbelievers."--Dr. Blair cor. "It was once the only form used in the past tenses."--Dr. Ash cor. "Of the points and other characters used in writing."--Id. "If THY be the personal pronoun adopted."--Walker cor. "The Conjunction is a word used to connect [words or] sentences."--Burn cor. "The points which answer these purposes, are the four following."--Harrison cor. "INCENSE signifies perfume exhaled by fire, and used in religious ceremonies."--L. Mur. cor. "In most of his orations, there is too much art; he carries it even to ostentation."--Blair cor. "To illustrate the great truth, so often overlooked in our times."--C. S. Journal cor. "The principal figures calculated to affect the heart, are Exclamation, Confession, Deprecation, Commination, and Imprecation."--Formey cor. "Disgusted at the odious artifices employed by the judge."--Junius cor. "All the reasons for which there was allotted to us a condition out of which so much wickedness and misery would in fact arise."--Bp. Butler cor. "Some characteristical circumstance being generally invented or seized upon."--Ld. Kames cor.

  "And BY is likewise used with names that shew
   The method or the means of what we do."--Ward cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--OF CONSTRUCTIONS AMBIGUOUS.

"Many adverbs admit of degrees of comparison, as do adjectives."--Priestley cor. "But the author who, by the number and reputation of his works, did more than any one else, to bring our language into its present state, was Dryden."--Blair cor. "In some states, courts of admiralty have no juries, nor do courts of chancery employ any at all."--Webster cor. "I feel grateful to my friend."--Murray cor. "This requires a writer to have in his own mind a very clear apprehension of the object which he means to present to us."--Blair cor. "Sense has its own harmony, which naturally contributes something to the harmony of sound."--Id. "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an i, which was formerly inserted, and which gave to the word an additional syllable."--Priestley cor. "There are few to whom I can refer with more advantage than to Mr. Addison."--Blair cor. "DEATH, (in theology,) is a perpetual separation from God, a state of eternal torments."--Webster cor. "That could inform the traveller as well as could the old man himself!"--O. B. Peirce cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--OF YE AND YOU IN SCRIPTURE.

"Ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth."--SCOTT, FRIENDS, and the COMPREHENSIVE BIBLE: Jer., xlix, 3. "Wash you, make you clean."--SCOTT, ALGER, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Isaiah, i, 16. "Strip you, and make you bare, and gird sackcloth upon your loins."--SCOTT, FRIENDS, ET AL.: Isaiah, xxxii, 11. "Ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me."--SCOTT, BRUCE, and BLAYNEY: Job, xix, 3. "If ye knew the gift of God." Or: "If thou knew the gift of God."--See John, iv, 10. "Depart from me, ye workers of iniquity; I know you not."--Penington cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE VI; OF SAME CASES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF PROPER IDENTITY.

"Who would not say, 'If it be I,' rather than, 'If it be me?"--Priestley cor. "Who is there? It is I."--Id. "It is he."--Id. "Are these the houses you were speaking of? Yes; they are the same."--Id. "It is not I, that you are in love with."--Addison cor. "It cannot be I."--Swift cor. "To that which once was thou."--Prior cor. "There is but one man that she can have, and that man is myself."--Priestley cor. "We enter, as it were, into his body, and become in some measure he." Or, better:--"and become in some measure identified with him."--A. Smith and Priestley cor. "Art thou proud yet? Ay, that I am not thou."--Shak. cor. "He knew not who they were."--Milnes cor. "Whom do you think me to be?"--Dr. Lowth's Gram., p. 17. "Who do men say that I, the Son of man, am?"--Bible cor. "But who say ye that I am?"--Id. "Who think ye that I am? I am not he."--Id. "No; I am in error; I perceive it is not the person that I supposed it was."--Winter in London cor. "And while it is He that I serve, life is not without value."--Ware cor. "Without ever dreaming it was he."--Charles XII cor. "Or he was not the illiterate personage that he affected to be."--Montgom. cor. "Yet was he the man who was to be the greatest apostle of the Gentiles."--Barclay cor. "Sweet was the thrilling ecstacy; I know not if 'twas love, or thou."--J. Hogg cor. "Time was, when none would cry, that oaf was I."--Dryden cor. "No matter where the vanquished be, or who."--Rowe cor. "No; I little thought it had been he."--Gratton cor. "That reverence, that godly fear, which is ever due to 'Him who can destroy both body and soul in hell.'"--Maturin cor. "It is we that they seek to please, or rather to astonish."--J. West cor. "Let the same be her that thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac."--Bible cor. "Although I knew it to be him."--Dickens cor. "Dear gentle youth, is't none but thou?"--Dorset cor. "Who do they say it is?"--Fowler cor.

  "These are her garb, not she; they but express
   Her form, her semblance, her appropriate dress."--More cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--OF THE CASE DOUBTFUL.

"I had no knowledge of any connexion between them."--Col. Stone cor. "To promote iniquity in others, is nearly the same thing, as to be the actors of it ourselves." (That is, "For us to promote iniquity in others, is nearly the same thing as for us to be the actors of it ourselves.")--Murray cor. "It must arise from a delicate feeling in ourselves."--Blair and Murray cor. "Because there has not been exercised a competent physical power for their enforcement."--Mass. Legisl. cor. "PUPILAGE, n. The state of a pupil, or scholar."--Dictionaries cor. "Then the other part, being the definition, would include all verbs, of every description."--Peirce cor. "John's friendship for me saved me from inconvenience."--Id. "William's judgeship"--or, "William's appointment to the office of judge,--changed his whole demeanour."--Id. "William's practical acquaintance with teaching, was the cause of the interest he felt."--Id. "To be but one among many, stifleth the chidings of conscience."--Tupper cor. "As for the opinion that it is a close translation, I doubt not that many have been led into that error by the shortness of it."--Pope cor. "All presumption that death is the destruction of living beings, must go upon the supposition that they are compounded, and therefore discerptible."--Bp. Butler cor. "This argues rather that they are proper names."--Churchill cor. "But may it not be retorted, that this gratification itself, is that which excites our resentment?"--Campbell cor. "Under the common notion, that it is a system of the whole poetical art."--Blair cor. "Whose want of time, or whose other circumstances, forbid them to become classical scholars."--Lit. Jour. cor. "It would prove him not to have been a mere fictitious personage." Or: "It would preclude the notion that he was merely a fictitious personage."--Phil. Mu. cor. "For heresy, or under pretence that they are heretics or infidels."--Oath cor. "We may here add Dr. Horne's sermon on Christ, as being the Object of religious adoration."--Rel. World cor. "To say nothing of Dr. Priestley, as being a strenuous advocate," &c.--Id. "Through the agency of Adam, as being their public head." Or: "Because Adam was their public head."--Id. "Objections against the existence of any such moral plan as this."--Butler cor. "A greater instance of a man being a blockhead."--Spect. cor. "We may insure or promote what will make it a happy state of existence to ourselves."--Gurney cor. "Since it often undergoes the same kind of unnatural treatment."--Kirkham cor. "Their apparent foolishness"--"Their appearance of foolishness"--or, "That they appear foolishness,--is no presumption against this."--Butler cor. "But what arises from them as being offences; i.e., from their liability to be perverted."--Id. "And he went into the house of a certain man named Justus, one that worshiped God."--Acts cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF FALSE IDENTIFICATION.

"But popular, he observes, is an ambiguous word."--Blair cor. "The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is often made the subject of a verb."--Murray cor. "When any person, in speaking, introduces his name after the pronoun I, it is of the first person; as, 'I, James, of the city of Boston.'"--R. C. Smith cor. "The name of the person spoken to, is of the second person; as, 'James, come to me.'"--Id. "The name of the person or thing merely spoken of, or about, is of the third person; as, 'James has come.'"--Id. "The passive verb has no object, because its subject or nominative always represents what is acted upon, and the object of a verb must needs be in the objective case."--Id. "When a noun is in the nominative to an active verb, it denotes the actor."--Kirkham cor. "And the pronoun THOU or YE, standing for the name of the person or persons commanded, is its nominative."--Ingersoll cor. "The first person is that which denotes the speaker."--Brown's Institutes, p. 32. "The conjugation of a verb is a regular arrangement of its different variations or inflections throughout the moods and tenses."--Wright cor. "The first person is that which denotes the speaker or writer."--G. BROWN: for the correction of Parker and Fox, Hiley, and Sanborn. "The second person is that which denotes the hearer, or the person addressed."--Id.: for the same. "The third person is that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of."--Id.: for the same, "I is of the first person, singular; WE, of the first person, plural."--Mur. et al. cor. "THOU is of the second person, singular; YE or You, of the second person, plural."--Iid. "HE, SHE, or IT, is of the third person, singular; THEY, of the third person, plural."--Iid. "The nominative case denotes the actor, and is the subject of the verb."--Kirkham cor. "John is the actor, therefore the noun JOHN is in the nominative case."--Id. "The actor is always expressed by the nominative case, unless the verb be passive."--R. C. Smith cor. "The nominative case does not always denote an agent or actor."--Mack cor. "In mentioning each name, tell the part of speech."--John Flint cor. "Of what number is boy? Why?"--Id. "Of what number is pens? Why?"--Id. "The speaker is denoted by the first person; the person spoken to is denoted by the second person; and the person or thing spoken of is denoted by the third person."--Id. "What nouns are of the masculine gender? The names of all males are of the masculine gender."--Id. "An interjection is a word that is uttered merely to indicate some strong or sudden emotion of the mind."--G. Brown's Grammars.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE VII; OF OBJECTIVES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF THE OBJECTIVE IN FORM.

"But I do not remember whom they were for."--Abbott cor. "But if you can't help it, whom do you complain of?"--Collier cor. "Whom was it from? and what was it about?"--M. Edgeworth cor. "I have plenty of victuals, and, between you and me, something in a corner."--Day cor. "The upper one, whom I am now about to speak of."--Leigh Hunt cor. "And to poor us, thy enmity is most capital."--Shak. cor. "Which, thou dost confess, 'twere fit for thee to use, as them to claim." That is,--"as for them to claim."--Id. "To beg of thee, it is my more dishonour, than thee of them." That is,--"than for thee to beg of them."--Id. "There are still a few, who, like thee and me, drink nothing but water."--Gil Bias cor. "Thus, 'I shall fall,'--'Thou shalt love thy neighbour,'--'He shall be rewarded,'--express no resolution on the part of me, thee, or him." Or better:--"on the part of the persons signified by the nominatives, I, Thou, He."--Lennie and Bullions cor. "So saucy with the hand of her here--what's her name?"--Shak. cor. "All debts are cleared between you and me."--Id. "Her price is paid, and she is sold like thee."--HARRISON'S E. Lang., p. 172. "Search through all the most flourishing eras of Greece."--Dr. Brown cor. "The family of the Rudolphs has been long distinguished."--The Friend cor. "It will do well enough for you and me."--Edgeworth cor. "The public will soon discriminate between him who is the sycophant, and him who is the teacher."--Chazotte cor. "We are still much at a loss to determine whom civil power belongs to."--Locke cor. "What do you call it? and to whom does it belong?"--Collier cor. "He had received no lessons from the Socrateses, the Platoes, and the Confuciuses of the age."--Haller cor. "I cannot tell whom to compare them to."--Bunyan cor. "I see there was some resemblance betwixt this good man and me."--Id. "They, by those means, have brought themselves into the hands and house of I do not know whom."--Id. "But at length she said, there was a great deal of difference between Mr. Cotton and us."--Hutch. Hist. cor. "So you must ride on horseback after us."--Mrs. Gilpin cor. "A separation must soon take place between our minister and me,"--Werter cor. "When she exclaimed on Hastings, you, and me."--Shak. cor. "To whom? to thee? What art thou?"--Id. "That they should always bear the certain marks of him from whom they came."--Bp. Butler cor.

  "This life has joys for you and me,
   And joys that riches ne'er could buy."--Burns cor.

UNDER THE NOTE.--OF TIME OR MEASURE.

"Such as almost every child, ten years old, knows."--Town cor. "Four months' schooling will carry any industrious scholar, of ten or twelve years of age, completely through this book."--Id. "A boy of six years of age may be taught to speak as correctly, as Cicero did before the Roman senate."--Webster cor. "A lad about twelve years old, who was taken captive by the Indians."--Id. "Of nothing else than that individual white figure of five inches in length, which is before him."--Campbell cor. "Where lies the fault, that boys of eight or ten years of age are with great difficulty made to understand any of its principles?"--Guy cor. "Where language three centuries old is employed."--Booth cor. "Let a gallows be made, of fifty cubits in height." Or: "Let a gallows fifty cubits high be made."--Bible cor. "I say to this child, nine years old, 'Bring me that hat.' He hastens, and brings it me."--Osborn cor. "'He laid a floor, twelve feet long, and nine feet wide:' that is, the floor was long to the extent of twelve feet, and wide to the extent of nine feet."--Merchant cor. "The Goulah people are a tribe of about fifty thousand in strength." Or: "The Goulah people are a tribe about fifty thousand strong."--Examiner cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE VIII; NOM. ABSOLUTE.

"He having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed."--Inst. of E. G., p. 190. "I being young, they deceived me."--Ib., p. 279. "They refusing to comply, I withdrew."--Ib. "Thou being present, he would not tell what he knew."--Ib. "The child is lost; and I, whither shall I go?"--Ib. "O happy we! surrounded with so many blessings."--Ib. "'Thou too! Brutus, my son!' cried Cæsar, overcome."--Ib. "Thou! Maria! and so late! and who is thy companion?"--Mirror cor. "How swiftly our time passes away! and ah! we, how little concerned to improve it!"--Greenleaf's False Syntax, Gram., p. 47.

  "There all thy gifts and graces we display,
   Thou, only thou, directing all our way."--Pope, Dunciad.


CHAPTER IV.--ADJECTIVES.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE IX.

UNDER NOTE I.--OF AGREEMENT.

"I am not recommending this kind of sufferings to your liking."--Sherlock cor. "I have not been to London these five years."--Webster cor. "Verbs of this kind are more expressive than their radicals."--Dr. Murray cor. "Few of us would be less corrupted than kings are, were we, like them, beset with flatterers, and poisoned with those vermin."--Kames cor. "But it seems these literati had been very ill rewarded for their ingenious labours."--R. Random cor. "If I had not left off troubling myself about things of that kind."--Swift cor. "For things of this sort are usually joined to the most noted fortune."--Bacon cor. "The nature of those riches and that long-suffering, is, to lead to repentance."--Barclay cor. "I fancy it is this kind of gods, that Horace mentions."--Addison cor. "During those eight days, they are prohibited from touching the skin."--Hope of Is. cor. "Besides, he had but a small quantity of provisions left for his army."--Goldsmith cor. "Are you not ashamed to have no other thoughts than those of amassing wealth, and of acquiring glory, credit, and dignities?"--Murray's Sequel, p. 115. "It distinguishes still more remarkably the feelings of the former from those of the latter."--Kames cor. "And these good tidings of the reign shall be published through all the world."--Campbell cor. "These twenty years have I been with thee."--Gen. cor. "In this kind of expressions, some words seem to be understood."--W. Walker cor. "He thought this kind of excesses indicative of greatness."--Hunt cor. "This sort of fellows is very numerous." Or thus: "Fellows of this sort are very numerous."--Spect. cor. "Whereas men of this sort cannot give account of their faith." Or: "Whereas these men cannot give account of their faith."--Barclay cor. "But the question is, whether those are the words."--Id. "So that expressions of this sort are not properly optative."--R. Johnson cor. "Many things are not such as they appear to be."--Sanborn cor. "So that all possible means are used."--Formey cor.

  "We have strict statutes, and most biting laws,
   Which for these nineteen years we have let sleep."--Shak. cor.
   "They could not speak, and so I left them both,
   To bear these tidings to the bloody king."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF FIXED NUMBERS.

"Why, I think she cannot be above six feet two inches high."--Spect. cor. "The world is pretty regular for about forty rods east and ten west."--Id. "The standard being more than two feet above it."--Bacon cor. "Supposing, among other things, that he saw two suns, and two Thebeses."--Id. "On the right hand we go into a parlour thirty-three feet by thirty-nine."--Sheffield cor. "Three pounds of gold went to one shield."--1 Kings cor. "Such an assemblage of men as there appears to have been at that session."--The Friend cor. "And, truly, he has saved me from this labour."--Barclay cor. "Within these three miles may you see it coming."--Shak. cor. "Most of the churches, not all, had one ruling elder or more."--Hutch. cor. "While a Minute Philosopher, not six feet high, attempts to dethrone the Monarch of the universe."--Berkley cor. "The wall is ten feet high."--Harrison cor. "The stalls must be ten feet broad."--Walker cor. "A close prisoner in a room twenty feet square, being at the north side of his chamber, is at liberty to walk twenty feet southward, not to walk twenty feet northward."--Locke cor. "Nor, after all this care and industry, did they think themselves qualified."--C. Orator cor. "No fewer than thirteen Gypsies were condemned at one Suffolk assize, and executed."--Webster cor. "The king was petitioned to appoint one person or more."--Mrs. Macaulay cor. "He carries weight! he rides a race! 'Tis for a thousand pounds."--Cowper cor. "They carry three tiers of guns at the head, and at the stern, two tiers"--Joh. Dict. cor. "The verses consist of two sorts of rhymes."--Formey cor. "A present of forty camel-loads of the most precious things of Syria."--Wood's Dict. cor. "A large grammar, that shall extend to every minutia"--S. Barrett cor.

  "So many spots, like næves on Venus' soil,
   One gem set off with many a glitt'ring foil."--Dryden cor.
   "For, off the end, a double handful
   It had devour'd, it was so manful."--Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--OF RECIPROCALS.

"That shall and will might be substituted one for the other."--Priestley cor. "We use not shall and will promiscuously the one for the other."--Brightland cor. "But I wish to distinguish the three high ones from one an other also."--Fowle cor. "Or on some other relation which two objects bear to each other."--Blair cor. "Yet the two words lie so near to each other in meaning, that, in the present case, perhaps either of them would have been sufficient."--Id. "Both orators use great liberties in their treatment of each other."--Id. "That greater separation of the two sexes from each other."--Id. "Most of whom live remote from one an other."--Webster cor. "Teachers like to see their pupils polite to one an other"--Id. "In a little time, he and I must keep company with each other only."--Spect. cor. "Thoughts and circumstances crowd upon one an other."--Kames cor. "They cannot perceive how the ancient Greeks could understand one an other."--Lit. Conv. cor. "The poet, the patriot, and the prophet, vied with one an other in his breast."--Hazlitt cor. "Athamas and Ino loved each other."--C. Tales cor. "Where two things are compared or contrasted one with the other." Or: "Where two things, are compared or contrasted with each other."--Blair and Mur. cor. "In the classification of words, almost all writers differ from one an other."--Bullions cor.

  "I will not trouble thee, my child. Farewell;
   We'll no more meet; we'll no more see each other."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--OF COMPARATIVES.

"Errors in education should be less indulged than any others."--Locke cor. "This was less his case than any other man's that ever wrote."--Pref. to Waller cor. "This trade enriched some other people more than it enriched them."--Mur. cor. "The Chaldee alphabet, in which the Old Testament has reached us, is more beautiful than any other ancient character known."--Wilson cor. "The Christian religion gives a more lovely character of God, than any other religion ever did."--Murray cor. "The temple of Cholula was deemed more holy than any other in New Spain."--Robertson cor. "Cibber grants it to be a better poem of its kind than any other that ever was written"--Pope cor. "Shakspeare is more faithful to the true language of nature, than any other writer."--Blair cor. "One son I had--one, more than all my other sons, the strength of Troy." Or: "One son I had--one, the most of all my sons, the strength of Troy."--Cowper cor. "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his other children, because he was the son of his old age."--Bible cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--OF SUPERLATIVES.

"Of all simpletons, he was the greatest"--Nutting cor. "Of all beings, man has certainly the greatest reason for gratitude."--Id. "This lady is prettier than any of her sisters."--Peyton cor. "The relation which, of all the class, is by far the most fruitful of tropes, I have not yet mentioned."--Blair cor. "He studied Greek the most of all noblemen."--W. Walker cor. "And indeed that was the qualification which was most wanted at that time."--Goldsmith cor. "Yet we deny that the knowledge of him as outwardly crucified, is the best of all knowledge of him."--Barclay cor. "Our ideas of numbers are, of all our conceptions, the most accurate and distinct"--Duncan cor. "This indeed is, of all cases, the one in which it is least necessary to name the agent"--J. Q. Adams cor. "The period to which you have arrived, is perhaps the most critical and important moment of your lives."--Id. "Perry's royal octavo is esteemed the best of all the pronouncing dictionaries yet known."--D. H. Barnes cor. "This is the tenth persecution, and, of all the ten the most bloody."--Sammes cor. "The English tongue is the most susceptible of sublime imagery, of all the languages in the world."--Bucke cor. "Of all writers whatever, Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest Invention."--Pope cor. "In a version of this particular work, which, more than any other, seems to require a venerable, antique cast."--Id. "Because I think him the best-informed naturalist that has ever written."--Jefferson cor. "Man is capable of being the most social of all animals."--Sheridan cor. "It is, of all signs (or expressions) that which most moves us."--Id. "Which, of all articles, is the most necessary."--Id.

  "Quoth he, 'This gambol thou advisest,
   Is, of all projects, the unwisest.'"--S. Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--OF INCLUSIVE TERMS.

"Noah and his family were the only antediluvians who survived the flood."--Webster cor. "I think it superior to any other grammar that we have yet had."--Blair cor. "We have had no other grammarian who has employed so much labour and judgement upon our native language, as has the author of these volumes."--British Critic cor. "Those persons feel most for the distresses of others, who have experienced distresses themselves."--L. Murray cor. "Never was any other people so much infatuated as the Jewish nation."--Id. et al. cor. "No other tongue is so full of connective particles as the Greek."--Blair cor. "Never was sovereign so much beloved by the people." Or: "Never was any other sovereign so much beloved by his people."--L. Murray cor. "Nothing else ever affected her so much as this misconduct of her child."--Id. et al. cor. "Of all the figures of speech, no other comes so near to painting as does metaphor."--Blair et al. cor. "I know no other writer so happy in his metaphors as is Mr. Addison."--Blair cor. "Of all the English authors, none is more happy in his metaphors than Addison."--Jamieson cor. "Perhaps no other writer in the world was ever so frugal of his words as Aristotle."--Blair and Jamieson cor. "Never was any other writer so happy in that concise and spirited style, as Mr. Pope."--Blair cor. "In the harmonious structure and disposition of his periods, no other writer whatever, ancient or modern, equals Cicero."--Blair and Jamieson cor. "Nothing else delights me so much as the works of nature."--L. Mur. cor. "No person was ever more perplexed than he has been to-day."--Id. "In no other case are writers so apt to err, as in the position of the word only."--Maunder cor. "For nothing is more tiresome than perpetual uniformity."--Blair cor.

  "Naught else sublimes the spirit, sets it free,
   Like sacred and soul-moving poesy."--Sheffield cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--EXTRA COMPARISONS.

"How much better are ye than the fowls!"--Bible cor. "Do not thou hasten above the Most High."--Esdras cor. "This word, PEER, is principally used for the nobility of the realm."--Cowell cor. "Because the same is not only most generally received, &c."--Barclay cor. "This is, I say, not the best and most important evidence."--Id. "Offer unto God thanksgiving, and pay thy vows unto the Most High."--The Psalter cor. "The holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High."--Id. "As boys should be educated with temperance, so the first great lesson that should be taught them, is, to admire frugality."--Goldsmith cor. "More general terms are put for such as are more restricted."--Rev. J. Brown cor. "This, this was the unkindest cut of all."--Enfield's Speaker, p. 353. "To take the basest and most squalid shape."--Shak. cor. "I'll forbear: I have fallen out with my more heady will."--Id. "The power of the Most High guard thee from sin."--Percival cor. "Which title had been more true, if the dictionary had been in Latin and Welsh."--Verstegan cor. "The waters are frozen sooner and harder, than further upward, within the inlands."--Id. "At every descent, the worst may become more depraved."--Mann cor.

  "Or as a moat defensive to a house
   Against the envy of less happy lands."--Shak. cor.
   "A dreadful quiet felt, and worse by far
   Than arms, a sullen interval of war."--Dryden cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--ADJECTIVES CONNECTED.

"It breaks forth in its highest, most energetic, and most impassioned strain."--Kirkham cor. "He has fallen into the vilest and grossest sort of railing."--Barclay cor. "To receive that higher and more general instruction which the public affords."--J. O. Taylor cor. "If the best things have the best and most perfect operations."--Hooker cor. "It became the plainest and most elegant, the richest and most splendid, of all languages."--Bucke cor. "But the principal and most frequent use of pauses, is, to mark the divisions of the sense."--Blair cor. "That every thing belonging to ourselves is the best and the most perfect."-- Clarkson cor. "And to instruct their pupils in the best and most thorough manner."--School Committee cor.

UNDER NOTE IX.--ADJECTIVES SUPERADDED.

"The Father is figured out as a venerable old man."--Brownlee cor. "There never was exhibited an other such masterpiece of ghostly assurance."--Id. "After the first three sentences, the question is entirely lost."--Spect. cor. "The last four parts of speech are commonly called particles."--Al. Murray cor. "The last two chapters will not be found deficient in this respect."--Todd cor. "Write upon your slates a list of the first ten nouns."--J. Abbott cor. "We have a few remains of two other Greek poets in the pastoral style, Moschus and Bion."--Blair cor. "The first nine chapters of the book of Proverbs are highly poetical."--Id. "For, of these five heads, only the first two have any particular relation to the sublime."--Id. "The resembling sounds of the last two syllables give a ludicrous air to the whole."--Kames cor. "The last three are arbitrary."--Id. "But in the sentence, 'She hangs the curtains,' hangs is an active-transitive verb."--Comly cor. "If our definition of a verb, and the arrangement of active-transitive, active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, are properly understood."--Id. "These last two lines have an embarrassing construction."--Rush cor. "God was provoked to drown them all, but Noah and seven other persons."--Wood cor. "The first six books of the Æneid are extremely beautiful."--Formey cor. "Only a few instances more can here be given."--Murray cor. "A few years more will obliterate every vestige of a subjunctive form."--Nutting cor. "Some define them to be verbs devoid of the first two persons."--Crombie cor. "In an other such Essay-tract as this."--White cor. "But we fear that not an other such man is to be found."--Edward Irving cor. "O for an other such sleep, that I might see an other such man!" Or, to preserve poetic measure, say:--

  "O for such sleep again, that I might see
   An other such man, though but in a dream!"--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--ADJECTIVES FOR ADVERBS.

"The is an article, relating to the noun balm, agreeably to Rule 11th."--Comly cor. "Wise is an adjective, relating to the noun man's, agreeably to Rule 11th."--Id. "To whom I observed, that the beer was extremely good."--Goldsmith cor. "He writes very elegantly." Or: "He writes with remarkable elegance."--O. B. Peirce cor. "John behaves very civilly (or, with true civility) to all men."--Id. "All the sorts of words hitherto considered, have each of them some meaning, even when taken separately."--Beattie cor. "He behaved himself conformably to that blessed example."--Sprat cor. "Marvellously graceful."-- Clarendon cor. "The Queen having changed her ministry, suitably to her wisdom."--Swift cor. "The assertions of this author are more easily detected."--Id. "The characteristic of his sect allowed him to affirm no more strongly than that."--Bentley cor. "If one author had spoken more nobly and loftily than an other."--Id. "Xenophon says expressly."-- Id. "I can never think so very meanly of him."--Id. "To convince all that are ungodly among them, of all their ungodly deeds, which they have impiously committed."--Bible cor. "I think it very ably written." Or: "I think it written in a very masterly manner."--Swift cor. "The whole design must refer to the golden age, which it represents in a lively manner."--Addison cor. "Agreeably to this, we read of names being blotted out of God's book."--Burder et al. cor. "Agreeably to the law of nature, children are bound to support their indigent parents."--Paley. "Words taken independently of their meaning, are parsed as nouns of the neuter gender."--Maltby cor.

  "Conceit in weakest bodies strongliest works."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE XI.--THEM FOR THOSE.

"Though he was not known by those letters, or the name CHRIST."--Bayly cor. "In a gig, or some of those things." Better: "In a gig, or some such vehicle."--M. Edgeworth cor. "When cross-examined by those lawyers."--Same. "As the custom in those cases is."--Same. "If you had listened to those slanders."--Same. "The old people were telling stories about those fairies; but, to the best of my judgement, there is nothing in them."--Same. "And is it not a pity that the Quakers have no better authority to substantiate their principles, than the testimony of those old Pharisees?"--Hibbard cor.


UNDER NOTE XII.--THIS AND THAT.

"Hope is as strong an incentive to action, as fear: that is the anticipation of good, this of evil."--Inst., p. 265. "The poor want some advantages which the rich enjoy; but we should not therefore account these happy, and those miserable."--Inst., p. 266.

  "Ellen and Margaret, fearfully,
   Sought comfort in each other's eye;
   Then turned their ghastly look each one,
   That to her sire, this to her son."--Scott cor.
   "Six youthful sons, as many blooming maids,
   In one sad day beheld the Stygian shades;
   Those by Apollo's silver bow were slain,
   These Cynthia's arrows stretch'd upon the plain."--Pope cor.
   "Memory and forecast just returns engage,
   That pointing back to youth, this on to age."--Pope, on Man.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--EITHER AND NEITHER.

"These make the three great subjects of discussion among mankind; namely, truth, duty, and interest: but the arguments directed towards any of them are generically distinct."--Dr. Blair cor. "A thousand other deviations may be made, and still any of the accounts may be correct in principle; for all these divisions, and their technical terms, are arbitrary."--R. W. Green cor. "Thus it appears, that our alphabet is deficient; as it has but seven vowels to represent thirteen different sounds; and has no letter to represent any of five simple consonant sounds."--Churchill cor. "Then none of these five verbs can be neuter."--O. B. Peirce cor. "And the assertor[534] is in none of the four already mentioned."--Id. "As it is not in any of these four."--Id. "See whether or not the word comes within the definition of any of the other three simple cases."--Id. "No one of the ten was there."--Frazee cor. "Here are ten oranges, take any one of them."--Id. "There are three modes, by any of which recollection will generally be supplied; inclination, practice, and association."--Rippingham cor. "Words not reducible to any of the three preceding heads."--Fowler cor. "Now a sentence may be analyzed in reference to any of these four classes."--Id.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--WHOLE, LESS, MORE, AND MOST.

"Does not all proceed from the law, which regulates all the departments of the state?"--Blair cor. "A messenger relates to Theseus all the particulars."--Ld. Kames cor. "There are no fewer than twenty-nine diphthongs in the English language."--Ash cor. "The Redcross Knight runs through all the steps of the Christian life."--Spect. cor. "There were not fewer than fifty or sixty persons present."--Mills and Merchant cor. "Greater experience, and a more cultivated state of society, abate the warmth of imagination, and chasten the manner of expression."--Blair and Murray cor. "By which means, knowledge, rather than oratory, has become the principal requisite."--Blair cor. "No fewer than seven illustrious cities disputed the right of having given birth to the greatest of poets."--Lempriere cor. "Temperance, rather than medicines, is the proper means of curing many diseases."--Murray cor. "I do not suppose, that we Britons are more deficient in genius than our neighbours."--Id. "In which, he says, he has found no fewer than twelve untruths."--Barclay cor. "The several places of rendezvous were concerted, and all the operations were fixed."--Hume cor. "In these rigid opinions, all the sectaries concurred."--Id. "Out of whose modifications have been made nearly all complex modes."--Locke cor. "The Chinese vary each of their words on no fewer than five different tones."--Blair cor. "These people, though they possess brighter qualities, are not so proud as he is, nor so vain as she."--Murray cor. "It is certain, that we believe our own judgements more firmly, after we have made a thorough inquiry into the things."--Brightland cor. "As well as the whole course and all the reasons of the operation."--Id. "Those rules and principles which are of the greatest practical advantage."--Newman cor. "And all curse shall be no more."--Rev. cor.--(See the Greek.) "And death shall be no more."--Id. "But, in recompense, we have pleasanter pictures of ancient manners."--Blair cor. "Our language has suffered a greater number of injurious changes in America, since the British army landed on our shores, than it had suffered before, in the period of three centuries."--Webster cor. "All the conveniences of life are derived from mutual aid and support in society."--Ld. Kames cor.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

"To such as think the nature of it deserving of their attention."--Bp. Butler cor. "In all points, more deserving of the approbation of their readers."--Keepsake cor. "But to give way to childish sensations, was unbecoming to our nature."--Lempriere cor. "The following extracts are deserving of the serious perusal of all."--The Friend cor. "No inquiry into wisdom, however superficial, is undeserving of attention."--Bulwer cor. "The opinions of illustrious men are deserving of great consideration."--Porter cor. "And resolutely keep its laws. Uncaring for consequences." Or:--"Not heeding consequences."--Burns cor. "This is an item that is deserving of more attention."--Goodell cor.

  "Leave then thy joys, unsuiting to such age:"--Or,
   "Leave then thy joys not suiting such an age,
   To a fresh comer, and resign the stage."--Dryden cor.


UNDER NOTE XVI.--FIGURE OF ADJECTIVES.

"The tall dark mountains and the deep-toned seas."--Dana. "O! learn from him To station quick-eyed Prudence at the helm."--Frost cor. "He went in a one-horse chaise."--David Blair cor. "It ought to be, 'in a one-horse chaise.'"--Crombie cor. "These are marked with the above-mentioned letters."--Folker cor. "A many-headed faction."--Ware cor. "Lest there should be no authority in any popular grammar, for the perhaps heaven-inspired effort."--Fowle cor. "Common-metre stanzas consist of four iambic lines; one of eight, and the next of six syllables. They were formerly written in two fourteen-syllable lines."--Goodenow cor. "Short-metre stanzas consist of four iambic lines; the third of eight, the rest of six syllables."--Id. "Particular-metre stanzas consist of six iambic lines; the third and sixth of six syllables, the rest of eight."--Id. "Hallelujah-metre stanzas consist of six iambic lines; the last two of eight syllables, and the rest of six."--Id. "Long-metre stanzas are merely the union of four iambic lines, of ten syllables each."--Id. "A majesty more commanding than is to be found among the rest of the Old-Testament poets."--Blair cor.

  "You, sulphurous and thought-executed fires,
   Vaunt-couriers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts,
   Singe my white head! And thou, all-shaking thunder,
   Strike flat the thick rotundity o' th' world!"--Lear, Act iii, Sc. 2.


CHAPTER V.--PRONOUNS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE X AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--OF AGREEMENT.

"The subject is to be joined with its predicate."--Wilkins cor. "Every one must judge of his own feelings."--Byron cor. "Every one in the family should know his or her duty."--Penn cor. "To introduce its possessor into that way in which he should go."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Do not they say, that every true believer has the Spirit of God in him?"--Barclay cor. "There is none in his natural state righteous; no, not one."--Wood cor. "If ye were of the world, the world would love its own."--Bible cor. "His form had not yet lost all its original brightness."--Milton cor. "No one will answer as if I were his friend or companion."--Steele cor. "But, in lowliness of mind, let each esteem others better than himself."--Bible cor. "And let none of you imagine evil in his heart against his neighbour."--Id. "For every tree is known by its own fruit."--Id. "But she fell to laughing, like one out of his right mind."--M. Edgeworth cor. "Now these systems, so far from having any tendency to make men better, have a manifest tendency to make them worse."--Wayland cor. "And nobody else would make that city his refuge any more."--Josephus cor. "What is quantity, as it respects syllables or words? It is the time which a speaker occupies in pronouncing them."--Bradley cor. "In such expressions, the adjective so much resembles an adverb in its meaning, that it is usually parsed as such."--Bullions cor. "The tongue is like a racehorse; which runs the faster, the less weight he carries." Or thus: "The tongue is like a racehorse; the less weight it carries, the faster it runs."--Addison, Murray, et al. cor. "As two thoughtless boys were trying to see which could lift the greatest weight with his jaws, one of them had several of his firm-set teeth wrenched from their sockets."--Newspaper cor. "Every body nowadays publishes memoirs; every body has recollections which he thinks worthy of recording."--Duchess D'Ab. cor. "Every body trembled, for himself, or for his friends."--Goldsmith cor.

  "A steed comes at morning: no rider is there;
   But his bridle is red with the sign of despair."--Campbell cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--PRONOUNS WRONG--OR NEEDLESS.

"Charles loves to study; but John, alas! is very idle."--Merchant cor. "Or what man is there of you, who, if his son ask bread, will give him a stone?"--Bible cor. "Who, in stead of going about doing good, are perpetually intent upon doing mischief."--Tillotson cor. "Whom ye delivered up, and denied in the presence of Pontius Pilate."--Bible cor. "Whom, when they had washed her, they laid in an upper chamber."--Id. "Then Manasseh knew that the Lord was God."--Id. "Whatever a man conceives clearly, he may, if he will be at the trouble, put into distinct propositions, and express clearly to others."--See Blair's Rhet., p. 93. "But the painter, being entirely confined to that part of time which he has chosen, cannot exhibit various stages of the same action."--Murray's Gram., i, 195. "What he subjoins, is without any proof at all."--Barclay cor. "George Fox's Testimony concerning Robert Barclay."--Title cor. "According to the advice of the author of the Postcript [sic--KTH]."--Barclay cor. "These things seem as ugly to the eye of their meditations, as those Ethiopians that were pictured on Nemesis's pitcher."--Bacon cor. "Moreover, there is always a twofold condition propounded with the Sphynx's enigmas."--Id. "Whoever believeth not therein, shall perish."--Koran cor. "When, at Sestius's entreaty, I had been at his house."--W. Walker cor.

  "There high on Sipylus's shaggy brow,
   She stands, her own sad monument of wo."--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--CHANGE OF NUMBER.

"So will I send upon you famine, and evil beasts, and they shall bereave you."--Bible cor. "Why do you plead so much for it? why do you preach it up?" Or: "Why do ye plead so much for it? why do ye preach it up?"--Barclay cor. "Since thou hast decreed that I shall bear man, thy darling."--Edward's Gram. cor. "You have my book, and I have yours; i.e., your book." Or thus: "Thou hast my book, and I have thine; i.e., thy book."--Chandler cor. "Neither art thou such a one as to be ignorant of what thou art."--Bullions cor. "Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the Lord, and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon thee."--Bible cor. "The Almighty, unwilling to cut thee off in the fullness of iniquity, has sent me to give thee warning."--Ld. Kames cor. "Wast thou born only for pleasure? wast thou never to do any thing?"--Collier cor. "Thou shalt be required to go to God, to die, and to give up thy account."--Barnes cor. "And canst thou expect to behold the resplendent glow of the Creator? would not such a sight annihilate thee?"--Milton cor. "If the prophet had commanded thee to do some great thing, wouldst thou have refused?"--C. S. Journal cor. "Art thou a penitent? evince thy sincerity, by bringing forth fruits meet for repentance."--Vade-Mecum cor. "I will call thee my dear son: I remember all thy tenderness."--C. Tales cor. "So do thou, my son: open thy ears, and thy eyes."--Wright cor. "I promise you, this was enough to discourage you."--Bunyan cor. "Ere you remark an other's sin, Bid your own conscience look within."--Gay cor. "Permit that I share in thy wo, The privilege canst thou refuse?"--Perfect cor. "Ah! Strephon, how canst thou despise Her who, without thy pity, dies?"--Swift cor.

  "Thy verses, friend, are Kidderminster stuff;
   And I must own, thou'st measured out enough."--Shenst. cor.
   "This day, dear Bee, is thy nativity;
   Had Fate a luckier one, she'd give it thee."--Swift cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--WHO AND WHICH.

"Exactly like so many puppets, which are moved by wires."--Blair cor. "They are my servants, whom I brought forth[535] out of the land of Egypt."--Leviticus, xxv, 55. "Behold, I and the children whom God hath given me."--See Isaiah, viii, 18. "And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe."--Isaiah, xxxvii, 2. "In a short time the streets were cleared of the corpses which filled them."--M'Ilvaine cor. "They are not of those who teach things that they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake."--Barclay cor. "As a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep; which, if he go through, both treadeth down and teareth in pieces."--Bible cor. "Frequented by every fowl which nature has taught to dip the wing in water."--Johnson cor. "He had two sons, one of whom was adopted by the family of Maximus."--Lempriere cor. "And the ants, which are collected by the smell, are burned with fire."--The Friend cor. "They being the agents to whom this thing was trusted."--Nixon cor. "A packhorse which is driven constantly one way and the other, to and from market."--Locke cor. "By instructing children, whose affection will be increased."--Nixon cor. "He had a comely young woman, who travelled with him."--Hutchinson cor. "A butterfly, who thought himself an accomplished traveller, happened to light upon a beehive."--Inst., p. 267. "It is an enormous elephant of stone, which disgorges from his uplifted trunk a vast but graceful shower."--Ware cor. "He was met by a dolphin, which sometimes swam before him, and sometimes behind him."--Edward's Gram. cor.

  "That Cæsar's horse, which, as fame goes,
   Had corns upon his feet and toes,
   Was not by half so tender-hoof'd,
   Nor trod upon the ground so soft."--Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--NOUNS OF MULTITUDE.

"He instructed and fed the crowds that surrounded him."--Murray's Key. "The court, which gives currency to manners, ought to be exemplary." p. 187. "Nor does he describe classes of sinners that do not exist."--Mag. cor. "Because the nations among which they took their rise, were not savage."--Murray cor. "Among nations that are in the first and rude periods of society."--Blair cor. "The martial spirit of those nations among which the feudal government prevailed."--Id. "France, which was in alliance with Sweden."--Priestley's Gram., p. 97. "That faction, in England, which most powerfully opposed his arbitrary pretensions."--Ib. "We may say, 'the crowd which was going up the street.'"--Cobbett's E. Gram., ¶ 204. "Such members of the Convention which formed this Lyceum, as have subscribed this Constitution."--N. Y. Lyceum cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--CONFUSION OF SENSES.

"The name of the possessor shall take a particular form to show its case."--Kirkham cor. "Of which reasons, the principal one is, that no noun, properly so called, implies the presence of the thing named."--Harris cor. "Boston is a proper noun, which distinguishes the city of Boston from other cities."--Sanborn cor. "The word CONJUNCTION means union, or the act of joining together. Conjunctions are used to join or connect either words or sentences."--Id. "The word INTERJECTION means the act of throwing between. Interjections are interspersed among other words, to express strong or sudden emotion."--Id. "Indeed is composed of in and deed. The words may better be written separately, as they formerly were."--Cardell cor. "Alexander, on the contrary, is a particular name; and is employed to distinguish an individual only."--Jamieson cor. "As an indication that nature itself had changed its course." Or:--"that Nature herself had changed her course."--History cor. "Of removing from the United States and their territories the free people of colour."--Jenifer cor. "So that gh may be said not to have its proper sound." Or thus: "So that the letters, g and h, may be said not to have their proper sounds."--Webster cor. "Are we to welcome the loathsome harlot, and introduce her to our children?"--Maturin cor. "The first question is this: 'Is reputable, national, and present use, which, for brevity's sake, I shall hereafter simply denominate good use, always uniform, [i. e., undivided, and unequivocal,] in its decisions?"--Campbell cor. "In personifications, Time is always masculine, on account of his mighty efficacy; Virtue, feminine, by reason of her beauty and loveliness."--Murray, Blair, et al. cor. "When you speak to a person or thing, the noun or pronoun is in the second person."--Bartlett cor. "You now know the noun; for noun means name."--Id. "T. What do you see? P. A book. T. Spell book."--R. W. Green cor. "T. What do you see now? P. Two books. T. Spell books."--Id. "If the United States lose their rights as a nation."--Liberator cor. "When a person or thing is addressed or spoken to, the noun or pronoun is in the second person."--Frost cor. "When a person or thing is merely spoken of, the noun or pronoun is in the third person."--Id. "The word OX also, taking the same plural termination, makes OXEN."--Bucke cor.

  "Hail, happy States! yours is the blissful seat
   Where nature's gifts and art's improvements meet."--Everett cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--THE RELATIVE THAT.

(1.) "This is the most useful art that men possess."--L. Murray cor. "The earliest accounts that history gives us, concerning all nations, bear testimony to these facts."--Blair et al. cor. "Mr. Addison was the first that attempted a regular inquiry into the pleasures of taste."--Blair cor. "One of the first that introduced it, was Montesquieu."--Murray cor. "Massillon is perhaps the most eloquent sermonizer that modern times have produced."--Blair cor. "The greatest barber that ever lived, is our guiding star and prototype."--Hart cor.

(2.) "When prepositions are subjoined to nouns, they are generally the same that are subjoined to the verbs from which the nouns are derived."--Murray's Gram., p. 200. Better thus: "The prepositions which are subjoined to nouns, are generally the same that," &c.--Priestley cor. "The same proportions that are agreeable in a model, are not agreeable in a large building."--Kames cor. "The same ornaments that we admire in a private apartment, are unseemly in a temple."--Murray cor. "The same that John saw also in the sun."--Milton cor.

(3.) "Who can ever be easy, that is reproached with his own ill conduct?"--T. à Kempis cor. "Who is she that comes clothed in a robe of green?"--Inst., p. 267. "Who that has either sense or civility, does not perceive the vileness of profanity?"--G. Brown.

(4.) "The second person denotes the person or thing that is spoken to."--Kirkham cor. "The third person denotes the person or thing that is spoken of."--Id. "A passive verb denotes action received, or endured by the person or thing that is signified by its nominative."--Id. "The princes and states that had neglected or favoured the growth of this power."--Bolingbroke cor. "The nominative expresses the name of the person or thing that acts, or that is the subject of discourse."--Hiley cor.

(5.) "Authors that deal in long sentences, are very apt to be faulty."--Blair cor. "Writers that deal," &c.--Murray cor. "The neuter gender denotes objects that are neither male nor female."--Merchant cor. "The neuter gender denotes things that have no sex."--Kirkham cor. "Nouns that denote objects neither male nor female, are of the neuter gender."--Wells's Gram. of late, p. 55. Better thus: "Those nouns which denote objects that are neither male nor female, are of the neuter gender."--Wells cor. "Objects and ideas that have been long familiar, make too faint an impression to give an agreeable exercise to our faculties."--Blair cor. "Cases that custom has left dubious, are certainly within the grammarian's province."--L. Murray cor. "Substantives that end in ery, signify action or habit."--Id. "After all that can be done to render the definitions and rules of grammar accurate."--Id. "Possibly, all that I have said, is known and taught."--A. B. Johnson cor.

(6.) "It is a strong and manly style that should chiefly be studied."--Blair cor. "It is this [viz., precision] that chiefly makes a division appear neat and elegant."--Id. "I hope it is not I that he is displeased with."--L. Murray cor. "When it is this alone that renders the sentence obscure."--Campbell cor. "This sort of full and ample assertion, 'It is this that,' is fit to be used when a proposition of importance is laid down."--Blair cor. "She is not the person that I understood it to have been."--L. Murray cor. "Was it thou, or the wind, that shut the door?"--Inst., p. 267. "It was not I that shut it."--Ib.

(7.) "He is not the person that he seemed to be."--Murray and Ingersoll cor. "He is really the person that he appeared to be."--Iid. "She is not now the woman that they represented her to have been."--Iid. "An only child is one that has neither brother nor sister; a child alone is one that is left by itself, or unaccompanied."--Blair, Jam., and Mur., cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--RELATIVE CLAUSES CONNECTED.

(1.) "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of a thing; (i. e.,) of whatever we conceive to subsist, or of whatever we merely imagine."--Lowth cor. (2.) "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of any thing which exists, or of which we have any notion."--Murray et al. cor. (3.) "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of any person, place, or thing, that exists, or that we can have an idea of."--Frost cor. (4.) "A noun is the name of any thing which exists, or of which we form an idea."--Hallock cor. (5.) "A Noun is the name of any person, place, object, or thing, that exists, or that we may conceive to exist."--D. C. Allen cor. (6.) "The name of every thing which exists, or of which we can form a notion, is a noun."--Fisk cor. (7.) "An allegory is the representation of some one thing by an other that resembles it, and that is made to stand for it."--Blair's Rhet., p. 150. (8.) "Had he exhibited such sentences as contained ideas inapplicable to young minds, or such as were of a trivial or injurious nature."--L. Murray cor. (9.) "Man would have others obey him, even his own kind; but he will not obey God, who is so much above him, and who made him."--Penn cor. (10.) "But what we may consider here, and what few persons have noticed, is," &c.--Brightland cor. (11.) "The compiler has not inserted those verbs which are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly terminated by t in stead of ed."--Murray, Fisk, Hart, Ingersoll et al., cor. (12.) "The remaining parts of speech, which are called the indeclinable parts, and which admit of no variations, (or, being words that admit of no variations,) will not detain us long."--Dr. Blair cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--THE RELATIVE AND PREPOSITION.

"In the temper of mind in which he was then."--Lowth's Gram., p. 102. "To bring them into the condition in which I am at present."--Add. cor. "In the posture in which I lay."--Lowth's Gram., p. 102. "In the sense in which it is sometimes taken."--Barclay cor. "Tools and utensils are said to be right, when they answer well the uses for which they were made."--Collier cor. "If, in the extreme danger in which I now am," &c. Or: "If, in my present extreme danger," &c.--Murray's Sequel, p. 116. "News was brought, that Dairus [sic--KTH] was but twenty miles from the place in which they then were."--Goldsmith cor. "Alexander, upon hearing this news, continued four days where he then was:" or--"in the place in which he then was."--Id. "To read in the best manner in which reading is now taught."--L. Murray cor. "It may be expedient to give a few directions as to the manner in which it should be studied."--Hallock cor. "Participles are words derived from verbs, and convey an idea of the acting of an agent, or the suffering of an object, with the time at which it happens." [536]--A. Murray cor.

  "Had I but serv'd my God with half the zeal
   With which I serv'd my king, he would not thus,
   In age, have left me naked to my foes."--Shak. cor.

UNDER NOTE IX.--ADVERBS FOR RELATIVES. "In compositions that are not designed to be delivered in public."--Blair cor. "They framed a protestation in which they repeated their claims."--Priestley's Gram., p. 133; Murray's, 197. "Which have reference to inanimate substances, in which sex has no existence."--Harris cor. "Which denote substances in which sex never had existence."--Ingersoll's Gram., p. 26. "There is no rule given by which the truth may be found out."--W. Walker cor. "The nature of the objects from which they are taken."--Blair cor. "That darkness of character, through which we can see no heart:" [i. e., generous emotion.]--L. Murray cor. "The states with which [or between which] they negotiated."--Formey cor. "Till the motives from which men act, be known."--Beattie cor. "He assigns the principles from which their power of pleasing flows."--Blair cor. "But I went on, and so finished this History, in that form in which it now appears."--Sewel cor. "By prepositions we express the cause for which, the instrument by which, and the manner in which, a thing is done."--A. Murray cor. "They are not such in the language from which they are derived."--Town cor. "I find it very hard to persuade several, that their passions are affected by words from which they have no ideas."--Burke cor. "The known end, then, for which we are placed in a state of so much affliction, hazard, and difficulty, is our improvement in virtue and piety."--Bp. Butler cor.

  "Yet such his acts as Greeks unborn shall tell,
   And curse the strife in which their fathers fell."--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--REPEAT THE NOUN.

"Youth may be thoughtful, but thoughtfulness in the young is not very common."--Webster cor. "A proper name is a name given to one person or thing."--Bartlett cor. "A common name is a name given to many things of the same sort."--Id. "This rule is often violated; some instances of its violation are annexed."--L. Murray et al. cor. "This is altogether careless writing. Such negligence respecting the pronouns, renders style often obscure, and always inelegant."--Blair cor. "Every inversion which is not governed by this rule, will be disrelished by every person of taste."--Kames cor. "A proper diphthong, is a diphthong in which both the vowels are sounded."--Brown's Institutes, p. 18. "An improper diphthong, is a diphthong in which only one of the vowels is sounded."--Ib. "Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the descendants of Jacob, are called Hebrews."--Wood cor. "In our language, every word of more than one syllable, has one of its syllables distinguished from the rest in this manner."--L. Murray cor. "Two consonants proper to begin a word, must not be separated; as, fa-ble, sti-fle. But when two consonants come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided, as, ut-most, un-der."--Id. "Shall the intellect alone feel no pleasures in its energy, when we allow pleasures to the grossest energies of appetite and sense?"--Harris and Murray cor. "No man has a propensity to vice as such: on the contrary, a wicked deed disgusts every one, and makes him abhor the author."--Ld. Kames cor. "The same grammatical properties that belong to nouns, belong also to pronouns."--Greenleaf cor. "What is language? It is the means of communicating thoughts from one person to an other."--O. B. Peirce cor. "A simple word is a word which is not made up of other words."--Adam and Gould cor. "A compound word is a word which is made up of two or more words."--Iid. "When a conjunction is to be supplied, the ellipsis is called Asyndeton."--Adam cor.


UNDER NOTE XI.--PLACE OF THE RELATIVE.

"It gives to words a meaning which they would not have."--L. Murray cor. "There are in the English language many words, that are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs."--Id. "Which do not more effectually show the varied intentions of the mind, than do the auxiliaries which are used to form the potential mood."--Id. "These accents, which will be the subject of a following speculation, make different impressions on the mind."--Ld. Kames cor. "And others differed very much from the words of the writers to whom they were ascribed."--John Ward cor. "Where there is in the sense nothing which requires the last sound to be elevated, an easy fall will be proper."--Murray and Bullions cor. "In the last clause there is an ellipsis of the verb; and, when you supply it, you find it necessary to use the adverb not, in lieu of no."--Campbell and Murray cor. "Study is of the singular number, because the nominative I, with which it agrees, is singular."--R. C. Smith cor. "John is the person who is in error, or thou art."--Wright cor. "For he hath made him, who knew no sin, to be sin for us."--Harrison's E. Lang., p. 197.

  "My friend, take that of me, who have the power
   To seal th' accuser's lips."--Shakspeare cor.


UNDER NOTE XII.--WHAT FOR THAT.

"I had no idea but that the story was true."--Brown's Inst., p. 268. "The postboy is not so weary but that he can whistle."--Ib. "He had no intimation but that the men were honest."--Ib. "Neither Lady Haversham nor Miss Mildmay will ever believe but that I have been entirely to blame."--Priestley cor. "I am not satisfied but that the integrity of our friends is more essential to our welfare than their knowledge of the world."--Id. "Indeed, there is in poetry nothing so entertaining or descriptive, but that an ingenious didactic writer may introduce it in some part of his work."--Blair cor. "Brasidas, being bit by a mouse he had catched, let it slip out of his fingers: 'No creature,' says he, 'is so contemptible but that it may provide for its own safety, if it have courage.'"--Ld. Kames cor.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--ADJECTIVES FOR ANTECEDENTS.

"In narration, Homer is, at all times, remarkably concise, and therefore lively and agreeable."--Blair cor. "It is usual to talk of a nervous, a feeble, or a spirited style; which epithets plainly indicate the writer's manner of thinking."--Id. "It is too violent an alteration, if any alteration were necessary, whereas none is."--Knight cor. "Some men are too ignorant to be humble; and without humility there can be no docility."--Berkley cor. "Judas declared him innocent; but innocent he could not be, had he in any respect deceived the disciples."--Porteus cor. "They supposed him to be innocent, but he certainly was not so."--Murray et al. cor. "They accounted him honest, but he certainly was not so."--Felch cor. "Be accurate in all you say or do; for accuracy is important in all the concerns of life."--Brown's Inst., p. 268. "Every law supposes the transgressor to be wicked; and indeed he is so, if the law is just."--Ib. "To be pure in heart, pious, and benevolent, (and all may be so,) constitutes human happiness."--Murray cor. "To be dexterous in danger, is a virtue; but to court danger to show our dexterity, is a weakness."--Penn cor.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--SENTENCES FOR ANTECEDENTS.

"This seems not so allowable in prose; which fact the following erroneous examples will demonstrate."--L. Murray cor. "The accent is laid upon the last syllable of a word; which circumstance is favourable to the melody."--Kames cor. "Every line consists of ten syllables, five short and five long; from which rule there are but two exceptions, both of them rare."--Id. "The soldiers refused obedience, as has been explained."--Nixon cor. "Caesar overcame Pompey--a circumstance which was lamented."--Id. "The crowd hailed William, agreeably to the expectations of his friends."--Id. "The tribunes resisted Scipio, who knew their malevolence towards him."--Id. "The censors reproved vice, and were held in great honour."--Id. "The generals neglected discipline, which fact has been proved."--Id. "There would be two nominatives to the verb was, and such a construction is improper."--Adam and Gould cor. "His friend bore the abuse very patiently; whose forbearance, however, served only to increase his rudeness; it produced, at length, contempt and insolence."--Murray and Emmons cor. "Almost all compound sentences are more or less elliptical; and some examples of ellipsis may be found, under nearly all the different parts of speech."--Murray, Guy, Smith, Ingersoll, Fisk, et al. cor.


UNDER NOTE XV.--REPEAT THE PRONOUN.

"In things of Nature's workmanship, whether we regard their internal or their external structure, beauty and design are equally conspicuous."--Kames cor. "It puzzles the reader, by making him doubt whether the word ought to be taken in its proper, or in its figurative sense."--Id. "Neither my obligations to the muses, nor my expectations from them, are so great."--Cowley cor. "The Fifth Annual Report of the Antislavery Society of Ferrisburgh and its vicinity."--Title cor. "Meaning taste in its figurative as well as its proper sense."--Kames cor. "Every measure in which either your personal or your political character is concerned."--Junius cor. "A jealous and righteous God has often punished such in themselves or in their offspring."--Extracts cor. "Hence their civil and their religious history are inseparable."--Milman cor. "Esau thus carelessly threw away both his civil and his religious inheritance."--Id. "This intelligence excited not only our hopes, but our fears likewise."--Jaudon cor. "In what way our defect of principle, and our ruling manners, have completed the ruin of the national spirit of union."--Dr. Brown cor. "Considering her descent, her connexion, and her present intercourse."--Webster cor. "His own and his wife's wardrobe are packed up in a firkin."--Parker and Fox cor.


UNDER NOTE XVI.--CHANGE THE ANTECEDENT.

"The sounds of e and o long, in their due degrees, will be preserved, and clearly distinguished."--L. Murray cor. "If any persons should be inclined to think," &c., "the author takes the liberty to suggest to them," &c.--Id. "And he walked in all the way of Asa his father; he turned not aside from it."--Bible cor. "If ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brethren their trespasses."--Id. "None ever fancied they were slighted by him, or had the courage to think themselves his betters."--Collier cor. "And Rebecca took some very good clothes of her eldest son Esau's, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son."--Gen. cor. "Where all the attention of men is given to their own indulgence."--Maturin cor. "The idea of a father is a notion superinduced to that of the substance, or man--let one's idea of man be what it will."--Locke cor. "Leaving all to do as they list."--Barclay cor. "Each person performed his part handsomely."--J. Flint cor. "This block of marble rests on two layers of stones, bound together with lead, which, however, has not prevented the Arabs from forcing out several of them."--Parker and Fox cor.

  "Love gives to all our powers a double power,
   Above their functions and their offices." Or:--
   "Love gives to every power a double power,
   Exalts all functions and all offices."--Shak. cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XI; OF PRONOUNS.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE IDEA OF PLURALITY.

"The jury will be confined till they agree on a verdict."--Brown's Inst., p. 145. "And mankind directed their first cares towards the needful."--Formey cor. "It is difficult to deceive a free people respecting their true interest."--Life of Charles XII cor. "All the virtues of mankind are to be counted upon a few fingers, but their follies and vices are innumerable."--Swift cor. "Every sect saith, 'Give us liberty:' but give it them, and to their power, and they will not yield it to any body else."--Cromwell cor. "Behold, the people shall rise up as a great lion, and lift up themselves as a young lion."--Bible cor. "For all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth."--Id. "There happened to the army a very strange accident, which put them in great consternation."--Goldsmith cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--THE IDEA OF UNITY.

"The meeting went on with its business as a united body."--Foster cor. "Every religious association has an undoubted right to adopt a creed for itself."--Gould cor. "It would therefore be extremely difficult to raise an insurrection in that state against its own government."--Dr. Webster cor. "The mode in which a lyceum can apply itself in effecting a reform in common schools."--N. Y. Lyc. cor. "Hath a nation changed its gods, which yet are no gods?"--Jer. cor. "In the holy Scriptures, each of the twelve tribes of Israel is often called by the name of the patriarch from whom it descended." Or better:--"from whom the tribe descended."--Adams cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--UNIFORMITY OF NUMBER.

"A nation, by the reparation of the wrongs which it has done, achieves a triumph more glorious than any field of blood can ever give."--Adams cor. "The English nation, from whom we descended, have been gaining their liberties inch by inch."--Webster cor. "If a Yearly Meeting should undertake to alter its fundamental doctrines, is there any power in the society to prevent it from doing so?"--Foster's Rep. cor. "There is[537] a generation that curse their father, and do not bless their mother."--Bible cor. "There is[537] a generation that are pure in their own eyes, and yet are not washed from their filthiness."--Id. "He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel: the Lord their God is with them, and the shout of a king is among them."--Id. "My people have forgotten me, they have burnt incense to vanity."--Id. "When a quarterly meeting has come to a judgement respecting any difference, relative to any monthly meeting belonging to it" &c.--Discip. cor. "The number of such compositions is every day increasing, and it appears to be limited only by the pleasure or the convenience of writers."--Booth cor. "The Church of Christ has the same power now as ever, and is led by the same spirit into the same practices."--Barclay cor. "The army, whom their chief had thus abandoned, pursued meanwhile their miserable march." Or thus: "The army, which its chief had thus abandoned, pursued meanwhile its miserable march."--Lockhart cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XII; OF PRONOUNS.

ANTECEDENTS CONNECTED BY AND.

"Discontent and sorrow manifested themselves in his countenance."--Brown's Inst., p. 146. "Both conversation and public speaking became more simple and plain, such as we now find them."--Blair cor. "Idleness and ignorance, if they be suffered to proceed, &c."--Johnson and Priestley cor. "Avoid questions and strife: they show a busy and contentious disposition."--Penn cor. "To receive the gifts and benefits of God with thanksgiving, and witness them blessed and sanctified to us by the word and prayer, is owned by us."--Barclay cor. "Both minister and magistrate are compelled to choose between their duty and their reputation."--Junius cor. "All the sincerity, truth, and faithfulness, or disposition of heart or conscience to approve them, found among rational creatures, necessarily originate from God."--Rev. J. Brown cor. "Your levity and heedlessness, if they continue, will prevent all substantial improvement."--Brown's Inst., p. 269. "Poverty and obscurity will oppress him only who esteems them oppressive."--Ib. "Good sense and refined policy are obvious to few, because they cannot be discovered but by a train of reflection."--Ib. "Avoid haughtiness of behaviour, and affectation of manners: they imply a want of solid merit."--Ib. "If love and unity continue, they will make you partakers of one an other's joy."--Ib. "Suffer not jealousy and distrust to enter: they will destroy, like a canker, every germ of friendship."--Ib. "Hatred and animosity are inconsistent with Christian charity: guard, therefore, against the slightest indulgence of them."--Ib. "Every man is entitled to liberty of conscience, and freedom of opinion, if he does not pervert them to the injury of others."--Ib.

  "With the azure and vermilion
   Which are mix'd for my pavilion."--Byron cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XIII; OF PRONOUNS.

ANTECEDENTS CONNECTED BY OR OR NOR.

"Neither prelate nor priest can give his [flock or] flocks any decisive evidence that you are lawful pastors."--Brownlee cor. "And is there a heart of parent or of child, that does not beat and burn within him?"-- Maturin cor. "This is just as if an eye or a foot should demand a salary for its service to the body."--Collier cor. "If thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee."--Bible cor. "The same might as well be said of Virgil, or any great author; whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to his reputation."--Pope cor. "Either James or John,--one or the other,--will come."--Smith cor. "Even a rugged rock or a barren heath, though in itself disagreeable, contributes, by contrast, to the beauty of the whole."--Kames cor. "That neither Count Rechteren nor Monsieur Mesnager had behaved himself right in this affair."--Spect. cor. "If an Aristotle, a Pythagoras, or a Galileo, suffers for his opinions, he is a 'martyr.'"--Fuller cor. "If an ox gore a man or a woman, that he or she die; then the ox shall surely be stoned."--Exod. cor. "She was calling out to one or an other, at every step, that a Habit was ensnaring him."--Johnson cor. "Here is a task put upon children, which neither this author himself, nor any other, has yet undergone."--R. Johnson cor. "Hence, if an adjective or a participle be subjoined to the verb when the construction is singular, it will agree both in gender and in number with the collective noun."--Adam and Gould cor. "And if you can find a diphthong or a triphthong, be pleased to point that out too."--Bucke cor. "And if you can find a trissyllable or a polysyllable, point it out."--Id. "The false refuges in which the atheist or the sceptic has intrenched himself."--Chr. Spect. cor. "While the man or woman thus assisted by art, expects his charms or hers will be imputed to nature alone."--Opie cor. "When you press a watch, or pull a clock, it answers your question with precision; for it repeats exactly the hour of the day, and tells you neither more nor less than you desire to know."--Bolingbroke cor.

  "Not the Mogul, or Czar of Muscovy,
   Not Prester John, or Cham of Tartary,
   Is in his mansion monarch more than I."--King cor.


CHAPTER VI.--VERBS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XIV AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--VERB AFTER THE NOMINATIVE.

"Before you left Sicily, you were reconciled to Verres."--Duncan cor. "Knowing that you were my old master's good friend."--Spect. cor. "When the judge dares not act, where is the loser's remedy?"--Webster cor. "Which extends it no farther than the variation of the verb extends."--Mur. cor. "They presently dry without hurt, as myself have often proved."--R. Williams cor. "Whose goings-forth have been from of old, from everlasting."--Micah, v, 2. "You were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him."--Porter cor. "Where more than one part of speech are almost always concerned."--Churchill cor. "Nothing less than murders, rapines, and conflagrations, employs their thoughts." Or: "No less things than murders, rapines, and conflagrations, employ their thoughts."--Duncan cor. "I wondered where you were, my dear."--Lloyd cor. "When thou most sweetly singst."--Drummond cor. "Who dares, at the present day, avow himself equal to the task?"--Gardiner cor. "Every body is very kind to her, and not discourteous to me."--Byron cor. "As to what thou sayst respecting the diversity of opinions."--M. B. cor. "Thy nature, Immortality, who knows?"--Everest cor. "The natural distinction of sex in animals, gives rise to what, in grammar, are called genders."--Id. "Some pains have likewise been taken."--Scott cor. "And many a steed in his stables was seen."--Penwarne cor. "They were forced to eat what never was esteemed food."--Josephus cor. "This that you yourself have spoken, I desire that they may take their oaths upon."--Hutchinson cor. "By men whose experience best qualifies them to judge."--Committee cor. "He dares venture to kill and destroy several other kinds of fish."--Walton cor. "If a gudgeon meet a roach, He ne'er will venture to approach." Or thus: "If a gudgeon meets a roach, He dares not venture to approach."--Swift cor. "Which thou endeavourst to establish to thyself."--Barclay cor. "But they pray together much oftener than thou insinuat'st."--Id. "Of people of all denominations, over whom thou presidest."--N. Waln cor. "I can produce ladies and gentlemen whose progress has been astonishing."--Chazotte cor. "Which of these two kinds of vice is the more criminal?"--Dr. Brown cor. "Every twenty-four hours afford to us the vicissitudes of day and night."--Smith's False Syntax, New Gram., p. 103. Or thus: "Every period of twenty-four hours affords to us the vicissitudes of day and night."--Smith cor. "Every four years add an other day."--Smith's False Syntax, Gram., p. 103. Better thus: "Every fourth year adds an other day."--Smith cor. "Every error I could find, Has my busy muse employed."--Swift cor. "A studious scholar deserves the approbation of his teacher."--Sanborn cor. "Perfect submission to the rules of a school indicates good breeding."--Id. "A comparison in which more than two are concerned."--Lennie's Gram., p. 78. "By the facilities which artificial language affords them."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Now thyself hast lost both lop and top."--Spencer cor. "Glad tidings are brought to the poor."--Campbell cor. "Upon which, all that is pleasurable or affecting in elocution, chiefly depends."--Sher. cor. "No pains have been spared to render this work complete."--Bullions cor. "The United States contain more than a twentieth part of the land of this globe."--Clinton cor. "I am mindful that myself am strong."--Fowler cor. "Myself am (not is) weak;"--"Thyself art (not is) weak."--Id.

  "How pale each worshipful and reverend guest
   Rises from clerical or city feast!"--Pope cor.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--VERB BEFORE THE NOMINATIVE.

"Where were you born? In London."--Buchanan cor. "There are frequent occasions for commas."--Ingersoll cor. "There necessarily follow from thence these plain and unquestionable consequences."--Priestley cor. "And to this impression contributes the redoubled effort."--Kames cor. "Or, if he was, were there no spiritual men then?"--Barclay cor. "So, by these two also, are signified their contrary principles."--Id. "In the motions made with the hands, consists the chief part of gesture in speaking."--Blair cor. "Dares he assume the name of a popular magistrate?"--Duncan cor. "There were no damages as in England, and so Scott lost his wager."--Byron cor. "In fact, there exist such resemblances."--Kames cor. "To him give all the prophets witness."--Acts, x, 43. "That there were so many witnesses and actors."--Addison cor. "How do this man's definitions stand affected?"--Collier cor. "Whence come all the powers and prerogatives of rational beings?"--Id. "Nor do the scriptures cited by thee prove thy intent."--Barclay cor. "Nor does the scripture cited by thee prove the contrary."--Id. "Why then citest thou a scripture which is so plain and clear for it?"--Id. "But what say the Scriptures as to respect of persons among Christians?"--Id. "But in the mind of man, while in the savage state, there seem to be hardly any ideas but what enter by the senses;"--Robertson cor. "What sounds has each of the vowels?"--Griscom cor. "Out of this have grown up aristocracies, monarchies, despotisms, tyrannies."--Brownson cor. "And there were taken up, of fragments that remained to them, twelve baskets."--Bible cor. "There seem to be but two general classes."--Day cor. "Hence arise the six forms of expressing time."--Id. "There seem to be no other words required."--Chandler cor. "If there are two, the second increment is the syllable next to the last."--Bullions cor. "Hence arise the following advantages."--Id. "There are no data by which it can be estimated."--Calhoun cor. "To this class, belongs the Chinese language, in which we have nothing but naked primitives."--Fowler cor. "Nothing but naked roots" is faulty; because no word is a root, except some derivative spring from it."--G. B.] "There were several other grotesque figures that presented themselves."--Spect. cor. "In these consists that sovereign good which ancient sages so much extol."--Percival cor. "Here come those I have done good to against my will."--Shak. cor. "Where there are more than one auxiliary." Or: "Where there are more auxiliaries than one."--O. B. Peirce cor.

  "On me to cast those eyes where shines nobility."
       --Sidney cor.
   "Here are half-pence in plenty, for one you'll have twenty."
       --Swift cor.
   "Ah, Jockey, ill advisest thou. I wis,
   To think of songs at such a time as this."
       --Churchill cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--THE RELATIVE AND VERB.

"Thou, who lovest us, wilt protect us still."--A. Murray cor. "To use that endearing language, 'Our Father, who art in heaven.'"--Bates cor. "Resembling the passions that produce these actions."--Kames cor. "Except dwarf, grief, hoof, muff, &c., which take s to make the plural."--Ash cor. "As the cattle that go before me, and the children, be able to endure."--Gen. cor. "Where is the man who dares affirm that such an action is mad?"--Dr. Pratt cor. "The ninth book of Livy affords one of the most beautiful exemplifications of historical painting, that are anywhere to be met with."--Dr. Blair cor. "In some studies, too, that relate to taste and fine writing, which are our object," &c.--Id. "Of those affecting situations which make man's heart feel for man."--Id. "We see very plainly, that it is neither Osmyn nor Jane Shore that speaks."--Id. "It should assume that briskness and ease which are suited to the freedom of dialogue."--Id. "Yet they grant, that none ought to be admitted into the ministry, but such as are truly pious."--Barclay cor. "This letter is one of the best that have been written about Lord Byron."--Hunt cor. "Thus, besides what were sunk, the Athenians took above two hundred ships."--Goldsmith cor. "To have made and declared such orders as were necessary."--Hutchinson cor. "The idea of such a collection of men as makes an army."--Locke cor. "I'm not the first that has been wretched."--Southern cor. "And the faint sparks of it which are in the angels, are concealed from our view."--Calvin cor. "The subjects are of such a nature, as allows room (or, as to allow room) for much diversity of taste and sentiment."--Dr. Blair cor. "It is in order to propose examples of such perfection, as is not to be found in the real examples of society."--Formey cor. "I do not believe that he would amuse himself with such fooleries as have been attributed to him."--Id. "That shepherd, who first taught the chosen seed."--Milton, P. L., B. i, l. 8. "With respect to the vehemence and warmth which are allowed in popular eloquence."--Dr. Blair cor. "Ambition is one of those passions that are never to be satisfied."--Home cor. "Thou wast he that led out and brought in Israel."--Bible cor. "Art thou the man of God, that came from Judah?"--Id.

  "How beauty is excell'd by manly grace
   And wisdom, which alone are truly fair."--Milton cor.
   "What art thou, speak, that on designs unknown,
   While others sleep, thus roamst the camp alone?"--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--NOMINATIVE WITH ADJUNCTS.

"The literal sense of the words is, that the action had been done."--Dr. Murray cor. "The rapidity of his movements was beyond example."--Wells cor. "Murray's Grammar, together with his Exercises and Key, has nearly superseded every thing else of the kind."--Murray's Rec. cor. "The mechanism of clocks and watches was totally unknown."--Hume cor. "The it, together with the verb to be, expresses a state of being."--Cobbett cor. "Hence it is, that the profuse variety of objects in some natural landscapes, occasions neither confusion nor fatigue."--Kames cor. "Such a clatter of sounds indicates rage and ferocity."--Gardiner cor. "One of the fields makes threescore square yards, and the other, only fifty-five."--Duncan cor. "The happy effects of this fable are worth attending to."--Bailey cor. "Yet the glorious serenity of its parting rays, still lingers with us."--Gould cor. "Enough of its form and force is retained to render them uneasy."--Maturin cor. "The works of nature, in this respect, are extremely regular."--Pratt cor. "No small addition of exotic and foreign words and phrases, has been made by commerce."--Bicknell cor. "The dialect of some nouns is noticed in the notes."--Milnes cor. "It has been said, that a discovery of the full resources of the arts, affords the means of debasement, or of perversion."--Rush cor. "By which means, the order of the words is disturbed."--Holmes cor. "The two-fold influence of these and the others, requires the verb to be in the plural form."--Peirce cor. "And each of these affords employment."--Percival cor. "The pronunciation of the vowels is best explained under the rules relative to the consonants."--Coar cor. "The judicial power of these courts extends to all cases in law and equity."--Hall and Baker cor. "One of you has stolen my money."--Humorist cor. "Such redundancy of epithets, in stead of pleasing, produces satiety and disgust."--Kames cor. "It has been alleged, that a compliance with the rules of Rhetoric, tends to cramp the mind."--Hiley cor. "Each of these is presented to us in different relations."--Hendrick cor. "The past tense of these verbs, (should, would, might, could,) is very indefinite with respect to time."--Bullions cor. "The power of the words which are said to govern this mood, is distinctly understood."--Chandler cor.

  "And now, at length, the fated term of years
   The world's desire hath brought, and lo! the God appears."
       --Lowth cor.
   "Variety of numbers still belongs
   To the soft melody of odes, or songs."
       --Brightland cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--COMPOSITE OR CONVERTED SUBJECTS.

"Many are the works of human industry, which to begin and finish, is hardly granted to the same man."--Johnson cor. "To lay down rules for these, is as inefficacious."--Pratt cor. "To profess regard and act injuriously, discovers a base mind."--L. Murray et al. cor. "To magnify to the height of wonder things great, new, and admirable, extremely pleases the mind of man."--Fisher cor. "In this passage, according as is used in a manner which is very common."--Webster cor. "A CAUSE DE, is called a preposition; A CAUSE QUE, a conjunction."--Webster cor. "To these it is given to speak in the name of the Lord."--The Friend cor. "While wheat has no plural, oats has seldom any singular."--Cobbett cor. "He cannot assert that ll (i.e., double Ell) is inserted in fullness to denote the sound of u"--Cobb cor. "Ch, in Latin, has the power of k."--Gould cor. "Ti, before a vowel, and unaccented, has the sound of si or ci."--Id. "In words derived from French, as chagrin, chicanery, and chaise, ch is sounded like sh."--Bucke cor. "But, in the words schism, schismatic, &c., the ch is silent."--Id. "Ph, at the beginning of words, is always sounded like f."--Bucke cor. "Ph has the sound of f as in philosophy."--Webster cor. "Sh has one sound only, as in shall."--Id. "Th has two sounds."--Id. "Sc, before a, o, u, or r, has the sound of sk."--Id. "Aw has the sound of a in hall."--Bolles cor. "Ew sounds like u"--Id. "Ow, when both vowels are sounded, has the power of ou in thou."--Id. "Ui, when both vowels are pronounced in one syllable, sounds like wi short, as in languid."--Id.

  "Ui three other sounds at least expresses,
   As who hears GUILE, REBUILD, and BRUISE, confesses."
       --Brightland cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, ONE, EITHER, AND NEITHER.

"When each of the letters which compose this word, has been learned."--Dr. Weeks cor. "As neither of us denies that both Homer and Virgil have great beauties."--Dr. Blair cor. "Yet neither of them is remarkable for precision."--Id. "How far each of the three great epic poets has distinguished himself."--Id. "Each of these produces a separate, agreeable sensation."--Id. "On the Lord's day, every one of us Christians keeps the sabbath."--Tr. of Iren. cor. "And each of them bears the image of purity and holiness."--Hope of Is. cor. "Was either of these meetings ever acknowledged or recognized?"--Foster cor. "Whilst neither of these letters exists in the Eugubian inscription."--Knight cor. "And neither of them is properly termed indefinite."--Dr. Wilson cor. "As likewise of the several subjects, which have in effect their several verbs:" or,--"each of which has in effect its own verb."--Lowth cor. "Sometimes, when the word ends in s, neither of the signs is used."--A. Mur. cor. "And as neither of these manners offends the ear."--J. Walker cor. "Neither of these two tenses is confined to this signification only."--R. Johnson cor. "But neither of these circumstances is intended here."--Tooke cor. "So that all are indebted to each, and each is dependent upon all."--Bible Rep. cor. "And yet neither of them expresses any more action in this case, than it did in the other."--Bullions cor. "Each of these expressions denotes action."--Hallock cor. "Neither of these moods seems to be defined by distinct boundaries."--Butler cor. "Neither of these solutions is correct."--Bullions cor. "Neither bears any sign of case at all."--Fowler cor.

  "Each in his turn, like Banquo's monarchs, stalks." Or:--
   "All in their turn, like Banquo's monarchs, stalk."--Byron cor.
   "And tell what each doth by the other lose."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--VERB BETWEEN TWO NOMINATIVES.

"The quarrels of lovers are but a renewal of love."--Adam et al. cor. "Two dots, one placed above the other, are called a Sheva."--Wilson cor. "A few centuries more or less are a matter of small consequence."--Id. "Pictures were the first step towards the art of writing; hieroglyphics were the second step."--Parker cor. "The comeliness of youth is modesty and frankness; of age, condescension and dignity." Or, much better: "The great ornaments of youth are," &c.--Murray cor. "Merit and good works are the end of man's motion."--Bacon cor. "Divers philosophers hold, that the lips are parcel of the mind."--Shak. cor. "The clothing of the natives was the skins of wild beasts." Or thus: "The clothes of the natives were skins of wild beasts."--Hist. cor. "Prepossessions in favour of our native town, are not a matter of surprise."--Webster cor. "Two shillings and sixpence are half a crown, but not a half crown."--Priestley and Bicknell cor. "Two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and uniting in one sound, are called a diphthong."--Cooper cor. "Two or more sentences united together are called a Compound Sentence."--Day cor. "Two or more words rightly put together, but not completing an entire proposition, are called a Phrase."--Id. "But the common number of times is five." Or, to state the matter truly: "But the common number of tenses is six."--Brit. Gram. cor. "Technical terms, injudiciously introduced, are an other source of darkness in composition."--Jamieson cor. "The United States are the great middle division of North America."--Morse cor. "A great cause of the low state of industry, was the restraints put upon it."--Priestley's Gram., p. 199; Churchill's, 414. "Here two tall ships become the victor's prey."--Rowe cor. "The expenses incident to an outfit are surely no object."--The Friend cor.

  "Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep,
   Were all that did their silly thoughts so busy keep."--Milt. cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--CHANGE OF THE NOMINATIVE.

"Much care has been taken, to explain all the kinds of words."--Inf. S. Gr. cor. "Not fewer [years] than three years, are spent in attaining this faculty." Or, perhaps better: "Not less than three years' time, is spent in attaining this faculty." Or thus: "Not less time than three years, is spent," &c.--Gardiner cor. "Where this night are met in state Many friends to gratulate His wish'd presence."--Milton cor. "Peace! my darling, here's no danger, Here's no ox anear thy bed."--Watts cor. "But all of these are mere conjectures, and some of them very unhappy ones."--Coleridge cor. "The old theorists' practice of calling the Interrogatives and Repliers ADVERBS, is only a part of their regular system of naming words."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Where several sentences occur, place them in the order of the facts."--Id. "And that all the events in conjunction make a regular chain of causes and effects."--Kames cor. "In regard to their origin, the Grecian and Roman republics, though equally involved in the obscurities and uncertainties of fabulous events, present one remarkable distinction."--Adams cor. "In these respects, man is left by nature an unformed, unfinished creature."--Bp. Butler cor. "The Scriptures are the oracles of God himself."--Hooker cor. "And at our gates are all kinds of pleasant fruits."--S. Song cor. "The preterits of pluck, look, and toss, are, in speech, pronounced pluckt, lookt, tosst."--Fowler corrected.

  "Severe the doom that days prolonged impose,
   To stand sad witness of unnumbered woes!"--Melmoth cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--FORMS ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT STYLES.

1. Forms adapted to the Common or Familiar Style. "Was it thou[538] that built that house?"--Brown's Institutes, Key, p. 270. "That boy writes very elegantly."--Ib. "Could not thou write without blotting thy book?"--Ib. "Dost not thou think--or, Don't thou think, it will rain to-day?"--Ib. "Does not--or, Don't your cousin intend to visit you?"--Ib. "That boy has torn my book."--Ib. "Was it thou that spread the hay?"--Ib. "Was it James, or thou, that let him in?"--Ib. "He dares not say a word."--Ib. "Thou stood in my way and hindered me."--Ib.

"Whom do I see?--Whom dost thou see now?--Whom does he see?--Whom dost thou love most?--What art thou doing to-day?--What person dost thou see teaching that boy?--He has two new knives.--Which road dost thou take?--What child is he teaching?"--Ingersoll cor. "Thou, who mak'st my shoes, sellst many more." Or thus: "You, who make my shoes, sell many more."--Id.

"The English language has been much cultivated during the last two hundred years. It has been considerably polished and refined."--Lowth cor. "This style is ostentatious, and does not suit grave writing."--Priestley cor. "But custom has now appropriated who to persons, and which to things" [and brute animals].--Id. "The indicative mood shows or declares something; as, Ego amo, I love; or else asks a question; as, Amas tu? Dost thou love?"--Paul's Ac. cor. "Though thou cannot do much for the cause, thou may and should do something."--Murray cor. "The support of so many of his relations, was a heavy tax: but thou knowst (or, you know) he paid it cheerfully."--Id. "It may, and often does, come short of it."--Murray^s Gram., p. 359.

  "'Twas thou, who, while thou seem'd to chide,
   To give me all thy pittance tried."--Mitford cor.

2. Forms adapted to the Solemn or Biblical Style. "The Lord hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all."--Psalms, ciii, 19. "Thou answeredst them, O Lord our God; thou wast a God that forgave[539] them, though thou tookest vengeance of their inventions."--See Psalms, xcix, 8. "Then thou spakest in vision to thy Holy One, and saidst, I have laid help upon one that is mighty."--Ib., lxxxix, 19. "'So then, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy;' who dispenseth his blessings, whether temporal or spiritual, as seemeth good in his sight."--Christian Experience of St. Paul, p. 344; see Rom., ix, 16.

  "Thou, the mean while, wast blending with my thought;
   Yea, with my life, and life's own secret joy."--Coleridge cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--EXPRESS THE NOMINATIVE.

"Who is here so base, that he would be a bondman?"--Shak. cor. "Who is here so rude, he would not be a Roman?"--Id. "There is not a sparrow which falls to the ground without his notice." Or better: "Not a sparrow falls to the ground, without his notice."--Murray cor. "In order to adjust them in such a manner as shall consist equally with the perspicuity and the strength of the period."--Id. and Blair cor. "But sometimes there is a verb which comes in." Better: "But sometimes there is a verb introduced."--Cobbett cor. "Mr. Prince has a genius which would prompt him to better things."--Spect. cor. "It is this that removes that impenetrable mist."--Harris cor. "By the praise which is given him for his courage."--Locke cor. "There is no man who would be more welcome here."--Steele cor. "Between an antecedent and a consequent, or what goes before, and what immediately follows."--Blair cor. "And as connected with what goes before and what follows."--Id. "No man doth a wrong for the wrong's sake."--Bacon cor. "All the various miseries of life, which people bring upon themselves by negligence or folly, and which might have been avoided by proper care, are instances of this."--Bp. Butler cor. "Ancient philosophers have taught many things in favour of morality, so far at least as it respects justice and goodness towards our fellow-creatures."--Fuller cor. "Indeed, if there be any such, who have been, or who appear to be of us, as suppose there is not a wise man among us all, nor an honest man, that is able to judge betwixt his brethren; we shall not covet to meddle in their matters."--Barclay cor. "There were some that drew back; there were some that made shipwreck of faith; yea, there were some that brought in damnable heresies."--Id. "The nature of the cause rendered this plan altogether proper; and, under similar circumstances, the orator's method is fit to be imitated."--Blair cor. "This is an idiom to which our language is strongly inclined, and which was formerly very prevalent."--Churchill cor. "His roots are wrapped about the heap, and he seeth the place of stones."--Bible cor.

"New York, Fifthmonth 3d, 1823.

Dear friend,

I am sorry to hear of thy loss; but I hope it may be retrieved. I should be happy to render thee any assistance in my power. I shall call to see thee to-morrow morning. Accept assurances of my regard. A. B."

"New York, May 3d, P. M., 1823.

Dear sir,

I have just received the kind note you favoured me with this morning; and I cannot forbear to express my gratitude to you. On further information, I find I have not lost so much as I at first supposed; and I believe I shall still be able to meet all my engagements. I should, however, be happy to see you. Accept, dear sir, my most cordial thanks. C. D."

See Brown's Institutes, p. 271.

  "Will martial flames forever fire thy mind,
   And wilt thou never be to Heaven resign'd?"--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE IX.--APPLICATION OF MOODS.

First Clause of the Note.--The Subjunctive Present.

"He will not be pardoned unless he repent."--Inst., p. 191. "If thou find any kernelwort in this marshy meadow, bring it to me."--Neef cor. "If thou leave the room, do not forget to shut that drawer."--Id. "If thou grasp it stoutly, thou wilt not be hurt:" or, (familiarly,)--"thou will not be hurt."--Id. "On condition that he come, I will consent to stay."--Murray's Key, p. 208. "If he be but discreet, he will succeed."--Inst., p. 280. "Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob."--Gen., xxxi, 24. "If thou cast me off, I shall be miserable."--Inst., p. 280. "Send them to me, if thou please."--Ib. "Watch the door of thy lips, lest thou utter folly."--Ib. "Though a liar speak the truth, he will hardly be believed."--Bartlett cor. "I will go, unless I be ill."--L. Murray cor. "If the word or words understood be supplied, the true construction will be apparent."--Id. "Unless thou see the propriety of the measure, we shall not desire thy support."--Id. "Unless thou make a timely retreat, the danger will be unavoidable."--Id. "We may live happily, though our possessions be small."--Id. "If they be carefully studied, they will enable the student to parse all the exercises."--Id. "If the accent be fairly preserved on the proper syllable, this drawling sound will never be heard."--Id. "One phrase may, in point of sense, be equivalent to an other, though its grammatical nature be essentially different."--Id. "If any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man."--2 Thess., iii, 14. "Thy skill will be the greater, if thou hit it."--Putnam, Cobb, or Knowles, cor. "We shall overtake him, though he run."--Priestley et al. cor. "We shall be disgusted, if he give us too much."--Blair cor.

  "What is't to thee, if he neglect thy urn,
   Or without spices let thy body burn?"--Dryden cor.

Second Clause of Note IX.--The Subjunctive Imperfect.[540]

"And so would I, if I were he."--Inst., p. 191. "If I were a Greek, I should resist Turkish despotism."--Cardell cor. "If he were to go, he would attend to your business."--Id. "If thou felt as I do, we should soon decide."--Inst., p. 280. "Though thou shed thy blood in the cause, it would but prove thee sincerely a fool."--Ib. "If thou loved him, there would be more evidence of it."--Ib. "If thou convinced him, he would not act accordingly."--Murray cor. "If there were no liberty, there would be no real crime."--Formey cor. "If the house were burnt down, the case would be the same."--Foster cor. "As if the mind were not always in action, when it prefers any thing."--West cor. "Suppose I were to say, 'Light is a body.'"--Harris cor. "If either oxygen or azote were omitted, life would be destroyed."--Gurney cor. "The verb dare is sometimes used as if it were an auxiliary."--Priestley cor. "A certain lady, whom I could name, if it were necessary."--Spect. cor. "If the e were dropped, c and g would assume their hard sounds."--Buchanan cor. "He would no more comprehend it, than if it were the speech of a Hottentot."--Neef cor. "If thou knew the gift of God," &c.--Bible cor. "I wish I were at home."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Fact alone does not constitute right: if it did, general warrants were lawful."--Junius cor. "Thou lookst upon thy boy, as though thou guessed it."--Putnam, Cobb, or Knowles, cor. "He fought as if he contended for life."--Hiley cor. "He fought as if he were contending for his life."--Id.

  "The dewdrop glistens on thy leaf,
   As if thou shed for me a tear;
   As if thou knew my tale of grief,
   Felt all my sufferings severe."--Letham cor.

Last Clause of Note IX.--The Indicative Mood.

"If he knows the way, he does not need a guide."--Inst., p. 191. "And if there is no difference, one of them must be superfluous, and ought to be rejected."--Murray cor. "I cannot say that I admire this construction though it is much used."--Priestley cor. "We are disappointed, if the verb does not immediately follow it."--Id. "If it was they, that acted so ungratefully, they are doubly in fault."--Murray cor. "If art becomes apparent, it disgusts the reader."--Jamieson cor. "Though perspicuity is more properly a rhetorical than a grammatical quality, I thought it better to include it in this book."--Campbell cor. "Although the efficient cause is obscure, the final cause of those sensations lies open."--Blair cor. "Although the barrenness of language, or the want of words, is doubtless one cause of the invention of tropes."--Id. "Though it enforces not its instructions, yet it furnishes a greater variety."--Id. "In other cases, though the idea is one, the words remain quite separate."--Priestley cor. "Though the form of our language is more simple, and has that peculiar beauty."--Buchanan cor. "Human works are of no significancy till they are completed."--Kames cor. "Our disgust lessens gradually till it vanishes altogether."--Id. "And our relish improves by use, till it arrives at perfection."--Id. "So long as he keeps himself in his own proper element."--Coke cor. "Whether this translation was ever published or not, I am wholly ignorant."--Sale cor. "It is false to affirm, 'As it is day, it is light,' unless it actually is day."--Harris cor. "But we may at midnight affirm, 'If it is day, it is light.'"--Id. "If the Bible is true, it is a volume of unspeakable interest."--Dickinson cor. "Though he was a son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered."--Bible cor. "If David then calleth (or calls) him Lord, how is he his son?"--Id.

  "'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill
   Appears in writing, or in judging, ill."--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--FALSE SUBJUNCTIVES.

"If a man has built a house, the house is his."--Wayland cor. "If God has required them of him, as is the fact, he has time."--Id. "Unless a previous understanding to the contrary has been had with the principal."--Berrian cor. "O! if thou hast hid them in some flowery cave."--Milton cor. "O! if Jove's will has linked that amorous power to thy soft lay."--Id. "SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD: If thou love, If thou loved."--Dr. Priestley, Dr. Murray, John Burn, David Blair, Harrison, and others. "Till Religion, the pilot of the soul, hath lent thee her unfathomable coil."--Tupper cor. "Whether nature or art contributes most to form an orator, is a trifling inquiry."--Blair cor. "Year after year steals something from us, till the decaying fabric totters of itself, and at length crumbles into dust."--Murray cor. "If spiritual pride has not entirely vanquished humility."--West cor. "Whether he has gored a son, or has gored a daughter."--Bible cor. "It is doubtful whether the object introduced by way of simile, relates to what goes before or to what follows."--Kames cor.

  "And bridle in thy headlong wave,
   Till thou our summons answer'd hast." Or:--
   "And bridle in thy headlong wave,
   Till thou hast granted what we crave."--Milt. cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XV AND ITS NOTE.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE IDEA OF PLURALITY.

"The gentry are punctilious in their etiquette."--G. B. "In France, the peasantry go barefoot, and the middle sort make use of wooden shoes."--Harvey cor. "The people rejoice in that which should cause sorrow."--Murray varied. "My people are foolish, they have not known me."--Bible and Lowth cor. "For the people speak, but do not write."--Phil. Mu. cor. "So that all the people that were in the camp, trembled."--Bible cor. "No company like to confess that they are ignorant."--Todd cor. "Far the greater part of their captives were anciently sacrificed."--Robertson cor. "More than one half of them were cut off before the return of spring."--Id. "The other class, termed Figures of Thought, suppose the words to be used in their proper and literal meaning."--Blair and Mur. cor. "A multitude of words in their dialect approach to the Teutonic form, and therefore afford excellent assistance."--Dr. Murray cor. "A great majority of our authors are defective in manner."--J. Brown cor. "The greater part of these new-coined words have been rejected."--Tooke cor. "The greater part of the words it contains, are subject to certain modifications or inflections."--The Friend cor. "While all our youth prefer her to the rest."--Waller cor. "Mankind are appointed to live in a future state."--Bp. Butler cor. "The greater part of human kind speak and act wholly by imitation."--Rambler, No. 146. "The greatest part of human gratifications approach so nearly to vice."--Id., No. 160.

  "While still the busy world are treading o'er
   The paths they trod five thousand years before."--Young cor.


UNDER THE NOTE.--THE IDEA OF UNITY.

"In old English, this species of words was numerous."--Dr. Murray cor. "And a series of exercises in false grammar is introduced towards the end."--Frost cor. "And a jury, in conformity with the same idea, was anciently called homagium, the homage, or manhood."--Webster cor. "With respect to the former, there is indeed a plenty of means."--Kames cor. "The number of school districts has increased since the last year."--Throop cor. "The Yearly Meeting has purchased with its funds these publications."--Foster cor. "Has the legislature power to prohibit assemblies?"--Sullivan cor. "So that the whole number of the streets was fifty."--Rollin cor. "The number of inhabitants was not more than four millions."--Smollett cor. "The house of Commons was of small weight."--Hume cor. "The assembly of the wicked hath (or has) inclosed me."--Psal. cor. "Every kind of convenience and comfort is provided."--C. S. Journal cor. "Amidst the great decrease of the inhabitants in Spain, the body of the clergy has suffered no diminution; but it has rather been gradually increasing."--Payne cor. "Small as the number of inhabitants is, yet their poverty is extreme."--Id. "The number of the names was about one hundred and twenty."--Ware and Acts cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVI AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF--THE VERB AFTER JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"So much ability and [so much] merit are seldom found."--Mur. et al. cor. "The etymology and syntax of the language are thus spread before the learner."--Bullions cor. "Dr. Johnson tells us, that, in English poetry, the accent and the quantity of syllables are the same thing."--Adams cor. "Their general scope and tendency, having never been clearly apprehended, are not remembered at all."--L. Murray cor. "The soil and sovereignty were not purchased of the natives."--Knapp cor. "The boldness, freedom, and variety, of our blank verse, are infinitely more favourable to sublimity of style, than [are the constraint and uniformity of] rhyme."--Blair cor. "The vivacity and sensibility of the Greeks seem to have been much greater than ours."--Id. "For sometimes the mood and tense are signified by the verb, sometimes they are signified of the verb by something else."--R. Johnson cor. "The verb and the noun making a complete sense, whereas the participle and the noun do not."--Id. "The growth and decay of passions and emotions, traced through all their mazes, are a subject too extensive for an undertaking like the present."--Kames cor. "The true meaning and etymology of some of his words were lost."--Knight cor. "When the force and direction of personal satire are no longer understood."--Junius cor. "The frame and condition of man admit of no other principle."--Dr. Brown cor. "Some considerable time and care were necessary."--Id. "In consequence of this idea, much ridicule and censure have been thrown upon Milton."--Blair cor. "With rational beings, nature and reason are the same thing."--Collier cor. "And the flax and the barley were smitten."--Bible cor. "The colon and semicolon divide a period; this with, and that without, a connective."--Ware cor. "Consequently, wherever space and time are found, there God must also be."--Newton cor. "As the past tense and perfect participle of LOVE end in ED, it is regular."--Chandler cor. "But the usual arrangement and nomenclature prevent this from being readily seen."--N. Butler cor. "Do and did simply imply opposition or emphasis."--A. Murray cor. "I and an other make the plural WE; thou and an other are equivalent to YE; he, she, or it, and an other, make THEY."--Id. "I and an other or others are the same as WE, the first person plural; thou and an other or others are the same as YE, the second person plural; he, she, or it, and an other or others, are the same as THEY, the third person plural."--Buchanan and Brit. Gram. cor. "God and thou are two, and thou and thy neighbour are two."--Love Conquest cor. "Just as AN and A have arisen out of the numeral ONE."--Fowler cor. "The tone and style of all of them, particularly of the first and the last, are very different."--Blair cor. "Even as the roebuck and the hart are eaten."--Bible cor. "Then I may conclude that two and three do not make five."--Barclay cor. "Which, at sundry times, thou and thy brethren have received from us."--Id. "Two and two are four, and one is five:" i, e., "and one, added to four, is five."--Pope cor. "Humility and knowledge with poor apparel, excel pride and ignorance under costly array."--See Murray's Key, Rule 2d. "A page and a half have been added to the section on composition."--Bullions cor. "Accuracy and expertness in this exercise are an important acquisition."--Id.

  "Woods and groves are of thy dressing,
   Hill and dale proclaim thy blessing." Or thus:--
   "Hill and valley boast thy blessing."--Milton cor.


UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--THE VERB BEFORE JOINT NOMINATIVES.

"There are a good and a bad, a right and a wrong, in taste, as in other things."--Blair cor. "Whence have arisen much stiffness and affectation."--Id. "To this error, are owing, in a great measure, that intricacy and [that] harshness, in his figurative language, which I before noticed."--Blair and Jamieson cor. "Hence, in his Night Thoughts, there prevail an obscurity and a hardness of style."--Blair cor. See Jamieson's Rhet., p. 167. "There are, however, in that work, much good sense and excellent criticism."--Blair cor. "There are too much low wit and scurrility in Plautus." Or: "There is, in Plautus, too much of low wit and scurrility."--Id. "There are too much reasoning and refinement, too much pomp and studied beauty, in them." Or: "There is too much of reasoning and refinement, too much of pomp and studied beauty, in them."--Id. "Hence arise the structure and characteristic expression of exclamation."--Rush cor. "And such pilots are he and his brethren, according to their own confession."--Barclay cor. "Of whom are Hymeneus and Philetus; who concerning the truth have erred."--Bible cor. "Of whom are Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan."--Id. "And so were James and John, the sons of Zebedee."--Id. "Out of the same mouth, proceed blessing and cursing."--Id. "Out of the mouth of the Most High, proceed not evil and good."--Id. "In which there are most plainly a right and a wrong."--Bp. Butler cor. "In this sentence, there are both an actor and an object."--R. C. Smith cor. "In the breastplate, were placed the mysterious Urim and Thummim."--Milman cor. "What are the gender, number, and person, of the pronoun[541] in the first example?"--R. C. Smith cor. "There seem to be a familiarity and a want of dignity in it."--Priestley cor. "It has been often asked, what are Latin and Greek?"--Lit. Journal cor. "For where do beauty and high wit, But in your constellation, meet?"--Sam. Butler cor. "Thence to the land where flow Ganges and Indus."--Milton cor. "On these foundations, seem to rest the midnight riot and dissipation of modern assemblies."--Dr. Brown cor. "But what have disease, deformity, and filth, upon which the thoughts can be allured to dwell?"--Dr. Johnson cor. "How are the gender and number of the relative known?"--Bullions cor.

  "High rides the sun, thick rolls the dust,
   And feebler speed the blow and thrust."--Scott cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--CHANGE THE CONNECTIVE.

"In every language, there prevails a certain structure, or analogy of parts, which is understood to give foundation to the most reputable usage."--Dr. Blair cor. "There runs through his whole manner a stiffness, an affectation, which renders him [Shaftsbury] very unfit to be considered a general model."--Id. "But where declamation for improvement in speech is the sole aim."--Id. "For it is by these, chiefly, that the train of thought, the course of reasoning, the whole progress of the mind, in continued discourse of any kind, is laid open."--Lowth cor. "In all writing and discourse, the proper composition or structure of sentences is of the highest importance."--Dr. Blair cor. "Here the wishful and expectant look of the beggar naturally leads to a vivid conception of that which was the object of his thoughts."--Campbell cor. "Who say, that the outward naming of Christ, with the sign of the cross, puts away devils."--Barclay cor. "By which an oath with a penalty was to be imposed on the members."--Junius cor. "Light, or knowledge, in what manner soever afforded us, is equally from God."--Bp. Butler cor. "For instance, sickness or untimely death is the consequence of intemperance."--Id. "When grief or blood ill-tempered vexeth him." Or: "When grief, with blood ill-tempered, vexes him"--Shak. cor. "Does continuity, or connexion, create sympathy and relation in the parts of the body?"--Collier cor. "His greatest concern, his highest enjoyment, was, to be approved in the sight of his Creator."--L. Murray cor. "Know ye not that there is[542] a prince, a great man, fallen this day in Israel?"--Bible cor. "What is vice, or wickedness? No rarity, you may depend on it."--Collier cor. "There is also the fear or apprehension of it."--Bp. Butler cor. "The apostrophe with s ('s) is an abbreviation for is, the termination of the old English genitive."--Bullions cor. "Ti, ce, OR ci, when followed by a vowel, usually has the sound of sh; as in partial, ocean, special."--Weld cor.

  "Bitter constraint of sad occasion dear
   Compels me to disturb your season due."--Milton cor.
   "Debauch'ry, or excess, though with less noise,
   As great a portion of mankind destroys."--Waller cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--AFFIRMATION WITH NEGATION.

"Wisdom, and not wealth, procures esteem."--Inst., Key, p. 272. "Prudence, and not pomp, is the basis of his fame."--Ib. "Not fear, but labour has overcome him."--Ib. "The decency, and not the abstinence, makes the difference."--Ib. "Not her beauty, but her talents attract attention."--Ib. "It is her talents, and not her beauty, that attract attention."--Ib. "It is her beauty, and not her talents, that attracts attention."--Ib.

  "His belly, not his brains, this impulse gives:
   He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live." Or thus:--
   "His bowels, not his brains, this impulse give:
   He'll grow immortal; for he cannot live."--Young cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--AS WELL AS, BUT, OR SAVE.

"Common sense, as well as piety, tells us these are proper."--Fam. Com. cor. "For without it the critic, as well as the undertaker, ignorant of any rule, has nothing left but to abandon himself to chance."--Kames cor. "And accordingly hatred, as well as love, is extinguished by long absence'."--Id. "But at every turn the richest melody, as well as the sublimest sentiments, is conspicuous."--Id. "But it, as well as the lines immediately subsequent, defies all translation."--Coleridge cor. "But their religion, as well as their customs and manners, was strangely misrepresented."--Bolingbroke, on History, Paris Edition of 1808, p. 93. "But his jealous policy, as well as the fatal antipathy of Fonseca, was conspicuous."--Robertson cor. "When their extent, as well as their value, was unknown."--Id. "The etymology, as well as the syntax, of the more difficult parts of speech, is reserved for his attention at a later period."--Parker and Fox cor. "What I myself owe to him, no one but myself knows."--Wright cor. "None, but thou, O mighty prince! can avert the blow."--Inst., Key, p. 272. "Nothing, but frivolous amusements, pleases the indolent."--Ib.

  "Nought, save the gurglings of the rill, was heard."--G. B.
   "All songsters, save the hooting owl, were mute."--G. B.


UNDER NOTE IV.--EACH, EVERY, OR NO.

"Give every word, and every member, its due weight and force."--Murray's Gram., Vol. i, p. 316. "And to one of these belongs every noun, and every third person of every verb."--Dr. Wilson cor. "No law, no restraint, no regulation, is required to keep him within bounds."--Lit. Journal cor. "By that time, every window and every door in the street was full of heads."--Observer cor. "Every system of religion, and every school of philosophy, stands back from this field, and leaves Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example." Or: "All systems of religion, and all schools of philosophy, stand back from this field, and leave Jesus Christ alone, the solitary example."--Abbott cor. "Each day, and each hour, brings its portion of duty."--Inst., Key, p. 272. "And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, resorted unto him."--Bible cor. "Every private Christian, every member of the church, ought to read and peruse the Scriptures, that he may know his faith and belief to be founded upon them."--Barclay cor. "And every mountain and every island was moved out of its place."--Bible cor.

  "No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
   No cavern'd hermit rests self-satisfied."--Pope.


UNDER NOTE V.--WITH, OR, &c., FOR AND.

"The sides, A, B, and C, compose the triangle."--Tobitt, Felch, and Ware cor. "The stream, the rock, and the tree, must each of them stand forth, so as to make a figure in the imagination."--Dr. Blair cor. "While this, with euphony, constitutes, finally, the whole."--O. B. Peirce cor. "The bag, with the guineas and dollars in it, was stolen."--Cobbett cor. "Sobriety, with great industry and talent, enables a man to perform great deeds." Or: "Sobriety, industry, and talent, enable a man to perform great deeds."--Id. "The it, together with the verb, expresses a state of being."--Id. "Where Leonidas the Spartan king, and his chosen band, fighting for their country, were cut off to the last man."--Kames cor.. "And Leah also, and her children, came near and bowed themselves."--Bible cor. "The First and the Second will either of them, by itself, coalesce with the Third, but they do not coalesce with each other."--Harris cor. "The whole must centre in the query, whether Tragedy and Comedy are hurtful and dangerous representations."--Formey cor. "Both grief and joy are infectious: the emotions which they raise in the spectator, resemble them perfectly."--Kames cor. "But, in all other words, the q and u are both sounded."--Ensell cor. "Q and u (which are always together) have the sound of kw, as in queen; or of k only, as in opaque." Or, better: "Q has always the sound of k; and the u which follows it, that of w; except in French words, in which the u is silent."--Goodenow cor. "In this selection, the a and i form distinct syllables."--Walker cor. "And a considerable village, with gardens, fields, &c., extends around on each side of the square."--Lib. cor. "Affection and interest guide our notions and behaviour in the affairs of life; imagination and passion affect the sentiments that we entertain in matters of taste."--Jamieson cor. "She heard none of those intimations of her defects, which envy, petulance, and anger, produce among children."--Johnson cor. "The King, Lords, and Commons, constitute an excellent form of government."--Crombie et al. cor. "If we say, 'I am the man who commands you,' the relative clause, with the antecedent man, forms the predicate."--Crombie cor.

  "The spacious firmament on high,
   The blue ethereal vault of sky,
   And spangled heav'ns, a shining frame,
   Their great Original proclaim."--Addison cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTIONS.

"There are a reputable and a disreputable practice." Or: "There is a reputable, and there is a disreputable practice."--Adams cor. "This man and this were born in her."--Milton cor. "This man and that were born in her."--Bible cor. "This and that man were born there."--Hendrick cor. "Thus le in l~ego, and le in l=egi, seem to be sounded equally long."--Adam and Gould cor. "A distinct and an accurate articulation form the groundwork of good delivery." Or: "A distinct and accurate articulation forms the groundwork of good delivery."--Kirkham cor. "How are vocal and written language understood?"--Sanders cor. "The good, the wise, and the learned man, are ornaments to human society." Or: "The good, wise, and learned man is an ornament to human society."--Bartlett cor. "In some points, the expression of song and that of speech are identical."--Rush cor. "To every room, there were an open and a secret passage."--Johnson cor. "There are such things as a true and a false taste; and the latter as often directs fashion, as the former."--Webster cor. "There are such things as a prudent and an imprudent institution of life, with regard to our health and our affairs."--Bp. Butler cor. "The lot of the outcasts of Israel, and that of the dispersed of Judah, however different in one respect, have in an other corresponded with wonderful exactness."--Hope of Israel cor. "On these final syllables, the radical and the vanishing movement are performed."--Rush cor. "To be young or old, and to be good, just, or the contrary, are physical or moral events."--Spurzheim cor., and Felch. "The eloquence of George Whitfield and that of John Wesley were very different in character each from the other."--Dr. Sharp cor. "The affinity of m for the series beginning with b, and that of n for the series beginning with t, give occasion for other euphonic changes."--Fowler cor.

  "Pylades' soul, and mad Orestes', were
   In these, if right the Greek philosopher." Or thus:--
   "Pylades' and Orestes' soul did pass
   To these, if we believe Pythagoras." Or, without ellipsis:--
   "Pylades and Orestes' souls did pass
   To these, if we believe Pythagoras."--Cowley corrected.


UNDER NOTE VII.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To be moderate in our views, and to proceed temperately in the pursuit of them, are the best ways to ensure success."--L. Murray cor. "To be of any species, and to have a right to the name of that species, are both one."--Locke cor. "With whom, to will, and to do, are the same."--Dr. Jamieson cor. "To profess, and to possess, are very different things."--Inst., Key, p. 272. "To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with God, are duties of universal obligation."--Ib. "To be round or square, to be solid or fluid, to be large or small, and to be moved swiftly or slowly, are all equally alien from the nature of thought."--Dr. Johnson. "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or parts of speech, and [a] stating [of] the accidents which belong to these, are called PARSING." Or, according to Note 1st above: "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or parts of speech, with [a] stating [of] the accidents which belong to these, is called PARSING."--Bullions cor. "To spin and to weave, to knit and to sew, were once a girl's employments; but now, to dress, and to catch a beau, are all she calls enjoyments."--Kimball cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVII AND ITS NOTES.

UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY OR.

"We do not know in what either reason or instinct consists."--Johnson corrected. "A noun or a pronoun joined with a participle, constitutes a nominative case absolute."--Bicknell cor. "The relative will be of that case which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going before, uses to govern:" or,--"usually governs."--Adam, Gould, et al., cor. "In the different modes of pronunciation, which habit or caprice gives rise to."--Knight cor. "By which he, or his deputy, was authorized to cut down any trees in Whittlebury forest."--Junius cor. "Wherever objects were named, in which sound, noise, or motion, was concerned, the imitation by words was abundantly obvious."--Dr. Blair cor. "The pleasure or pain resulting from a train of perceptions in different circumstances, is a beautiful contrivance of nature for valuable purposes."--Kames cor. "Because their foolish vanity, or their criminal ambition, represents the principles by which they are influenced, as absolutely perfect."--D. Boileau cor. "Hence naturally arises indifference or aversion between the parties."--Dr. Brown cor. "A penitent unbeliever, or an impenitent believer, is a character nowhere to be found."--Tract cor. "Copying whatever is peculiar in the talk of all those whose birth or fortune entitles them to imitation."--Johnson cor. "Where love, hatred, fear, or contempt, is often of decisive influence."--Duncan cor. "A lucky anecdote, or an enlivening tale, relieves the folio page."--D'Israeli cor. "For outward matter or event fashions not the character within." Or: (according to the antique style of this modern book of proverbs:)--"fashioneth not the character within."--Tupper cor. "Yet sometimes we have seen that wine, or chance, has warmed cold brains."--Dryden cor. "Motion is a genus; flight, a species; this flight or that flight is an individual."--Harris cor. "When et, aut, vel, sive, or nec, is repeated before different members of the same sentence."--Adam, Gould, and Grant, cor. "Wisdom or folly governs us."--Fisk cor. "A or an is styled the indefinite article"--Folker cor. "A rusty nail, or a crooked pin, shoots up into a prodigy."--Spect. cor. "Is either the subject or the predicate in the second sentence modified?"--Prof. Fowler cor.

  "Praise from a friend, or censure from a foe,
   Is lost on hearers that our merits know."--Pope cor.


UNDER THE RULE ITSELF.--NOMINATIVES CONNECTED BY NOR.

"Neither he nor she has spoken to him."--Perrin cor. "For want of a process of events, neither knowledge nor elegance preserves the reader from weariness."--Johnson cor. "Neither history nor tradition furnishes such information."--Robertson cor. "Neither the form nor the power of the liquids has varied materially."--Knight cor. "Where neither noise nor motion is concerned."--Blair cor. "Neither Charles nor his brother was qualified to support such a system."--Junius cor. "When, therefore, neither the liveliness of representation, nor the warmth of passion serves, as it were, to cover the trespass, it is not safe to leave the beaten track."--Campbell cor. "In many countries called Christian, neither Christianity, nor its evidence, is fairly laid before men."--Bp. Butler cor. "Neither the intellect nor the heart is capable of being driven."--Abbott cor. "Throughout this hymn, neither Apollo nor Diana is in any way connected with the Sun or Moon."--Coleridge cor. "Of which, neither he, nor this grammar, takes any notice."--R. Johnson cor. "Neither their solicitude nor their foresight extends so far."--Robertson cor. "Neither Gomara, nor Oviedo, nor Herrera, considers Ojeda, or his companion Vespucci, as the first discoverer of the continent of America."--Id. "Neither the general situation of our colonies, nor that particular distress which forced the inhabitants of Boston to take up arms, has been thought worthy of a moment's consideration."--Junius cor.

  "Nor war nor wisdom yields our Jews delight,
   They will not study, and they dare not fight."--Crabbe cor.
   "Nor time nor chance breeds such confusions yet,
   Nor are the mean so rais'd, nor sunk the great."--Rowe cor.


UNDER NOTE I.--NOMINATIVES THAT DISAGREE.

"The definite article, the, designates what particular thing or things are meant."--Merchant cor. "Sometimes a word, or several words, necessary to complete the grammatical construction of a sentence, are not expressed, but are omitted by ellipsis."--Burr cor. "Ellipsis, (better, Ellipses,) or abbreviations, are the wheels of language."--Maunder cor. "The conditions or tenor of none of them appears at this day." Or: "The tenor or conditions of none of them appear at this day."-- Hutchinson cor. "Neither men nor money was wanting for the service." Or: "Neither money nor men were wanting for the service."--Id. "Either our own feelings, or the representation of those of others, requires emphatic distinction to be frequent."--Dr. Barber cor. "Either Atoms and Chance, or Nature, is uppermost: now I am for the latter part of the disjunction."--Collier cor. "Their riches or poverty is generally proportioned to their activity or indolence."--Cox cor. "Concerning the other part of him, neither he nor you seem to have entertained an idea."--Horne cor. "Whose earnings or income is so small."--Discip. cor. "Neither riches nor fame renders a man happy."--Day cor. "The references to the pages always point to the first volume, unless the Exercises or Key is mentioned." Or, better:--"unless mention is made of the Exercises or Key." Or: "unless the Exercises or Key be named."--L. Murray cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--COMPLETE THE CONCORD.

"My lord, you wrong my father; neither is he, nor am I, capable of harbouring a thought against your peace."--Walpole cor. "There was no division of acts; there were no pauses, or intervals, in the performance; but the stage was continually full; occupied either by the actors, or by the chorus."--Dr. Blair cor. "Every word ending in b, p, or f, is of this order, as also are many that end in v."--Dr. Murray cor. "Proud as we are of human reason, nothing can be more absurd than is the general system of human life and human knowledge."-- Bolingbroke cor. "By which the body of sin and death is done away, and we are cleansed."--Barclay cor. "And those were already converted, and regeneration was begun in them."--Id. "For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years."--Bible cor. "Who is my mother? or who are my brethren?"--See Matt., xii, 48. "Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor are the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering."-- Bible cor. "Information has been obtained, and some trials have been made."--Martineau cor. "It is as obvious, and its causes are more easily understood."--Webster cor. "All languages furnish examples of this kind, and the English contains as many as any other."--Priestley cor. "The winters are long, and the cold is intense."--Morse cor. "How have I hated instruction, and how hath my heart despised reproof!"--Prov. cor. "The vestals were abolished by Theodosius the Great, and the fire of Vesta was extinguished."--Lempriere cor. "Riches beget pride; pride begets impatience."--Bullions cor. "Grammar is not reasoning, any more than organization is thought, or letters are sounds."--Enclytica cor. "Words are implements, and grammar is a machine."--Id.


UNDER NOTE III.--PLACE OF THE FIRST PERSON.

"Thou or I must undertake the business."--L. Murray cor. "He and I were there."--Ash cor. "And we dreamed a dream in one night, he and I."--Bible cor. "If my views remain the same as his and mine were in 1833."--Goodell cor. "My father and I were riding out."--Inst., Key, p. 273. "The premiums were given to George and me."--Ib. "Jane and I are invited."--Ib. "They ought to invite my sister and me."--Ib. "You and I intend to go."--Guy cor. "John and I are going to town."--Brit. Gram. cor. "He and I are sick."--James Brown cor. "Thou and I are well."--Id. "He and I are."--Id. "Thou and I are."--Id. "He, and I write."--Id. "They and I are well."--Id. "She, and thou, and I, were walking."--Id.


UNDER NOTE IV.--DISTINCT SUBJECT PHRASES.

"To practise tale-bearing, or even to countenance it, is great injustice."--Inst., Key, p. 273. "To reveal secrets, or to betray one's friends, is contemptible perfidy."--Id. "To write all substantives with capital letters, or to exclude capitals from adjectives derived from proper names, may perhaps be thought an offence too small for animadversion; but the evil of innovation is always something."--Dr. Barrow cor. "To live in such families, or to have such servants, is a blessing from God."--Fam. Com. cor. "How they portioned out the country, what revolutions they experienced, or what wars they maintained, is utterly unknown." Or: "How they portioned out the country, what revolutions they experienced, and what wars they maintained, are things utterly unknown."--Goldsmith cor. "To speak or to write perspicuously and agreeably, is an attainment of the utmost consequence to all who purpose, either by speech or by writing, to address the public."--Dr. Blair cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--MAKE THE VERBS AGREE.

"Doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and go into the mountains, and seek that which is gone astray?"--Bible cor. "Did he not fear the Lord, and beseech the Lord, and did not the Lord repent of the evil which he had pronounced?"--Id. "And dost thou open thine eyes upon such a one, and bring me into judgement with thee?"--Id. "If any man among you seemeth to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain."--Id. "If thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buy aught of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one an other."--Id. "And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee, become poor, and be sold to thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond-servant."--Id. "If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there remember that thy brother hath aught against thee," &c.--Id. "Anthea was content to call a coach, and so to cross the brook." Or:--"and in that she crossed the brook."--Johnson cor. "It is either totally suppressed, or manifested only in its lowest and most imperfect form."--Blair cor. "But if any man is a worshiper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth." Or: "If any man be a worshiper of God, and do his will, him will he hear."--Bible cor. "Whereby his righteousness and obedience, death and sufferings without, become profitable unto us, and are made ours."--Barclay cor. "Who ought to have been here before thee, and to have objected, if they had any thing against me."--Bible cor.

  "Yes! thy proud lords, unpitied land, shall see,
   That man has yet a soul, and dares be free."--Campbell cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--USE SEPARATE NOMINATIVES.

"H is only an aspiration, or breathing; and sometimes, at the beginning of a word, it is not sounded at all."--Lowth cor. "Man was made for society, and he ought to extend his good will to all men."--Id. "There is, and must be, a Supreme Being, of infinite goodness, power, and wisdom, who created, and who supports them."--Beattie cor. "Were you not affrighted, and did you not mistake a spirit for a body?"--Bp. Watson cor. "The latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction than or as, but it either agrees with the verb, or is governed by the verb or the preposition, expressed or understood."--Mur. et al. cor. "He had mistaken his true interest, and he found himself forsaken."--Murray cor. "The amputation was exceedingly well performed, and it saved the patient's life."--Id. "The intentions of some of these philosophers, nay, of many, might have been, and probably they were, good."--Id. "This may be true, and yet it will not justify the practice."--Webster cor. "From the practice of those who have had a liberal education, and who are therefore presumed to be best acquainted with men and things."--Campbell cor. "For those energies and bounties which created, and which preserve, the universe."--J. Q. Adams cor. "I shall make it once for all, and I hope it will be remembered."--Blair cor. "This consequence is drawn too abruptly. The argument needed more explanation." Or: "This consequence is drawn too abruptly, and without sufficient explanation."--Id. "They must be used with more caution, and they require more preparation."--Id. "The apostrophe denotes the omission of an i, which was formerly inserted, and which made an addition of a syllable to the word."--Priestley cor. "The succession may be rendered more various or more uniform, but, in one shape or an other, it is unavoidable."--Kames cor. "It excites neither terror nor compassion; nor is it agreeable in any respect."--Id.

  "Cheap vulgar arts, whose narrowness affords
   No flight for thoughts,--they poorly stick at words."--Denham cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--MIXTURE OF DIFFERENT STYLES.

"Let us read the living page, whose every character delights and instructs us."--Maunder cor. "For if it is in any degree obscure, it puzzles, and does not please."--Kames cor. "When a speaker addresses himself to the understanding, he proposes the instruction of his hearers."--Campbell cor. "As the wine which strengthens and refreshes the heart."--H. Adams cor. "This truth he wraps in an allegory, and feigns that one of the goddesses had taken up her abode with the other."--Pope cor. "God searcheth and understandeth the heart." Or: "God searches and understands the heart."--T. à. Kempis cor. "The grace of God, that bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men."--Titus, ii, 11. "Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth."--1 Cor., ii, 13. "But he has an objection, which he urges, and by which he thinks to overturn all."--Barclay cor. "In that it gives them not that comfort and joy which it gives to them who love it."--Id. "Thou here misunderstood the place and misapplied it." Or: "Thou here misunderstoodst the place and misappliedst it."--Id. Or: (as many of our grammarians will have it:) "Thou here misunderstoodest the place and misappliedst it."--Id. "Like the barren heath in the desert, which knoweth not when good cometh."--See Jer., xvii, 6. "It speaks of the time past, and shows that something was then doing, but not quite finished."--Devis cor. "It subsists in spite of them; it advances unobserved."--Pascal cor.

  "But where is he, the pilgrim of my song?--
   Methinks he lingers late and tarries long."--Byron cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--CONFUSION OF MOODS.

"If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them go (or be gone) astray," &c.--Matt., xviii, 12. Or: "If a man has a hundred sheep, and one of them goes (or is gone) astray," &c. Or: "If a man hath a hundred sheep, and one of them goeth (or is gone) astray," &c.--Kirkham cor. "As a speaker advances in his discourse, and increases in energy and earnestness, a higher and a louder tone will naturally steal upon him."--Id. "If one man esteem one day above an other, and an other esteem every day alike; let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind."--Barclay cor. See Rom., xiv, 5. "If there be but one body of legislators, it will be no better than a tyranny; if there be only two, there will want a casting voice."--Addison cor. "Should you come up this way, and I be still here, you need not be assured how glad I should be to see you."--Byron cor. "If he repent and become holy, let him enjoy God and heaven."--Brownson cor. "If thy fellow approach thee, naked and destitute, and thou say unto him, 'Depart in peace, be warmed and filled,' and yet thou give him not those things which are needful to him, what benevolence is there in thy conduct?"--Kirkham cor.

  "Get on your nightgown, lest occasion call us,
   And show us to be watchers."--Singer's Shakspeare.
   "But if it climb, with your assisting hand,
   The Trojan walls, and in the city stand."--Dryden cor.
   ----------------"Though Heaven's King
   Ride on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers,
   Used to the yoke, draw his triumphant wheels."--Milton cor.


UNDER NOTE IX.--IMPROPER ELLIPSES.

"Indeed we have seriously wondered that Murray should leave some things as he has left them."--Reporter cor. "Which they neither have done nor can do."--Barclay cor. "The Lord hath revealed, and doth and will reveal, his will to his people; and hath raised up, and doth raise up, members of his body," &c.--Id. "We see, then, that the Lord hath given, and doth give, such."--Id. "Towards those that have declared, or do declare, themselves members."--Id. "For which we can give, and have given, our sufficient reasons."--Id. "When we mention the several properties of the different words in sentences, as we have mentioned those of the word William's above, what is the exercise called?"--R. C. Smith cor. "It is however to be doubted, whether this Greek idiom ever has obtained, or ever will obtain, extensively, in English."--Nutting cor. "Why did not the Greeks and Romans abound in auxiliary words as much as we do?"--Murray cor. "Who delivers his sentiments in earnest, as they ought to be delivered in order to move and persuade."--Kirkham cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--DO, USED AS A SUBSTITUTE.

"And I would avoid it altogether, if it could be avoided." Or: "I would avoid it altogether, if to avoid it were practicable."--Kames cor. "Such a sentiment from a man expiring of his wounds, is truly heroic; and it must elevate the mind to the greatest height to which it can be raised by a single expression."--Id. "Successive images, thus making deeper and deeper impressions, must elevate the mind more than any single image can."--Id. "Besides making a deeper impression than can be made by cool reasoning."--Id. "Yet a poet, by the force of genius alone, may rise higher than a public speaker can." Or:--"than can a public speaker."--Blair cor. "And the very same reason that has induced several grammarians to go so far as they have gone, should have induced them to go farther."--Priestley cor. "The pupil should commit the first section to memory perfectly, before he attempts (or enters upon) the second part of grammar."--Bradley cor. "The Greek ch was pronounced hard, as we now pronounce it in chord."--Booth cor. "They pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what they adopt (or, in a manner different from that which they are accustomed to use) at other times."--L. Murray cor. "And give him the cool and formal reception that Simon had given."--Scott cor. "I do not say, as some have said."--Bolingbroke cor. "If he suppose the first, he may the last."--Barclay cor. "Who are now despising Christ in his inward appearance, as the Jews of old despised him in his outward [advent]."--Id. "That text of Revelations must not be understood as he understands it."--Id. "Till the mode of parsing the noun is so familiar to him that he can parse it readily."--R. C. Smith cor. "Perhaps it is running the same course that Rome had run before."--Middleton cor. "It ought even on this ground to be avoided; and it easily may be, by a different construction."--Churchill cor. "These two languages are now pronounced in England as no other nation in Europe pronounces them."--Creighton cor. "Germany ran the same risk that Italy had run."--Bolingbroke, Murray, et al., cor.


UNDER NOTE XI.--PRETERITS AND PARTICIPLES.

"The beggars themselves will be broken in a trice."--Swift cor. "The hoop is hoisted above his nose."--Id. "And his heart was lifted up in the ways of the Lord."--2 Chron., xvii, 6. "Who sin so oft have mourned, Yet to temptation run."--Burns cor. "Who would not have let them appear."--Steele cor. "He would have had you seek for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality."--Bunyan cor. "From me his madding mind is turned: He woos the widow's daughter, of the glen."--Spenser cor. "The man has spoken, and he still speaks."--Ash cor. "For you have but mistaken me all this while."--Shak. cor. "And will you rend our ancient love asunder?"--Id. "Mr. Birney has pled (or pleaded) the inexpediency of passing such resolutions."--Liberator cor. "Who have worn out their years in such most painful labours."--Littleton cor. "And in the conclusion you were chosen probationer."--Spectator cor.

  "How she was lost, ta'en captive, made a slave;
   And how against him set that should her save."--Bunyan cor.


UNDER NOTE XII.--OF VERBS CONFOUNDED.

"But Moses preferred to while away his time."--Parker cor. "His face shone with the rays of the sun."--John Allen cor. "Whom they had set at defiance so lately."--Bolingbroke cor. "And when he had sat down, his disciples came unto him."--Bible cor. "When he had sat down on the judgement-seat." Or: "While he was sitting on the judgement-seat."-- Id. "And, they having kindled a fire in the midst of the hall and sat down together, Peter sat down among them."--Id. "So, after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and had sat down again,[or, literally,'sitting down again,'] he said to them, Do ye know what I have done to you?"--Id. "Even as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father in his throne."--Id. Or: (rather less literally:) "Even as I have overcome, and am sitting with my Father on his throne."--Id. "We have such a high priest, who sitteth on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens."--Id. "And is now sitting at the right hand of the throne of God."--Id. "He set on foot a furious persecution."-- Payne cor. "There lieth (or lies) an obligation upon the saints to help such."--Barclay cor. "There let him lie."--Byron cor. "Nothing but moss, and shrubs, and stunted trees, can grow upon it."--Morse cor. "Who had laid out considerable sums purely to distinguish themselves."-- Goldsmith cor. "Whereunto the righteous flee and are safe."--Barclay cor. "He rose from supper, and laid aside his garments."--Id. "Whither--oh! whither--shall I flee?"--L. Murray cor. "Fleeing from an adopted murderer."--Id. "To you I flee for refuge."--Id. "The sign that should warn his disciples to flee from the approaching ruin."-- Keith cor. "In one she sits as a prototype for exact imitation."--Rush cor. "In which some only bleat, bark, mew, whinny, and bray, a little better than others."--Id. "Who represented to him the unreasonableness of being affected with such unmanly fears."--Rollin cor. "Thou sawest every action." Or, familiarly: "Thou saw every action."--Guy cor. "I taught, thou taughtest, or taught, he or she taught."--Coar cor. "Valerian was taken by Sapor and flayed alive, A. D. 260."--Lempriere cor. "What a fine vehicle has it now become, for all conceptions of the mind!"--Blair cor. "What has become of so many productions?"--Volney cor. "What has become of those ages of abundance and of life?"--Keith cor. "The Spartan admiral had sailed to the Hellespont."--Goldsmith cor. "As soon as he landed, the multitude thronged about him."--Id. "Cyrus had arrived at Sardis."--Id. "Whose year had expired."--Id. "It might better have been, 'that faction which,'" Or; "'That faction which,' would have been better."--Murray's Gram., p. 157. "This people has become a great nation."--Murray and Ingersoll cor. "And here we enter the region of ornament."--Dr. Blair cor. "The ungraceful parenthesis which follows, might far better have been avoided." "Who forced him under water, and there held him until he was drowned."--Hist. cor.

  "I would much rather be myself the slave,
   And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him."--Cowper cor.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--WORDS THAT EXPRESS TIME.

"I finished my letter before my brother arrived." Or: "I had finished my letter when my brother arrived."--Kirkham cor. "I wrote before I received his letter."--Dr. Blair cor. "From what was formerly delivered."--Id. "Arts were at length introduced among them." Or: "Arts have been of late introduced among them."--Id. [But the latter reading suits not the Doctor's context.] "I am not of opinion that such rules can be of much use, unless persons see them exemplified." Or:--"could be," and "saw."--Id. "If we use the noun itself, we say, (or must say,) 'This composition is John's.'" Or: "If we used the noun itself, we should say," &c.--L. Murray cor. "But if the assertion refer to something that was transient, or to something that is not supposed to be always the same, the past tense must be preferred:" [as,] "They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by."--Luke and L. Murray cor. "There is no particular intimation but that I have continued to work, even to the present moment."--R. W. Green cor. "Generally, as has been observed already, it is but hinted in a single word or phrase."--Campbell cor. "The wittiness of the passage has been already illustrated."--Id. "As was observed before."--Id. Or: "As has been observed already"--Id. "It has been said already in general terms."--Id. "As I hinted before."--Id. Or: "As I have hinted already."--Id. "What, I believe, was hinted once before."--Id. "It is obvious, as was hinted formerly, that this is but an artificial and arbitrary connexion."--Id. "They did anciently a great deal of hurt."-- Bolingbroke cor. "Then said Paul, I knew not, brethren, that he was the high priest."--See Acts, xxiii, 5; Webster cor. "Most prepositions originally denoted the relations of place; and from these they were transferred, to denote, by similitude, other relations."--Lowth and Churchill cor. "His gift was but a poor offering, in comparison with his great estate."--L. Murray cor. "If he should succeed, and obtain his end, he would not be the happier for it." Or, better: "If he succeed, and fully attain his end, he will not be the happier for it."--Id. "These are torrents that swell to-day, and that will have spent themselves by to-morrow."--Dr. Blair cor. "Who have called that wheat on one day, which they have called tares on the next."--Barclay cor. "He thought it was one of his tenants."--Id. "But if one went unto them from the dead, they would repent."--Bible cor. "Neither would they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."--Id. "But it is while men sleep, that the arch-enemy always sows his tares."--The Friend cor. "Crescens would not have failed to expose him."--Addison cor.

  "Bent is his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound;
   Fierce as he moves, his silver shafts resound."--Pope cor.


UNDER NOTE XIV.--VERBS OF COMMANDING, &C.

"Had I commanded you to do this, you would have thought hard of it."--G. B. "I found him better than I expected to find him."--L Murray's Gram., i, 187. "There are several smaller faults which I at first intended to enumerate."--Webster cor. "Antithesis, therefore, may, on many occasions, be employed to advantage, in order to strengthen the impression which we intend that any object shall make."--Dr. Blair cor. "The girl said, if her master would but have let her have money, she might have been well long ago."--Priestley et al. cor. "Nor is there the least ground to fear that we shall here be cramped within too narrow limits."--Campbell cor. "The Romans, flushed with success, expected to retake it."--Hooke cor. "I would not have let fall an unseasonable pleasantry in the venerable presence of Misery, to be entitled to all the wit that ever Rabelais scattered."--Sterne cor. "We expected that he would arrive last night."--Brown's Inst., p. 282. "Our friends intended to meet us."--Ib. "We hoped to see you."--Ib. "He would not have been allowed to enter."--Ib.


UNDER NOTE XV.--PERMANENT PROPOSITIONS.

"Cicero maintained, that whatsoever is useful is good."--G. B. "I observed that love constitutes the whole moral character of God."--Dwight cor. "Thinking that one gains nothing by being a good man."--Voltaire cor. "I have already told you, that I am a gentleman."--Fontaine cor. "If I should ask, whether ice and water are two distinct species of things."--Locke cor. "A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this is verse."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, i, 260. "The doctor affirmed that fever always produces thirst."--Brown's Inst., p. 282. "The ancients asserted, that virtue is its own reward."--Ib. "They should not have repeated the error, of insisting that the infinitive is a mere noun."--Tooke cor. "It was observed in Chap. III, that the distinctive OR has a double use."--Churchill cor. "Two young gentlemen, who have made a discovery that there is no God."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 206.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XVIII; INFINITIVES.

INSTANCES DEMANDING THE PARTICLE TO.

"William, please to hand me that pencil."--Smith cor. "Please to insert points so as to make sense."--P. Davis cor. "I have known lords to abbreviate almost half of their words."--Cobbett cor. "We shall find the practice perfectly to accord with the theory."--Knight cor. "But it would tend to obscure, rather than to elucidate, the subject."--L. Murray cor. "Please to divide it for them, as it should be divided"--J. Willetts cor. "So as neither to embarrass nor to weaken the sentence."--Blair and Mur. cor. "Carry her to his table, to view his poor fare, and to hear his heavenly discourse."--Same. "That we need not be surprised to find this to hold [i.e., to find the same to be true, or to find it so] in eloquence."--Blair cor. "Where he has no occasion either to divide or to explain" [the topic in debate.]--Id. "And they will find their pupils to improve by hasty and pleasant steps."--Russell cor. "The teacher, however, will please to observe," &c.--Inf. S. Gr. cor. "Please to attend to a few rules in what is called syntax."--Id. "They may dispense with the laws, to favour their friends, or to secure their office."--Webster cor. "To take back a gift, or to break a contract, is a wanton abuse."--Id. "The legislature has nothing to do, but to let it bear its own price."--Id. "He is not to form, but to copy characters."--Rambler cor. "I have known a woman to make use of a shoeing-horn."--Spect. cor. "Finding this experiment to answer, in every respect, their wishes."--Day cor. "In fine, let him cause his arrangement to conclude in the term of the question."--Barclay cor.

  "That he permitted not the winds of heaven
    To visit her too roughly."
                            [Omit "face," to keep the measure: or say,]
   "That he did never let the winds of heaven
    Visit her face too roughly."--Shak. cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE XIX.--OF INFINITIVES.

Instances after Bid, Dare, Feel, Hear, Let, Make, Need, See.

"I dare not proceed so hastily, lest I give offence."--See Murray's Key, Rule xii. "Their character is formed, and made to appear."--Butler cor. "Let there be but matter and opportunity offered, and you shall see them quickly revive again."--Bacon cor. "It has been made to appear, that there is no presumption against a revelation."--Bp. Butler cor. "MANIFEST, v. t. To reveal; to make appear; to show plainly."--Webster cor. "Let him reign, like good Aurelius, or let him bleed like Seneca:" [Socrates did not bleed, he was poisoned.]--Kirkham's transposition of Pope cor. "Sing I could not; complain I durst not."--Fothergill cor. "If T. M. be not so frequently heard to pray by them."--Barclay cor. "How many of your own church members were never heard to pray?"--Id. "Yea, we are bidden to pray one for an other."--Id. "He was made to believe that neither the king's death nor his imprisonment would help him."--Sheffield cor. "I felt a chilling sensation creep over me."--Inst., p. 279. "I dare say he has not got home yet."--Ib. "We sometimes see bad men honoured."--Ib. "I saw him move"--Felch cor. "For see thou, ah! see thou, a hostile world its terrors raise."--Kirkham cor. "But that he make him rehearse so."--Lily cor. "Let us rise."--Fowle cor.

  "Scripture, you know, exhorts us to it;
   It bids us 'seek peace, and ensue it.'"--Swift cor.
   "Who bade the mud from Dives' wheel
   Bedash the rags of Lazarus?
   Come, brother, in that dust we'll kneel,
   Confessing heaven that ruled it thus."--Christmas Book cor.


CHAPTER VII.--PARTICIPLES.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XX.

UNDER NOTE I.--EXPUNGE OF.

"In forming his sentences, he was very exact."--L. Murray. "For not believing which, I condemn them."--Barclay cor. "To prohibit his hearers from reading that book."--Id. "You will please them exceedingly in crying down ordinances."--Mitchell cor. "The warwolf subsequently became an engine for casting stones." Or:--"for the casting of stones."--Cons. Misc. cor. "The art of dressing hides and working in leather was practised."--Id. "In the choice they had made of him for restoring order."--Rollin cor. "The Arabians exercised themselves by composing orations and poems."--Sale cor. "Behold, the widow-woman was there, gathering sticks."--Bible cor. "The priests were busied in offering burnt-offerings."--Id. "But Asahel would not turn aside from following him."--Id. "He left off building Ramah, and dwelt in Tirzah."--Id. "Those who accuse us of denying it, belie us."--Barclay cor. "And breaking bread from house to house."--Acts, iv, 46. "Those that set about repairing the walls."--Barclay cor. "And secretly begetting divisions."--Id. "Whom he has made use of in gathering his church."--Id. "In defining and distinguishing the acceptations and uses of those particles."--W. Walker cor.

  "In making this a crime, we overthrow
   The laws of nations and of nature too."--Dryden cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--ARTICLES REQUIRE OF.

"The mixing of them makes a miserable jumble of truth and fiction."--Kames cor. "The same objection lies against the employing of statues."--Id. "More efficacious than the venting of opulence upon the fine arts."--Id. "It is the giving of different names to the same object."--Id. "When we have in view the erecting of a column."--Id. "The straining of an elevated subject beyond due bounds, is a vice not so frequent."--Id. "The cutting of evergreens in the shape of animals, is very ancient."--Id. "The keeping of juries without meat, drink, or fire, can be accounted for only on the same idea."--Webster cor. "The writing of the verbs at length on his slate, will be a very useful exercise."--Beck cor. "The avoiding of them is not an object of any moment."--Sheridan cor. "Comparison is the increasing or decreasing of the signification of a word by degrees."--Brit. Gram. cor. "Comparison is the increasing or decreasing of the quality by degrees."--Buchanan cor. "The placing of a circumstance before the word with which it is connected is the easiest of all inversion."--Id. "What is emphasis? It is the emitting of a stronger and fuller sound of voice," &c.--Bradley cor. "Besides, the varying of the terms will render the use of them more familiar."--A. Mur. cor. "And yet the confining of themselves to this true principle, has misled them."--Tooke cor. "What is here commanded, is merely the relieving of his misery."--Wayland cor. "The accumulating of too great a quantity of knowledge at random, overloads the mind in stead of adorning it."--Formey cor. "For the compassing of his point."--Rollin cor. "To the introducing of such an inverted order of things."--Bp. Butler cor. "Which require only the doing of an external action."--Id. "The imprisoning of my body is to satisfy your wills."--Fox cor. "Who oppose the conferring of such extensive command on one person."--Duncan cor. "Luxury contributed not a little to the enervating of their forces."--Sale cor. "The keeping of one day of the week for a sabbath."--Barclay cor. "The doing of a thing is contrary to the forbearing of it."--Id. "The doubling of the Sigma is, however, sometimes regular."--Knight cor. "The inserting of the common aspirate too, is improper."--Id. "But in Spenser's time the pronouncing of the ed [as a separate syllable,] seems already to have been something of an archaism."--Phil. Mu. cor. "And to the reconciling of the effect of their verses on the eye."--Id. "When it was not in their power to hinder the taking of the whole."--Dr. Brown cor. "He had indeed given the orders himself for the shutting of the gates."--Id. "So his whole life was a doing of the will of the Father."--Penington cor. "It signifies the suffering or receiving of the action expressed."--Priestley cor. "The pretended crime therefore was the declaring of himself to be the Son of God."--West cor. "Parsing is the resolving of a sentence into its different parts of speech."--Beck cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--ADJECTIVES REQUIRE OF.

"There is no expecting of the admiration of beholders."--Baxter cor. "There is no hiding of you in the house."--Shak. cor. "For the better regulating of government in the province of Massachusetts."--Brit. Parl. cor. "The precise marking of the shadowy boundaries of a complex government."--Adams cor. "This state of discipline requires the voluntary foregoing of many things which we desire, and the setting of ourselves to what we have no inclination to."--Bp. Butler cor. "This amounts to an active setting of themselves against religion."--Id. "Which engaged our ancient friends to the orderly establishing of our Christian discipline."--Friends cor. "Some men are so unjust that there is no securing of our own property or life, but by opposing force to force."--Rev. John Brown cor. "An Act for the better securing of the Rights and Liberties of the Subject."--Geo. III cor. "Miraculous curing of the sick is discontinued."--Barclay cor. "It would have been no transgressing of the apostle's rule."--Id. "As far as consistent with the proper conducting of the business of the House."--Elmore cor. "Because he would have no quarrelling at the just condemning of them at that day." Or:--"at their just condemnation at that day."--Bunyan cor. "That transferring of this natural manner will insure propriety."--Rush cor. "If a man were porter of hell-gate, he should have old [i.e., frequent] turning of the key."--Singer's Shakspeare cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--POSSESSIVES REQUIRE OF.

"So very simple a thing as a man's wounding of himself."--Dr. Blair cor., and Murray. "Or with that man's avowing of his designs."--Blair, Mur., et al. cor. "On his putting of the question."--Adams cor. "The importance of teachers' requiring of their pupils to read each section many times over."--Kirkham cor. "Politeness is a kind of forgetting of one's self, in order to be agreeable to others."--Ramsay cor. "Much, therefore, of the merit and the agreeableness of epistolary writing, will depend on its introducing of us into some acquaintance with the writer."--Blair and Mack cor. "Richard's restoration to respectability depends on his paying of his debts."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Their supplying of ellipses where none ever existed; their parsing of the words of sentences already full and perfect, as though depending on words understood."--Id. "Her veiling of herself, and shedding of tears, &c., her upbraiding of Paris for his cowardice," &c.--Blair cor. "A preposition may be made known by its admitting of a personal pronoun after it, in the objective case."--Murray et al. cor. "But this forms no just objection to its denoting of time."--L. Mur. cor. "Of men's violating or disregarding of the relations in which God has here placed them."--Bp. Butler cor. "Success, indeed, no more decides for the right, than a man's killing of his antagonist in a duel."--Campbell cor. "His reminding of them."--Kirkham cor. "This mistake was corrected by his preceptor's causing of him to plant some beans."--Id. "Their neglecting of this was ruinous."--Frost cor. "That he was serious, appears from his distinguishing of the others as 'finite.'"--Felch cor. "His hearers are not at all sensible of his doing of it." Or:--"that he does it."--Sheridan cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--CHANGE THE EXPRESSION.

"An allegory is a fictitious story the meaning of which is figurative, not literal; a double meaning, or dilogy, is the saying of only one thing, when we have two in view."--Phil. Mu. cor. "A verb may generally be distinguished by the sense which it makes with any of the personal pronouns, or with the word TO, before it."--Murray et al. cor. "A noun may in general be distinguished by the article which comes before it, or by the sense which it makes of itself."--Merchant et al. cor. "An adjective may usually be known by the sense which it makes with the word thing; as, a good thing, a bad thing."--Iid. "It is seen to be in the objective case, because it denotes the object affected by the act of leaving."--O. B. Peirce cor. "It is seen to be in the possessive case, because it denotes the possessor of something."--Id. "The noun MAN is caused by the adjective WHATEVER to seem like a twofold nominative, as if it denoted, of itself, one person as the subject of the two remarks."--Id. "WHEN, as used in the last line, is a connective, because it joins that line to the other part of the sentence."--Id. "Because they denote reciprocation."--Id. "To allow them to make use of that liberty;"--"To allow them to use that liberty;"--or, "To allow them that liberty."--Sale cor. "The worst effect of it is, that it fixes on your mind a habit of indecision."--Todd cor. "And you groan the more deeply, as you reflect that you have not power to shake it off."--Id. "I know of nothing that can justify the student in having recourse to a Latin translation of a Greek writer."--Coleridge cor. "Humour is the conceit of making others act or talk absurdly."--Hazlitt cor. "There are remarkable instances in which they do not affect each other."--Bp. Butler cor. "That Cæsar was left out of the commission, was not from any slight."--Life cor. "Of the thankful reception of this toleration, I shall say no more," Or: "Of the propriety of receiving this toleration thankfully, I shall say no more."--Dryden cor. "Henrietta was delighted with Julia's skill in working lace."--O. B. Peirce cor. "And it is because each of them represents two different words, that the confusion has arisen."--Booth cor. "Æschylus died of a fracture of his skull, caused by an eagle's dropping of a tortoise on his head." Or:--"caused by a tortoise which an eagle let fall on his head."--Biog. Dict. cor. "He doubted whether they had it."--Felch cor. "To make ourselves clearly understood, is the chief end of speech."--Sheridan cor. "One cannot discover in their countenances any signs which are the natural concomitants of the feelings of the heart."--Id. "Nothing can be more common or less proper, than to speak of a river as emptying itself."--Campbell cor. "Our non-use of the former expression, is owing to this."--Bullions cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--DISPOSAL OF ADVERBS.

"To this generally succeeds the division, or the laying-down of the method of the discourse."--Dr. Blair cor. "To the pulling-down of strong holds."--Bible cor. "Can a mere buckling-on of a military weapon infuse courage?"--Dr. Brown cor. "Expensive and luxurious living destroys health."--L. Murray cor. "By frugal and temperate living, health is preserved." Or: "By living frugally and temperately, we preserve our health."--Id. "By the doing-away of the necessity."--The Friend cor. "He recommended to them, however, the immediate calling of--(or, immediately to call--) the whole community to the church."--Gregory cor. "The separation of large numbers in this manner, certainly facilitates the right reading of them."--Churchill cor. "From their mere admitting of a twofold grammatical construction."--Phil. Mu. cor. "His grave lecturing of his friend about it."--Id. "For the blotting-out of sin."--Gurney cor. "From the not-using of water."-- Barclay cor. "By the gentle dropping-in of a pebble."--Sheridan cor. "To the carrying-on of a great part of that general course of nature."--Bp. Butler cor. "Then the not-interposing is so far from being a ground of complaint."--Id. "The bare omission, (or rather, the not-employing,) of what is used."--Campbell and Jamieson cor. "The bringing-together of incongruous adverbs is a very common fault."-- Churchill cor. "This is a presumptive proof that it does not proceed from them."--Bp. Butler cor. "It represents him in a character to which any injustice is peculiarly unsuitable."--Campbell cor. "They will aim at something higher than a mere dealing-out of harmonious sounds."-- Kirkham cor. "This is intelligible and sufficient; and any further account of the matter seems beyond the reach of our faculties."--Bp. Butler cor. "Apostrophe is a turning-off from the regular course of the subject."--Mur. et al. cor. "Even Isabella was finally prevailed upon to assent to the sending-out of a commission to investigate his conduct."--Life of Columbus cor. "For the turning-away of the simple shall slay them."--Bible cor.

  "Thick fingers always should command
   Without extension of the hand."--King cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--OF PARTICIPLES WITH ADJECTIVES.

"Is there any Scripture which speaks of the light as being inward?"--Barclay cor. "For I believe not positiveness therein essential to salvation."--Id. "Our inability to act a uniformly right part without some thought and care."--Bp. Butler cor. "On the supposition that it is reconcilable with the constitution of nature."--Id. "On the ground that it is not discoverable by reason or experience."--Id. "On the ground that they are unlike the known course of nature."--Id. "Our power to discern reasons for them, gives a positive credibility to the history of them."--Id. "From its lack of universality."--Id. "That they may be turned into passive participles in dus, is no decisive argument to prove them passive."--Grant cor. "With the implied idea that St. Paul was then absent from the Corinthians."--Kirkham cor. "Because it becomes gradually weaker, until it finally dies away into silence."--Id. "Not without the author's full knowledge."--Id. "Wit out of season is one sort of folly."--Sheffield cor. "Its general susceptibility of a much stronger evidence."-- Campbell cor. "At least, that they are such, rarely enhances our opinion, either of their abilities or of their virtues."--Id. "Which were the ground of our unity."--Barclay cor. "But they may be distinguished from it by their intransitiveness."--L. Murray cor. "To distinguish the higher degree of our persuasion of a thing's possibility."--Churchill cor.

  "That he was idle, and dishonest too,
   Was that which caused his utter overthrow."--Tobitt cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--OF COMPOUND VERBAL NOUNS.

"When it denotes subjection to the exertion of an other."--Booth cor. "In the passive sense, it signifies a subjection to the influence of the action."--Felch cor. "To be abandoned by our friends, is very deplorable."--Goldsmith cor. "Without waiting to be attacked by the Macedonians."--Id. "In progress of time, words were wanted to express men's connexion with certain conditions of fortune."--Dr. Blair cor. "Our acquaintance with pain and sorrow has a tendency to bring us to a settled moderation."--Bp. Butler cor. "The chancellor's attachment to the king, secured to the monarch his crown."--L. Murray et al. cor. "The general's failure in this enterprise occasioned his disgrace."-- Iid. "John's long application to writing had wearied him."--Iid. "The sentence may be, 'John's long application to writing has wearied him.'"--Wright cor. "Much depends on the observance of this rule."-- L. Murray cor. "He mentioned that a boy had been corrected for his faults."--Alger and Merchant cor. "The boy's punishment is shameful to him."--Iid. "The greater the difficulty of remembrance is, and the more important the being-remembered is to the attainment of the ultimate end."--Campbell cor. "If the parts in the composition of similar objects were always in equal quantity, their being-compounded (or their compounding) would make no odds."--Id. "Circumstances, not of such importance as that the scope of the relation is affected by their being-known"--or, "by the mention of them."--Id. "A passive verb expresses the receiving of an action, or represents its subject as being acted upon; as, 'John is beaten.'"--Frost cor. "So our language has an other great advantage; namely, that it is little diversified by genders."--Buchanan cor. "The slander concerning Peter is no fault of his."--Frost cor. "Without faith in Christ, there is no justification."--Penn cor. "Habituation to danger begets intrepidity; i.e., lessens fear."--Bp. Butler cor. "It is not affection of any kind, but action that forms those habits."--Id. "In order that we may be satisfied of the truth of the apparent paradox."--Campbell cor. "A trope consists in the employing of a word to signify something that is different from its original or usual meaning."--Blair, Jamieson, Murray, and Kirkham cor.; also Hiley. "The scriptural view of our salvation from punishment."--Gurney cor. "To submit and obey, is not a renouncing of the Spirit's leading."--Barclay cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--PARTICIPLES FOR INFINITIVES, &c.

"To teach little children is a pleasant employment." Or: "The teaching of little children," &c.--Bartlett cor. "To deny or compromise the principles of truth, is virtually to deny their divine Author."--Reformer cor. "A severe critic might point out some expressions that would bear retrenching"--"retrenchment"--or, "to be retrenched."--Dr. Blair cor. "Never attempt to prolong the pathetic too much."--Id. "I now recollect to have mentioned--(or, that I mentioned--) a report of that nature."--Whiting cor. "Nor of the necessity which there is, for their restraint--(or, for them to be restrained--) in them."--Bp. Butler cor. "But, to do what God commands because he commands it, is obedience, though it proceeds from hope or fear."--Id. "Simply to close the nostrils, does not so entirely prevent resonance."--Gardiner cor. "Yet they absolutely refuse to do so."--Harris cor. "But Artaxerxes could not refuse to pardon him."--Goldsmith cor. "The doing of them in the best manner, is signified by the names of these arts."--Rush cor. "To behave well for the time to come, may be insufficient."--Bp. Butler cor. "The compiler proposed to publish that part by itself."--Adam cor. "To smile on those whom we should censure, is, to bring guilt upon ourselves."--Kirkham cor. "But it would be great injustice to that illustrious orator, to bring his genius down to the same level."--Id. "The doubt that things go ill, often hurts more, than to be sure they do."--Shak. cor. "This is called the straining of a metaphor."-- Blair and Murray cor. "This is what Aristotle calls the giving of manners to the poem."--Dr. Blair cor. "The painter's entire confinement to that part of time which he has chosen, deprives him of the power of exhibiting various stages of the same action."--L. Mur. cor. "It imports the retrenchment of all superfluities, and a pruning of the expression."--Blair et al. cor. "The necessity for us to be thus exempted is further apparent."--Jane West cor. "Her situation in life does not allow her to be genteel in every thing."--Same. "Provided you do not dislike to be dirty when you are invisible."--Same. "There is now an imperious necessity for her to be acquainted with her title to eternity."--Same. "Disregard to the restraints of virtue, is misnamed ingenuousness."--Same. "The legislature prohibits the opening of shops on Sunday."--Same. "To attempt to prove that any thing is right."--O. B. Peirce cor. "The comma directs us to make a pause of a second in duration, or less."--Id. "The rule which directs us to put other words into the place of it, is wrong."--Id. "They direct us to call the specifying adjectives, or adnames, adjective pronouns."--Id. "William dislikes to attend court."--Frost cor. "It may perhaps be worth while to remark, that Milton makes a distinction."--Phil. Mu. cor. "To profess regard and act injuriously, discovers a base mind."--Murray et al. cor. "To profess regard and act indifferently, discovers a base mind."--Weld cor. "You have proved beyond contradiction, that this course of action is the sure way to procure such an object."--Campbell cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--PARTICIPLES AFTER BE, IS, &c.

"Irony is a figure in which the speaker sneeringly utters the direct reverse of what he intends shall be understood."--Brown's Inst., p. 235. [Correct by this the four false definitions of "Irony" cited from Murray, Peirce, Fisher, and Sanborn.] "This is, in a great measure, a delivering of their own compositions."--Buchanan cor. "But purity is a right use of the words of the language."--Jamieson cor. "But the most important object is the settling of the English quantity."--Walker cor. "When there is no affinity, the transition from one meaning to an other is a very wide step taken."--Campbell cor. "It will be a loss of time, to attempt further to illustrate it."--Id. "This leaves the sentence too bare, and makes it to be, if not nonsense, hardly sense."--Cobbett cor. "This is a requiring of more labours from every private member."--J. West cor. "Is not this, to use one measure for our neighbours and an other for ourselves?"--Same. "Do we not charge God foolishly, when we give these dark colourings to human nature?"--Same. "This is not, to endure the cross, as a disciple of Jesus Christ; but, to snatch at it, like a partisan of Swift's Jack."--Same. "What is spelling? It is the combining of letters to form syllables and words."--O. B. Peirce cor. "It is the choosing of such letters to compose words," &c.--Id. "What is parsing? (1.) It is a describing of the nature, use, and powers of words."--Id. (2.) "For Parsing is a describing of the words of a sentence as they are used."--Id. (3.) "Parsing is only a describing of the nature and relations of words as they are used."--Id. (4.) "Parsing, let the pupil understand and remember, is a statement of facts concerning words; or a describing of words in their offices and relations as they are."--Id. (5.) "Parsing is the resolving and explaining of words according to the rules of grammar."--Id. Better: "Parsing is the resolving or explaining of a sentence according to the definitions and rules of grammar."--Brown's Inst., p. 28. (6.) "The parsing of a word, remember, is an enumerating and describing of its various qualities, and its grammatical relations to other words in the sentence."--Peirce cor. (7.) "For the parsing of a word is an enumerating and describing of its various properties, and [its] relations to [other words in] the sentence."--Id. (8.) "The parsing of a noun is an explanation of its person, number, gender, and case; and also of its grammatical relation in a sentence, with respect to some other word or words."--Ingersoll cor. (9.) "The parsing of any part of speech is an explanation of all its properties and relations."--Id. (10.)" Parsing is the resolving of a sentence into its elements."--Fowler cor. "The highway of the upright is, to depart from evil."--Prov., xvi, 17. "Besides, the first step towards exhibiting the truth, should be, to remove the veil of error."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Punctuation is the dividing of sentences, and the words of sentences, by points for pauses."--Id. "An other fault is the using of the imperfect tense SHOOK in stead of the participle SHAKEN."--Churchill cor. "Her employment is the drawing of maps."--Alger cor. "To go to the play, according to his notion, is, to lead a sensual life, and to expose one's self to the strongest temptations. This is a begging of the question, and therefore requires no answer."--Formey cor. "It is an overvaluing of ourselves, to reduce every thing to the narrow measure of our capacities."--Comly's Key, in his Gram., p. 188; Fisk's Gram., p. 135. "What is vocal language? It is speech, or the expressing of ideas by the human voice."--C. W. Sanders cor.


UNDER NOTE IX.--VERBS OF PREVENTING.

"The annulling power of the constitution prevented that enactment from becoming a law."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Which prevents the manner from being brief."--Id. "This close prevents them from bearing forward as nominatives."--Rush cor. "Because this prevents it from growing drowsy."--Formey cor. "Yet this does not prevent him from being great."--Id. "To prevent it from being insipid."--Id. "Or whose interruptions did not prevent its continuance." Or thus: "Whose interruptions did not prevent it from being continued."--Id. "This by no means prevents them from being also punishments."--Wayland cor. "This hinders them not from being also, in the strictest sense, punishments."--Id. "The noise made by the rain and wind, prevented them from being heard."--Goldsmith cor. "He endeavoured to prevent it from taking effect."--Id. "So sequestered as to prevent them from being explored."--Jane West cor. "Who prevented her from making a more pleasant party."--Same. "To prevent us from being tossed about by every wind of doctrine."--Same. "After the infirmities of age prevented him from bearing his part of official duty."--R. Adam cor. "To prevent splendid trifles from passing for matters of importance."--Kames cor. "Which prevents him from exerting himself to any good purpose."--Beattie cor. "The nonobservance of this rule very frequently prevents us from being punctual in the performance of our duties."--Todd cor. "Nothing will prevent him from being a student, and possessing the means of study."--Id. "Does the present accident hinder you from being honest and brave?"--Collier cor. "The e is omitted to prevent two Ees from coming together."--Fowle cor. "A pronoun is used for, or in place of, a noun,--to prevent a repetition of the noun."--Sanborn cor. "Diversity in the style relieves the ear, and prevents it from being tired with the frequent recurrence of the rhymes."--Campbell cor.; also Murray. "Timidity and false shame prevent us from opposing vicious customs."--Mur. et al. cor. "To prevent them from being moved by such."--Campbell cor. "Some obstacle, or impediment, that prevents it from taking place."--Priestley cor. "Which prevents us from making a progress towards perfection."--Sheridan cor. "This method of distinguishing words, must prevent any regular proportion of time from being settled."--Id. "That nothing but affectation can prevent it from always taking place."--Id. "This did not prevent John from being acknowledged and solemnly inaugurated Duke of Normandy." Or: "Notwithstanding this, John was acknowledged and solemnly inaugurated Duke of Normandy."--Henry, Webster, Sanborn, and Fowler cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--THE LEADING WORD IN SENSE.

"This would make it impossible for a noun, or any other word, ever to be in the possessive case."--O. B. Peirce cor. "A great part of our pleasure arises from finding the plan or story well conducted."--Dr. Blair cor. "And we have no reason to wonder that this was the case."--Id. "She objected only, (as Cicero says,) to Oppianicus as having two sons by his present wife."--Id. "The subjugation of the Britons by the Saxons, was a necessary consequence of their calling of these Saxons to their assistance."--Id. "What he had there said concerning the Saxons, that they expelled the Britons, and changed the customs, the religion, and the language of the country, is a clear and a good reason why our present language is Saxon, rather than British."--Id. "The only material difference between them, except that the one is short and the other more prolonged, is, that a metaphor is always explained by the words that are connected with it."--Id. et Mur. cor. "The description of Death, advancing to meet Satan on his arrival."--Rush cor. "Is not the bare fact, that God is the witness of it, sufficient ground for its credibility to rest upon?"--Chalmers cor. "As in the case of one who is entering upon a new study."--Beattie cor. "The manner in which these affect the copula, is called the imperative mood."--Wilkins cor. "We are freed from the trouble, because our nouns have scarcely any diversity of endings."--Buchanan cor. "The verb is rather indicative of the action as being doing, or done, than of the time of the event; but indeed the ideas are undistinguishable."--Booth cor. "Nobody would doubt that this is a sufficient proof."--Campbell cor. "Against the doctrine here maintained, that conscience as well as reason, is a natural faculty."--Beattie cor. "It is one cause why the Greek and English languages are much more easy to learn, than the Latin."--Bucke cor. "I have not been able to make out a solitary instance in which such has been the fact."--Lib. cor. "An angel, forming the appearance of a hand, and writing the king's condemnation on the wall, checked their mirth, and filled them with terror."--Wood cor. "The prisoners, in attempting to escape, aroused the keepers."--O. B. Peirce cor. "I doubt not, in the least, that this has been one cause of the multiplication of divinities in the heathen world."--Dr. Blair cor. "From the general rule he lays down, that the verb is the parent word of all language."--Tooke cor. "He was accused of being idle." Or: "He was accused of idleness."--Felch cor. "Our meeting is generally dissatisfied with him for so removing." Or: "with the circumstances of his removal."--Edmondson cor. "The spectacle is too rare, of men deserving solid fame while not seeking it."--Bush cor. "What further need was there that an other priest should rise?"--Heb., vii, 11.


UNDER NOTE XI.--REFERENCE OF PARTICIPLES.

"Viewing them separately, we experience different emotions." Or: "Viewed separately, they produce different emotions."--Kames cor. "But, this being left doubtful, an other objection occurs."--Id. "As he proceeded from one particular to an other, the subject grew under his hand."--Id. "But this is still an interruption, and a link of the chain is broken."--Id. "After some days' hunting,--(or, After some days spent in hunting,)--Cyrus communicated his design to his officers."--Rollin cor. "But it is made, without the appearance of being made in form."--Dr. Blair cor. "These would have had a better effect, had they been disjoined, thus."--Blair and Murray cor. "In an improper diphthong, but one of the vowels is sounded."--Murray, Alger, et al. cor. "And I being led to think of both together, my view is rendered unsteady."--Blair, Mur., and Jam. cor. "By often doing the same thing, we make the action habitual." Or: "What is often done, becomes habitual."--L. Murray cor. "They remain with us in our dark and solitary hours, no less than when we are surrounded with friends and cheerful society."--Id. "Besides showing what is right, one may further explain the matter by pointing out what is wrong."--Lowth cor. "The former teaches the true pronunciation of words, and comprises accent, quantity, emphasis, pauses, and tones."--L. Murray cor. "A person may reprove others for their negligence, by saying, 'You have taken great care indeed.'"--Id. "The word preceding and the word following it, are in apposition to each other."--Id. "He having finished his speech, the assembly dispersed."--Cooper cor. "Were the voice to fall at the close of the last line, as many a reader is in the habit of allowing it to do."--Kirkham cor. "The misfortunes of his countrymen were but negatively the effects of his wrath, which only deprived them of his assistance."--Kames cor. "Taking them as nouns, we may explain this construction thus."--Grant cor. "These have an active signification, except those which come from neuter verbs."--Id. "From its evidence not being universal." Or: "From the fact that its evidence is not universal."--Bp. Butler cor. "And this faith will continually grow, as we acquaint ourselves with our own nature."--Channing cor. "Monosyllables ending with any consonant but f, l, or s, never double the final consonant, when it is preceded by a single vowel; except add, ebb," &c.--Kirkham's Gram., p. 23. Or: "Words ending with any consonant except f, l, or s, do not double the final letter. Exceptions. Add, ebb, &c."--Bullions's E. Gram., p. 3. (See my 2d Rule for Spelling, of which this is a partial copy.) "The relation of Maria as being the object of the action, is expressed by the change of the noun Maria to Mariam;" [i. e., in the Latin language.]--Booth cor. "In analyzing a proposition, one must first divide it into its logical subject and predicate."--Andrews and Stoddard cor. "In analyzing a simple sentence, one should first resolve it into its logical subject and logical predicate."--Wells cor.


UNDER NOTE XII.--OF PARTICIPLES AND NOUNS.

"The instant discovery of passions at their birth, is essential to our well-being."--Kames cor. "I am now to enter on a consideration of the sources of the pleasures of taste."--Blair cor. "The varieties in the use of them are indeed many."--Murray cor. "The changing of times and seasons, the removing and the setting-up of kings, belong to Providence alone."--Id. "Adherence to the partitions, seemed the cause of France; acceptance of the will, that of the house of Bourbon."--Bolingbroke cor. "An other source of darkness in composition, is the injudicious introduction of technical words and phrases."--Campbell cor. "These are the rules of grammar; by observing which, you may avoid mistakes."--L. Murray et al. cor. "By observing the rules, you may avoid mistakes."--Alger cor. "By observing these rules, he succeeded."--Frost cor. "The praise bestowed on him was his ruin."--Id. "Deception is not convincement."--Id. "He never feared the loss of a friend."--Id. "The making of books is his amusement."--Alger cor. "We call it the declining--(or, the declension--) of a noun."--Ingersoll cor. "Washington, however, pursued the same policy of neutrality, and opposed firmly the taking of any part in the wars of Europe."--Hall and Baker cor. "The following is a note of Interrogation, or of a question: (?)."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "The following is a note of Admiration, or of wonder: (!)."--Id. "The use or omission of the article A forms a nice distinction in the sense."--Murray cor. "The placing of the preposition before the word, which it governs, is more graceful."--Churchill cor. (See Lowth's Gram., p. 96; Murray's, i, 200; Fisk's, 141; Smith's, 167.) "Assistance is absolutely necessary to their recovery, and the retrieving of their affairs."--Bp. Butler cor. "Which termination, [ish,] when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or a lessening of the quality."--Mur. and Kirkham cor. "After what has been said, will it be thought an excess of refinement, to suggest that the different orders are qualified for different purposes?"--Kames cor. "Who has nothing to think of, but the killing of time."--West cor. "It requires no nicety of ear, as in the distinguishing of tones, or the measuring of time."--Sheridan cor. "The possessive case [is that form or state of a noun or pronoun, which] denotes possession, or the relation of property."--S. R. Hall cor.


UNDER NOTE XIII.--PERFECT PARTICIPLES.

"Garcilasso was master of the language spoken by the Incas."--Robertson cor. "When an interesting story is broken off in the middle."--Kames cor. "Speaking of Hannibal's elephants driven back by the enemy."--Id. "If Du Ryer had not written for bread, he would have equalled them."--Formey cor. "Pope describes a rock broken off from a mountain, and hurling to the plain."--Kames cor. "I have written, Thou hast written, He hath or has written; &c."--Ash and Maltby cor. "This was spoken by a pagan."--Webster cor. "But I have chosen to follow the common arrangement."--Id. "The language spoken in Bengal."--Id. "And sound sleep thus broken off with sudden alarms, is apt enough to discompose any one."--Locke cor. "This is not only the case of those open sinners before spoken of."--Leslie cor. "Some grammarians have written a very perplexed and difficult doctrine on Punctuation."--Ensell cor. "There hath a pity arisen in me towards thee."--G. Fox Jun. cor. "Abel is the only man that has undergone the awful change of death."--De Genlis, Death of Adam.

  "Meantime, on Afric's glowing sands,
   Smit with keen heat, the traveller stands."--Ode cor.


CHAPTER VIII.--ADVERBS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XXI.

UNDER NOTE I.--THE PLACING OF ADVERBS.

"Not all that is favoured by good use, is proper to be retained."--L. Murray corrected. "Not everything favoured by good use, is on that account worthy to be retained."--Campbell cor. "Most men dream, but not all."--Beattie cor. "By hasty composition, we shall certainly acquire a very bad style."--Dr. Blair cor. "The comparisons are short, touching on only one point of resemblance."--Id. "Having once had some considerable object set before us."--Id. "The positive seems to be improperly called a degree." [543]--Adam and Gould cor. "In some phrases, the genitive only is used."--Iid. "This blunder is said to have actually occurred."--Smith cor. "But not every man is called James, nor every woman, Mary."--Buchanan cor. "Crotchets are employed for nearly the same purpose as the parenthesis."--Churchill cor. "There is a still greater impropriety in a double comparative."--Priestley cor. "We often have occasion to speak of time."--Lowth cor. "The following sentence cannot possibly be understood."--Id. "The words must generally be separated from the context."--Comly cor. "Words ending in ator, generally have the accent on the penultimate."--L. Mur. cor. "The learned languages, with respect to voices, moods, and tenses, are, in general, constructed differently from the English tongue."--Id. "Adverbs seem to have been originally contrived to express compendiously, in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more."--Id. "But it is so, only when the expression can be converted into the regular form of the possessive case."--Id. "'Enter boldly,' says he, 'for here too there are gods.'"--Harris cor. "For none ever work for so little a pittance that some cannot be found to work for less."--Sedgwick cor. "For sinners also lend to sinners, to receive again as much."--Bible cor. Or, as Campbell has it in his version:--"that they may receive as much in return."--Luke, vi, 34. "They must be viewed in exactly the same light."--L. Murray cor. "If he speaks but to display his abilities, he is unworthy of attention."--Id.


UNDER NOTE II.--ADVERBS FOR ADJECTIVES.

"Upward motion is commonly more agreeable than motion downward."--Dr. Blair cor. "There are but two possible ways of justification before God."--Cox cor. "This construction sounds rather harsh."--Mur. and Ing. cor. "A clear conception, in the mind of the learner, of regular and well-formed letters."--C. S. Jour. cor. "He was a great hearer of * *

  • Attalus, Sotion, Papirius, Fabianus, of whom he makes frequent

mention."--L'Estrange cor. "It is only the frequent doing of a thing, that makes it a custom."--Leslie cor. "Because W. R. takes frequent occasion to insinuate his jealousies of persons and things."--Barclay cor. "Yet frequent touching will wear gold."--Shak. cor. "Uneducated persons frequently use an adverb when they ought to use an adjective: as, 'The country looks beautifully;' in stead of beautiful." [544]-- Bucke cor. "The adjective is put absolute, or without its substantive."--Ash cor. "A noun or a pronoun in the second person, may be put absolute in the nominative case."--Harrison cor. "A noun or a pronoun, when put absolute with a participle," &c.--Id. and Jaudon cor. "A verb in the infinitive mood absolute, stands independent of the remaining part of the sentence."--Wilbur and Liv. cor. "At my late return into England, I met a book entitled, 'The Iron Age.'"--Cowley cor. "But he can discover no better foundation for any of them, than the mere practice of Homer and Virgil."--Kames cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--HERE FOR HITHER, &C.

"It is reported, that the governor will come hither to-morrow."--Kirkham cor. "It has been reported that the governor will come hither to-morrow."--Id. "To catch a prospect of that lovely land whither his steps are tending."--Maturin cor. "Plautus makes one of his characters ask an other, whither he is going with that Vulcan shut up in a horn; that is, with a lantern in his hand."--Adams cor. "When we left Cambridge we intended to return thither in a few days."--Anon. cor. "Duncan comes hither to-night."--Churchill's Gram., p. 323. "They talked of returning hither last week."--See J. M. Putnam's Gram., p. 129.


UNDER NOTE IV.--FROM HENCE, &C.

"Hence he concludes, that no inference can be drawn from the meaning of the word, that a constitution has a higher authority than a law or statute,"--Webster cor. "Whence we may likewise date the period of this event."--L. Murray cor. "Hence it becomes evident that LANGUAGE, taken in the most comprehensive view, implies certain sounds, [or certain written signs,] having certain meanings."--Harris cor. "They returned to the city whence they came out."--A. Murray cor. "Respecting ellipses, some grammarians differ strangely in their ideas; and thence has arisen a very whimsical diversity in their systems of grammar."--G. Brown. "What am I, and whence? That is, What am I, and whence am I?"--Jaudon cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--THE ADVERB HOW.

"It is strange, that a writer so accurate as Dean Swift, should have stumbled on so improper an application of this particle."--Dr. Blair cor. "Ye know, that a good while ago God made choice among us," &c.--Bible cor. "Let us take care lest we sin; i.e.,--that we do not sin."--Priestley cor. "We see by these instances, that prepositions may be necessary, to connect such words as are not naturally connected by their own signification."--L. Murray cor. "Know ye not your own selves, that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?"--Bible cor. "That thou mayst know that the earth is the Lord's."--Id.


UNDER NOTE VI.--WHEN, WHILE, OR WHERE.

"ELLIPSIS is the omission of some word or words which are necessary to complete the construction, but not requisite to complete the sense."--Adam, Gould, and Fisk, cor. "PLEONASM is the insertion of some word or words more than are absolutely necessary either to complete the construction, or to express the sense."--Iid. cor. "HYSTERON-PROTERON is a figure in which that is put in the former part of the sentence, which, according to the sense, should be in the latter."--Adam and Gould cor. "HYSTERON-PROTERON is a rhetorical figure in which that is said last, which was done first."--Webster cor. "A BARBARISM is a foreign or strange word, an expression contrary to the pure idiom of the language."--Adam and Gould cor. "A SOLECISM is an impropriety in respect to syntax, an absurdity or incongruity in speech."--Iid. cor. "An IDIOTISM is a manner of expression peculiar to one language childishly transferred to an other."--Iid. cor. "TAUTOLOGY is a disagreeable repetition, either of the same words, or of the same sense in different words."--Iid. cor. "BOMBAST, or FUSTIAN, is an inflated or ambitious style, in which high-sounding words are used, with little or no meaning, or upon a trifling occasion."--Iid. cor. "AMPHIBOLOGY is ambiguity of construction, phraseology which may be taken in two different senses."--Iid. cor. "IRONY is a figure in which one means the contrary of what is said."--Adam and Gould cor. "PERIPHRASIS, or CIRCUMLOCUTION, is the use of several words, to express what might be said in fewer."--Iid. cor. "HYPERBOLE is a figure in which a thing is magnified above the truth."--Iid. cor. "PERSONIFICATION is a figure which ascribes human life, sentiments, or actions, to inanimate beings, or to abstract qualities."--Iid. cor. "APOSTROPHE is a turning from the tenor of one's discourse, into an animated address to some person, present or absent, living or dead, or to some object personified."--Iid. cor. "A SIMILE is a simple and express comparison; and is generally introduced by LIKE, AS, or so."--G. B., Inst., p. 233; Kirkham cor.; also Adam and Gould. "ANTITHESIS is a placing of things in opposition, to heighten their effect by contrast."--Inst., p. 234; Adam and Gould corrected. "VISION, or IMAGERY, is a figure in which what is present only to the mind, is represented as actually before one's eyes, and present to the senses."--G. B.; Adam cor. "EMPHASIS is a particular stress of voice laid on some word in a sentence."--Gould's Adam's Gram., p. 241. "EPANORTHOSIS, or CORRECTION, is the recalling or correcting by the speaker, of what he last said."--Ibid. "PARALIPSIS, or OMISSION, is the pretending to omit or pass by, what one at the same time declares."--Ibid. "INCREMENTUM, or CLIMAX in sense, is the rising of one member above an other to the highest."--Ibid. "METONYMY is a change of names: as when the cause is mentioned for the effect, or the effect for the cause; the container for the thing contained, or the sign for the thing signified."--Kirkham cor. "The Agreement of words is their similarity in person, number, gender, case, mood, tense, or form."--Brown's Inst., p. 104. "The Government of words is that power which one word has over an other, to cause it to assume some particular modification."--Ib. "Fusion is the converting of some solid substance into a fluid by heat."--G. B. "A proper diphthong is a diphthong in which both the vowels are sounded together; as, oi in voice, ou in house."--Fisher cor. "An improper diphthong is a diphthong in which the sound of but one of the two vowels is heard; as, eo in people."--Id.


UNDER NOTE VII.--THE ADVERB NO FOR NOT.

"An adverb is added to a verb to show how, or when, or where, or whether or not, one is, does, or suffers."--Buchanan cor. "We must be immortal, whether we will or not."--Maturin cor. "He cares not whether the world was made for Cæsar or not."--A. Q. Rev. cor. "I do not know whether they are out or not."--Byron cor. "Whether it can be proved or not, is not the thing."--Bp. Butler cor. "Whether he makes use of the means commanded by God, or not."--Id. "Whether it pleases the world or not, the care is taken."--L'Estrange cor. "How comes this to be never heard of, nor in the least questioned, whether the Law was undoubtedly of Moses's writing or not?"--Tomline cor. "Whether he be a sinner or not, I do not know." Or, as the text is more literally translated by Campbell: "Whether he be a sinner, I know not."--Bible cor. "Can I make men live, whether they will or not?"--Shak. cor.

  "Can hearts not free, be tried whether they serve
   Willing or not, who will but what they must?"--Milton cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.

"We need not, nor do we, confine the purposes of God." Or: "We need not, and do not, confine," &c.--Bentley cor. "I cannot by any means allow him that."--Id. "We must try whether or not we can increase the attention by the help of the senses."--Brightland cor. "There is nothing more admirable or more useful."--Tooke cor. "And what in time to come he can never be said to have done, he can never be supposed to do."--R. Johnson cor. "No skill could obviate, no remedy dispel, the terrible infection."--Goldsmith cor. "Prudery cannot be an indication either of sense or of taste."--Spurzheim cor. "But neither that scripture, nor any other, speaks of imperfect faith."--Barclay cor. "But neither this scripture, nor any other, proves that faith was or is always accompanied with doubting."--Id. "The light of Christ is not, and cannot be, darkness."--Id. "Doth not the Scripture, which cannot lie, give some of the saints this testimony?"--Id. "Which do not continue, and are not binding."--Id. "It not being perceived directly, any more than the air."--Campbell cor. "Let us be no Stoics, and no stocks, I pray."--Shak. cor. "Where there is no marked or peculiar character in the style."--Dr. Blair cor. "There can be no rules laid down, nor any manner recommended."--Sheridan cor.

  "Bates. 'He hath not told his thought to the king?'
   K. Henry. 'No; and it is not meet he should.'"
   Or thus: "'No; nor is it meet he should.'"--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE IX.--EVER AND NEVER.

"The prayer of Christ is more than sufficient both to strengthen us, be we everso weak; and to overthrow all adversary power, be it everso strong."--Hooker cor. "He is like to have no share in it, or to be never the better for it." Or: "He is not likely to have any share in it, or to be ever the better for it."--Bunyan cor. "In some parts of Chili it seldom or never rains."--Willetts cor. "If Pompey shall but everso little seem to like it."--W. Walker cor. "Though everso great a posse of dogs and hunters pursue him."--Id. "Though you be everso excellent."--Id. "If you do amiss everso little."--Id. "If we cast our eyes everso little down."--Id. "A wise man scorneth nothing, be it everso small or homely."--M. F. Tupper cor. "Because they have seldom if ever an opportunity of learning them at all."--Clarkson cor. "We seldom or never see those forsaken who trust in God."--Atterbury cor.

  "Where, playing with him at bo-peep,
   He solved all problems, e'erso deep."--S. Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE X.--OF THE FORM OF ADVERBS.

"One can scarcely think that Pope was capable of epic or tragic poetry; but, within a certain limited region, he has been outdone by no poet."--Dr. Blair cor. "I who now read, have nearly finished this chapter."--Harris cor. "And yet, to refine our taste with respect to beauties of art or of nature, is scarcely endeavoured in any seminary of learning."--Kames cor. "The numbers being confounded, and the possessives wrongly applied, the passage is neither English nor grammar."--Buchanan cor. "The letter G is wrongly named Jee."--Creighton cor. "Lastly, remember that in science, as in morals, authority cannot make right what in itself is wrong."--O. B. Peirce cor. "They regulate our taste even where we are scarcely sensible of them."--Kames cor. "Slow action, for example, is imitated by words pronounced slowly."--Id. "Surely, if it be to profit withal, it must be in order to save."--Barclay cor. "Which is scarcely possible at best."--Sheridan cor. "Our wealth being nearly finished."--Harris cor.


CHAPTER IX.--CONJUNCTIONS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XXII.

UNDER NOTE I.--OF TWO TERMS WITH ONE.

"The first proposal was essentially different from the second, and inferior to it."--Inst. "A neuter verb expresses the state which a subject is in, without acting upon any other thing, or being acted upon by an other."--A. Murray cor. "I answer, You may use stories and anecdotes, and ought to do so."--Todd cor. "ORACLE, n. Any person from whom, or place at which, certain decisions are obtained."--Webster cor. "Forms of government may, and occasionally must, be changed."--Lyttelton cor. "I have been, and I still pretend to be, a tolerable judge."--Sped. cor. "Are we not lazy in our duties, or do we not make a Christ of them?"--Baxter cor. "They may not express that idea which the author intends, but some other which only resembles it, or is akin to it."--Dr. Blair cor. "We may therefore read them, we ought to read them, with a distinguishing eye."--Ib. "Compare their poverty with what they might possess, and ought to possess."--Sedgwick cor. "He is much better acquainted with grammar than they are."--L. Murray cor. "He was more beloved than Cinthio, but [he was] not so much admired."--L. Murray's Gram., i, 222. "Will it be urged, that the four gospels are as old as tradition, and even older?"--Campbell's Rhet., p. 207. "The court of chancery frequently mitigates and disarms the common law."--Spect. and Ware cor. "Antony, coming along side of her ship, entered it without seeing her, or being seen by her."--Goldsmith cor. "Into candid minds, truth enters as a welcome guest."--L. Murray cor. "There are many designs in which we may succeed, to our ultimate ruin."--Id. "From many pursuits in which we embark with pleasure, we are destined to land sorrowfully."--Id. "They gain much more than I, by this unexpected event."--Id.


UNDER NOTE II.--OF HETEROGENEOUS TERMS.

"Athens saw them entering her gates and filling her academies."--Chazotte cor. "Neither have we forgot his past achievements, nor do we despair of his future success."--Duncan cor. "Her monuments and temples had long been shattered, or had crumbled into dust."--Journal cor. "Competition is excellent; it is the vital principle in all these things."--Id. "Whether provision should, or should not, be made, in order to meet this exigency."--Ib.. "That our Saviour was divinely inspired, and that he was endued with supernatural powers, are positions that are here taken for granted."--L. Mur. cor. "It would be much more eligible, to contract or enlarge their extent by explanatory notes and observations, than to sweep away our ancient landmarks and set up others."--Id. "It is certainly much better to supply defects and abridge superfluities by occasional notes and observations, than to disorganize or greatly alter a system which has been so long established."--Id. "To have only one tune, or measure, is not much better than to have none at all."--Dr. Blair cor. "Facts too well known and too obvious to be insisted on."--Id. "In proportion as all these circumstances are happily chosen, and are of a sublime kind."--Id. "If the description be too general, and be divested of circumstances."--Id. "He gained nothing but commendation."--L. Mur. cor. "I cannot but think its application somewhat strained and misplaced."--Vethake cor. "Two negatives standing in the same clause, or referring to the same thing, destroy each other, and leave the sense affirmative."--Maunder cor. "Slates are thin plates of stone, and are often used to cover the roofs of houses."--Webster cor. "Every man of taste, and of an elevated mind, ought to feel almost the necessity of apologizing for the power he possesses."--Translator of De Staël cor. "They very seldom trouble themselves with inquiries, or make any useful observations of their own."--Locke cor.

  "We've both the field and honour won;
   Our foes are profligate, and run."--S. Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--IMPORT OF CONJUNCTIONS.

"THE is sometimes used before adverbs in the comparative or the superlative degree."--Lennie, Bullions, and Brace cor. "The definite article THE is frequently applied to adverbs in the comparative or the superlative degree."--Lowth. Murray, et al, cor. "Conjunctions usually connect verbs in the same mood and tense." Or, more truly: "Verbs connected by a conjunction, are usually in the same mood and tense."--Sanborn cor. "Conjunctions connect verbs in the same style, and usually in the same mood, tense, and form." Or better: "Verbs connected by a conjunction, are usually of the same mood, tense, and form, as well as style."--Id. "The ruins of Greece or Rome are but the monuments of her former greatness."--P. E. Day cor. "It is not improbably, that in many of these cases the articles were used originally."--Priestley cor. "I cannot doubt that these objects are really what they appear to be."--Kames cor. "I question not that my reader will be as much pleased with it."--Spect. cor. "It is ten to one that my friend Peter is among them."--Id. "I doubt not that such objections as these will be made"--Locke cor. "I doubt not that it will appear in the perusal of the following sheets."--Buchanan cor. "It is not improbable, that in time these different constructions maybe appropriated to different uses."--Priestley cor. "But to forget and to remember at pleasure, are equally beyond the power of man."--Idler cor. "The nominative case follows the verb, in interrogative or imperative sentences."--L. Mur. cor. "Can the fig-tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? or a vine, figs?"--Bible cor. "Whose characters are too profligate for the managing of them to be of any consequence."--Swift cor. "You, that are a step higher than a philosopher, a divine, yet have too much grace and wit to be a bishop."--Pope cor. "The terms rich and poor enter not into their language."--Robertson cor. "This pause is but seldom, if ever, sufficiently dwelt upon." Or: "This pause is seldom or never sufficiently dwelt upon."--Gardiner cor. "There would be no possibility of any such thing as human life or human happiness."--Bp. Butler cor. "The multitude rebuked them, that they should hold their peace."--Bible cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--THE CONJUNCTION THAN.

"A metaphor is nothing else than a short comparison." Or: "A metaphor is nothing but a short comparison."--Adam and Gould cor. "There being no other dictator here than use."--Murray's Gram., i, 364. "This construction is no otherwise known in English, than by supplying the first or the second person plural."--Buchanan cor. "Cyaxares was no sooner on the throne, than he was engaged in a terrible war."--Rollin cor. "Those classics contain little else than histories of murders."--Am. Mu. cor. "Ye shall not worship any other than God."--Sale cor. "Their relation, therefore, is not otherwise to be ascertained, than by their place."--Campbell cor. "For he no sooner accosted her, than he gained his point."--Burder cor. "And all the modern writers on this subject, have done little else than translate them."--Dr. Blair cor. "One who had no other aim than to talk copiously and plausibly."--Id. "We can refer it to no other cause than the structure of the eye."--Id. "No more is required than singly an act of vision."--Kames cor. "We find no more in its composition, than the particulars now mentioned."--Id. "He does not pretend to say, that it has any other effect than to raise surprise."--Id. "No sooner was the princess dead, than he freed himself."--Dr. S. Johnson cor. "OUGHT is an imperfect verb, for it has no modification besides this one."--Priestley cor. "The verb is palpably nothing else than the tie."--Neef cor. "Does he mean that theism is capable of nothing else than of being opposed to polytheism or atheism?"--Dr. Blair cor. "Is it meant that theism is capable of nothing else than of being opposed to polytheism or atheism?"--L. Murray cor. "There is no other method of teaching that of which any one is ignorant, than by means of something already known."--Ingersoll's Grammar, Titlepage: Dr. Johnson cor. "O fairest flower, no sooner blown than blasted!"--Milton cor. "Architecture and gardening cannot otherwise entertain the mind, than by raising certain agreeable emotions or feelings."--Kames cor. "Or, rather, they are nothing else than nouns."--Brit. Gram. cor.

  "As if religion were intended
   For nothing else than to be mended."--S. Butler cor.


UNDER NOTE V.--RELATIVES EXCLUDE CONJUNCTIONS.

"To prepare the Jews for the reception of a prophet mightier than himself, a teacher whose shoes he was not worthy to bear."--Anon, or Mur. cor. "Has this word, which represents an action, an object after it, on which the action terminates?"--Osborne cor. "The stores of literature lie before him, from which he may collect for use many lessons of wisdom."-- Knapp cor. "Many and various great advantages of this grammar over others, might be enumerated."--Greenleaf cor. "The custom which still prevails, of writing in lines from left to right, is said to have been introduced about the time of Solon, the Athenian legislator."--Jamieson cor. "The fundamental rule for the construction of sentences, the rule into which all others might be resolved, undoubtedly is, to communicate, in the clearest and most natural order, the ideas which we mean to express."--Blair and Jamieson cor. "He left a son of a singular character, who behaved so ill that he was put in prison."--L. Murray cor. "He discovered in the youth some disagreeable qualities which to him were wholly unaccountable."--Id. "An emphatical pause is made after something of peculiar moment has been said, on which we wish to fix the hearer's attention." Or: "An emphatical pause is made after something has been said which is of peculiar moment, and on which we wish to fix the hearer's attention."--Blair and Murray cor. "But we have duplicates of each, agreeing in movement, though differing in measure, and making different impressions on the ear,"--Murray cor.


UNDER NOTE VI.--OF THE WORD THAT.

"It will greatly facilitate the labours of the teacher, and, at the same time, it will relieve the pupil from many difficulties."--Frost cor. "While the pupil is engaged in the exercises just mentioned, it will be proper for him to study the whole grammar in course."--Bullions cor. "On the same ground on which a participle and an auxiliary are allowed to form a tense."--Beattie and Murray cor. "On the same ground on which the voices, moods, and tenses, are admitted into the English tongue."--L. Murray cor. "The five examples last mentioned, are corrected on the same principle that is applied to the errors preceding them."--Murray and Ingersoll cor. "The brazen age began at the death of Trajan, and lasted till Rome was taken by the Goths."--Gould cor. "The introduction to the duodecimo edition is retained in this volume, for the same reason for which the original introduction to the Grammar is retained in the first volume."--L. Murray cor. "The verb must also agree in person with its subject or nominative."--Ingersoll cor. "The personal pronoun 'THEIR' is plural for the same reason for which 'WHO' is plural."--Id. "The Sabellians could not justly be called Patripassians, in the same sense in which the Noëtians were so called."--R. Adam cor. "This is one reason why we pass over such smooth language without suspecting that it contains little or no meaning."--L. Murray cor. "The first place at which the two armies came within sight of each other, was on the opposite banks of the river Apsus."--Goldsmith cor. "At the very time at which the author gave him the first book for his perusal."--Campbell cor. "Peter will sup at the time at which Paul will dine."--Fosdick cor. "Peter will be supping when Paul will enter."--Id. "These, while they may serve as models to those who may wish to imitate them, will give me an opportunity to cast more light upon the principles of this book."--Id.

  "Time was, like thee, they life possess'd,
   And time shall be, when thou shalt rest."--Parnell cor.


UNDER NOTE VII.--OF THE CORRESPONDENTS.

"Our manners should be neither gross nor excessively refined."--Murray's Key, ii, 165. "A neuter verb expresses neither action nor passion, but being, or a state of being."--O. B. Peirce cor. "The old books are neither English grammars, nor in any sense grammars of the English language."--Id. "The author is apprehensive that his work is not yet so accurate and so much simplified as it may be."--Kirkham cor. "The writer could not treat some topics so extensively as [it] was desirable [to treat them]."--Id. "Which would be a matter of such nicety, that no degree of human wisdom could regulate it."--L. Murray cor. "No undertaking is so great or difficult, that he cannot direct it."--Duncan cor. "It is a good which depends neither on the will of others, nor on the affluence of external fortune."--Harris cor. "Not only his estate, but his reputation too, has suffered by his misconduct."--Murray and Ingersoll cor. "Neither do they extend so far as might be imagined at first view."--Dr. Blair cor. "There is no language so poor, but that it has (or, as not to have) two or three past tenses."--Id. "So far as this system is founded in truth, language appears to be not altogether arbitrary in its origin."--Id. "I have not such command of these convulsions as is necessary." Or: "I have not that command of these convulsions which is necessary."--Spect. cor. "Conversation with such as (or, those who) know no arts that polish life."--Id. "And which cannot be either very lively or very forcible."--Jamieson cor. "To such a degree as to give proper names to rivers."--Dr. Murray cor. "In the utter overthrow of such as hate to be reformed."--Barclay cor. "But still so much of it is retained, that it greatly injures the uniformity of the whole."--Priestley cor. "Some of them have gone to such a height of extravagance, as to assert," &c.--Id. "A teacher is confined, not more than a merchant, and probably not so much."--Abbott cor. "It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come." Or: "It shall not be forgiven him, either in this world, or in the world to come."--Bible cor. "Which nobody presumes, or is so sanguine as to hope."--Swift cor. "For the torrent of the voice left neither time, nor power in the organs, to shape the words properly."--Sheridan cor. "That he may neither unnecessarily waste his voice by throwing out too much, nor diminish his power by using too little."--Id. "I have retained only such as appear most agreeable to the measures of analogy."--Littleton cor. "He is a man both prudent and industrious."--P. E. Day cor. "Conjunctions connect either words or sentences."--Brown's Inst., p. 169.

  "Such silly girls as love to chat and play,
   Deserve no care; their time is thrown away."--Tobitt cor.
   "Vice is a monster of so frightful mien,
   That to be hated she but needs be seen."--Pope cor.
   "Justice must punish the rebellious deed;
   Yet punish so that pity shall exceed."--Dryden cor.


UNDER NOTE VIII.--IMPROPER ELLIPSES.

"THAT, WHOSE, and AS, relate either to persons or to things." Or better:--"relate as well to persons as to things."--Sanborn cor. "WHICH and WHAT, as adjectives, relate either to persons or to things." Or better:--"relate to persons as well as to things."--Id. "Whether of a public or of a private nature."--J. Q. Adams cor. "Which are included among both the public and the private wrongs."--Id. "I might extract, both from the Old and from the New Testament, numberless examples of induction."--Id. "Many verbs are used both in an active and in a neuter signification." Or thus: "Many verbs are used in both an active and a neuter signification."--Lowth, Mur., et al., cor. "Its influence is likely to be considerable, both on the morals and on the taste of a nation."--Dr. Blair cor. "The subject afforded a variety of scenes, both of the awful and of the tender kind."--Id. "Restlessness of mind disqualifies us both for the enjoyment of peace, and for the performance of our duty."--Mur. and Ing. cor. "Pronominal adjectives are of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pronouns and of adjectives."--Mur. et al. cor. "Pronominal adjectives have the nature both of the adjective and of the pronoun."--Frost cor. Or: "[Pronominal adjectives] partake of the properties of both adjectives and pronouns."--Bucke's Gram., p. 55. "Pronominal adjectives are a kind of compound part of speech, partaking the nature both of pronouns and of adjectives."--Nutting cor. "Nouns are used either in the singular or in the plural number." Or perhaps better: "Nouns are used in either the singular or the plural number."--David Blair cor. "The question is not, whether the nominative or the accusative ought to follow the particles THAN and AS; but, whether these particles are, in such particular cases, to be regarded as conjunctions or as prepositions"--Campbell cor. "In English, many verbs are used both as transitives and as intransitives."--Churchill cor. "He sendeth rain both on the just and on the unjust."--See Matt., v, 45. "A foot consists either of two or of three syllables."--David Blair cor. "Because they participate the nature both of adverbs and of conjunctions."--L. Murray cor. "Surely, Romans, what I am now about to say, ought neither to be omitted, nor to pass without notice."--Duncan cor. "Their language frequently amounts, not only to bad sense, but to nonsense."--Kirkham cor. "Hence arises the necessity of a social state to man, both for the unfolding, and for the exerting, of his nobler faculties."--Sheridan cor. "Whether the subject be of the real or of the feigned kind."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "Not only was liberty entirely extinguished, but arbitrary power was felt in its heaviest and most oppressive weight."--Id. "This rule is also applicable both to verbal Critics and to Grammarians."--Hiley cor. "Both the rules and the exceptions of a language must have obtained the sanction of good usage."--Id.


CHAPTER X.--PREPOSITIONS.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE NOTES TO RULE XXIII.

UNDER NOTE I.--CHOICE OF PREPOSITIONS.

"You have bestowed your favours upon the most deserving persons."--Swift corrected. "But, to rise above that, and overtop the crowd, is given to few."--Dr. Blair cor. "This [also is a good] sentence [, and] gives occasion for no material remark."--Blair's Rhet., p. 203. "Though Cicero endeavours to give some reputation to the elder Cato, and those who were his contemporaries." Or:--"to give some favourable account of the elder Cato," &c.--Dr. Blair cor. "The change that was produced in eloquence, is beautifully described in the dialogue."--Id. "Without carefully attending to the variation which they make in the idea."--Id. "All on a sudden, you are transported into a lofty palace."--Hazlitt cor. "Alike independent of one an other." Or: "Alike independent one of an other."--Campbell cor. "You will not think of them as distinct processes going on independently of each other."--Channing cor. "Though we say to depend on, dependent on, and dependence on, we say, independent of, and independently of."--Churchill cor. "Independently of the rest of the sentence."--Lowth's Gram., p. 80; Buchanan's, 83; Bullions's, 110; Churchill's, 348.[545] "Because they stand independent of the rest of the sentence."--Allen Fisk cor. "When a substantive is joined with a participle, in English, independently of the rest of the sentence."--Dr. Adam cor. "CONJUNCTION comes from the two Latin words con, together, and jungo, to join."--Merchant cor. "How different from this is the life of Fulvia!"--Addison cor. "LOVED is a participle or adjective, derived from the word love."--Ash cor. "But I would inquire of him, what an office is."--Barclay cor. "For the capacity is brought into action."--Id. "In this period, language and taste arrive at purity."--Webster cor. "And, should you not aspire to (or after) distinction in the republic of letters."--Kirkham cor. "Delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons."--Luke, xxi, 12. "He that is kept from falling into a ditch, is as truly saved, as he that is taken out of one."--Barclay cor. "The best of it is, they are but a sort of French Hugonots."--Addison cor. "These last ten examples are indeed of a different nature from the former."--R. Johnson cor. "For the initiation of students into the principles of the English language."--Ann. Rev. cor. "Richelieu profited by every circumstance which the conjuncture afforded."--Bolingbroke cor. "In the names of drugs and plants, the mistake of a word may endanger life."--Merchant's Key, p. 185. Or better: "In naming drugs or plants, to mistake a word, may endanger life."--L. Murray cor. "In order to the carrying of its several parts into execution."--Bp. Butler cor. "His abhorrence of the superstitious figure."--Priestley. "Thy prejudice against my cause."--Id. "Which is found in every species of liberty."--Hume cor. "In a hilly region on the north of Jericho."--Milman cor. "Two or more singular nouns coupled by AND require a verb or pronoun in the plural."--Lennie cor.

  "Books should to one of these four ends conduce,
   To wisdom, piety, delight, or use."--Denham cor.


UNDER NOTE II.--TWO OBJECTS OR MORE.

"The Anglo-Saxons, however, soon quarrelled among themselves for precedence."--Const. Misc. cor. "The distinctions among the principal parts of speech are founded in nature."--Webster cor. "I think I now understand the difference between the active verbs and those which are passive or neuter."--Ingersoll cor. "Thus a figure including a space within three lines, is the real as well as nominal essence of a triangle."--Locke cor. "We must distinguish between an imperfect phrase and a simple sentence, and between a simple sentence and a compound sentence."--Lowth, Murray, et al., cor. "The Jews are strictly forbidden by their law to exercise usury towards one an other."--Sale cor. "All the writers have distinguished themselves among themselves."--Addison cor. "This expression also better secures the systematic uniformity of the three cases."--Nutting cor. "When two or more infinitives or clauses are connected disjunctively as the subjects of an affirmation, the verb must be singular."--Jaudon cor. "Several nouns or pronouns together in the same case, require a comma after each; [except the last, which must sometimes be followed by a greater point.]"--David Blair cor. "The difference between one vowel and an other is produced by opening the mouth differently, and placing the tongue in a different manner for each."--Churchill cor. "Thus feet composed of syllables, being pronounced with a sensible interval between one foot and an other, make a more lively impression than can be made by a continued sound."--Kames cor. "The superlative degree implies a comparison, sometimes between two, but generally among three or more."--R. C. Smith cor. "They are used to mark a distinction among several objects."--Lévizac cor.


UNDER NOTE III.--OMISSION OF PREPOSITIONS.

"This would have been less worthy of notice."--Churchill cor. "But I passed it, as a thing unworthy of my notice."--Werter cor. "Which, in compliment to me, perhaps you may one day think worthy of your attention."--Bucke cor. "To think this small present worthy of an introduction to the young ladies of your very elegant establishment."-- Id. "There are but a few miles of portage."--Jefferson cor. "It is worthy of notice, that our mountains are not solitary."--Id. "It is about one hundred feet in diameter." [546]--Id. "Entering a hill a quarter or half of a mile."--Id. "And herself seems passing to an awful dissolution, whose issue it is not given to human foresight to scan."--Id. "It was of a spheroidical form, about forty feet in diameter at the base, and had been about twelve feet in altitude."--Id. "Before this, it was covered with trees of twelve inches in diameter; and, round the base, there was an excavation of five feet in depth and five in width."--Id. "Then thou mayst eat grapes to thy fill, at thine own pleasure."--Bible cor. "Then he brought me back by the way of the gate of the outward sanctuary."--Id. "They will bless God, that he has peopled one half of the world with a race of freemen."--Webster cor. "Of what use can these words be, till their meaning is known?"--Town cor. "The tents of the Arabs now are black, or of a very dark colour."--The Friend cor. "They may not be unworthy of the attention of young men."--Kirkham cor. "The pronoun THAT is frequently applied to persons as well as to things."--Merchant cor. "And who is in the same case that man is in."--Sanborn cor. "He saw a flaming stone, apparently about four feet in diameter."--The Friend cor. "Pliny informs us, that this stone was of the size of a cart."--Id. "Seneca was about twenty years of age in the fifth year of Tiberius, when the Jews were expelled from Rome."--L'Estrange cor. "I was prevented from reading a letter which would have undeceived me."--Hawkesworth cor. "If the problem can be solved, we may be pardoned for the inaccuracy of its demonstration."--Booth cor. "The army must of necessity be the school, not of honour, but of effeminacy."--Dr. Brown cor. "Afraid of the virtue of a nation in its opposing of bad measures:" or,--"in its opposition to bad measures."--Id. "The uniting of them in various ways, so as to form words, would be easy."--Gardiner cor. "I might be excused from taking any more notice of it."--Watson cor. "Watch therefore; for ye know not at what hour your Lord will come."--Bible cor. "Here, not even infants were spared from the sword."--M'Ilvaine cor. "To prevent men from turning aside to false modes of worship."--John Allen cor. "God expelled them from the garden of Eden."--Burder cor. "Nor could he refrain from expressing to the senate the agonies of his mind."--Hume cor. "Who now so strenuously opposes the granting to him of any new powers."--Duncan cor. "That the laws of the censors have banished him from the forum."--Id. "We read not that he was degraded from his office in any other way."--Barclay cor. "To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting."--Hutchinson cor. "On the 1st of August, 1834."--Brit. Parl. cor.

  "Whether you had not some time in your life
   Err'd in this point on which you censure him."--Shak. cor.


UNDER NOTE IV.--OF NEEDLESS PREPOSITIONS.

"And the apostles and elders came together to consider this matter."--Barclay cor.; also Acts. "Adjectives, in our language, have neither case, nor gender, nor number; the only variation they have, is comparison."--Buchanan cor. "'It is to you that I am indebted for this privilege;' that is, 'To you am I indebted;' or, 'It is you to whom I am indebted.'"--Sanborn cor. "BOOKS is a common noun, of the third person, plural number, and neuter gender."--Ingersoll cor. "BROTHER'S is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and possessive case."--L. Murray cor. "VIRTUE'S is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, [neuter gender,] and possessive case."--Id. "When the authorities on one side greatly preponderate, it is vain to oppose the prevailing usage."--Campbell and Murray cor. "A captain of a troop of banditti, had a mind to be plundering Rome."--Collier cor. "And, notwithstanding its verbal power, we have added the TO and other signs of exertion."--Booth cor. "Some of these situations are termed CASES, and are expressed by additions to the noun, in stead of separate words:" or,--"and not by separate words."--Id. "Is it such a fast that I have chosen, that a man should afflict his soul for a day, and bow down his head like a bulrush?"--Bacon cor. Compare Isa., lviii, 5. "And this first emotion comes at last to be awakened by the accidental in stead of the necessary antecedent."--Wayland cor. "About the same time, the subjugation of the Moors was completed."--Balbi cor. "God divided between the light and the darkness."--Burder cor. "Notwithstanding this, we are not against outward significations of honour."--Barclay cor. "Whether these words and practices of Job's friends, ought to be our rule."--Id. "Such verb cannot admit an objective case after it."--Lowth cor. "For which, God is now visibly punishing these nations."--C. Leslie cor. "In this respect, Tasso yields to no poet, except Homer."--Dr. Blair cor. "Notwithstanding the numerous panegyrics on the ancient English liberty."--Hume cor. "Their efforts seemed to anticipate the spirit which became so general afterwards."--Id.


UNDER NOTE V.--THE PLACING OF THE WORDS.

"But how short of its excellency are my expressions!"--Baxter cor. "In his style, there is a remarkable union of harmony with ease."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "It disposes of the light and shade in the most artificial manner, that every thing may be viewed to the best advantage."--Id. "For brevity, Aristotle too holds an eminent rank among didactic writers."--Id. "In an introduction, correctness of expression should be carefully studied."--Id. "In laying down a method, one ought above all things to study precision."--Id. "Which shall make on the mind the impression of something that is one, whole, and entire."--Id. "At the same time, there are in the Odyssey some defects which must be acknowledged." Or: "At the same time, it must be acknowledged that there are some defects in the Odyssey."--Id. "In the concluding books, however, there are beauties of the tragic kind."--Id. "These forms of conversation multiplied by degrees, and grew troublesome."--Kames, El. of Crit., ii, 44. "When she has made her own choice, she sends, for form's sake, a congé-d'élire to her friends."--Ib., ii, 46. "Let us endeavour to establish to ourselves an interest in him who holds in his hand the reins of the whole creation."--Spectator cor.; also Kames. "Next to this, the measure most frequent in English poetry, is that of eight syllables."--David Blair cor. "To introduce as great a variety of cadences as possible."-- Jamieson cor. "He addressed to them several exhortations, suitable to their circumstances."--L. Murray cor. "Habits of temperance and self-denial must be acquired."--Id. "In reducing to practice the rules prescribed."--Id. "But these parts must be so closely bound together, as to make upon the mind the impression of one object, not of many."--Blair and Mur. cor. "Errors with respect to the use of shall and will, are sometimes committed by the most distinguished writers."--N. Butler cor.


CHAPTER XI.--PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES.

CORRECTIONS OF THE PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES.

LESSON I.--ANY PARTS OF SPEECH.

"Such a one, I believe, yours will be proved to be."--Peet and Farnum cor. "Of the distinction between the imperfect and the perfect tense, it may be observed," &c.--L. Ainsworth cor. "The subject is certainly worthy of consideration."--Id. "By this means, all ambiguity and controversy on this point are avoided."--Bullions cor. "The perfect participle, in English, has both an active and a passive signification." Better: "The perfect participle, in English, has sometimes an active, and sometimes a passive, signification."--Id. "The old house has at length fallen down."--Id. "The king, the lords, and the commons, constitute the English form of government."--Id. "The verb in the singular agrees with the person next to it." Better: "The singular verb agrees in person with that nominative which is next to it."--Id. "Jane found Seth's gloves in James's hat."--O. C. Felton cor. "Charles's task is too great."--Id. "The conjugation of a verb is the naming of its several moods, tenses, numbers, and persons, in regular order."--Id. "The long-remembered beggar was his guest."--Id. "Participles refer to nouns or pronouns."--Id. "F has a uniform sound, in every position, except in OF." Better: "F has one unvaried sound, in every position, except in OF."--E. J. Hallock cor. "There are three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter."--Id. "When SO and THAT occur together, sometimes the particle SO is taken as an adverb."--Id. "The definition of the articles shows that they modify [the import of] the words to which they belong."--Id. "The auxiliary, SHALL, WILL, or SHOULD, is implied."--Id. "Single-rhymed trochaic omits the final short syllable."--Brown's Inst., p. 237. "Agreeably to this, we read of names being blotted out of God's book."--Burder, Hallock, and Webster, cor. "The first person is that which denotes the speaker."--Inst., p. 32. "Accent is the laying of a peculiar stress of the voice, on a certain letter or syllable in a word."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 235; Felton's, 134. "Thomas's horse was caught."--Felton cor. "You were loved."--Id. "The nominative and the objective end alike."--T. Smith cor. "The numbers of pronouns, like those of substantives, are two; the singular and the plural."--Id. "I is called the pronoun of the first person, because it represents the person speaking."--Frost cor. "The essential elements of the phrase are an intransitive gerundive and an adjective."--Hazen cor. "Wealth is no justification for such impudence."--Id. "That he was a soldier in the revolution, is not doubted."--Id. "Fishing is the chief employment of the inhabitants."--Id. "The chief employment of the inhabitants, is the catching of fish."--Id. "The cold weather did not prevent the work from being finished at the time specified."--Id. "The man's former viciousness caused him to be suspected of this crime."--Id. "But person and number, applied to verbs, mean certain terminations."--Barrett cor. "Robert felled a tree."--Id. "Charles raised himself up."--Id. "It might not be a useless waste of time."--Id. "Neither will you have that implicit faith in the writings and works of others, which characterizes the vulgar."--Id. "I is of the first person, because it denotes the speaker."--Ib. "I would refer the student to Hedge's or Watts's Logic."--Id. "Hedge's Watts's, Kirwin's, and Collard's Logic."--Parker and Fox cor. "Letters that make a full and perfect sound of themselves, are called vowels." Or: "The letters which make," &c.--Cutler cor. "It has both a singular and a plural construction."--Id. "For he beholds (or beholdeth) thy beams no more."--Id. Carthon. "To this sentiment the Committee have the candour to incline, as it will appear by their summing-up."--Macpherson cor. "This reduces the point at issue to a narrow compass."--Id. "Since the English set foot upon the soil."--Exiles cor. "The arrangement of its different parts is easily retained by the memory."--Hiley cor. "The words employed are the most appropriate that could have been selected."--Id. "To prevent it from launching!"--Id. "Webster has been followed in preference to others, where he differs from them." Or: "Webster's Grammar has been followed in preference to others, where it differs from them."--Frazee cor. "Exclamation and interrogation are often mistaken the one for the other."--Buchanan cor. "When all nature is hushed in sleep, and neither love nor guilt keeps its vigils."--Felton cor. Or thus:--

  "When all nature's hush'd asleep.
   Nor love, nor guilt, doth vigils keep."


LESSON II.--ANY PARTS OF SPEECH.

"A Versifier and a Poet are two different things."--Brightland cor. "Those qualities will arise from the well-expressing of the subject."--Id. "Therefore the explanation of NETWORK is not noticed here."--Mason cor. "When emphasis or pathos is necessary to be expressed."--Humphrey cor. "Whether this mode of punctuation is correct, or whether it is proper to close the sentence with the mark of admiration, may be made a question."--Id. "But not every writer in those days was thus correct."--Id. "The sounds of A, in English orthoepy, are no fewer than four."--Id. "Our present code of rules is thought to be generally correct." Or: "The rules in our present code are thought to be generally correct."--Id. "To prevent it from running into an other"--Id. "Shakspeare, perhaps, the greatest poetical genius that England has produced."--Id. "This I will illustrate by example; but, before doing so, a few preliminary remarks may be necessary."--Id. "All such are entitled to two accents each, and some of them to two accents nearly equal."--Id. "But some cases of the kind are so plain, that no one needs to exercise (or, need exercise) his judgement therein."--Id. "I have forborne to use the word."--Id. "The propositions, 'He may study,' 'He might study,' 'He could study,' affirm an ability or power to study."--E. J. Hallock cor. "The divisions of the tenses have occasioned grammarians much trouble and perplexity."--Id. "By adopting a familiar, inductive method of presenting this subject, one may render it highly attractive to young learners."--Wells cor. "The definitions and rules of different grammarians were carefully compared with one an other:" or--"one with an other."--Id. "So as not wholly to prevent some sound from issuing."--Sheridan cor. "Letters of the Alphabet, not yet noticed."--Id. "'IT is sad,' 'IT is strange,' &c., seem to express only that the thing is sad, strange, &c."--Well-Wishers cor. "The winning is easier than the preserving of a conquest."--Same. "The United States find themselves the owners of a vast region of country at the west."--H. Mann cor. "One or more letters placed before a word are a prefix."--S. W. Clark cor. "One or more letters added to a word, are a Suffix."--Id. "Two thirds of my hair have fallen off." Or: "My hair has, two thirds of it, fallen off."--Id. "'Suspecting' describes us, the speakers, by expressing, incidentally, an act of ours."--Id. "Daniel's predictions are now about being fulfilled." Or thus: "Daniel's predictions are now receiving their fulfillment"--Id. "His scholarship entitles him to respect."--Id. "I doubted whether he had been a soldier."--Id. "The taking of a madman's sword to prevent him from doing mischief, cannot be regarded as a robbery."--Id. "I thought it to be him; but it was not he."--Id. "It was not I that you saw."--Id. "Not to know what happened before you were born, is always to be a boy."--Id. "How long were you going? Three days."--Id. "The qualifying adjective is placed next to the noun."--Id. "All went but I."--Id. "This is a parsing of their own language, and not of the author's."--Wells cor. "Those nouns which denote males, are of the masculine gender." Or: "Nouns that denote males, are of the masculine gender."--Wells, late Ed. "Those nouns which denote females, are of the feminine gender." Or: "Nouns that denote females, are of the feminine gender."--Wells, late Ed. "When a comparison among more than two objects of the same class is expressed, the superlative degree is employed."--Wells cor. "Where d or t goes before, the additional letter d or t, in this contracted form, coalesces into one letter with the radical d or t."--Dr. Johnson cor. "Write words which will show what kind of house you live in--what kind of book you hold in your hand--what kind of day it is."--Weld cor. "One word or more are often joined to nouns or pronouns to modify their meaning."--Id. "Good is an adjective; it explains the quality or character of every person to whom, or thing to which, it is applied." Or:--"of every person or thing that it is applied to."--Id. "A great public as well as private advantage arises from every one's devoting of himself to that occupation which he prefers, and for which he is specially fitted."--Wayland, Wells, and Weld, cor. "There was a chance for him to recover his senses." Or: "There was a chance that he might recover his senses."--Wells and Macaulay cor. "This may be known by the absence of any connecting word immediately preceding it."--Weld cor. "There are irregular expressions occasionally to be met with, which usage, or custom, rather than analogy, sanctions."--Id. "He added an anecdote of Quin relieving Thomson from prison." Or: "He added an anecdote of Quin as relieving Thomson from prison." Or: "He added an anecdote of Quin's relieving of Thomson from prison." Or better: "He also told how Quin relieved Thomson from prison."--Id. "The daily labour of her hands procures for her all that is necessary."--Id. "That it is I, should make no change in your determination."--Hart cor. "The classification of words into what are called the Parts of Speech."--Weld cor. "Such licenses may be explained among what are usually termed Figures."--Id.

  "Liberal, not lavish, is kind Nature's hand."--Beattie.
   "They fall successive, and successive rise."--Pope.


LESSON III.--ANY PARTS OF SPEECH.

"A Figure of Etymology is an intentional deviation from the usual form of a word."--See Brown's Institutes, p. 229. "A Figure of Syntax is an intentional deviation from the usual construction of a word."--See Brown's Inst., p. 230. "Synecdoche is the naming of the whole of any thing for a part, or a part for the whole."--Weld cor. "Apostrophe is a turning-off[547] from the regular course of the subject, to address some person or thing."--Id. "Even young pupils will perform such exercises with surprising interest and facility, and will unconsciously gain, in a little time, more knowledge of the structure of language, than they can acquire by a drilling of several years in the usual routine of parsing."--Id. "A few rules of construction are employed in this part, to guide the pupil in the exercise of parsing."--Id. "The name of any person, object, or thing, that can be thought of, or spoken of, is a noun."--Id. "A dot, resembling our period, is used between every two words, as well as at the close of each verse."--W. Day cor. "The casting of types in matrices was invented by Peter Schoeffer, in 1452."--Id. "On perusing it, he said, that, so far [was it] from showing the prisoner's guilt [that] it positively established his innocence."--Id. "By printing the nominative and verb in Italic letters, we shall enable the reader to distinguish them at a glance."--Id. "It is well, no doubt, to avoid unnecessary words."--Id. "I meeting a friend the other day, he said to me, 'Where are you going?'"--Id. "To John, apples were first denied; then they were promised to him; then they were offered to him."--Lennie cor. "Admission was denied him."--Wells cor. "A pardon was offered to them."--L. Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 183. "A new potato was this day shown me."--Darwin, Webster, Frazee, and Weld, cor. "Those nouns or pronouns which denote males, are of the masculine gender."--S. S. Greene, cor. "There are three degrees of comparison; the positive, the comparative, and the superlative."--Id. "The first two refer to direction; the third refers to locality."--Id. "The following are some of the verbs which take a direct and an indirect object."--Id. "I was not aware that he was the judge of the supreme court."--Id. "An indirect question may refer to any of the five elements of a declarative sentence."--Id. "I am not sure that he will be present."--Id. "We left New York on Tuesday."--Id. "He left the city, as he told me, before the arrival of the steamer."--Id. "We told him that he must leave us;"--Id. "We told him to leave us."--Id. "Because he was unable to persuade the multitude, he left the place, in disgust."--Id. "He left the company, and took his brother with him."--Id. "This stating, or declaring, or denying of any thing, is called the indicative mood, or manner of speaking."--Weld cor. "This took place at our friend Sir Joshua Reynolds's."--Id. "The manner in which a young lady may employ herself usefully in reading, will be the subject of an other paper."--Id. "Very little time is necessary for Johnson to conclude a treaty with the bookseller."--Id. "My father is not now sick; but if he were, your services would be welcome."--Chandler's Common School Gram., Ed. of 1847, p. 79. "Before we begin to write or speak, we ought to fix in our minds a clear conception of the end to be aimed at."--Dr. Blair cor. "Length of days is in her right hand; and, in her left hand, are riches and honour."--See Proverbs, iii, 16. "The active and the passive present express different ideas."--Bullions cor. "An Improper Diphthong, (sometimes called a Digraph,) is a diphthong in which only one of the vowels is sounded."--Fowler cor. (See G. Brown's definition.) "The real origin of the words is to be sought in the Latin."--Fowler cor. "What sort of alphabet the Gothic languages possess, we know; what sort of alphabet they require, we can determine."--Id. "The Runic alphabet, whether borrowed or invented by the early Goths, is of greater antiquity than either the oldest Teutonic or the Moeso-Gothic alphabet."--Id. "Common to the masculine and neuter genders."--Id. "In the Anglo-Saxon, HIS was common to both the masculine and the Neuter Gender."--Id. "When time, number, or dimension, is specified, the adjective follows the substantive."--Id. "Nor pain, nor grief nor anxious fear, Invades thy bounds."--Id. "To Brighton, the Pavilion lends a lath-and-plaster grace."--Fowler cor. "From this consideration, I have given to nouns but one person, the THIRD."--D. C. Allen cor.

  "For it seems to guard and cherish
   E'en the wayward dreamer--me."--Anon. cor.


CHAPTER XII.--GENERAL REVIEW.

CORRECTIONS UNDER ALL THE PRECEDING RULES AND NOTES.

LESSON I.--ARTICLES.

"And they took stones, and made a heap."--ALGER'S BIBLE: Gen., xxxi, 46. "And I do know many fools, that stand in better place."--Shak. cor. "It is a strong antidote to the turbulence of passion, and the violence of pursuit."--Kames cor. "The word NEWS may admit of either a singular or a plural application."--Wright cor. "He has gained a fair and honourable reputation."--Id. "There are two general forms, called the solemn and the familiar style." Or:--"called the solemn and familiar styles."--Sanborn cor. "Neither the article nor the preposition can be omitted."--Wright cor. "A close union is also observable between the subjunctive and the potential mood."--Id. "Should we render service equally to a friend, a neighbour, and an enemy?"--Id. "Till a habit is obtained, of aspirating strongly."--Sheridan cor. "There is a uniform, steady use of the same signs."--Id. "A traveller remarks most of the objects which he sees."--Jamieson cor. "What is the name of the river on which London stands? Thames."--G. B. "We sometimes find the last line of a couplet or a triplet stretched out to twelve syllables."--Adam cor. "The nouns which follow active verbs, are not in the nominative case."--David Blair cor. "It is a solemn duty to speak plainly of the wrongs which good men perpetrate."--Channing cor. "The gathering of riches is a pleasant torment."--L. Cobb cor. "It is worth being quoted." Or better: "It is worth quoting."--Coleridge cor. "COUNCIL is a noun which admits of a singular and a plural form."--Wright cor. "To exhibit the connexion between the Old Testament and the New."--Keith cor. "An apostrophe discovers the omission of a letter or of letters."--Guy cor. "He is immediately ordained, or rather acknowledged, a hero."--Pope cor. "Which is the same in both the leading and the following state."--Brightland cor. "Pronouns, as will be seen hereafter, have three distinct cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--D. Blair cor. "A word of many syllables is called a polysyllable."--Beck cor. "Nouns have two numbers; the singular and the plural."--Id. "They have three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter."--Id. "They have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Id. "Personal pronouns have, like nouns, two numbers; the singular and the plural;--three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter;--three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Id. "He must be wise enough to know the singular from the plural"--Id. "Though they may be able to meet every reproach which any one of their fellows may prefer."--Chalmers cor. "Yet for love's sake I rather beseech thee, being such a one as Paul the aged."--Bible cor.; also Webster. "A people that jeoparded their lives unto death."--Bible cor. "By preventing too great an accumulation of seed within too narrow a compass."--The Friend cor. "Who fills up the middle space between the animal and the intellectual nature, the visible and the invisible world."--Addison cor. "The Psalms abound with instances of the harmonious arrangement of words."--Murray cor. "On an other table, were a ewer and a vase, likewise of gold."--Mirror cor. "TH is said to have two sounds, a sharp and a flat."--Wilson cor. "The SECTION (§) is sometimes used in the subdividing of a chapter into lesser parts."--Brightland cor. "Try it in a dog, or a horse, or any other creature."--Locke cor. "But particularly in the learning of languages, there is the least occasion to pose children."--Id. "Of what kind is the noun RIVER, and why?"--R. C. Smith cor. "Is WILLIAM'S a proper or a common noun?"--Id. "What kind of article, then, shall we call the?" Or better: "What then shall we call the article the?"--Id.

  "Each burns alike, who can, or cannot write,
   Or with a rival's, or a eunuch's spite."--Pope cor.


LESSON II.--NOUNS, OR CASES.

"And there are stamped upon their imaginations ideas that follow them with terror and affright."--Locke cor. "There's not a wretch that lives on common charity, but's happier than I."--Ven. Pres. cor. "But they overwhelm every one who is ignorant of them."--H. Mann cor. "I have received a letter from my cousin, her that was here last week."--Inst., p. 129. "Gentlemen's houses are seldom without variety of company."--Locke cor. "Because Fortune has laid them below the level of others, at their masters' feet."--Id. "We blamed neither John's nor Mary's delay."--Nixon cor. "The book was written by order of Luther the reformer."--Id. "I saw on the table of the saloon Blair's sermons, and somebody's else, (I forget whose,) and [about the room] a set of noisy children."--Byron cor. "Or saith he it altogether for our sake?"--Bible cor. "He was not aware that the Duke was his competitor."--Sanborn cor. "It is no condition of an adjective, that the word must be placed before a noun." Or: "It is no condition on which a word becomes an adjective, that it must be placed before a noun."--Id., and Fowle cor. "Though their reason corrected the wrong ideas which they had taken in."--Locke cor. "It was he that taught me to hate slavery."--Morris cor. "It is he and his kindred, who live upon the labour of others."--Id. "Payment of tribute is an acknowledgement of him as being King--(of him as King--or, that he is King--) to whom we think it due."--C. Leslie cor. "When we comprehend what is taught us."--Ingersoll cor. "The following words, and parts of words, must be noticed."--Priestley cor. "Hence tears and commiseration are so often employed."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "JOHN-A-NOKES, n. A fictitious name used in law proceedings."--A. Chalmers cor. "The construction of words denoting matter, and the part grasped."--B. F. Fisk cor. "And such other names as carry with them the idea of something terrible and hurtful."--Locke cor. "Every learner then would surely be glad to be spared from the trouble and fatigue."--Pike cor. "It is not the owning of one's dissent from an other, that I speak against."--Locke cor. "A man that cannot fence, will be more careful to keep out of bullies and gamesters' company, and will not be half so apt to stand upon punctilios."--Id. "From such persons it is, that one may learn more in one day, than in a year's rambling from one inn to an other."--Id. "A long syllable is generally considered to be twice as long as a short one."--D. Blair cor. "I is of the first person, and the singular number. THOU is of the second person singular. HE, SHE, or IT, is of the third person singular. WE is of the first person plural. YE or YOU is of the second person plural. THEY is of the third person plural."--Kirkham cor. "This actor, doer, or producer of the action, is denoted by some word in the nominative case."--Id. "Nobody can think, that a boy of three or seven years of age should be argued with as a grown man."--Locke cor. "This was in the house of one of the Pharisees, not in Simon the leper's."--Hammond cor. "Impossible! it can't be I."--Swift cor. "Whose grey top shall tremble, He descending."--Milton, P. L., xii, 227. "Of what gender is woman, and why?"--R. C. Smith cor. "Of what gender, then, is man, and why?"--Id. "Who is this I; whom do you mean when you say I?"--R. W. Green cor. "It has a pleasant air, but the soil is barren."--Locke cor. "You may, in three days' time, go from Galilee to Jerusalem."--W. Whiston cor. "And that which is left of the meat-offering, shall be Aaron's and his sons'."--FRIENDS' BIBLE.

  "For none in all the world, without a lie,
   Can say of this, ''Tis mine,' but Bunyan, I."--Bunyan cor.


LESSON III.--ADJECTIVES.

"When he can be their remembrancer and advocate at all assizes and sessions."--Leslie cor. "DOING denotes every manner of action; as, to dance, to play, to write, &c."--Buchanan cor. "Seven feet long,"--"eight feet long,"--"fifty feet long."--W. Walker cor. "Nearly the whole of these twenty-five millions of dollars is a dead loss to the nation."--Fowler cor. "Two negatives destroy each other."--R. W. Green cor. "We are warned against excusing sin in ourselves, or in one an other."--Friend cor. "The Russian empire is more extensive than any other government in the world."--Inst., p. 265. "You will always have the satisfaction to think it, of all your expenses, the money best laid out."--Locke cor. "There is no other passion which all mankind so naturally indulge, as pride."--Steele cor. "O, throw away the viler part of it."--Shak. cor. "He showed us an easier and more agreeable way."--Inst., p. 265. "And the last four are to point out those further improvements."--Jamieson and Campbell cor. "Where he has not clear ideas, distinct and different."--Locke cor. "Oh, when shall we have an other such Rector of Laracor!"--Hazlitt cor. "Speech must have been absolutely necessary previously to the formation of society." Or better thus: "Speech must have been absolutely necessary to the formation of society."--Jamieson cor. "Go and tell those boys to be still."--Inst., p. 265. "Wrongs are engraved on marble; benefits, on sand: those are apt to be requited; these, forgot."--G. B. "None of these several interpretations is the true one."--G. B. "My friend indulged himself in some freaks not befitting the gravity of a clergyman."--G. B. "And their pardon is all that any of their impropriators will have to plead."--Leslie cor. "But the time usually chosen to send young men abroad, is, I think, of all periods, that at which they are least capable of reaping those advantages."--Locke cor. "It is a mere figment of the human imagination, a rhapsody of the transcendently unintelligible."--Jamieson cor. "It contains a greater assemblage of sublime ideas, of bold and daring figures, than is perhaps anywhere else to be met with."--Dr. Blair cor. "The order in which the last two words are placed should have been reversed."--Dr. Blair cor.; also L. Murray. "In Demosthenes, eloquence shone forth with higher splendour, than perhaps in any other that ever bore the name of orator."--Dr. Blair cor. "The circumstance of his poverty (or, that he is poor) is decidedly favourable."--Todd cor. "The temptations to dissipation are greatly lessened by his poverty."--Id. "For, with her death, those tidings came."--Shak. cor. "The next objection is, that authors of this sort are poor."--Cleland cor. "Presenting Emma, as Miss Castlemain, to these acquaintances:" or,--"to these persons of her acquaintance."--Opie cor. "I doubt not that it will please more persons than the opera:" or,--"that it will be more pleasing than the opera."--Spect. cor. "The world knows only two; these are Rome and I."--Ben Jonson cor. "I distinguish these two things from each other."--Dr. Blair cor. "And, in this case, mankind reciprocally claim and allow indulgence to one an other."--Sheridan cor. "The last six books are said not to have received the finishing hand of the author."--Dr. Blair cor. "The best-executed part of the work, is the first six books."--Id.

  "To reason how can we be said to rise?
   So hard the task for mortals to be wise!"--Sheffield cor.


LESSON IV.--PRONOUNS.

"Once upon a time, a goose fed her young by a pond's side:" or--"by a pondside."--Goldsmith cor. (See OBS. 33d on Rule 4th.) "If either has a sufficient degree of merit to recommend it to the attention of the public."--J. Walker cor. "Now W. Mitchell's deceit is very remarkable."--Barclay cor. "My brother, I did not put the question to thee, for that I doubted of the truth of thy belief."--Bunyan cor. "I had two elder brothers, one of whom was a lieutenant-colonel."--De Foe cor. "Though James is here the object of the action, yet the word James is in the nominative case."--Wright cor. "Here John is the actor; and the word John is known to be in the nominative, by its answering to the question, 'Who struck Richard?'"--Id. "One of the most distinguished privileges that Providence has conferred upon mankind, is the power of communicating their thoughts to one an other."--Dr. Blair cor. "With some of the most refined feelings that belong to our frame."--Id. "And the same instructions that assist others in composing works of elegance, will assist them in judging of, and relishing, the beauties of composition."--Id. "To overthrow all that had been yielded in favour of the army."--Macaulay cor. "Let your faith stand in the Lord God, who changes not, who created all, and who gives the increase of all."--Friends cor. "For it is, in truth, the sentiment of passion which lies under the figured expression, that gives it all its merit."--Dr. Blair cor. "Verbs are words that affirm the being, doing, or suffering of a thing, together with the time at which it happens."--A. Murray cor. "The bias will always hang on that side on which nature first placed it."--Locke cor. "They should be brought to do the things which are fit for them."--Id. "The various sources from which the English language is derived."--L. Murray cor. "This attention to the several cases in which it is proper to omit or to redouble the copulative, is of considerable importance."--Dr. Blair cor. "Cicero, for instance, speaking of the cases in which it is lawful to kill an other in self-defence, uses the following words."--Id. "But there is no nation, hardly are there any persons, so phlegmatic as not to accompany their words with some actions, or gesticulations, whenever they are much in earnest."--Id. "William's is said to be governed by coat, because coat follows William's" Or better:--"because coat is the name of the thing possessed by William."--R. C. Smith cor. "In life, there are many occasions on which silence and simplicity are marks of true wisdom."--L. Murray cor. "In choosing umpires whose avarice is excited."--Nixon cor. "The boroughs sent representatives, according to law."--Id. "No man believes but that there is some order in the universe."--G. B. "The moon is orderly in her changes, and she could not be so by accident."--Id. "The riddles of the Sphynx (or, The Sphynx's riddles) are generally of two kinds."--Bacon cor. "They must generally find either their friends or their enemies in power."--Dr. Brown cor. "For, of old, very many took upon them to write what happened in their own time."--Whiston cor. "The Almighty cut off the family of Eli the high priest, for their transgressions."--The Friend, vii, 109. "The convention then resolved itself into a committee of the whole."--Inst., p. 269. "The severity with which persons of this denomination were treated, appeared rather to invite them to the colony, than to deter them from flocking thither."--H. Adams cor. "Many Christians abuse the Scriptures and the traditions of the apostles, to uphold things quite contrary to them."--Barclay cor. "Thus, a circle, a square, a triangle, or a hexagon, pleases the eye by its regularity, and is a beautiful figure."--Dr. Blair cor. "Elba is remarkable for being the place to which Bonaparte was banished in 1814."--Olney's Geog. "The editor has the reputation of being a good linguist and critic."--Rel. Herald. "It is a pride which should be cherished in them."--Locke cor. "And to restore to us the hope of fruits, to reward our pains in their season."--Id. "The comic representation of Death's victim relating his own tale."--Wright cor. "As for Scioppius's Grammar, that wholly concerns the Latin tongue."--Wilkins cor.

  "And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer
   Before all temples th' upright heart and pure,
   Instruct me, for Thou knowst."--Milton, P. L., B. i, l. 17.


LESSON V.--VERBS.

"And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field."--Friends' Bible; also Bruce's, and Alger's. "Whereof every one bears [or beareth] twins."--BIBLE COR.: Song, vi, 6. "He strikes out of his nature one of the most divine principles that are planted in it."--Addison cor. "GENII [i.e., the word GENII] denotes aërial spirits."--Wright cor. "In proportion as the long and large prevalence of such corruptions has been obtained by force."--Halifax cor. "Neither of these is set before any word of a general signification, or before a proper name."--Brightland cor. "Of which, a few of the opening lines are all I shall give."--Moore cor. "The wealth we had in England, was the slow result of long industry and wisdom." Or: "The riches we had in England were," &c.--Davenant cor. "The following expression appears to be correct: 'Much public gratitude is due.'" Or this: "'Great public thanks are due.'"---Wright cor. "He has been enabled to correct many mistakes."--Lowth cor. "Which road dost thou take here?"--Ingersoll cor. "Dost thou learn thy lesson?"--Id. "Did they learn their pieces perfectly?"--Id. "Thou learned thy task well."--Id. "There are some who can't relish the town, and others can't bear with the country."--Sir Wilful cor. "If thou meet them, thou must put on an intrepid mien."--Neef cor. "Struck with terror, as if Philip were something more than human."--Dr. Blair cor. "If the personification of the form of Satan were admissible, the pronoun should certainly have been masculine."--Jamieson cor. "If only one follows, there seems to be a defect in the sentence."--Priestley cor. "Sir, if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him."--Bible cor. "Blessed are the people that know the joyful sound."--Id. "Every auditory takes in good part those marks of respect and awe with which a modest speaker commences a public discourse."--Dr. Blair cor. "Private causes were still pleaded in the forum; but the public were no longer interested, nor was any general attention drawn to what passed there."--Id. "Nay, what evidence can be brought to show, that the inflections of the classic tongues were not originally formed out of obsolete auxiliary words?"--L. Murray cor. "If the student observe that the principal and the auxiliary form but one verb, he will have little or no difficulty in the proper application of the present rule."--Id. "For the sword of the enemy, and fear, are on every side."--Bible cor. "Even the Stoics agree that nature, or certainty, is very hard to come at."--Collier cor. "His politeness, his obliging behaviour, was changed." Or thus: "His polite and obliging behaviour was changed."--Priestley and Hume cor. "War and its honours were their employment and ambition." Or thus: "War was their employment; its honours were their ambition."--Goldsmith cor. "Do A and AN mean the same thing?"--R. W. Green cor. "When several words come in between the discordant parts, the ear does not detect the error."--Cobbett cor. "The sentence should be, 'When several words come in,' &c."--Wright cor. "The nature of our language, the accent and pronunciation of it, incline us to contract even all our regular verbs."--Churchill's New Gram., p. 104. Or thus: "The nature of our language,--(that is, the accent and pronunciation of it,--) inclines us to contract even all our regular verbs."--Lowth cor. "The nature of our language, together with the accent and pronunciation of it, inclines us to contract even all our regular verbs."--Hiley cor. "Prompt aid, and not promises, is what we ought to give."--G. B. "The position of the several organs, therefore, as well as their functions, is ascertained."--Med. Mag. cor. "Every private company, and almost every public assembly, affords opportunities of remarking the difference between a just and graceful, and a faulty and unnatural elocution."--Enfield cor. "Such submission, together with the active principle of obedience, makes up in us the temper or character which answers to his sovereignty."--Bp. Butler cor. "In happiness, as in other things, there are a false and a true, an imaginary and a real."--A. Fuller cor. "To confound things that differ, and to make a distinction where there is no difference, are equally unphilosophical."--G. Brown.

  "I know a bank wheron doth wild thyme blow,
   Where oxlips and the nodding violet grow."--Shak. cor.


LESSON VI.--VERBS.

"Whose business or profession prevents their attendance in the morning."--Ogilby cor. "And no church or officer has power over an other."--Lechford cor. "While neither reason nor experience is sufficiently matured to protect them."--Woodbridge cor. "Among the Greeks and Romans, almost every syllable was known to have a fixed and determined quantity." Or thus: "Among the Greeks and Romans, all syllables, (or at least the far greater number,) were known to have severally a fixed and determined quantity."--Blair and Jamieson cor. "Their vanity is awakened, and their passions are exalted, by the irritation which their self-love receives from contradiction."--Tr. of Mad. De Staël cor. "He and I were neither of us any great swimmer."--Anon. "Virtue, honour--nay, even self-interest, recommends the measure."--L. Murray cor. (See Obs. 5th on Rule 16th.) "A correct plainness, an elegant simplicity, is the proper character of an introduction."--Dr. Blair cor. "In syntax, there is what grammarians call concord or agreement, and there is government."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "People find themselves able, without much study, to write and speak English intelligibly, and thus are led to think that rules are of no utility."--Webster cor. "But the writer must be one who has studied to inform himself well, who has pondered his subject with care, and who addresses himself to our judgement, rather than to our imagination."--Dr. Blair cor. "But practice has determined it otherwise; and has, in all the languages with which we are much acquainted, supplied the place of an interrogative mood, either by particles of interrogation, or by a peculiar order of the words in the sentence."--Lowth cor. "If the Lord hath stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering."--Bible cor. "But if the priest's daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and she return unto her father's house, as in her youth, she shall eat of her father's meat."--Id. "Since we never have studied, and never shall study, your sublime productions."--Neef cor. "Enabling us to form distincter images of objects, than can be formed, with the utmost attention, where these particulars are not found."--Kames cor. "I hope you will consider that what is spoken comes from my love."--Shak. cor. "We shall then perceive how the designs of emphasis may be marred."--Rush cor. "I knew it was Crab, and went to the fellow that whips the dogs."--Shak. cor. "The youth was consuming by a slow malady."--Murray's Gram., p. 64; Ingersoll's, 45; Fisk, 82. "If all men thought, spoke, and wrote alike, something resembling a perfect adjustment of these points might be accomplished."--Wright cor. "If you will replace what has been, for a long time expunged from the language." Or: "If you will replace what was long ago expunged from the language."--Campbell and Murray cor. "As in all those faulty instances which I have just been giving."--Dr. Blair cor. "This mood is also used improperly in the following places."--L. Murray cor. "He seems to have been well acquainted with his own genius, and to have known what it was that nature had bestowed upon him."--Johnson cor. "Of which I have already given one instance, the worst indeed that occurred in the poem."--Dr. Blair cor. "It is strange he never commanded you to do it."--Anon. "History painters would have found it difficult, to invent such a species of beings."--Addison cor. "Universal Grammar cannot be taught abstractedly; it must be explained with referenc [sic--KTH] to some language already known."--Lowth cor. "And we might imagine, that if verbs had been so contrived as simply to express these, no other tenses would have been needful."--Dr. Blair cor. "To a writer of such a genius as Dean Swift's, the plain style is most admirably fitted."--Id. "Please to excuse my son's absence."--Inst., p. 279. "Bid the boys come in immediately."--Ib.

  "Gives us the secrets of his pagan hell,
   Where restless ghosts in sad communion dwell."--Crabbe cor.
   "Alas! nor faith nor valour now remains;
   Sighs are but wind, and I must bear my chains."--Walpole cor.


LESSON VII.--PARTICIPLES.

"Of which the author considers himself, in compiling the present work, as merely laying the foundation-stone."--David Blair cor. "On the raising of such lively and distinct images as are here described."--Kames cor. "They are necessary to the avoiding of ambiguities."--Brightland cor. "There is no neglecting of it without falling into a dangerous error." Or better: "None can neglect it without falling," &c.--Burlamaqui cor. "The contest resembles Don Quixote's fighting of (or with) windmills."--Webster cor. "That these verbs associate with other verbs in all the tenses, is no proof that they have no particular time of their own."--L. Murray cor. "To justify myself in not following the track of the ancient rhetoricians."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "The putting-together of letters, so as to make words, is called Spelling."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "What is the putting-together of vowels and consonants called?"--Id. "Nobody knows of their charitableness, but themselves." Or: "Nobody knows that they are charitable, but themselves."--Fuller cor. "Payment was at length made, but no reason was assigned for so long a postponement of it."--Murray et al. cor. "Which will bear to be brought into comparison with any composition of the kind."--Dr. Blair cor. "To render vice ridiculous, is to do real service to the world."--Id. "It is a direct copying from nature, a plain rehearsal of what passed, or was supposed to pass, in conversation."--Id. "Propriety of pronunciation consists in giving to every word that sound which the most polite usage of the language appropriates to it."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 200; and again, p. 219. "To occupy the mind, and prevent us from regretting the insipidity of a uniform plain."--Kames cor. "There are a hundred ways in which any thing may happen."--Steele cor. "Tell me, seignior, for what cause (or why) Antonio sent Claudio to Venice yesterday."--Bucke cor. "As you are looking about for an outlet, some rich prospect unexpectedly opens to view."--Kames cor. "A hundred volumes of modern novels may be read without communicating a new idea." Or thus: "A person may read a hundred volumes of modern novels without acquiring a new idea."--Webster cor. "Poetry admits of greater latitude than prose, with respect to the coining, or at least the new compounding, of words."--Dr. Blair cor. "When laws were written on brazen tablets, and enforced by the sword."--Pope cor. "A pronoun, which saves the naming of a person or thing a second time, ought to be placed as near as possible to the name of that person or thing."--Kames cor. "The using of a preposition in this case, is not always a matter of choice."--Id. "To save the multiplying of words, I would be understood to comprehend both circumstances."--Id. "Immoderate grief is mute: complaint is a struggle for consolation."--Id. "On the other hand, the accelerating or the retarding of the natural course, excites a pain."--Id. "Human affairs require the distributing of our attention."--Id. "By neglecting this circumstance, the author of the following example has made it defective in neatness."--Id. "And therefore the suppressing of copulatives must animate a description."--Id. "If the omission of copulatives gives force and liveliness, a redundancy of them must render the period languid."--Id. "It skills not, to ask my leave, said Richard."--Scott cor. "To redeem his credit, he proposed to be sent once more to Sparta."--Goldsmith cor. "Dumas relates that he gave drink to a dog."--Stone cor. "Both are, in a like way, instruments of our reception of such ideas from external objects."--Bp. Butler cor. "In order to your proper handling of such a subject."--Spect. cor. "For I do not recollect it preceded by an open vowel."--Knight cor. "Such is the setting up of the form above the power of godliness."--Barclay cor. "I remember that I was walking once with my young acquaintance."--Hunt cor. "He did not like to pay a debt."--Id. "I do not remember to have seen Coleridge when I was a child."--Id. "In consequence of the dry rot discovered in it, the mansion has undergone a thorough repair."--Maunder cor. "I would not advise the following of the German system in all its parts."--Lieber cor. "Would it not be to make the students judges of the professors?"--Id. "Little time should intervene between the proposing of them and the deciding upon them."--Verthake [sic--KTH] cor. "It would be nothing less than to find fault with the Creator."--Lit. Journal cor. "That we were once friends, is a powerful reason, both of prudence and of conscience, to restrain us from ever becoming enemies."--Secker cor. "By using the word as a conjunction, we prevent the ambiguity."--L. Murray cor.

  "He forms his schemes the flood of vice to stem,
   But faith in Jesus has no part in them."--J Taylor cor.


LESSON VIII.--ADVERBS.

"Auxiliaries not only can be inserted, but are really understood."--Wright cor. "He was afterwards a hired scribbler in the Daily Courant."--Pope's Annotator cor. "In gardening, luckily, relative beauty never need stand (or, perhaps better, never needs to stand) in opposition to intrinsic beauty."--Kames cor. "I much doubt the propriety of the following examples."--Lowth cor. "And [we see] how far they have spread, in this part of the world, one of the worst languages possible"--Locke cor. "And, in this manner, merely to place him on a level with the beast of the forest."--R. C. Smith cor. "Whither, ah! whither, has my darling fled."--Anon. "As for this fellow, we know not whence he is."--Bible cor. "Ye see then, that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only."--Id. "The Mixed kind is that in which the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, and sometimes makes other characters speak."--Adam and Gould cor. "Interrogation is a rhetorical figure in which the writer or orator raises questions, and, if he pleases, returns answers."--Fisher cor. "Prevention is a figure in which an author starts an objection which he foresees may be made, and gives an answer to it."--Id. "Will you let me alone, or not?"--W. Walker cor. "Neither man nor woman can resist an engaging exterior."-- Chesterfield cor. "Though the cup be everso clean."--Locke cor. "Seldom, or never, did any one rise to eminence, by being a witty lawyer." Or thus: "Seldom, if ever, has any one risen to eminence, by being a witty lawyer."--Dr. Blair cor. "The second rule which I give, respects the choice of the objects from which metaphors, and other figures, are to be drawn."--Id. "In the figures which it uses, it sets mirrors before us, in which we may behold objects reflected in their likeness."--Id. "Whose business it is, to seek the true measures of right and wrong, and not the arts by which he may avoid doing the one, and secure himself in doing the other."--Locke cor. "The occasions on which you ought to personify things, and those on which you ought not, cannot be stated in any precise rule."--Cobbett cor. "They reflect that they have been much diverted, but scarcely can they say about what."--Kames cor. "The eyebrows and shoulders should seldom or never be remarked by any perceptible motion."--J. Q. Adams cor. "And the left hand or arm should seldom or never attempt any motion by itself."--Id., right. "Not every speaker purposes to please the imagination."-- Jamieson cor. "And, like Gallio, they care for none of these things." Or: "And, like Gallio, they care little for any of these things."--S. cor. "They may inadvertently be used where their meaning would be obscure."--L. Murray cor. "Nor can a man make him laugh."--Shak. cor. "The Athenians, in their present distress, scarcely knew whither to turn."--Goldsmith cor. "I do not remember where God ever delivered his oracles by the multitude."--Locke cor. "The object of this government is twofold, outward and inward."--Barclay cor. "In order rightly to understand what we read"--R. Johnson cor. "That a design had been formed, to kidnap or forcibly abduct Morgan."--Col. Stone cor. "But such imposture can never long maintain its ground."--Dr. Blair cor. "But surely it is as possible to apply the principles of reason and good sense to this art, as to any other that is cultivated among men."--Id. "It would have been better for you, to have remained illiterate, and even to have been hewers of wood."--L. Murray cor. "Dissyllables that have two vowels which are separated in the pronunciation, always have the accent on the first syllable."--Id. "And they all turned their backs, almost without drawing a sword." Or: "And they all turned their backs, scarcely venturing to draw a sword."--Kames cor. "The principle of duty naturally takes precedence of every other."--Id. "Not all that glitters, is gold."--Maunder cor. "Whether now, or everso many myriads of ages hence."--Edwards cor.

  "England never did, nor ever shall,
   Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror."--Shak. cor.


LESSON IX.--CONJUNCTIONS.

"He readily comprehends the rules of syntax, their use in the constructing of sentences, and their applicability to the examples before him."--Greenleaf cor. "The works of Æschylus have suffered more by time, than those of any other ancient tragedian."--Dr. Blair cor. "There is much more story, more bustle, and more action, than on the French theatre."--Id. (See Obs. 8th on Rule 16th.) "Such an unremitted anxiety, or such a perpetual application, as engrosses all our time and thoughts, is forbidden."--Jenyns cor. "It seems to be nothing else than the simple form of the adjective."--Wright cor. "But when I talk of reasoning, I do not intend any other than such as is suited to the child's capacity."--Locke cor. "Pronouns have no other use in language, than to represent nouns."--Jamieson cor. "The speculative relied no farther on their own judgement, than to choose a leader, whom they implicitly followed."--Kames cor. "Unaccommodated man is no more than such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art."--Shak. cor. "A Parenthesis is a suggestion which is introduced into the body of a sentence obliquely, and which may be omitted without injuring the grammatical construction."--Mur. et al. cor. "The Caret (marked thus ^) is placed where something that happened to be left out, is to be put into the line."--Iid. "When I visit them, they shall be cast down."--Bible cor. "Neither our virtues nor our vices are all our own."--Johnson and Sanborn cor. "I could not give him so early an answer as he had desired."--O. B. Peirce cor. "He is not so tall as his brother."--Nixon cor. "It is difficult to judge whether Lord Byron is serious or not."--Lady Blessington cor. "Some nouns are of both the second and the third declension."--Gould cor. "He was discouraged neither by danger nor by misfortune."--Wells cor. "This is consistent neither with logic nor with history."--Dial cor. "Parts of sentences are either simple or compound."--David Blair cor. "English verse is regulated rather by the number of syllables, than by feet:" or,--"than by the number of feet."--Id. "I know not what more he can do, than pray for him."--Locke cor. "Whilst they are learning, and are applying themselves with attention, they are to be kept in good humour."--Id. "A man cannot have too much of it, nor have it too perfectly."--Id. "That you may so run, as to obtain; and so fight, as to overcome." Or thus: "That you may so run, that you may obtain; and so fight, that you may overcome."--Penn cor. "It is the artifice of some, to contrive false periods of business, that they may seem men of despatch."--Bacon cor. "'A tall man and a woman.' In this phrase, there is no ellipsis; the adjective belongs only to the former noun; the quality respects only the man."--Ash cor. "An abandonment of the policy is neither to be expected nor to be desired."--Jackson cor. "Which can be acquired by no other means than by frequent exercise in speaking."--Dr. Blair cor. "The chief or fundamental rules of syntax are common to the English and the Latin tongue." Or:--"are applicable to the English as well as to the Latin tongue."--Id. "Then I exclaim, either that my antagonist is void of all taste, or that his taste is corrupted in a miserable degree." Or thus: "Then I exclaim, that my antagonist is either void of all taste, or has a taste that is miserably corrupted."--Id. "I cannot pity any one who is under no distress either of body or of mind."--Kames cor. "There was much genius in the world, before there were learning and arts to refine it."--Dr. Blair cor. "Such a writer can have little else to do, than to new-model the paradoxes of ancient scepticism."--Dr. Brown cor. "Our ideas of them being nothing else than collections of the ordinary qualities observed in them."--Duncan cor. "A non-ens, or negative, can give neither pleasure nor pain."--Kames cor. "So that they shall not justle and embarrass one an other."--Dr. Blair cor. "He firmly refused to make use of any other voice than his own."--Murray's Sequel, p. 113. "Your marching regiments, sir, will not make the guards their example, either as soldiers or as subjects."--Junius cor. "Consequently they had neither meaning nor beauty, to any but the natives of each country."--Sheridan cor.

  "The man of worth, who has not left his peer,
   Is in his narrow house forever darkly laid."--Burns cor.


LESSON X.--PREPOSITIONS.

"These may be carried on progressively beyond any assignable limits."--Kames cor. "To crowd different subjects into a single member of a period, is still worse than to crowd them into one period."--Id. "Nor do we rigidly insist on having melodious prose."--Id. "The aversion we have to those who differ from us."--Id. "For we cannot bear his shifting of the scene at every line."--Halifax cor. "We shall find that we come by it in the same way."--Locke cor. "Against this he has no better defence than that."--Barnes cor. "Searching the person whom he suspects of having stolen his casket."--Dr. Blair cor. "Who, as vacancies occur, are elected by the whole Board."--Lit. Jour. cor. "Almost the only field of ambition for a German, is science."--Lieber cor. "The plan of education is very different from the one pursued in the sister country."--Coley cor. "Some writers on grammar have contended, that adjectives sometimes relate to verbs, and modify their action."--Wilcox cor. "They are therefore of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pronouns and of adjectives."-- Ingersoll cor. "For there is no authority which can justify the inserting of the aspirate or the doubling of the vowel."--Knight cor. "The distinction and arrangement of active, passive, and neuter verbs."-- Wright cor. "And see thou a hostile world spread its delusive snares."--Kirkham cor. "He may be precautioned, and be made to see how those join in the contempt."--Locke cor. "The contenting of themselves in the present want of what they wished for, is a virtue."-- Id. "If the complaint be about something really worthy of your notice."--Id. "True fortitude I take to be the quiet possession of a man's self, and an undisturbed doing of his duty."--Id. "For the custom of tormenting and killing beasts, will, by degrees, harden their minds even towards men."--Id. "Children are whipped to it, and made to spend many hours of their precious time uneasily at Latin."--Id. "On this subject, [the Harmony of Periods,] the ancient rhetoricians have entered into a very minute and particular detail; more particular, indeed, than on any other head that regards language."--See Blair's Rhet., p. 122. "But the one should not be omitted, and the other retained." Or: "But the one should not be used without the other."--Bullions cor. "From some common forms of speech, the relative pronoun is usually omitted."--Murray and Weld cor. "There are very many causes which disqualify a witness for being received to testify in particular cases."--Adams cor. "Aside from all regard to interest, we should expect that," &c.--Webster cor. "My opinion was given after a rather cursory perusal of the book."--L. Murray cor. "And, [on] the next day, he was put on board of his ship." Or thus: "And, the next day, he was put aboard his ship."--Id. "Having the command of no emotions, but what are raised by sight."--Kames cor. "Did these moral attributes exist in some other being besides himself." Or:--"in some other being than himself."--Wayland cor. "He did not behave in that manner from pride, or [from] contempt of the tribunal."--Murray's Sequel, p. 113. "These prosecutions against William seem to have been the most iniquitous measures pursued by the court."--Murray and Priestley cor. "To restore myself to the good graces of my fair critics."--Dryden cor. "Objects denominated beautiful, please not by virtue of any one quality common to them all."--Dr. Blair cor. "This would have been less worthy of notice, had not a writer or two of high rank lately adopted it."--Churchill cor.

  "A Grecian youth, of talents rare,
   Whom Plato's philosophic care," &c.--WHITEHEAD: E. R., p. 196.


LESSON XI.--PROMISCUOUS.

"To excel has become a much less considerable object."--Dr. Blair cor. "My robe, and my integrity to Heav'n, are all I dare now call my own."--Enfield's Speaker, p. 347. "For thou the garland wearst successively."--Shak. cor.; also Enfield. "If then thou art a Roman, take it forth."--Id. "If thou prove this to be real, thou must be a smart lad indeed."--Neef cor. "And an other bridge of four hundred feet in length."--Brightland cor. "METONYMY is the putting of one name for an other, on account of the near relation which there is between them."--Fisher cor. "ANTONOMASIA is the putting of an appellative or common name for a proper name."--Id. "That it is I, should make no difference in your determination."--Bullions cor. "The first and second pages are torn." Or. "The first and the second page are torn." Or: "The first page and the second are torn."--Id. "John's absence from home occasioned the delay."--Id. "His neglect of opportunities for improvement, was the cause of his disgrace."--Id. "He will regret his neglect of his opportunities for improvement, when it is too late."--Id. "His expertness at dancing does not entitle him to our regard."--Id. "Cæsar went back to Rome, to take possession of the public treasure, which his opponent, by a most unaccountable oversight, had neglected to carry away with him."--Goldsmith cor. "And Cæsar took out of the treasury, gold to the amount of three thousand pounds' weight, besides an immense quantity of silver." [548]--Id. "Rules and definitions, which should always be as clear and intelligible as possible, are thus rendered obscure."--Greenleaf cor. "So much both of ability and of merit is seldom found." Or thus: "So much of both ability and merit is seldom found."[549]--L. Murray cor. "If such maxims, and such practices prevail, what has become of decency and virtue?"[550]--Murray's False Syntax, ii, 62. Or: "If such maxims and practices prevail, what will become of decency and virtue?"--Murray and Bullions cor. "Especially if the subject does not require so much pomp."--Dr. Blair cor. "However, the proper mixture of light and shade in such compositions,--the exact adjustment of all the figurative circumstances with the literal sense,--has ever been found an affair of great nicety."--Blair's Rhet., p. 151. "And adding to that hissing in our language, which is so much noticed by foreigners."--Addison, Coote, and Murray, cor. "To speak impatiently to servants, or to do any thing that betrays unkindness, or ill-humour, is certainly criminal." Or better: "Impatience, unkindness, or ill-humour, is certainly criminal."--Mur. et al. cor. "Here are a fullness and grandeur of expression, well suited to the subject."--Dr. Blair cor. "I single out Strada from among the moderns, because he had the foolish presumption to censure Tacitus."--L. Murray cor. "I single him out from among the moderns, because," &c.--Bolingbroke cor. "This rule is not always observed, even by good writers, so strictly as it ought to be."--Dr. Blair cor. "But this gravity and assurance, which are beyond boyhood, being neither wisdom nor knowledge, do never reach to manhood."--Pope cor. "The regularity and polish even of a turnpike-road, have some influence upon the low people in the neighbourhood."--Kames cor. "They become fond of regularity and neatness; and this improvement of their taste is displayed, first upon their yards and little enclosures, and next within doors."--Id. "The phrase, 'it is impossible to exist,' gives us the idea, that it is impossible for men, or any body, to exist."--Priestley cor. "I'll give a thousand pounds to look upon him."--Shak. cor. "The reader's knowledge, as Dr. Campbell observes, may prevent him from mistaking it."--Crombie and Murray cor. "When two words are set in contrast, or in opposition to each other, they are both emphatic."--L. Murray cor. "The number of the persons--men, women, and children--who were lost in the sea, was very great." Or thus: "The number of persons--men, women, and children--that were lost in the sea, was very great."--Id. "Nor is the resemblance between the primary and the resembling object pointed out."--Jamieson cor. "I think it the best book of the kind, that I have met with."--Mathews cor.

  "Why should not we their ancient rites restore,
   And be what Rome or Athens was before?"--Roscommon cor.


LESSON XII.--TWO ERRORS.

"It is labour only that gives relish to pleasure."--L. Murray cor. "Groves are never more agreeable than in the opening of spring."--Id. "His Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, soon made him known to the literati."--See Blair's Lect., pp. 34 and 45. "An awful precipice or tower from which we look down on the objects which are below."--Dr. Blair cor. "This passage, though very poetical, is, however, harsh and obscure; and for no other cause than this, that three distinct metaphors are crowded together."--Id. "I purpose to make some observations."--Id. "I shall here follow the same method that I have all along pursued."--Id. "Mankind at no other time resemble one an other so much as they do in the beginnings of society."--Id. "But no ear is sensible of the termination of each foot, in the reading of a hexameter line."--Id. "The first thing, says he, that a writer either of fables or of heroic poems does, is, to choose some maxim or point of morality."--Id. "The fourth book has always been most justly admired, and indeed it abounds with beauties of the highest kind."--Id. "There is in the poem no attempt towards the painting of characters."--Id. "But the artificial contrasting of characters, and the constant introducing of them in pairs and by opposites, give too theatrical and affected an air to the piece."--Id. "Neither of them is arbitrary or local."--Kames cor. "If the crowding of figures is bad, it is still worse to graft one figure upon an other."--Id. "The crowding-together of so many objects lessens the pleasure."--Id. "This therefore lies not in the putting-off of the hat, nor in the making of compliments."--Locke cor. "But the Samaritan Vau may have been used, as the Jews used the Chaldaic, both for a vowel and for a consonant."--Wilson cor. "But if a solemn and a familiar pronunciation really exist in our language, is it not the business of a grammarian to mark both?"--J. Walker cor. "By making sounds follow one an other agreeably to certain laws."--Gardiner cor. "If there were no drinking of intoxicating draughts, there could be no drunkards."--Peirce cor. "Socrates knew his own defects, and if he was proud of any thing, it was of being thought to have none."--Goldsmith cor. "Lysander, having brought his army to Ephesus, erected an arsenal for the building of galleys."--Id. "The use of these signs is worthy of remark."--Brightland cor. "He received me in the same manner in which I would receive you." Or thus: "He received me as I would receive you."--R. C. Smith cor. "Consisting of both the direct and the collateral evidence."--Bp. Butler cor. "If any man or woman that believeth hath widows, let him or her relieve them, and let not the church be charged."--Bible cor. "For men's sake are beasts bred."--W. Walker cor. "From three o'clock, there were drinking and gaming."--Id. "Is this he that I am seeking, or not?"--Id. "And for the upholding of every one's own opinion, there is so much ado."--Sewel cor. "Some of them, however, will necessarily be noticed."--Sale cor. "The boys conducted themselves very indiscreetly."--Merchant cor. "Their example, their influence, their fortune,--every talent they possess,--dispenses blessings on all persons around them."--Id. and Murray cor. "The two Reynoldses reciprocally converted each other."--Johnson cor. "The destroying of the last two, Tacitus calls an attack upon virtue itself."--Goldsmith cor. "Moneys are your suit."--Shak. cor. "Ch is commonly sounded like tch, as in church; but in words derived from Greek, it has the sound of k."--L. Murray cor. "When one is obliged to make some utensil serve for purposes to which it was not originally destined."--Campbell cor. "But that a baptism with water is a washing-away of sin, thou canst not hence prove."--Barclay cor. "Being spoken to but one, it infers no universal command."--Id. "For if the laying-aside of copulatives gives force and liveliness, a redundancy of them must render the period languid."--Buchanan cor. "James used to compare him to a cat, which always falls upon her legs."--Adam cor.

  "From the low earth aspiring genius springs,
   And sails triumphant borne on eagle's wings."--Lloyd cor.


LESSON XIII.--TWO ERRORS

"An ostentatious, a feeble, a harsh, or an obscure style, for instance, is always faulty."--Dr. Blair cor. "Yet in this we find that the English pronounce quite agreeably to rule." Or thus: "Yet in this we find the English pronunciation perfectly agreeable to rule." Or thus: "Yet in this we find that the English pronounce in a manner perfectly agreeable to rule."--J. Walker cor. "But neither the perception of ideas, nor knowledge of any sort, is a habit, though absolutely necessary to the forming of habits."--Bp. Butler cor. "They were cast; and a heavy fine was imposed upon them."--Goldsmith cor. "Without making this reflection, he cannot enter into the spirit of the author, or relish the composition."--Dr. Blair cor. "The scholar should be instructed in relation to the finding of his words." Or thus: "The scholar should be told how to find his words."--Osborn cor. "And therefore they could neither have forged, nor have reversified them."--Knight cor. "A dispensary is a place at which medicines are dispensed to the poor."--L. Mur. cor. "Both the connexion and the number of words are determined by general laws."--Neef cor. "An Anapest has the first two syllables unaccented, and the last one accented; as, c~ontr~av=ene, acquiésce."--L. Mur. cor. "An explicative sentence is one in which a thing is said, in a direct manner, to be or not to be, to do or not to do, to suffer or not to suffer."--Lowth and Mur. cor. "BUT is a conjunction whenever it is neither an adverb nor a preposition." [551]--R. C. Smith cor. "He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed the writing with the king's ring."--Bible cor. "Camm and Audland had departed from the town before this time."--Sewel cor. "Before they will relinquish the practice, they must be convinced."--Webster cor. "Which he had thrown up before he set out."--Grimshaw cor. "He left to him the value of a hundred drachms in Persian money."--Spect cor. "All that the mind can ever contemplate concerning them, must be divided among the three."--Cardell cor. "Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants, of all that have fallen under my observation."--Spect. cor. "When you have once got him to think himself compensated for his suffering, by the praise which is given him for his courage."--Locke cor. "In all matters in which simple reason, or mere speculation is concerned."--Sheridan cor. "And therefore he should be spared from the trouble of attending to anything else than his meaning."--Id. "It is this kind of phraseology that is distinguished by the epithet idiomatical; a species that was originally the spawn, partly of ignorance, and partly of affectation."--Campbell and Murray cor. "That neither the inflection nor the letters are such as could have been employed by the ancient inhabitants of Latium."--Knight cor. "In those cases in which the verb is intended to be applied to any one of the terms."--L. Murray cor. "But these people who know not the law, are accursed."--Bible cor. "And the magnitude of the choruses has weight and sublimity."--Gardiner cor. "Dares he deny that there are some of his fraternity guilty?"--Barclay cor. "Giving an account of most, if not all, of the papers which had passed betwixt them."--Id. "In this manner, as to both parsing and correcting, should all the rules of syntax be treated, being taken up regularly according to their order."--L. Murray cor. "To Ovando were allowed a brilliant retinue and a body-guard."--Sketch cor. "Was it I or he, that you requested to go?"--Kirkham cor. "Let thee and me go on."--Bunyan cor. "This I nowhere affirmed; and I do wholly deny it."--Barclay cor. "But that I deny; and it remains for him to prove it."--Id. "Our country sinks beneath the yoke: She weeps, she bleeds, and each new day a gash Is added to her wounds."--Shak. cor. "Thou art the Lord who chose Abraham and brought him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees."--Bible and Mur. cor. "He is the exhaustless fountain, from which emanate all these attributes that exist throughout this wide creation."--Wayland cor. "I am he who has communed with the son of Neocles; I am he who has entered the gardens of pleasure."--Wright cor.

  "Such were in ancient times the tales received,
   Such by our good forefathers were believed."--Rowe cor.


LESSON XIV.--TWO ERRORS.

"The noun or pronoun that stands before the active verb, usually represents the agent."--A. Murray cor. "Such seem to have been the musings of our hero of the grammar-quill, when he penned the first part of his grammar."--Merchant cor. "Two dots, the one placed above the other [:], are called Sheva, and are used to represent a very short e."--Wilson cor. "Great have been, and are, the obscurity and difficulty, in the nature and application of them" [: i.e.--of natural remedies].--Butler cor. "As two are to four, so are four to eight."--Everest cor. "The invention and use of arithmetic, reach back to a period so remote, as to be beyond the knowledge of history."-- Robertson cor. "What it presents as objects of contemplation or enjoyment, fill and satisfy his mind."--Id. "If he dares not say they are, as I know he dares not, how must I then distinguish?"--Barclay cor. "He had now grown so fond of solitude, that all company had become uneasy to him."--Life of Cic. cor. "Violence and spoil are heard in her; before me continually are grief and wounds."--Bible cor. "Bayle's Intelligence from the Republic of Letters, which makes eleven volumes in duodecimo, is truly a model in this kind."--Formey cor. "Pauses, to be rendered pleasing and expressive, must not only be made in the right place, but also be accompanied with a proper tone of voice."--L. Murray cor. "To oppose the opinions and rectify the mistakes of others, is what truth and sincerity sometimes require of us."--Locke cor. "It is very probable, that this assembly was called, to clear some doubt which the king had, whether it were lawful for the Hollanders to throw off the monarchy of Spain, and withdraw entirely their allegiance to that crown." Or:--"About the lawfulness of the Hollanders' rejection of the monarchy of Spain, and entire withdrawment of their allegiance to that crown."--L. Murray cor. "A naming of the numbers and cases of a noun in their order, is called the declining of it, or its declension."--Frost cor. "The embodying of them is, therefore, only a collecting of such component parts of words."--Town cor. "The one is the voice heard when Christ was baptized; the other, when he was transfigured."--Barclay cor. "An understanding of the literal sense"--or, "To have understood the literal sense, would not have prevented them from condemning the guiltless."--Bp. Butler cor. "As if this were, to take the execution of justice out of the hands of God, and to give it to nature."--Id. "They will say, you must conceal this good opinion of yourself; which yet is an allowing of the thing, though not of the showing of it." Or:--"which yet is, to allow the thing, though not the showing of it."--Sheffield cor. "So as to signify not only the doing of an action, but the causing of it to be done."--Pike cor. "This, certainly, was both a dividing of the unity of God, and a limiting of his immensity."--Calvin cor. "Tones being infinite in number, and varying in almost every individual, the arranging of them under distinct heads, and the reducing of them to any fixed and permanent rules, may be considered as the last refinement in language."--Knight cor. "The fierce anger of the Lord shall not return, until he hath done it, and until he hath performed the intents of his heart."--Bible cor. "We seek for deeds more illustrious and heroic, for events more diversified and surprising."--Dr. Blair cor. "We distinguish the genders, or the male and the female sex, in four different ways."--Buchanan cor. "Thus, ch and g are ever hard. It is therefore proper to retain these sounds in those Hebrew names which have not been modernized, or changed by public use."--Dr. Wilson cor. "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of any thing which is conceived to subsist, or of which we have any notion."--Murray and Lowth cor. "A Noun is the name of any thing which exists, or of which we have, or can form, an idea."--Maunder cor. "A Noun is the name of any thing in existence, or of any thing of which we can form an idea."--Id. "The next thing to be attended to, is, to keep him exactly to the speaking of truth."--Locke cor. "The material, the vegetable, and the animal world, receive this influence according to their several capacities."--Dial cor. "And yet it is fairly defensible on the principles of the schoolmen; if those things can be called principles, which consist merely in words."--Campbell cor.

  "Art thou so bare, and full of wretchedness,
   And fearst to die? Famine is in thy cheeks,
   Need and oppression starve in thy sunk eyes."--Shak. cor.


LESSON XV.--THREE ERRORS.

"The silver age is reckoned to have commenced at the death of Augustus, and to have continued till the end of Trajan's reign."--Gould cor. "Language has indeed become, in modern times, more correct, and more determinate."--Dr. Blair cor. "It is evident, that those words are the most agreeable to the ear, which are composed of smooth and liquid sounds, and in which there is a proper intermixture of vowels and consonants."--Id. "It would have had no other effect, than to add to the sentence an unnecessary word."--Id. "But as rumours arose, that the judges had been corrupted by money in this cause, these gave occasion to much popular clamour, and threw a heavy odium on Cluentius."--Id. "A Participle is derived from a verb, and partakes of the nature both of the verb and of an adjective."--Ash and Devis cor. "I shall have learned my grammar before you will have learned yours."--Wilbur and Livingston cor. "There is no other earthly object capable of making so various and so forcible impressions upon the human mind, as a complete speaker."--Perry cor. "It was not the carrying of the bag, that made Judas a thief and a hireling."--South cor. "As the reasonable soul and the flesh are one man, so God and man are one Christ."--Creed cor. "And I will say to them who were not my people, Ye are my people; and they shall say, Thou art our God."--Bible cor. "Where there is in the sense nothing that requires the last sound to be elevated or suspended, an easy fall, sufficient to show that the sense is finished, will be proper."--L. Mur. cor. "Each party produce words in which the letter a is sounded in the manner for which they contend."--J. Walker cor. "To countenance persons that are guilty of bad actions, is scarcely one remove from an actual commission of the same crimes."--L. Mur. cor. "'To countenance persons that are guilty of bad actions,' is a phrase or clause which is made the subject of the verb 'is.'"--Id. "What is called the splitting of particles,--that is, the separating of a preposition from the noun which it governs, is always to be avoided."--Dr. Blair et al. cor. (See Obs. 15th on Rule 23d.) "There is properly but one pause, or rest, in the sentence; and this falls betwixt the two members into which the sentence is divided."--Iid. "To go barefoot, does not at all help a man on, in the way to heaven."--Steele cor. "There is nobody who does not condemn this in others, though many overlook it in themselves."--Locke cor. "Be careful not to use the same word in the same sentence either too frequently or in different senses."--L. Murray cor. "Nothing could have made her more unhappy, than to have married a man of such principles."--Id. "A warlike, various, and tragical age is the best to write of, but the worst to write in."--Cowley cor. "When thou instancest Peter's babtizing [sic--KTH] of Cornelius."--Barclay cor. "To introduce two or more leading thoughts or topics, which have no natural affinity or mutual dependence."--L. Murray cor. "Animals, again, are fitted to one an other, and to the elements or regions in which they live, and to which they are as appendices."--Id. "This melody, however, or so frequent varying of the sound of each word, is a proof of nothing, but of the fine ear of that people."--Jamieson cor. "They can, each in its turn, be used upon occasion."--Duncan cor. "In this reign, lived the poets Gower and Chaucer, who are the first authors that can properly be said to have written English."--Bucke cor. "In translating expressions of this kind, consider the [phrase] it is as if it were they are."--W. Walker cor. "The chin has an important office to perform; for, by the degree of its activity, we disclose either a polite or a vulgar pronunciation."--Gardiner cor. "For no other reason, than that he was found in bad company."--Webster cor. "It is usual to compare them after the manner of polysyllables."--Priestley cor. "The infinitive mood is recognized more easily than any other, because the preposition TO precedes it."--Bucke cor. "Prepositions, you recollect, connect words, and so do conjunctions: how, then, can you tell a conjunction from a preposition?" Or:--"how, then, can you distinguish the former from the latter?"--R. C. Smith cor.

  "No kind of work requires a nicer touch,
   And, this well finish'd, none else shines so much."
       --Sheffield cor.


LESSON XVI.--THREE ERRORS.

"On many occasions, it is the final pause alone, that marks the difference between prose and verse: this will be evident from the following arrangement of a few poetical lines."--L. Murray cor. "I shall do all I can to persuade others to take for their cure the same measures that I have taken for mine."--Guardian cor.; also Murray. "It is the nature of extreme self-lovers, that they will set a house on fire, as it were, but to roast their eggs."--Bacon cor. "Did ever man struggle more earnestly in a cause in which both his honour and his life were concerned?"--Duncan cor. "So the rests, or pauses, which separate sentences or their parts, are marked by points."--Lowth cor. "Yet the case and mood are not influenced by them, but are determined by the nature of the sentence."--Id. "Through inattention to this rule, many errors have been committed: several of which are here subjoined, as a further caution and direction to the learner."--L. Murray cor. "Though thou clothe thyself with crimson, though thou deck thee with ornaments of gold, though thou polish thy face with painting, in vain shalt thou make thyself fair." [552]--Bible cor. "But that the doing of good to others, will make us happy, is not so evident; the feeding of the hungry, for example, or the clothing of the naked." Or: "But that, to do good to others, will make us happy, is not so evident; to feed the hungry, for example, or to clothe the naked."--Kames cor. "There is no other God than he, no other light than his." Or: "There is no God but he, no light but his."--Penn cor. "How little reason is there to wonder, that a powerful and accomplished orator should be one of the characters that are most rarely found."--Dr. Blair cor. "Because they express neither the doing nor the receiving of an action."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "To find the answers, will require an effort of mind; and, when right answers are given, they will be the result of reflection, and show that the subject is understood."--Id. "'The sun rises,' is an expression trite and common; but the same idea becomes a magnificent image, when expressed in the language of Mr. Thomson."--Dr. Blair cor. "The declining of a word is the giving of its different endings." Or: "To decline a word, is to give it different endings."--Ware cor. "And so much are they for allowing every one to follow his own mind."--Barclay cor. "More than one overture for peace were made, but Cleon prevented them from taking effect."--Goldsmith cor. "Neither in English, nor in any other language, is this word, or that which corresponds to it in meaning, any more an article, than TWO, THREE, or FOUR."--Webster cor. "But the most irksome conversation of all that I have met with in the neighbourhood, has been with two or three of your travellers."--Spect. cor. "Set down the first two terms of the supposition, one under the other, in the first place."--Smiley cor. "It is a useful practice too, to fix one's eye on some of the most distant persons in the assembly."--Dr. Blair cor. "He will generally please his hearers most, when to please them is not his sole or his chief aim."--Id. "At length, the consuls return to the camp, and inform the soldiers, that they could obtain for them no other terms than those of surrendering their arms and passing under the yoke."--Id. "Nor are mankind so much to blame, in their choice thus determining them."--Swift cor. "These forms are what are called the Numbers." Or: "These forms are called Numbers."--Fosdick cor. "In those languages which admit but two genders, all nouns are either masculine or feminine, even though they designate beings that are neither male nor female."--Id. "It is called Verb or Word by way of eminence, because it is the most essential word in a sentence, and one without which the other parts of speech cannot form any complete sense."--Gould cor. "The sentence will consist of two members, and these will commonly be separated from each other by a comma."--Jamieson cor. "Loud and soft in speaking are like the fortè and piano in music; they only refer to the different degrees of force used in the same key: whereas high and low imply a change of key."--Sheridan cor. "They are chiefly three: the acquisition of knowledge; the assisting of the memory to treasure up this knowledge; and the communicating of it to others."--Id.

  "This kind of knaves I know, who in this plainness
   Harbour more craft, and hide corrupter ends,
   Than twenty silly ducking observants."--Shak. cor.


LESSON XVII.--MANY ERRORS.

"A man will be forgiven, even for great errors, committed in a foreign language; but, in the use he makes of his own, even the least slips are justly pointed out and ridiculed."--Amer. Chesterfield cor. "LET expresses not only permission, but entreaty, exhortation, and command."--Lowth cor.; also Murray, et al. "That death which is our leaving of this world, is nothing else than the putting-off of these bodies."--Sherlock cor. "They differ from the saints recorded in either the Old or the New Testament."--Newton cor. "The nature of relation, therefore, consists in the referring or comparing of two things to each other; from which comparison, one or both come to be denominated."--Locke cor. "It is not credible, that there is any one who will say, that through the whole course of his life he has kept himself entirely undefiled, without the least spot or stain of sin."--Witsius cor. "If to act conformably to the will of our Creator,--if to promote the welfare of mankind around us,--if to secure our own happiness, is an object of the highest moment; then are we loudly called upon to cultivate and extend the great interests of religion and virtue." Or: "If, to act conformably to the will of our Creator, to promote the welfare of mankind around us, and to secure our own happiness, are objects of the highest moment; then," &c.--Murray et al. cor. "The verb being in the plural number, it is supposed, that the officer and his guard are joint agents. But this is not the case: the only nominative to the verb is officer.' In the expression, with his guard,' the noun 'guard' is in the objective case, being governed by the preposition with; and consequently it cannot form the nominative, or any part of it. The prominent subject for the agreement, the true nominative to the verb, or the term to which the verb peculiarly refers, is the word 'officer."--L. Murray cor. "This is an other use, that, in my opinion, contributes to make a man learned rather than wise; and is incapable of pleasing either the understanding or the imagination."--Addison cor. "The work is a dull performance; and is incapable of pleasing either the understanding or the imagination."--L. Murray cor. "I would recommend the 'Elements of English Grammar,' by Mr. Frost. The plan of this little work is similar to that of Mr. L. Murray's smallest Grammar; but, in order to meet the understanding of children, its definitions and language are simplified, so far as the nature of the subject will admit. It also embraces more examples for Parsing, than are usual in elementary treatises."--S. R. Hall cor. "More rain falls in the first two summer months, than in the first two months of winter; but what falls, makes a much greater show upon the earth, in winter than in summer, because there is a much slower evaporation."--L. Murray cor. "They often contribute also to render some persons prosperous, though wicked; and, what is still worse, to reward some actions, though vicious; and punish other actions, though virtuous."--Bp. Butler cor. "Hence, to such a man, arise naturally a secret satisfaction, a sense of security, and an implicit hope of somewhat further."--Id. "So much for the third and last cause of illusion, that was noticed above; which arises from the abuse of very general and abstract terms; and which is the principal source of the abundant nonsense that has been vented by metaphysicians, mystagogues, and theologians."--Campbell cor. "As to those animals which are less common, or which, on account of the places they inhabit, fall less under our observation, as fishes and birds, or which their diminutive size removes still further from our observation, we generally, in English, employ a single noun to designate both genders, the masculine and the feminine."--Fosdick cor. "Adjectives may always be distinguished by their relation to other words: they express the quality, condition, or number, of whatever things are mentioned."--Emmons cor. "An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; and generally expresses time, place, degree, or manner."--Brown's Inst., p. 29. "The joining-together of two objects, so grand, and the representing of them both, as subject at one moment to the command of God, produce a noble effect."--Dr. Blair cor. "Twisted columns, for instance, are undoubtedly ornamental; but, as they have an appearance of weakness, they displease the eye, whenever they are used to support any massy part of a building, or what seems to require a more substantial prop."--Id. "In a vast number of inscriptions, some upon rocks, some upon stones of a defined shape, is found an Alphabet different from the Greeks', the Latins, and the Hebrews, and also unlike that of any modern nation."--W. C. Fowler cor.


LESSON XVIII.--MANY ERRORS.

"The empire of Blefuscu is an island situated on the northeast side of Lilliput, from which it is parted by a channel of only 800 yards in width."--Swift and Kames cor. "The nominative case usually denotes the agent or doer; and any noun or pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, is always in this case."--R. C. Smith cor. "There are, in his allegorical personages, an originality, a richness, and a variety, which almost vie with the splendours of the ancient mythology."--Hazlitt cor. "As neither the Jewish nor the Christian revelation has been universal, and as each has been afforded to a greater or a less part of the world at different times; so likewise, at different times, both revelations have had different degrees of evidence."--Bp. Butler cor. "Thus we see, that, to kill a man with a sword, and to kill one with a hatchet, are looked upon as no distinct species of action; but, if the point of the sword first enter the body, the action passes for a distinct species, called stabbing."--Locke cor. "If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour concerning that which was delivered him to keep, or deceive his neighbour, or find that which was lost, and lie concerning it, and swear falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein, then it shall be," &c.--Bible cor. "As, to do and teach the commandments of God, is the great proof of virtue; so, to break them, and to teach others to break them, are the great proofs of vice."--Wayland cor. "The latter simile, in Pope's terrific maltreatment of it, is true neither to the mind nor to the eye."--Coleridge cor. "And the two brothers were seen, transported with rage and fury, like Eteocles and Polynices, each endeavouring to plunge his sword into the other's heart, and to assure himself of the throne by the death of his rival."--Goldsmith cor. "Is it not plain, therefore, that neither the castle, nor the planet, nor the cloud, which you here see, is that real one which you suppose to exist at a distance?"--Berkley cor. "I have often wondered, how it comes to pass, that every body should love himself best, and yet value his neighbours opinion about himself more than his own."--Collier cor. "Virtue, ([Greek: Aretæ], Virtus,) as well as most of its species, when sex is figuratively ascribed to it, is made feminine, perhaps from its beauty and amiable appearance."--Harris cor. "Virtue, with most of its species, is made feminine when personified; and so is Vice, perhaps for being Virtue's opposite."--Brit. Gram. cor.; also Buchanan. "From this deduction, it may easily be seen, how it comes to pass, that personification makes so great a figure in all compositions in which imagination or passion has any concern."--Dr. Blair cor. "An Article is a word placed before a noun, to point it out as such, and to show how far its signification extends."--Folker cor. "All men have certain natural, essential, and inherent rights;--among which are the rights of enjoying and defending life and liberty; of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; and, in a word, of seeking and obtaining happiness."--Const. of N. H. cor. "From those grammarians who form their ideas and make their decisions, respecting this part of English grammar, from the principles and construction of other languages,--of languages which do not in these points accord with our own, but which differ considerably from it,--we may naturally expect grammatical schemes that will be neither perspicuous nor consistent, and that will tend rather to perplex than to inform the learner."--Murray and Hall cor. "Indeed there are but very few who know how to be idle and innocent, or who have a relish for any pleasures that are not criminal; every diversion which the majority take, is at the expense of some one virtue or other, and their very first step out of business is into vice or folly."--Addison cor.

  "Hail, holy Love! thou bliss that sumst all bliss!
   Giv'st and receiv'st all bliss; fullest when most
   Thou giv'st; spring-head of all felicity!"--Pollok cor.


CHAPTER XIII--GENERAL RULE.

CORRECTIONS UNDER THE GENERAL RULE.

LESSON I.--ARTICLES.

(1.) "The article is a part of speech placed before nouns." Or thus: "An article is a word placed before nouns."--Comly cor. (2.) "The article is a part of speech used to limit nouns."--Gilbert cor. (3.) "An article is a word set before nouns to fix their vague signification."--Ash cor. (4.) "The adjective is a part of speech used to describe something named by a noun."--Gilbert cor. (5.) "A pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun."--Id. and Weld cor.: Inst., p. 45. (6.) "The pronoun is a part of speech which is often used in stead of a noun."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor. (7.) "A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to be acted upon."--Merchant cor. (8.) "The verb is a part of speech which signifies to be, to act, or to receive an action."--Comly cor. (9.) "The verb is the part of speech by which any thing is asserted."--Weld cor. (10.) "The verb is a part of speech, which expresses action or existence in a direct manner."--Gilbert cor. (11.) "A participle is a word derived from a verb, and expresses action or existence in an indirect manner."--Id. (12.) "The participle is a part of speech derived from the verb, and denotes being, doing, or suffering, and implies time, as a verb does."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor. (13.) "The adverb is a part of speech used to add some modification to the meaning of verbs, adjectives, and participles."--Gilbert cor. (14.) "An adverb is an indeclinable word added to a verb, [a participle,] an adjective, or an other adverb, to express some circumstance, accident, or manner of its signification."--Adam and Gould cor. (15.) "An adverb is a word added to a verb, an adjective, a participle, or an other adverb, to express the circumstance of time, place, degree, or manner."--Dr. Ash cor. (16.) "An adverb is a word added to a verb, an adjective, a participle, or, sometimes, an other adverb, to express some circumstance respecting the sense."--Beck cor. (17.) "The adverb is a part of speech, which is added to verbs, adjectives, participles, or to other adverbs, to express some modification or circumstance, quality or manner, of their signification."--Buchanan cor. (18.) "The adverb is a part of speech which we add to the verb, (whence the name,) to the adjective or participle likewise, and sometimes even to an other adverb."--Bucke cor. (19.) "A conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences."--Gilbert and Weld cor. (20.) "The conjunction is a part of speech that joins words or sentences together."--Ash cor. (21.) "The conjunction is that part of speech which connects sentences, or parts of sentences, or single words."--D. Blair cor. (22.) "The conjunction is a part of speech that is used principally to connect sentences, so as, out of two, three, or more sentences, to make one."--Bucke cor. (23.) "The conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words or sentences together; but, chiefly, to join simple sentences into such as are compound."--Kirkham cor. (24.) "A conjunction is a word which joins words or sentences together, and shows the manner of their dependence, as they stand in connexion."--Brit. Gram. et al. cor. (25.) "A preposition is a word used to show the relation between other words, and govern the subsequent term."--Gilbert cor. (26.) "A preposition is a governing word which serves to connect other words, and to show the relation between them."--Frost cor. (27.) "A preposition is a governing particle used to connect words and show their relation."--Weld cor. (28.) "The preposition is that part of speech which shows the various positions of persons or things, and the consequent relations that certain words bear toward one an other."--David Blair cor. (29.) "The preposition is a part of speech, which, being added to certain other parts of speech, serves to show their state of relation, or their reference to each other."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor. (30.) "The interjection is a part of speech used to express sudden passion or strong emotion."--Gilbert cor. (31.) "An interjection is an unconnected word used in giving utterance to some sudden feeling or strong emotion."--Weld cor. (32.) "The interjection is that part of speech which denotes any sudden affection or strong emotion of the mind."--David Blair cor. (33.) "An interjection is an independent word or sound thrown into discourse, and denotes some sudden passion or strong emotion of the soul."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor.

   (34.) "The scene might tempt some peaceful sage
         To rear a lonely hermitage."--Gent. of Aberdeen cor.
   (35.) "Not all the storms that shake the pole,
         Can e'er disturb thy halcyon soul,
           And smooth unalter'd brow."--Barbauld's Poems, p. 42.


LESSON II.--NOUNS.

"The throne of every monarchy felt the shock."--Frelinghuysen cor. "These principles ought to be deeply impressed upon the mind of every American."--Dr. N. Webster cor. "The words CHURCH and SHIRE are radically the same."--Id. "They may not, in their present form, be readily accommodated to every circumstance belonging to the possessive case of nouns."--L. Murray cor. "Will, in the second and third persons, only foretells."--Id.; Lowth's Gram., p. 41. "Which seem to form the true distinction between the subjunctive and the indicative mood."--L. Murray cor. "The very general approbation which this performance of Walker's has received from the public."--Id. "Lest she carry her improvements of this kind too far." Or thus: "Lest she carry her improvements in this way too far."--Id. and Campbell cor. "Charles was extravagant, and by his prodigality became poor and despicable."--L. Murray cor. "We should entertain no prejudice against simple and rustic persons."--Id. "These are indeed the foundation of all solid merit."--Dr. Blair cor. "And his embellishment, by means of figures, musical cadences, or other ornaments of speech."--Id. "If he is at no pains to engage us by the employment of figures, musical arrangement, or any other ornament of style."--Id. "The most eminent of the sacred poets, are, David, Isaiah, and the author of the Book of Job."--Id. "Nothing in any poem, is more beautifully described than the death of old Priam."--Id. "When two vowels meet together, and are joined in one syllable, they are called a diphthong."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "How many Esses would goodness then end with? Three; as goodness's."--Id. "Birds is a noun; it is the common name of feathered animals."--Kirkham cor. "Adam gave names to all living creatures." Or thus: "Adam gave a name to every living creature."--Bicknell cor. "The steps of a flight of stairs ought to be accommodated to the human figure." Or thus: "Stairs ought to be accommodated to the ease of the users."--Kames cor. "Nor ought an emblem, more than a simile, to be founded on a low or familiar object."--Id. "Whatever the Latin has not from the Greek, it has from the Gothic."--Tooke cor. "The mint, and the office of the secretary of state, are neat buildings."--The Friend cor. "The scenes of dead and still existence are apt to pall upon us."--Blair cor. "And Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, the angelical doctor and the subtle, are the brightest stars in the scholastic constellation."--Lit. Hist. cor. "The English language has three methods of distinguishing the sexes."--Murray et al. cor.; also R. C. Smith. "In English, there are the three following methods of distinguishing the sexes."--Jaudon cor. "There are three ways of distinguishing the sexes."--Lennie et al. cor.; also Merchant. "The sexes are distinguished in three ways."--Maunder cor. "Neither discourse in general, nor poetry in particular, can be called altogether an imitative art."--Dr. Blair cor.

  "Do we for this the gods and conscience brave,
   That one may rule and all the rest enslave?"--Rowe cor.


LESSON III.--ADJECTIVES.

"There is a deal more of heads, than of either heart or horns."--Barclay cor. "For, of all villains, I think he has the most improper name."--Bunyan cor. "Of all the men that I met in my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrongest name."--Id. "I am surprised to see so much of the distribution, and so many of the technical terms, of the Latin grammar, retained in the grammar of our tongue."--Priestley cor. "Nor did the Duke of Burgundy bring him any assistance."--Hume and Priestley cor. "Else he will find it difficult to make an obstinate person believe him."--Brightland cor. "Are there any adjectives which form the degrees of comparison in a manner peculiar to themselves?"--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Yet all the verbs are of the indicative mood."--Lowth cor. "The word candidate is absolute, in the nominative case."--L. Murray cor. "An Iambus has the first syllable unaccented, and the last accented."--L. Murray, D. Blair, Jamieson, Kirkham, Bullions, Guy, Merchant, and others. "A Dactyl has the first syllable accented, and the last two [syllables] unaccented."--Murray et al. cor. "It is proper to begin with a capital the first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or[553] other piece of writing."--Jaudon's Gram., p. 195; John Flint's, 105. "Five and seven make twelve, and one more makes thirteen."--L. Murray cor. "I wish to cultivate a nearer acquaintance with you."--Id. "Let us consider the means which are proper to effect our purpose." Or thus: "Let us consider what means are proper to effect our purpose."--Id. "Yet they are of so similar a nature as readily to mix and blend."--Dr. Blair cor. "The Latin is formed on the same model, but is more imperfect."--Id. "I know very well how great pains have been taken." Or thus: "I know very well how much care has been taken."--Temple cor. "The management of the breath requires a great deal of care."--Dr. Blair cor. "Because the mind, during such a momentary stupefaction, is, in a great measure, if not totally, insensible."--Kames cor. "Motives of reason and interest alone are not sufficient."--Id. "To render the composition distinct in its parts, and on the whole impressive."--Id. "A and an are named the Indefinite article, because they denote indifferently any one thing of a kind."--Maunder cor. "The is named the Definite article, because it points out some particular thing or things."--Id. "So much depends upon the proper construction of sentences, that, in any sort of composition, we cannot be too strict in our attention to it." Or:--"that, in every sort of composition, we ought to be very strict in our attention to it." Or:--"that, in no sort of composition, can we be too strict," &c.--Dr. Blair cor. "Every sort of declamation and public speaking was carried on by them." Or thus: "All sorts of declamation and public speaking, were carried on by them."--Id. "The former has, on many occasions, a sublimity to which the latter never attains."--Id. "When the words, therefore, consequently, accordingly, and the like, are used in connexion with conjunctions, they are adverbs."--Kirkham cor. "Rude nations make few or no allusions to the productions of the arts."--Jamieson cor. "While two of her maids knelt on each side of her." Or, if there were only two maids kneeling, and not four: "While two of her maids knelt one on each side of her."--Mirror cor. "The personal pronouns of the third person, differ from one an other in meaning and use, as follows."--Bullions cor. "It was happy for the state, that Fabius continued in the command with Minutius: the phlegm of the former was a check on the vivacity of the latter."--L. Murray and others cor.: see Maunders Gram., p. 4. "If it be objected, that the words must and ought, in the preceding sentences, are both in the present tense." Or thus: "If it be objected, that in all the preceding sentences the words must and ought are in the present tense."--L. Murray cor. "But it will be well, if you turn to them now and then." Or:--"if you turn to them occasionally."--Bucke cor. "That every part should have a dependence on, and mutually contribute to support, every other."--Rollin cor. "The phrase, 'Good, my lord,' is not common, and is low." Or:--"is uncommon, and low."--Priestley cor.

  "That brother should not war with brother,
   And one devour or vex an other."--Cowper cor.


LESSON IV.--PRONOUNS.

"If I can contribute to our country's glory." Or:--"to your glory and that of my country."--Goldsmith cor. "As likewise of the several subjects, which have in effect each its verb."--Lowth cor. "He is likewise required to make examples for himself." Or: "He himself is likewise required to make examples."--J. Flint cor. "If the emphasis be placed wrong, it will pervert and confound the meaning wholly." Or: "If the emphasis be placed wrong, the meaning will be perverted and confounded wholly." Or: "If we place the emphasis wrong, we pervert and confound the meaning wholly."--L. Murray cor.; also Dr. Blair. "It was this, that characterized the great men of antiquity; it is this, that must distinguish the moderns who would tread in their steps."--Dr. Blair cor. "I am a great enemy to implicit faith, as well the Popish as the Presbyterian; for, in that, the Papists and the Presbyterians are very much alike."--Barclay cor. "Will he thence dare to say, the apostle held an other Christ than him that died?"--Id. "Why need you be anxious about this event?" Or: "What need have you to be anxious about this event?"--Collier cor. "If a substantive can be placed after the verb, the latter is active."--A. Murray cor. "To see bad men honoured and prosperous in the world, is some discouragement to virtue." Or: "It is some discouragement to virtue, to see bad men," &c.--L. Murray cor. "It is a happiness to young persons, to be preserved from the snares of the world, as in a garden enclosed."--Id. "At the court of Queen Elizabeth, where all was prudence and economy."--Bullions cor. "It is no wonder, if such a man did not shine at the court of Queen Elizabeth, who was so remarkable for her prudence and economy."--Priestley, Murray, et al cor. "A defective verb is a verb that wants some parts. The defective verbs are chiefly the auxiliaries and the impersonal verbs."--Bullions cor. "Some writers have given to the moods a much greater extent than I have assigned to them."--L. Murray cor. "The personal pronouns give such information as no other words are capable of conveying."--M'Culloch cor. "When the article a, an, or the, precedes the participle, the latter also becomes a noun."--Merchant cor. "To some of these, there is a preference to be given, which custom and judgement must determine."--L. Murray cor. "Many writers affect to subjoin to any word the preposition with which it is compounded, or that of which it literally implies the idea."--Id. and Priestley cor.

  "Say, dost thou know Vectidius? Whom, the wretch
   Whose lands beyond the Sabines largely stretch?"--Dryden cor.


LESSON V.--VERBS.

"We should naturally expect, that the word depend would require from after it."--Priestley's Gram., p. 158. "A dish which they pretend is made of emerald."--L. Murray cor. "For the very nature of a sentence implies that one proposition is expressed."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 311. "Without a careful attention to the sense, we should be naturally led, by the rules of syntax, to refer it to the rising and setting of the sun."--Dr. Blair cor. "For any rules that can be given, on this subject, must be very general."--Id. "He would be in the right, if eloquence were what he conceives it to be."--Id. "There I should prefer a more free and diffuse manner."--Id. "Yet that they also resembled one an other, and agreed in certain qualities."--Id. "But, since he must restore her, he insists on having an other in her place."--Id. "But these are far from being so frequent, or so common, as they have been supposed to be."--Id. "We are not led to assign a wrong place to the pleasant or the painful feelings."--Kames cor. "Which are of greater importance than they are commonly thought."--Id. "Since these qualities are both coarse and common, let us find out the mark of a man of probity."--Collier cor. "Cicero did what no man had ever done before him; he drew up a treatise of consolation for himself."--Biographer cor. "Then there can remain no other doubt of the truth."--Brightland cor. "I have observed that some satirists use the term." Or: "I have observed some satirists to use the term."--Bullions cor. "Such men are ready to despond, or to become enemies."--Webster cor. "Common nouns are names common to many things."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "To make ourselves heard by one to whom we address ourselves."--Dr. Blair cor. "That, in reading poetry, he may be the better able to judge of its correctness, and may relish its beauties." Or:--"and to relish its beauties."--L. Murray cor. "On the stretch to keep pace with the author, and comprehend his meaning."--Dr. Blair cor. "For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and the money have been given to the poor."--Bible cor. "He is a beam that has departed, and has left no streak of light behind."--Ossian cor. "No part of this incident ought to have been represented, but the whole should have been reserved for a narrative."--Kames cor. "The rulers and people debauching themselves, a country is brought to ruin." Or: "When the rulers and people debauch themselves, they bring ruin on a country."--Ware cor. "When a title, (as Doctor, Miss, Master, &c.,) is prefixed to a name, the latter only, of the two words, is commonly varied to form the plural; as, 'The Doctor Nettletons,'--'The two Miss Hudsons.'"--A. Murray cor. "Wherefore that field has been called, The Field of Blood,' unto this day."--Bible cor. "To comprehend the situations of other countries, which perhaps it may be necessary for him to explore."--Dr. Brown cor. "We content ourselves now with fewer conjunctive particles than our ancestors used."--Priestley cor. "And who will be chiefly liable to make mistakes where others have erred before them."--Id. "The voice of nature and that of revelation unite." Or: "Revelation and the voice of nature unite." Or: "The voice of nature unites with revelation." Or: "The voice of nature unites with that of revelation."--Wayland cor.

  "This adjective, you see, we can't admit;
   But, changed to 'WORSE,' the word is just and fit."--Tobitt cor.


LESSON VI.--PARTICIPLES.

"Its application is not arbitrary, or dependent on the caprice of readers."--L. Murray cor. "This is the more expedient, because the work is designed for the benefit of private learners."--Id. "A man, he tells us, ordered by his will, to have a statue erected for him."--Dr. Blair cor. "From some likeness too remote, and lying too far out of the road of ordinary thought."--Id. "In the commercial world, money is a fluid, running from hand to hand."--Dr. Webster cor. "He pays much attention to the learning and singing of songs."--Id. "I would not be understood to consider the singing of songs as criminal."--Id. "It is a case decided by Cicero, the great master of writing."--Editor of Waller cor. "Did they ever bear a testimony against the writing of books?"-- Bates's Rep. cor. "Exclamations are sometimes mistaken for interrogations."--Hist. of Print, cor. "Which cannot fail to prove of service."--Smith cor. "Hewn into such figures as would make them incorporate easily and firmly."--Beat, or Mur. cor. "After the rule and example, there are practical inductive questions."--J. Flint cor. "I think it will be an advantage, that I have collected my examples from modern writings."--Priestley cor. "He was eager to recommend it to his fellow-citizens."--Id. and Hume cor. "The good lady was careful to serve me with every thing."--Id. "No revelation would have been given, had the light of nature been sufficient, in such a sense as to render one superfluous and useless."--Bp. Butler cor. "Description, again, is a representation which raises in the mind the conception of an object, by means of some arbitrary or instituted symbols."--Dr. Blair cor. "Disappointing the expectation of the hearers, when they look for an end." Or:--"for the termination of our discourse."--Id. "There is a distinction, which, in the use of them, is worthy of attention."-- Maunder cor. "A model has been contrived, which is not very expensive, and which is easily managed."--Ed. Reporter cor. "The conspiracy was the more easily discovered, because the conspirators were many."--L. Murray cor. "Nearly ten years had that celebrated work been published, before its importance was at all understood."--Id. "That the sceptre is ostensibly grasped by a female hand, does not reverse the general order of government."--West cor. "I have hesitated about signing the Declaration of Sentiments."--Lib. cor. "The prolonging of men's lives when the world needed to be peopled, and the subsequent shortening of them when that necessity had ceased."--Rev. John Brown cor. "Before the performance commences, we see displayed the insipid formalities of the prelusive scene."--Kirkham cor. "It forbade the lending of money, or the sending of goods, or the embarking of capital in anyway, in transactions connected with that foreign traffic."--Brougham cor. "Even abstract ideas have sometimes the same important prerogative conferred upon them."--Jamieson cor. "Ment, like other terminations, changes y into i, when the y is preceded by a consonant."--Kirkham's Gram., p. 25. "The term PROPER is from the French propre, own, or the Latin proprius; and a Proper noun is so called, because it is peculiar to the individual or family bearing the name. The term COMMON is from the Latin communis, pertaining equally to several or many; and a Common noun is so called, because it is common to every individual comprised in the class."--Fowler cor.

  "Thus oft by mariners are showed (Unless the men of Kent are liars)
   Earl Godwin's castles overflowed, And palace-roofs, and steeple-
                                                spires."--Swift cor.


LESSON VII.--ADVERBS.

"He spoke to every man and woman who was there."--L. Murray cor. "Thought and language act and react upon each other."--Murray's Key, p. 264. "Thought and expression act and react upon each other."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 356. "They have neither the leisure nor the means of attaining any knowledge, except what lies within the contracted circle of their several professions."--Campbell's Rhet., p. 160. "Before they are capable of understanding much, or indeed any thing, of most other branches of education."--Olney cor. "There is no more beauty in one of them, than in an other."--L. Murray cor. "Which appear to be constructed according to no certain rule."--Dr. Blair cor. "The vehement manner of speaking became less universal."--Or better:--"less general."--Id. "Not all languages, however, agree in this mode of expression." Or: "This mode of expression, however, is not common to all languages."--Id. "The great occasion of setting apart this particular day."--Atterbury cor. "He is much more promising now, than he was formerly."--L. Murray cor. "They are placed before a participle, without dependence on the rest of the sentence."--Id. "This opinion does not appear to have been well considered." Or: "This opinion appears to have been formed without due consideration."--Id. "Precision in language merits a full explication; and merits it the more, because distinct ideas are, perhaps, but rarely formed concerning it."--Dr. Blair cor. "In the more sublime parts of poetry, he is less distinguished." Or:--"he is not so highly distinguished."--Id. "Whether the author was altogether happy in the choice of his subject, may be questioned."--Id. "But, with regard to this matter also, there is a great error in the common practice."--Webster cor. "This order is the very order of the human mind, which makes things we are sensible of, a means to come at those that are not known." Or:--"which makes things that are already known, its means of finding out those that are not so."--Foreman cor. "Now, who is not discouraged, and does not fear want, when he has no money?"--C. Leslie cor. "Which the authors of this work consider of little or no use."--Wilbur and Liv. cor. "And here indeed the distinction between these two classes begins to be obscure."--Dr. Blair cor. "But this is a manner which deserves to be avoided." Or:--"which does not deserve to be imitated."--Id. "And, in this department, a person effects very little, whenever he attempts too much."--Campbell and Murray cor. "The verb that signifies mere being, is neuter."--Ash cor. "I hope to tire but little those whom I shall not happen to please."--Rambler cor. "Who were utterly unable to pronounce some letters, and who pronounced others very indistinctly."--Sheridan cor. "The learner may point out the active, passive, and neuter verbs in the following examples, and state the reasons for thus distinguishing them." Or: "The learner may point out the active, the passive, and the neuter verbs in the following examples, and state the reasons for calling them so."--C. Adams cor. "These words are almost always conjunctions."--Barrett cor.

  "How glibly nonsense trickles from his tongue!
   How sweet the periods, neither said nor sung!"--Pope cor.


LESSON VIII.--CONJUNCTIONS.

"Who, at least, either knew not, or did not love to make, a distinction." Or better thus: "Who, at least, either knew no distinction, or did not like to make any."--Dr. Murray cor. "It is childish in the last degree to let this become the ground of estranged affection."--L. Murray cor. "When the regular, and when the irregular verb, is to be preferred [sic--KTH], p. 107."--Id. "The books were to have been sold this day." Or:--"on this day."--Priestley cor. "Do, an you will." Or: "Do, if you will."--Shak. cor. "If a man had a positive idea either of infinite duration or of infinite space, he could add two infinites together." Or: "If a man had a positive idea of what is infinite, either in duration or in space, he could," &c.--Murray's proof-text cor. "None shall more willingly agree to and advance the same than I."--Morton cor. "That it cannot but be hurtful to continue it."--Barclay cor. "A conjunction joins words or sentences."--Beck cor. "The copulative conjunction connects words or sentences together, and continues the sense."--Frost cor. "The copulative conjunction serves to connect [words or clauses,] and continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a cause, or a supposition."--L. Murray cor. "All construction is either true or apparent; or, in other words, either literal or figurative."--Buchanan and Brit. Gram. cor. "But the divine character is such as none but a divine hand could draw." Or: "But the divine character is such, that none but a divine hand could draw it."--A. Keith cor. "Who is so mad, that, on inspecting the heavens, he is insensible of a God?"--Gibbons cor. "It is now submitted to an enlightened public, with little further desire on the part of the author, than for its general utility."--Town cor. "This will sufficiently explain why so many provincials have grown old in the capital without making any change in their original dialect."-- Sheridan cor. "Of these, they had chiefly three in general use, which were denominated ACCENTS, the term being used in the plural number."--Id. "And this is one of the chief reasons why dramatic representations have ever held the first rank amongst the diversions of mankind."--Id. "Which is the chief reason why public reading is in general so disgusting."--Id. "At the same time in which they learn to read." Or: "While they learn to read."--Id. "He is always to pronounce his words with exactly the same accent that he uses in speaking."--Id. "In order to know what an other knows, and in the same manner in which he knows it."--Id. "For the same reason for which it is, in a more limited state, assigned to the several tribes of animals."--Id. "Were there masters to teach this, in the same manner in which other arts are taught." Or: "Were there masters to teach this, as other arts are taught."--Id.

  "Whose own example strengthens all his laws;
   Who is himself that great sublime he draws."--Pope cor.


LESSON IX.--PREPOSITIONS.

"The word so has sometimes the same meaning as ALSO, LIKEWISE, or THE SAME."--Priestley cor. "The verb use relates not to 'pleasures of the imagination;' but to the terms fancy and imagination, which he was to employ as synonymous."--Dr. Blair cor. "It never can view, clearly and distinctly, more than one object at a time."--Id. "This figure [Euphemism] is often the same as the Periphrasis."--Adam and Gould cor. "All the intermediate time between youth and old age."--W. Walker cor. "When one thing is said to act upon an other, or do something to it."--Lowth cor. "Such a composition has as much of meaning in it, as a mummy has of life." Or: "Such a composition has as much meaning in it, as a mummy has life."--Lit. Conv. cor. "That young men, from fourteen to eighteen years of age, were not the best judges."--Id. "This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy."--Isaiah, xxxvii, 3. "Blank verse has the same pauses and accents that occur in rhyme."--Kames cor. "In prosody, long syllables are distinguished by the macron (¯); and short ones by what is called the breve (~)."--Bucke cor. "Sometimes both articles are left out, especially from poetry."--Id. "From the following example, the pronoun and participle are omitted." Or: "In the following example, the pronoun and participle are not expressed."--L. Murray cor. [But the example was faulty. Say.] "Conscious of his weight and importance,"--or, "Being conscious of his own weight and importance, he did not solicit the aid of others."--Id. "He was an excellent person; even in his early youth, a mirror of the ancient faith."--Id. "The carrying of its several parts into execution."--Bp. Butler cor. "Concord is the agreement which one word has with an other, in gender, number, case, or person."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 142. "It might perhaps have given me a greater taste for its antiquities."--Addison cor. "To call on a person, and to wait on him."--Priestley cor. "The great difficulty they found in fixing just sentiments."--Id. and Hume cor. "Developing the differences of the three."--James Brown cor. "When the singular ends in x, ch soft, sh, ss, or s, we add es to form the plural."--L. Murray cor. "We shall present him a list or specimen of them." "It is very common to hear of the evils of pernicious reading, how it enervates the mind, or how it depraves the principles."--Dymond cor. "In this example, the verb arises is understood before 'curiosity' and before 'knowledge.'"--L. Murray et al. cor. "The connective is frequently omitted, when several words have the same construction."--Wilcox cor. "He shall expel them from before you, and drive them out from your sight."--Bible cor. "Who makes his sun to shine and his rain to descend, upon the just and the unjust." Or thus: "Who makes his sun shine, and his rain descend, upon the just and the unjust."--M'Ilvaine cor.


LESSON X.--MIXED EXAMPLES.

"This sentence violates an established rule of grammar."--L. Murray cor. "The words thou and shall are again reduced to syllables of short quantity."--Id. "Have the greatest men always been the most popular? By no means."--Lieber cor. "St. Paul positively stated, that 'He that loveth an other, hath fulfilled the law.'"--Rom., xiii, 8. "More organs than one are concerned in the utterance of almost every consonant."--M'Culloch cor. "If the reader will pardon me for descending so low."--Campbell cor. "To adjust them in such a manner as shall consist equally with the perspicuity and the grace of the period." Or: "To adjust them so, that they shall consist equally," &c.--Dr. Blair and L. Mur. cor. "This class exhibits a lamentable inefficiency, and a great want of simplicity."--Gardiner cor. "Whose style, in all its course, flows like a limpid stream, through which we see to the very bottom."--Dr. Blair cor.; also L. Murray. "We admit various ellipses." Or thus: "An ellipsis, or omission, of some words, is frequently admitted."--Lennie's Gram., p. 116. "The ellipsis, of articles may occur thus."--L. Murray cor. "Sometimes the article a is improperly applied to nouns of different numbers; as, 'A magnificent house and gardens.'"--Id. "In some very emphatical expressions, no ellipsis should be allowed."--Id. "Ellipses of the adjective may happen in the following manner."--Id. "The following examples show that there may be an ellipsis of the pronoun."--Id. "Ellipses of the verb occur in the following instances."--Id. "Ellipses of the adverb may occur in the following manner."--Id. "The following brief expressions are all of them elliptical." [554]--Id. "If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only will discourse be rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning will often be left ambiguous."--Id.; also J. S. Hart and Dr. Blair cor. "He regards his word, but thou dost not regard thine."--Bullions, Murray, et al., cor. "I have learned my task, but you have not learned yours."--Iid. "When the omission of a word would obscure the sense, weaken the expression, or be attended with impropriety, no ellipsis must be indulged."--Murray and Weld cor. "And therefore the verb is correctly put in the singular number, and refers to them all separately and individually considered."--L. Murray cor. "He was to me the most intelligible of all who spoke on the subject."--Id. "I understood him better than I did any other who spoke on the subject."--Id. "The roughness found on the entrance into the paths of virtue and learning decreases as we advance." Or: "The roughnesses encountered in the paths of virtue and learning diminish as we advance."--Id. "There is nothing which more promotes knowledge, than do steady application and habitual observation."--Id. "Virtue confers on man the highest dignity of which he is capable; it should therefore be the chief object of his desire."--Id. and Merchant cor. "The supreme Author of our being has so formed the human soul, that nothing but himself can be its last, adequate, and proper happiness."--Addison and Blair cor. "The inhabitants of China laugh at the plantations of our Europeans: 'Because,' say they, 'any one may place trees in equal rows and uniform figures.'"--Iid. "The divine laws are not to be reversed by those of men."--L. Murray cor. "In both of these examples, the relative which and the verb was are understood."--Id. et al. cor. "The Greek and Latin languages, though for many reasons they cannot be called dialects of one and the same tongue, are nevertheless closely connected."--Dr. Murray cor. "To ascertain and settle whether a white rose or a red breathes the sweetest fragrance." Or thus: "To ascertain and settle which of the two breathes the sweeter fragrance, a white rose or a red one."--J. Q. Adams cor. "To which he can afford to devote but little of his time and labour."--Dr. Blair cor.

  "Avoid extremes; and shun the fault of such
   As still are pleased too little or too much."--Pope cor.


LESSON XI.--OF BAD PHRASES.

"He might as well leave his vessel to the direction of the winds."--South cor. "Without good-nature and gratitude, men might as well live in a wilderness as in society."--L'Estrange cor. "And, for this reason, such lines very seldom occur together."--Dr. Blair cor. "His greatness did not make him happy."--Crombie cor. "Let that which tends to cool your love, be judged in all."--Crisp cor. "It is worth observing, that there is no passion in the mind of man so weak but it mates and masters the fear of death."--Bacon cor. "Accent dignifies the syllable on which it is laid, and makes it more audible than the rest."--Sheridan and Murray cor. "Before he proceeds to argue on either side."--Dr. Blair cor. "The general change of manners, throughout Europe."--Id. "The sweetness and beauty of Virgil's numbers, through all his works."--Id. "The French writers of sermons, study neatness and elegance in the division of their discourses."--Id. "This seldom fails to prove a refrigerant to passion."--Id. "But their fathers, brothers, and uncles, cannot, as good relations and good citizens, excuse themselves for not standing forth to demand vengeance."--Murray's Sequel, p. 114. "Alleging, that their decrial of the church of Rome, was a uniting with the Turks."--Barclay cor. "To which is added the Catechism by the Assembly of Divines."--N. E. Prim. cor. "This treachery was always present in the thoughts of both of them."-- Robertson cor. "Thus far their words agree." Or: "Thus far the words of both agree."--W. Walker cor. "Aparithmesis is an enumeration of the several parts of what, as a whole, might be expressed in few words."--Gould cor. "Aparithmesis, or Enumeration, is a figure in which what might be expressed in a few words, is branched out into several parts."--Dr. Adam cor. "Which may sit from time to time, where you dwell, or in the vicinity."--J. O. Taylor cor. "Place together a large-sized animal and a small one, of the same species." Or: "Place together a large and a small animal of the same species."--Kames cor. "The weight of the swimming body is equal to that of the quantity of fluid displaced by it."--Percival cor. "The Subjunctive mood, in all its tenses, is similar to the Optative."--Gwilt cor. "No feeling of obligation remains, except that of an obligation to fidelity."--Wayland cor. "Who asked him why whole audiences should be moved to tears at the representation of some story on the stage."--Sheridan cor. "Are you not ashamed to affirm that the best works of the Spirit of Christ in his saints are as filthy rags?"--Barclay cor. "A neuter verb becomes active, when followed by a noun of kindred signification."--Sanborn cor. "But he has judged better in forbearing to repeat the article the."--Dr. Blair cor. "Many objects please us, and are thought highly beautiful, which have scarcely any variety at all."--Id. "Yet they sometimes follow them."--Emmons cor. "For I know of nothing more important in the whole subject, than this doctrine of mood and tense."--R. Johnson cor. "It is by no means impossible for an error to be avoided or suppressed."--Philol. Museum cor. "These are things of the highest importance to children and youth."--Murray cor. "He ought to have omitted the word many." Or: "He might better have omitted the word many."--Dr. Blair cor. "Which might better have been separated." Or: "Which ought rather to have been separated."--Id. "Figures and metaphors, therefore, should never be used profusely."--Id. and Jam. cor. "Metaphors, or other figures, should never be used in too great abundance."--Murray and Russell cor. "Something like this has been alleged against Tacitus."-- Bolingbroke cor.

  "O thou, whom all mankind in vain withstand,
   Who with the blood of each must one day stain thy hand!"
       --Sheffield cor.


LESSON XII.--OF TWO ERRORS.

"Pronouns sometimes precede the terms which they represent."--L. Murray cor. "Most prepositions originally denoted relations of place."--Lowth cor. "WHICH is applied to brute animals, and to things without life."--Bullions cor. "What thing do they describe, or of what do they tell the kind?"--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Iron cannons, as well as brass, are now universally cast solid."--Jamieson cor. "We have philosophers, more eminent perhaps than those of any other nation."--Dr. Blair cor. "This is a question about words only, and one which common sense easily determines."--Id. "The low pitch of the voice, is that which approaches to a whisper."--Id. "Which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinctions at all."--Id. "These two systems, therefore, really differ from each other but very little."--Id. "It is needless to give many instances, as examples occur so often."--Id. "There are many occasions on which this is neither requisite nor proper."--Id. "Dramatic poetry divides itself into two forms, comedy and tragedy."--Id. "No man ever rhymed with more exactness than he." [I.e., than Roscommon.]--Editor of Waller cor. "The Doctor did not reap from his poetical labours a profit equal to that of his prose."--Johnson cor. "We will follow that which we find our fathers practised." Or: "We will follow that which we find to have been our fathers practice."--Sale cor. "And I should deeply regret that I had published them."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Figures exhibit ideas with more vividness and power, than could be given them by plain language."--Kirkham cor. "The allegory is finely drawn, though the heads are various."--Spect. cor. "I should not have thought it worthy of this place." Or: "I should not have thought it worthy of being placed here."--Crombie cor. "In this style, Tacitus excels all other writers, ancient or modern."--Kames cor. "No other author, ancient or modern, possesses the art of dialogue so completely as Shakspeare."-- Id. "The names of all the things we see, hear, smell, taste, or feel, are nouns."--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "Of what number are the expressions, 'these boys,' 'these pictures,' &c.?"--Id. "This sentence has faults somewhat like those of the last."--Dr. Blair cor. "Besides perspicuity, he pursues propriety, purity, and precision, in his language; which qualities form one degree, and no inconsiderable one, of beauty."--Id. "Many critical terms have unfortunately been employed in a sense too loose and vague; none with less precision, than the word sublime."--Id. "Hence no word in the language is used with a more vague signification, than the word beauty."--Id. "But still, in speech, he made use of general terms only."--Id. "These give life, body, and colouring, to the facts recited; and enable us to conceive of them as present, and passing before our eyes."--Id. "Which carried an ideal chivalry to a still more extravagant height, than the adventurous spirit of knighthood had ever attained in fact."--Id. "We write much more supinely, and with far less labour, than did the ancients."--Id. "This appears indeed to form the characteristical difference between the ancient poets, orators, and historians, and the modern."--Id. "To violate this rule, as the English too often do, shows great incorrectness."--Id. "It is impossible, by means of any training, to prevent them from appearing stiff and forced."--Id. "And it also gives to the speaker the disagreeable semblance of one who endeavours to compel assent."--Id. "And whenever a light or ludicrous anecdote is proper to be recorded, it is generally better to throw it into a note, than to run the hazard of becoming too familiar."--Id. "It is the great business of this life, to prepare and qualify ourselves for the enjoyment of a better."--L. Murray cor. "From some dictionaries, accordingly, it was omitted; and in others it is stigmatized as a barbarism."--Crombie cor. "You cannot see a thing, or think of one, the name of which is not a noun."--Mack cor. "All the fleet have arrived, and are moored in safety." Or better: "The whole fleet has arrived, and is moored in safety."--L. Murray cor.


LESSON XIII.--OF TWO ERRORS.

"They have severally their distinct and exactly-limited relations to gravity."--Hasler cor. "But where the additional s would give too much of the hissing sound, the omission takes place even in prose."--L. Murray cor. "After o, it [the w] is sometimes not sounded at all; and sometimes it is sounded like a single u."--Lowth cor. "It is situation chiefly, that decides the fortunes and characters of men."--Hume cor.; also Murray. "The vice of covetousness is that [vice] which enters more deeply into the soul than any other."--Murray et al. cor. "Of all vices, covetousness enters the most deeply into the soul."--Iid. "Of all the vices, covetousness is that which enters the most deeply into the soul."--Campbell cor. "The vice of covetousness is a fault which enters more deeply into the soul than any other."--Guardian cor. "WOULD primarily denotes inclination of will; and SHOULD, obligation: but they vary their import, and are often used to express simple events." Or:--"but both of them vary their import," &c. Or:--"but both vary their import, and are used to express simple events."--Lowth, Murray, et al. cor.; also Comly and Ingersoll; likewise Abel Flint. "A double condition, in two correspondent clauses of a sentence, is sometimes made by the word HAD; as, 'Had he done this, he had escaped.'"--Murray and Ingersoll cor. "The pleasures of the understanding are preferable to those of the imagination, as well as to those of sense."--L. Murray cor. "Claudian, in a fragment upon the wars of the giants, has contrived to render this idea of their throwing of the mountains, which in itself has so much grandeur, burlesque and ridiculous."--Dr. Blair cor. "To which not only no other writings are to be preferred, but to which, even in divers respects, none are comparable."--Barclay cor. "To distinguish them in the understanding, and treat of their several natures, in the same cool manner that we use with regard to other ideas."--Sheridan cor. "For it has nothing to do with parsing, or the analyzing of language."--Kirkham cor. Or: "For it has nothing to do with the parsing, or analyzing, of language."--Id. "Neither has that language [the Latin] ever been so common in Britain."--Swift cor. "All that I purpose, is, to give some openings into the pleasures of taste."--Dr. Blair cor. "But the following sentences would have been better without it."--L. Murray cor. "But I think the following sentence would be better without it." Or: "But I think it should be expunged from the following sentence."-- Priestley cor. "They appear, in this case, like ugly excrescences jutting out from the body."--Dr. Blair cor. "And therefore the fable of the Harpies, in the third book of the Æneid, and the allegory of Sin and Death, in the second book of Paradise Lost, ought not to have been inserted in these celebrated poems."--Id. "Ellipsis is an elegant suppression, or omission, of some word or words, belonging to a sentence."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor. "The article A or AN is not very proper in this construction."--D. Blair cor. "Now suppose the articles had not been dropped from these passages."--Bucke cor. "To have given a separate name to every one of those trees, would have been an endless and impracticable undertaking."--Blair cor. "Ei, in general, has the same sound as long and slender a." Or better: "Ei generally has the sound of long or slender a."--L. Murray cor. "When a conjunction is used with apparent redundance, the insertion of it is called Polysyndeton."--Adam and Gould cor. "EACH, EVERY, EITHER, and NEITHER, denote the persons or things that make up a number, as taken separately or distributively."--M'Culloch cor. "The principal sentence must be expressed by a verb in the indicative, imperative, or potential mood"--S. W. Clark cor. "Hence he is diffuse, where he ought to be urgent."--Dr. Blair cor. "All sorts of subjects admit of explanatory comparisons."--Id. et al. cor. "The present or imperfect participle denotes being, action, or passion, continued, and not perfected."--Kirkham cor. "What are verbs? Those words which chiefly express what is said of things."--Fowle cor.

  "Of all those arts in which the wise excel,
   The very masterpiece is writing-well."--Sheffield cor.
   "Such was that muse whose rules and practice tell,
   That art's chief masterpiece is writing-well."--Pope cor.


LESSON XIV.--OF THREE ERRORS.

"From some words, the metaphorical sense has justled out the original sense altogether; so that, in respect to the latter, they have become obsolete."--Campbell cor. "Surely, never any other mortal was so overwhelmed with grief, as I am at this present moment."--Sheridan cor. "All languages differ from one an other in their modes of inflection."--Bullions cor. "The noun and the verb are the only indispensable parts of speech: the one, to express the subject spoken of; and the other, the predicate, or what is affirmed of the subject."--M'Culloch cor. "The words Italicized in the last three examples, perform the office of substantives."--L. Murray cor. "A sentence so constructed is always a mark of carelessness in the writer."--Dr. Blair cor. "Nothing is more hurtful to the grace or the vivacity of a period, than superfluous and dragging words at the conclusion."--Id. "When its substantive is not expressed with it, but is referred to, being understood."--Lowth cor. "Yet they always have substantives belonging to them, either expressed or understood."--Id. "Because they define and limit the import of the common names, or general terms, to which they refer."--Id. "Every new object surprises them, terrifies them, and makes a strong impression on their minds."--Dr. Blair cor. "His argument required a more full development, in order to be distinctly apprehended, and to have its due force."--Id. "Those participles which are derived from active-transitive verbs, will govern the objective case, as do the verbs from which they are derived."--Emmons cor. "Where, in violation of the rule, the objective case whom follows the verb, while the nominative I precedes it."--L. Murray cor. "To use, after the same conjunction, both the indicative and the subjunctive mood, in the same sentence, and under the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety."--Lowth, Murray, et al. cor. "A nice discernment of the import of words, and an accurate attention to the best usage, are necessary on these occasions."--L. Murray cor. "The Greeks and Romans, the former especially, were, in truth, much more musical than we are; their genius was more turned to take delight in the melody of speech."--Dr. Blair cor. "In general, if the sense admits it early, the sooner a circumstance is introduced, the better; that the more important and significant words may possess the last place, and be quite disencumbered."--Murray et al. cor.; also Blair and Jamieson. "Thus we find it in both the Greek and the Latin tongue."--Dr. Blair cor. "Several sentences, constructed in the same manner, and having the same number of members, should never be allowed to come in succession."-- Blair et al. cor. "I proceed to lay down the rules to be observed in the conduct of metaphors; and these, with little variation, will be applicable to tropes of every kind."--Dr. Blair cor. "By selecting words with a proper regard to their sounds, we may often imitate other sounds which we mean to describe."--Dr. Blair and L. Mur. cor. "The disguise can scarcely be so perfect as to deceive."--Dr. Blair cor. "The sense does not admit of any other pause, than one after the second syllable 'sit;' this therefore must be the only pause made in the reading."--Id. "Not that I believe North America to have been first peopled so lately as in the twelfth century, the period of Madoc's migration."--Webster cor. "Money and commodities will always flow to that country in which they are most wanted, and in which they will command the most profit."--Id. "That it contains no visible marks of certain articles which are of the utmost importance to a just delivery."--Sheridan cor. "And Virtue, from her beauty, we call a fair and favourite maid."--Mack cor. "The definite article may relate to nouns of either number."--Inf. S. Gram. cor.


LESSON XV.--OF MANY ERRORS.

(1.) "Compound words are[, by L. Murray and others, improperly] included among the derivatives."--L. Murray corrected. (2.) "The Apostrophe, placed above the line, thus ', is used to abbreviate or shorten words. But its chief use is, to denote the possessive case of nouns."--Id. (3.) "The Hyphen, made thus -, connects the parts of compound words. It is also used when a word is divided."--Id. (4.) "The Acute Accent, made thus ´, denotes the syllable on which stress is laid, and sometimes also, that the vowel is short: as, Fáncy.' The Grave Accent, made thus `, usually denotes, (when applied to English words,) that the stress is laid where a vowel ends the syllable: as, Fàvour.'"--Id. (5.) "The stress is laid on long vowels or syllables, and on short ones, indiscriminately. In order to distinguish the long or open vowels from the close or short ones, some writers of dictionaries have placed the grave accent on the former, and the acute on the latter."--Id. (6.) "The Diæresis, thus made ¨, is placed over one of two contiguous vowels, to show that they are not a diphthong."--Id. (7.) "The Section, made thus §, is sometimes used to mark the subdivisions of a discourse or chapter."--Id. (8.) "The Paragraph, made thus ¶, sometimes denotes the beginning of a new subject, or of a passage not connected with the text preceding. This character is now seldom used [for such a purpose], except in the Old and New Testaments." Or better:--"except in the Bible."--Id. (9.) "The Quotation Points, written thus " ", mark the beginning and the end of what is quoted or transcribed from some speaker or author, in his own words. In type, they are inverted commas at the beginning, apostrophes at the conclusion."--Id. (10.) "The Brace was formerly used in poetry at the end of a triplet, or where three lines rhymed together in heroic verse; it also serves to connect several terms with one, when the one is common to all, and thus to prevent a repetition of the common term."--Id. (11.) "Several asterisks put together, generally denote the omission of some letters belonging to a word, or of some bold or indelicate expression; but sometimes they imply a defect in the manuscript from which the text is copied."--Id. (12.) "The Ellipsis, made thus ----, or thus ****, is used where some letters of a word, or some words of a verse, are omitted."--Id. (13.) "The Obelisk, which is made thus [Obelisk]; and the Parallels, which are made thus ||; and sometimes the letters of the alphabet; and also the Arabic figures; are used as references to notes in the margin, or at the bottom, of the page."--Id. (14.) "The note of interrogation should not be employed, where it is only said that a question has been asked, and where the words are not used as a question; as, 'The Cyprians asked me why I wept.'"--Id. et al. cor. (15.) "The note of interrogation is improper after mere expressions of admiration, or of any other emotion, though they may bear the form of questions."--Iid. (16.) "The parenthesis incloses something which is thrown into the body of a sentence, in an under tone; and which affects neither the sense, nor the construction, of the main text."--Lowth cor. (17.) "Simple members connected by a relative not used restrictively, or by a conjunction that implies comparison, are for the most part divided by the comma."--Id. (18.) "Simple members, or sentences, connected as terms of comparison, are for the most part separated by the comma."--L. Murray et al. cor. (19.) "Simple sentences connected by a comparative particle, are for the most part divided by the comma."--Russell cor. (20.) "Simple sentences or clauses connected to form a comparison, should generally be parted by the comma."--Merchant cor. (21.) "The simple members of sentences that express contrast or comparison, should generally be divided by the comma."--Jaudon cor. (22.) "The simple members of a comparative sentence, when they are long, are separated by a comma."--Cooper cor. (23.) "Simple sentences connected to form a comparison, or phrases placed in opposition, or contrast, are usually separated by the comma."--Hiley and Bullions cor. (24.) "On whichever word we lay the emphasis,--whether on the first, the second, the third, or the fourth,--every change of it strikes out a different sense."--L. Murray cor. (25.) "To say to those who do not understand sea phrases, 'We tacked to the larboard, and stood off to sea,' would give them little or no information."--Murray and Hiley cor. (26.) "Of those dissyllables which are sometimes nouns and sometimes verbs, it may be observed, that the verb is commonly accented on the latter syllable, and the noun on the former."--L. Murray cor. (27.) "And this gives to our language an advantage over most others, in the poetical or rhetorical style."--Id. et al. cor. (28.) "And this gives to the English language an advantage over most others, in the poetical and the rhetorical style."--Lowth cor. (29.) "The second and the third scholar may read the same sentence; or as many may repeat the text, as are necessary to teach it perfectly to the whole class."--Osborn cor.

   (30.) "Bliss is the same, in subject, or in king,
         In who obtain defence, or who defend."
       --Pope's Essay on Man, IV, 58.


LESSON XVI.--OF MANY ERRORS.

"The Japanese, the Tonquinese, and the Coreans, speak languages differing from one an other, and from that of the inhabitants of China; while all use the same written characters, and, by means of them, correspond intelligibly with one an other in writing, though ignorant of the language spoken by their correspondents: a plain proof, that the Chinese characters are like hieroglyphics, and essentially independent of language."--Jamieson cor.; also Dr. Blair. "The curved line, in stead of remaining round, is changed to a square one, for the reason before mentioned."--Knight cor. "Every reader should content himself with the use of those tones only, that he is habituated to in speech; and should give to the words no other emphasis, than what he would give to the same words, in discourse. [Or, perhaps the author meant:--and should give to the emphatic words no other intonation, than what he would give, &c.] Thus, whatever he utters, will be delivered with ease, and will appear natural."--Sheridan cor. "A stop, or pause, is a total cessation of sound, during a perceptible, and, in musical or poetical compositions, a measurable space of time."-- Id. "Pauses, or rests, in speaking or reading, are total cessations of the voice, during perceptible, and, in many cases, measurable spaces of time."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Those derivative nouns which denote small things of the kind named by their primitives, are called Diminutive Nouns: as, lambkin, hillock, satchel, gosling; from lamb, hill, sack, goose."--Bullions cor. "Why is it, that nonsense so often escapes detection, its character not being perceived either by the writer or by the reader?"--Campbell cor. "An Interjection is a word used to express sudden emotion. Interjections are so called, because they are generally thrown in between the parts of discourse, and have no reference to the structure of those parts."--M'Culloch cor. "The verb OUGHT has no other inflection than OUGHTEST, and this is nearly obsolete."-- Macintosh cor. "But the arrangement, government, and agreement of words, and also their dependence upon others, are referred to our reason."--Osborn cor. "ME is a personal pronoun, of the first person, singular number, and objective case."--Guy cor. "The noun SELF is usually added to a pronoun; as, herself, himself, &c. The compounds thus formed are called reciprocal pronouns."-- Id. "One cannot but think, that our author would have done better, had he begun the first of these three sentences, with saying, 'It is novelty, that bestows charms on a monster.'"--Dr. Blair cor. "The idea which they present to us, of nature resembling art, of art considered as an original, and nature as a copy, seems not very distinct, or well conceived, nor indeed very material to our author's purpose."--Id. "This faulty construction of the sentence, evidently arose from haste and carelessness."--Id. "Adverbs serve to modify terms of action or quality, or to denote time, place, order, degree, or some other circumstance which we have occasion to specify."--Id. "We may naturally expect, that the more any nation is improved by science, and the more perfect its language becomes, the more will that language abound with connective particles."--Id. "Mr. Greenleaf's book is far better adapted to the capacity of learners, than any other that has yet appeared, on the subject."--Feltus and Onderdonk's false praise Englished. "Punctuation is the art of marking, in writing or in print, the several pauses, or rests, which separate sentences, or the parts of sentences; so as to denote their proper quantity or proportion, as it is exhibited in a just and accurate delivery."--Lowth cor. "A compound sentence must generally be resolved into simple ones, and these be separated by the comma." Or better: "A compound sentence is generally divided, by the comma, into its simple members."--Greenleaf and Fisk cor. "Simple sentences should in general be separated from one an other by the comma, unless a greater point is required; as, 'Youth is passing away, age is approaching, and death is near.'"--S. R. Hall cor. "V has always one uniform sound, which is that of f flattened, as in thieve from thief: thus v bears to f the same relation that b does to p, d to t, hard g to k, or z to s."--L. Murray and Fisk cor.; also Walker; also Greenleaf. "The author is explaining the difference between sense and imagination, as powers of the human mind."--L. Murray cor. Or, if this was the critic's meaning: "The author is endeavouring to explain a very abstract point, the distinction between the powers of sense and those of imagination, as two different faculties of the human mind."-- Id.; also Dr. Blair cor. "HE--(from the Anglo-Saxon HE--) is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case. Decline HE."--Fowler cor.


CORRECTIONS UNDER THE CRITICAL NOTES.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE I.--OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

"The passive voice denotes an action received." Or: "The passive voice denotes the receiving of an action."--Maunder corrected. "Milton, in some of his prose works, has many very finely-turned periods."--Dr. Blair and Alex. Jam. cor. "These will be found to be wholly, or chiefly, of that class."--Dr. Blair cor. "All appearances of an author's affecting of harmony, are disagreeable."--Id. and Jam. cor. "Some nouns have a double increase; that is, they increase by more syllables than one: as iter, itin~eris."--Adam et al. cor. "The powers of man are enlarged by progressive cultivation."--Gurney cor. "It is always important to begin well; to make a favourable impression at the first setting out."--Dr. Blair cor. "For if one take a wrong method at his first setting-out, it will lead him astray in all that follows."-- Id. "His mind is full of his subject, and all his words are expressive."-- Id. "How exquisitely is all this performed in Greek!"--Harris cor. "How unworthy is all this to satisfy the ambition of an immortal soul!"--L. Murray cor. "So as to exhibit the object in its full grandeur, and its most striking point of view."--Dr. Blair cor. "And that the author know how to descend with propriety to the plain style, as well as how to rise to the bold and figured."-- Id. "The heart alone can answer to the heart."-- Id. "Upon the first perception of it." Or: "As it is first perceived."--Harris cor. "Call for Samson, that he may make sport for us."--Bible cor. "And he made sport before them."-- Id. "The term to suffer,' in this definition, is used in a technical sense; and means simply, to receive an action, or to be acted upon."--Bullions cor. "The text only is what is meant to be taught in schools."--Brightland cor. "The perfect participle denotes action or existence perfected or finished."--Kirkham cor. "From the intricacy and confusion which are produced when they are blended together."--L. Murray cor. "This very circumstance, that the word is employed antithetically renders it important in the sentence."--Kirkham cor. "It [the pronoun that,] is applied both to persons and to things."--L. Murray cor. "Concerning us, as being everywhere traduced."--Barclay cor. "Every thing else was buried in a profound silence."--Steele cor. "They raise fuller conviction, than any reasonings produce."--Dr. Blair cor. "It appears to me nothing but a fanciful refinement." Or: "It appears to me nothing more than a fanciful refinement"-- Id. "The regular and thorough resolution of a complete passage."--Churchill cor. "The infinitive is distinguished by the word TO, which immediately precedes it."--Maunder cor. "It will not be a gain of much ground, to urge that the basket, or vase, is understood to be the capital."--Kames cor. "The disgust one has to drink ink in reality, is not to the purpose, where the drinking of it is merely figurative."-- Id. "That we run not into the extreme of pruning so very closely."--See L. Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 318. "Being obliged to rest for a little while on the preposition itself." Or: "Being obliged to rest a while on the preposition itself." Or: "Being obliged to rest [for] a moment on the preposition alone."--Blair and Jam. cor. "Our days on the earth are as a shadow, and there is no abiding."--Bible cor. "There may be attempted a more particular expression of certain objects, by means of imitative sounds."--Blair, Jam., and Mur. cor. "The right disposition of the shade, makes the light and colouring the more apparent."--Dr. Blair cor. "I observe that a diffuse style is apt to run into long periods."-- Id. "Their poor arguments, which they only picked up in the highways."--Leslie cor. "Which must be little else than a transcribing of their writings."--Barclay cor. "That single impulse is a forcing-out of almost all the breath." Or: "That single impulse forces out almost all the breath."--Hush cor. "Picini compares modulation to the turning-off from a road."--Gardiner cor. "So much has been written on and off almost every subject."--Sophist cor. "By the reading of books written by the best authors, his mind became highly improved." Or: "By the study of the most instructive books, his mind became highly improved."--L. Mur. cor. "For I never made a rich provision a token of a spiritual ministry."--Barclay cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE II.--OF DOUBTFUL REFERENCE.

"However disagreeable the task, we must resolutely perform our duty."--L. Murray cor. "The formation of all English verbs, whether they be regular or irregular, is derived from the Saxon tongue."--Lowth cor. "Time and chance have an influence on all things human, and nothing do they affect more remarkably than language."--Campbell cor. "Time and chance have an influence on all things human, and on nothing a more remarkable influence than on language."--Jamieson cor. "That Archytases, who was a virtuous man, happened to perish once upon a time, is with him a sufficient ground." &c.--Phil Mu. cor. "He will be the better qualified to understand the meaning of the numerous words into which they enter as material parts."--L. Murray cor. "We should continually have the goal in view, that it may direct us in the race."-- Id. "But Addison's figures seem to rise of their own accord from the subject and constantly to embellish it" Or:--"and they constantly embellish it."--Blair and Jam. cor. "So far as they signify persons, animals, and things that we can see, it is very easy to distinguish nouns."--Cobbett cor. "Dissyllables ending in y or mute e, or accented on the final syllable, may sometimes be compared like monosyllables."--Frost cor. "If the foregoing objection be admitted, it will not overrule the design."--Rush cor. "These philosophical innovators forget, that objects, like men, are known only by their actions."--Dr. Murray cor. "The connexion between words and ideas, is arbitrary and conventional; it has arisen mainly from the agreement of men among themselves."--Jamieson cor. "The connexion between words and ideas, may in general be considered as arbitrary and conventional, or as arising from the agreement of men among themselves."--Dr. Blair cor. "A man whose inclinations led him to be corrupt, and who had great abilities to manage and multiply and defend his corruptions."--Swift cor. "They have no more control over him than have any other men."--Wayland cor. "All his old words are true English, and his numbers are exquisite."--Spect. cor. "It has been said, that not Jesuits only can equivocate."--Mur. in Ex. and Key, cor. "In Latin, the nominative of the first or second person, is seldom expressed."--Adam and Gould cor. "Some words have the same form in both numbers."--Murray et al. cor. "Some nouns have the same form in both numbers."--Merchant et al. cor. "Others have the same form in both numbers; as, deer, sheep, swine."--Frost cor. "The following list denotes the consonant sounds, of which there are twenty-two." Or: "The following list denotes the twenty-two simple sounds of the consonants."--Mur. et al. cor. "And is the ignorance of these peasants a reason for other persons to remain ignorant; or does it render the subject the less worthy of our inquiry?"--Harris and Mur. cor. "He is one of the most correct, and perhaps he is the best, of our prose writers."--Lowth cor. "The motions of a vortex and of a whirlwind are perfectly similar." Or: "The motion of a vortex and that of a whirlwind are perfectly similar."--Jamieson cor. "What I have been saying, throws light upon one important verse in the Bible; which verse I should like to hear some one read."--Abbott cor. "When there are any circumstances of time, place, and the like, by which the principal terms of our sentence must be limited or qualified."--Blair, Jam. and Mur. cor. "Interjections are words that express emotion, affection, or passion, and that imply suddenness." Or: "Interjections express emotion, affection, or passion, and imply suddenness."--Bucke cor. "But the genitive expressing the measure of things, is used in the plural number only."--Adam and Gould cor. "The buildings of the institution have been enlarged; and an expense has been incurred, which, with the increased price of provisions, renders it necessary to advance the terms of admission."--L. Murray cor. "These sentences are far less difficult than complex ones."--S. S. Greene cor.

  "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife
   They sober lived, nor ever wished to stray."--Gray cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE III.--OF DEFINITIONS.

(1.) "A definition is a short and lucid description of a thing, or species, according to its nature and properties."--G. BROWN: Rev. David Blair cor. (2.) "Language, in general, signifies the expression of our ideas by certain articulate sounds, or written words, which are used as the signs of those ideas."--Dr. Hugh Blair cor. (3.) "A word is one or more syllables used by common consent as the sign of an idea."--Bullions cor. (4.) "A word is one or more syllables used as the sign of an idea, or of some manner of thought."--Hazen cor. (5.) "Words are articulate sounds, or their written signs, used to convey ideas."--Hiley cor. (6.) "A word is one or more syllables used orally or in writing, to represent some idea."--Hart cor. (7.) "A word is one or more syllables used as the sign of an idea."--S. W. Clark cor. (8.) "A word is a letter or a combination of letters, a sound or a combination of sounds, used as the sign of an idea."--Wells cor. (9.) "Words are articulate sounds, or their written signs, by which ideas are communicated."--Wright cor. (10.) "Words are certain articulate sounds, or their written representatives, used by common consent as signs of our ideas."--Bullions, Lowth, Murray, et al. cor. (11.) "Words are sounds or written symbols used as signs of our ideas."--W. Allen cor. (12.) "Orthography literally means correct writing"--Kirkham and Smith cor. [The word orthography stands for different things: as, 1. The art or practice of writing words with their proper letters; 2. That part of grammar which treats of letters, syllables, separate words, and spelling.] (13.) "A vowel is a letter which forms a perfect sound when uttered alone."--Inst., p. 16; Hazen, Lennie, and Brace, cor. (14-18.) "Spelling is the art of expressing words by their proper letters."--G. BROWN: Lowth and Churchill cor.; also Murray, Ing. et al.; also Comly; also Bullions; also Kirkham and Sanborn. (19.) "A syllable is one or more letters, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and constituting a word, or part of a word."--Lowth, Mur., et al., cor. (20.) "A syllable is a letter or a combination of letters, uttered in one complete sound."--Brit. Gram. and Buch. cor. (21.) "A syllable is one or more letters representing a distinct sound, or what is uttered by a single impulse of the voice."--Kirkham cor. (22.) "A syllable is so much of a word as is sounded at once, whether it be the whole or a part."--Bullions cor. (23.) "A syllable is so many letters as are sounded at once; and is either a word, or a part of a word."--Picket cor. (24.) "A diphthong is a union of two vowels in one syllable, as in bear and beat."--Bucke cor. Or: "A diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in one syllable."--Brit. Gram., p. 15; Buchanan's, 3. (25.) "A diphthong consists of two vowels put together in one syllable; as ea in beat, oi in voice."--Guy cor. (26.) "A triphthong consists of three vowels put together in one syllable; as, eau in beauty."--Id. (27.) "But a triphthong is the union of three vowels in one syllable."--Bucke cor. Or: "A triphthong is the meeting of three vowels in one syllable."--British Gram., p. 21; Buchanan's, 3. (28.) "What is a noun? A noun is the name of something; as, a man, a boy."--Brit. Gram. and Buchanan cor. (29.) "An adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun, to describe the object named or referred to."--Maunder cor. (30.) "An adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun, to describe or define the object mentioned."--R. C. Smith cor. (31.) "An adjective is a word which, without assertion or time, serves to describe or define something; as, a good man, every boy."--Wilcox cor. (32.) "An adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun, and generally expresses a quality."--Mur. and Lowth cor. (33.) "An adjective expresses the quality, not of the noun or pronoun to which it is applied, but of the person or thing spoken of; and it may generally be known by the sense which it thus makes in connexion with its noun; as, 'A good man,' 'A genteel woman.'"--Wright cor. (34.) "An adverb is a word used to modify the sense of a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb."--Wilcox cor. (35.) "An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb, to modify the sense, or denote some circumstance."--Bullions cor. (36.) "A substantive, or noun, is a name given to some object which the senses can perceive, the understanding comprehend, or the imagination entertain."--Wright cor. (37-54.) "Genders are modifications that distinguish objects in regard to sex."--Brown's Inst., p. 35: Bullions cor.: also Frost; also Perley; also Cooper; also L. Murray et al.; also Alden et al.; also Brit. Gram., with Buchanan; also Fowle; also Burn; also Webster; also Coar; also Hall; also Wright; also Fisher; also W. Allen; also Parker and Fox; also Weld; also Weld again. (55 and 56.) "A case, in grammar, is the state or condition of a noun or pronoun, with respect to some other word in the sentence."--Bullions cor.; also Kirkham. (57.) "Cases are modifications that distinguish the relations of nouns and pronouns to other words."--Brown's Inst., p. 36. (58.) "Government is the power which one word has over an other, to cause it to assume some particular modification."--Sanborn et al. cor. See Inst., p. 104. (59.) "A simple sentence is a sentence which contains only one assertion, command, or question."--Sanborn et al. cor. (60.) "Declension means the putting of a noun or pronoun through the different cases and numbers."--Kirkham cor. Or better: "The declension of a word is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases."--See Inst., p. 37. (61.) "Zeugma is a figure in which two or more words refer in common to an other which literally agrees with only one of them."--B. F. Fish cor. (62.) "An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed; as, smite, smote, smitten."--Inst., p. 75. (63). "A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person it is."--Inst., p. 46.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IV.--OF COMPARISONS.

"Our language abounds more in vowel and diphthong sounds, than most other tongues." Or: "We abound more in vowel and diphthongal sounds, than most nations."--Dr. Blair cor. "A line thus accented has a more spirited air, than one which takes the accent on any other syllable."--Kames cor. "Homer introduces his deities with no greater ceremony, that [what] he uses towards mortals; and Virgil has still less moderation than he."--Id. "Which the more refined taste of later writers, whose genius was far inferior to theirs, would have taught them to avoid."--Dr. Blair cor. "As a poetical composition, however, the Book of Job is not only equal to any other of the sacred writings, but is superior to them all, except those of Isaiah alone."--Id. "On the whole, Paradise Lost is a poem which abounds with beauties of every kind, and which justly entitles its author to be equalled in fame with any poet."--Id. "Most of the French writers compose in short sentences; though their style, in general, is not concise; commonly less so than that of most English writers, whose sentences are much longer."--Id. "The principles of the Reformation were too deeply fixed in the prince's mind, to be easily eradicated."--Hume cor. "Whether they do not create jealousy and animosity, more than sufficient to counterbalance the benefit derived from them."--Leo Wolf cor. "The Scotch have preserved the ancient character of their music more entire, than have the inhabitants of any other country."--Gardiner cor. "When the time or quantity of one syllable exceeds that of the rest, that syllable readily receives the accent."--Rush cor. "What then can be more obviously true, than that it should be made as just as we can make it."--Dymond cor. "It was not likely that they would criminate themselves more than, they could not avoid."--Clarkson cor. "In their understandings they were the most acute people that have ever lived."--Knapp cor. "The patentees have printed it with neat types, and upon better paper than was used formerly."--John Ward cor. "In reality, its relative use is not exactly like that of any other word."--Felch cor. "Thus, in stead of having to purchase two books,--the Grammar and the Exercises,--the learner finds both in one, for a price at most not greater than that of the others."--Alb. Argus cor. "They are not improperly regarded as pronouns, though they are less strictly such than the others."--Bullions cor. "We have had, as will readily be believed, a much better opportunity of becoming conversant with the case, than the generality of our readers can be supposed to have had."--Brit. Friend cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE V.--OF FALSITIES.

"The long sound of i is like a very quick union of the sound of a, as heard in bar, and that of e, as heard in be."--Churchill cor. "The omission of a word necessary to grammatical propriety, is of course an impropriety, and not a true ellipsis."--Priestley cor. "Not every substantive, or noun, is necessarily of the third person."--A. Murray cor. "A noun is in the third person, when the subject is merely spoken of; and in the second person, when the subject is spoken to; and in the first person, when it names the speaker as such."--Nutting cor. "With us, no nouns are literally of the masculine or the feminine gender, except the names of male and female creatures."--Dr. Blair cor. "The apostrophe is a little mark, either denoting the possessive case of nouns, or signifying that something is shortened: as, William's hat;'--'the learn'd,' for 'the learned.'"--Inf. S. Gram. cor. "When a word beginning with a vowel coupled with one beginning with a consonant, the indefinite article must not be repeated, if the two words be adjectives belonging to one and the same noun; thus, 'Sir Matthew Hale was a noble and impartial judge;'--'Pope was an elegant and nervous writer.'"--Maunder cor.[555] "W and y are consonants, when they precede a vowel heard in the same syllable: in every other situation, they are vowels."--L. Mur. et al. cor. See Inst., p. 16. "The is not varied before adjectives and substantives, let them begin as they will."--Bucke cor. "A few English prepositions, and many which we have borrowed from other languages, are often prefixed to words, in such a manner as to coalesce with them, and to become parts of the compounds or derivatives thus formed."--Lowth cor. "H, at the beginning of syllables not accented, is weaker, but not entirely silent; as in historian, widowhood."--Rev. D. Blair cor. "Not every word that will make sense with to before it, is a verb; for to may govern nouns, pronouns, or participles."--Kirkham cor. "Most verbs do, in reality, express actions; but they are not intrinsically the mere names of actions: these must of course be nouns."--Id. "The nominative denotes the actor or subject; and the verb, the action which is performed or received by this actor or subject."--Id. "But if only one creature or thing acts, more than one action may, at the same instant, be done; as, 'The girl not only holds her pen badly, but scowls and distorts her features, while she writes.'"--Id. "Nor is each of these verbs of the singular number because it denotes but one action which the girl performs, but because the subject or nominative is of the singular number, and the words must agree."--Id. "And when I say, Two men walk,' is it not equally apparent, that walk is plural because it agrees with men?"--Id. "The subjunctive mood is formed by using the simple verb in a suppositive sense, and without personal inflection."--Beck cor. "The possessive case of nouns, except in instances of apposition or close connexion, should always be distinguished by the apostrophe."--Frost cor. "'At these proceedings of the Commons:' Here of is a sign of the objective case; and Commons is of that case, being governed by this preposition."--A. Murray cor. "Here let it be observed again, that, strictly speaking, all finite verbs have numbers and persons; and so have nearly all nouns and pronouns, even when they refer to irrational creatures and inanimate things."--Barrett cor. "The noun denoting the person or persons addressed or spoken to, is in the nominative case independent: except it be put in apposition with a pronoun of the second person; as, 'Woe to you lawyers;'--'You political men are constantly manoeuvring.'"--Frost cor. "Every noun, when used in a direct address and set off by a comma, becomes of the second person, and is in the nominative case absolute; as, 'Paul, thou art beside thyself."--Jaudon cor. "Does the conjunction ever join words together? Yes; the conjunction sometimes joins words together, and sometimes sentences, or certain parts of sentences."--Brit. Gram. cor.; also Buchanan. "Every noun of the possessive form has a governing noun, expressed or understood: as, St. James's. Here Palace is understood. But one possessive may govern an other; as, 'William's father's house.'"--Buchanan cor. "Every adjective (with the exceptions noted under Rule 9th) belongs to a noun or pronoun expressed or understood."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Not every adjective qualifies a substantive, expressed or understood."--Bullions cor. "Not every adjective belongs to a noun expressed or understood."--Ingersoll cor. "Adjectives belong to nouns or pronouns, and serve to describe things."--R. C. Smith cor. "English adjectives, in general, have no modifications in which they can agree with the nouns to which they relate."--Allen Fisk cor. "The adjective, if it denote unity or plurality, must agree with its substantive in number."--Buchanan cor. "Not every adjective and participle, by a vast many, belongs to some noun or pronoun, expressed or understood."--Frost cor. "Not every verb of the infinitive mood, supposes a verb before it, expressed or understood."--Buchanan cor. "Nor has every adverb its verb, expressed or understood; for some adverbs relate to participles, to adjectives, or to other adverbs."--Id. "A conjunction that connects one sentence to an other, is not always placed betwixt the two propositions or sentences which it unites."--Id. "The words for all that, are by no means 'low;' but the putting of this phrase for yet or still, is neither necessary nor elegant."--L. Murray cor.; also Dr. Priestley. "The reader or hearer then understands from AND, that the author adds one proposition, number, or thing, to an other. Thus AND often, very often, connects one thing with an other thing, or one word with an other word."--James Brown cor. "'Six AND six are twelve.' Here it is affirmed, that the two sixes added together are twelve."--Id. "'John AND his wife have six children.' This is an instance in which AND connects two nominatives in a simple sentence. It is not here affirmed that John has six children, and that his wife has six other children."--Id. "That 'Nothing can be great which is not right,' is itself a great falsity: there are great blunders, great evils, great sins."--L. Murray cor. "The highest degree of reverence should be paid to the most exalted virtue or goodness."--Id. "There is in all minds some knowledge, or understanding."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Formerly, the nominative and objective cases of our pronouns, were more generally distinguished in practice, than they now are."--Kirkham cor. "As it respects a choice of words and expressions, the just rules of grammar may materially aid the learner."--S. S. Greene cor. "The name of whatever exists, or is conceived to exist, is a noun."--Fowler cor. "As not all men are brave, brave is itself distinctive."--Id.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VI.--OF ABSURDITIES.

(1.) "And sometimes two unaccented syllables come together."--Dr. Blair cor. (2.) "What nouns frequently stand together?" Or: "What nouns are frequently used one after an other?"--Sanborn cor. (3.) "Words are derived from other words in various ways."--Idem et al. cor. (4.) "The name PREPOSITION is derived from the two Latin words præ and pono, which signify before and place."--Mack cor. (5.) "He was much laughed at for such conduct."--Bullions cor. (6.) "Every pronominal adjective belongs to some noun, expressed or understood."--Ingersoll cor. (7.) "If he [Addison] fails in any thing, it is in strength and precision; the want of which renders his manner not altogether a proper model."--Dr. Blair cor. (8.) "Indeed, if Horace is deficient in any thing his fault is this, of not being sufficiently attentive to juncture, or the connexion of parts."--Id. (9.) "The pupil is now supposed to be acquainted with the ten parts of speech, and their most usual modifications."--Taylor cor. (10.) "I could see, feel, taste, and smell the rose."--Sanborn cor. (11.) "The vowels iou are sometimes pronounced distinctly in two syllables; as in various, abstemious; but not in bilious."--Murray and Walker cor. (12.) "The diphthong aa generally sounds like a short; as in Balaam, Canaan, Isaac; in Baäl and Gaäl, we make no diphthong."--L. Mur. cor. (13.) "Participles cannot be said to be 'governed by the article;' for any participle, with an article before it, becomes a substantive, or an adjective used substantively: as, the learning, the learned."--Id. (14.) "From words ending with y preceded by a consonant, we form the plurals of nouns, the persons of verbs, agent nouns, perfect participles, comparatives, and superlatives, by changing the y into i, and adding es, ed, er, eth, or est."--Walker, Murray, et al. cor. (15.) "But y preceded by a vowel, remains unchanged, in the derivatives above named; as, boy, boys."--L. Murray et al. cor. (16.) "But when the final y is preceded by a vowel, it remains unchanged before an additional syllable; as, coy, coyly."--Iid. (17.) "But y preceded by a vowel, remains unchanged, in almost all instances; as, coy, coyly."--Kirkham cor. (18.) "Sentences are of two kinds, simple and compound."--Wright cor. (19.) "The neuter pronoun it may be employed to introduce a nominative of any person, number, or gender: as, It is he:'--It is she;'--It is they;'--'It is the land.'"--Bucke cor. (20 and 21.) "It is and it was, are always singular; but they may introduce words of a plural construction: as, 'It was the heretics that first began to rail.' SMOLLETT."--Merchant cor.; also Priestley et al. (22.) "W and y, as consonants, have each of them one sound."--Town cor. (23.) "The word as is frequently a relative pronoun."--Bucke cor. (24.) "From a series of clauses, the conjunction may sometimes be omitted with propriety."--Merchant cor. (25.) "If, however, the two members are very closely connected, the comma is unnecessary; as, 'Revelation tells us how we may attain happiness.'"--L. Murray et al. cor. (26-27.) "The mind has difficulty in taking effectually, in quick succession, so many different views of the same object."--Dr. Blair cor.; also L. Mur. (28.) "Pronominal adjectives are a kind of definitives, which may either accompany their nouns, or represent them understood."--Kirkham cor. (29.) "When the nominative or antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the verb or pronoun must agree with it in the plural number."--Id. et al. cor. (30-34.) "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed."-- Brown's Inst., p. 176; Greenleaf cor.; also Wilbur and Livingston; also Goldsbury; also P. E. Day; also Kirkham, Frazee, and Miller. (35.) "Here the boy is represented as acting: the word boy is therefore in the nominative case."--Kirkham cor. (36.) "Do, be, have, and will, are sometimes auxiliaries, and sometimes principal verbs."--Cooper cor. (37.) "Names of males are masculine. Names of females are feminine."--Adam's Gram., p. 10; Beck cor. (38.) "'To-day's lesson is longer than yesterday's.' Here to-day's and yesterday's are substantives."--L. Murray et al. cor. (39.) "In this example, to-day's and yesterday's are nouns in the possessive case."--Kirkham cor. (40.) "An Indian in Britain would be much surprised to find by chance an elephant feeding at large in the open fields."--Kames cor. (41.) "If we were to contrive a new language, we might make any articulate sound the sign of any idea: apart from previous usage, there would be no impropriety in calling oxen men, or rational beings oxen."--L. Murray cor. (42.) "All the parts of a sentence should form a consistent whole."--Id et al. cor.

   (43.) "Full through his neck the weighty falchion sped,
         Along the pavement rolled the culprit's head."--Pope cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VII.--OF SELF-CONTRADICTION.

(1.) "Though 'The king, with the lords and commons,' must have a singular rather than a plural verb, the sentence would certainly stand better thus: 'The king, the lords, and the commons, form an excellent constitution.'"--Mur. and Ing. cor. (2-3.) "L has a soft liquid sound; as in love, billow, quarrel. This letter is sometimes silent; as in half, task [sic for 'talk'--KTH], psalm."--Mur. and Fisk cor.; also Kirkham. (4.) "The words means and amends, though regularly derived from the singulars mean and amend, are not now, even by polite writers, restricted to the plural number. Our most distinguished modern authors often say, 'by this means,' as well as, 'by these means.'"--Wright cor. (5.) "A friend exaggerates a man's virtues; an enemy, his crimes."--Mur. cor. (6.) "The auxiliary have, or any form of the perfect tense, belongs not properly to the subjunctive mood. We suppose past facts by the indicative: as, If I have loved, If thou hast loved, &c."--Merchant cor. (7.) "There is also an impropriety in using both the indicative and the subjunctive mood with the same conjunction; as, 'If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them is gone astray,' &c. [This is Merchant's perversion of the text. It should be, 'and one of them go astray:' or, 'be gone astray,' as in Matt., xviii. 12.]"--Id. (8.) "The rising series of contrasts conveys transcendent dignity and energy to the conclusion."--Jamieson cor. (9.) "A groan or a shriek is instantly understood, as a language extorted by distress, a natural language which conveys a meaning that words are not adequate to express. A groan or a shriek speaks to the ear with a far more thrilling effect than words: yet even this natural language of distress may be counterfeited by art."--Dr. Porter cor. (10.) "If these words [book and pen] cannot be put together in such a way as will constitute plurality, then they cannot be these words;' and then, also, one and one cannot be two."--James Brown cor. (11.) "Nor can the real pen and the real book be added or counted together in words, in such a manner as will not constitute plurality in grammar."--Id. (12.) "Our is a personal pronoun, of the possessive case. Murray does not decline it."--Mur. cor. (13.) "This and that, and their plurals these and those, are often opposed to each other in a sentence. When this or that is used alone, i.e., without contrast, this is applied to what is present or near; that, to what is absent or distant."--Buchanan cor. (14.) "Active and neuter verbs may be conjugated by adding their imperfect participle to the auxiliary verb be, through all its variations."--"Be is an auxiliary whenever it is placed before either the perfect or the imperfect participle of an other verb; but, in every other situation, it is a principal verb."--Kirkham cor. (15.) "A verb in the imperative mood is almost always of the second person."--"The verbs, according to a foreign idiom, or the poet's license, are used in the imperative, agreeing with a nominative of the first or third person."--Id. (16.) "A personal pronoun, is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person it is."--"Pronouns of the first person do not disagree in person with the nouns they represent."--Id. (17.) "Nouns have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--"Personal pronouns have, like nouns, three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Beck cor. (18.) "In many instances the preposition suffers a change and becomes an adverb by its mere application."--L. Murray cor. (19.) "Some nouns are used only in the plural; as, ashes, literati, minutiæ. Some nouns have the same form in both numbers; as, sheep, deer, series, species. Among the inferior parts of speech, there are some pairs or couples."--Rev. D. Blair cor. (20.) "Concerning the pronominal adjectives, that may, or may not, represent their nouns."--O. B. Peirce cor. (21.) "The word a is in a few instances employed in the sense of a preposition; as, 'Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing;' i. e., I go to fishing."--Weld cor. (22.) "So, too, verbs that are commonly transitive, are used intransitively, when they have no object."--Bullions cor.

   (23.) "When first young Maro, in his boundless mind,
         A work t' outlast imperial Rome design'd."--Pope cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VIII.--OF SENSELESS JUMBLING.

"There are two numbers, called the singular and the plural, which distinguish nouns as signifying either one thing, or many of the same kind."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "Here James Monroe is addressed, he is spoken to; the name is therefore a noun of the second person."--Mack cor. "The number and person of an English verb can seldom be ascertained until its nominative is known."--Emmons cor. "A noun of multitude, or a singular noun signifying many, may have a verb or a pronoun agreeing with it in either number; yet not without regard to the import of the noun, as conveying the idea of unity or plurality."--Lowth et al. cor. "To form the present tense and the past imperfect of our active or neuter verbs, the auxiliary do, and its preterit did, are sometimes used: as, I do now love; I did then love."--Lowth cor. "If these be perfectly committed to memory, the learner will be able to take twenty lines for his second lesson, and the task may be increased each day."--Osborn cor. "Ch is generally sounded in the same manner as if it were tch: as in Charles, church, cheerfulness, and cheese. But, in Latin or Greek words, ch is pronounced like k: as in Chaos, character, chorus, and chimera. And, in words derived from the French, ch is sounded like sh: as in Chagrin, chicanery, and chaise."--Bucke cor. "Some nouns literally neuter, are made masculine or feminine by a figure of speech."--L. Murray et al. cor. "In the English language, words may be classified under ten general heads: the sorts, or chief classes, of words, are usually termed the ten parts of speech."--Nutting cor. "'Mercy is the true badge of nobility.' Nobility is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is governed by of."--Kirkham cor. "Gh is either silent, as in plough, or has the sound of f, as in laugh."--Town cor. "Many nations were destroyed, and as many languages or dialects were lost and blotted out from the general catalogue."--Chazotte cor. "Some languages contain a greater number of moods than others, and each exhibits its own as forms peculiar to itself."--L. Murray cor. "A SIMILE is a simple and express comparison; and is generally introduced by like, as, or so."--Id. See Inst., p. 233. "The word what is sometimes improperly used for the conjunction that."--Priestley, Murray, et al., cor. "Brown makes no ado in condemning the absurd principles of preceding works, in relation to the gender of pronouns."--O. B. Peirce cor. "The nominative usually precedes the verb, and denotes the agent of the action."--Wm. Beck cor. "Primitive words are those which are not formed from other words more simple."--Wright cor. "In monosyllables, the single vowel i always preserves its long sound before a single consonant with e final; as in thine, strive: except in give and live, which are short; and in shire, which has the sound of long e."--L. Murray, et al. cor. "But the person or thing that is merely spoken of, being frequently absent, and perhaps in many respects unknown to the hearer, it is thought more necessary, that the third person should be marked by a distinction of gender."--Lowth, Mur., et al., cor. "Both vowels of every diphthong were, doubtless, originally vocal. Though in many instances they are not so at present, the combinations in which one only is heard, still retain the name of diphthongs, being distinguished from others by the term improper."--L. Mur., et al. cor. "Moods are different forms of the verb, each of which expresses the being, action, or passion, in some particular manner."--Inst., p. 33; A. Mur. cor. "The word THAT is a demonstrative adjective, whenever it is followed by a noun to which it refers."--L. Mur. cor.

  "The guilty soul by Jesus wash'd,
   Is future glory's deathless heir."--Fairfield cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IX.--OF WORDS NEEDLESS.

"A knowledge of grammar enables us to express ourselves better in conversation and in writing."--Sanborn cor. "And hence we infer, that there is no dictator here but use."--Jamieson cor. "Whence little is gained, except correct spelling and pronunciation."--Town cor. "The man who is faithfully attached to religion, may be relied on with confidence."--Merchant cor. "Shalt thou build me a house to dwell in?" Or: "Shalt thou build a house for me to dwell in?"--Bible cor. "The house was deemed polluted which was entered by so abandoned a woman."--Dr. Blair cor. "The farther he searches, the firmer will be his belief."--Keith cor. "I deny not that religion consists in these things."--Barclay cor. "Except the king delighted in her, and she were called by name."--Bible cor. "The proper method of reading these lines, is, to read them as the sense dictates."--Dr. Blair cor. "When any words become obsolete, or are used only in particular phrases, it is better to dispense with their service entirely, and give up the phrases."--Campbell and Mur cor. "Those savage people seemed to have no element but war."--L. Mur. cor. "Man is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case."--J. Flint cor. "The orator, as circumstances require, will employ them all."--Dr. Blair cor. "By deferring repentence [sic--KTH], we accumulate our sorrows."--L. Murray cor. "There is no doubt that public speaking became early an engine of government."--Dr. Blair cor. "The different meanings of these two words, may not at first occur."--Id. "The sentiment is well expressed by Plato, but much better by Solomon."--L. Murray et al. cor. "They have had a greater privilege than we."--L. Mur. cor. "Every thing should be so arranged, that what goes before, may give light and force to what follows."--Dr. Blair cor. "So that his doctrines were embraced by great numbers."--Hist. cor. "They have taken an other and shorter cut."--South cor. "The imperfect tense of a regular verb is formed from the present by adding d or ed; as, love, loved."--Frost cor. "The pronoun their does not agree in number with the noun man, for which it stands."--Kirkham cor. "This mark [!] denotes wonder, surprise, joy, grief, or sudden emotion."--Bucke cor. "We all are accountable, each for himself."--L. Mur. et al. cor. "If he has commanded it, I must obey."--R. C. Smith cor. "I now present him a form of the diatonic scale."--Barber cor. "One after an other, their favourite rivers have been reluctantly abandoned." Or: "One after an other of their favourite rivers have they reluctantly abandoned."--Hodgson cor. "Particular and peculiar are words of different import."--Dr. Blair cor. "Some adverbs admit of comparison; as, soon, sooner, soonest."--Bucke cor. "Having exposed himself too freely in different climates, he entirely lost his health."--L. Mur. cor. "The verb must agree with its nominative in number and person."--Buchanan cor. "Write twenty short sentences containing adjectives."--Abbott cor. "This general tendency of the language seems to have given occasion to a very great corruption."-- Churchill's Gram., p. 113. "The second requisite of a perfect sentence is unity."--L. Murray cor. "It is scarcely necessary to apologize for omitting their names."--Id. "The letters of the English alphabet are twenty-six."--Id. et al. cor. "He who employs antiquated or novel phraseology, must do it with design; he cannot err from inadvertence, as he may with respect to provincial or vulgar expressions."--Jamieson cor. "The vocative case, in some grammars, is wholly omitted; why, if we must have cases, I could never understand."--Bucke cor. "Active verbs are conjugated with the auxiliary verb have; passive verbs, with the auxiliary am or be."--Id. "What then may AND be called? A conjunction."--Smith cor. "Have they ascertained who gave the information?"--Bullions cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE X.--OF IMPROPER OMISSIONS.

"All words signifying concrete qualities of things, are called adnouns, or adjectives."--Rev. D. Blair cor. "The macron = signifies a long or accented syllable, and the breve ~ indicates a short or unaccented syllable."--Id. "Whose duty it is, to help young ministers."--Friends cor. "The passage is closely connected with what precedes and what follows."--Phil. Mu. cor. "The work is not completed, but it soon will be."--R. C. Smith cor. "Of whom hast thou been afraid, or whom hast thou feared?"--Bible cor. "There is a God who made, and who governs, the world."--Bp. Butler cor. "It was this that made them so haughty."--Goldsmith cor. "How far the whole charge affected him, it is not easy to determine."--Id. "They saw these wonders of nature, and worshiped the God that made them."--Bucke cor. "The errors frequent in the use of hyperboles, arise either from overstraining them, or from introducing them on unsuitable occasions."--L. Mur. cor. "The preposition in is set before the names of countries, cities, and large towns; as, 'He lives in France, in London, or in Birmingham.' But, before the names of villages, single houses, or foreign cities, at is used; as, 'He lives at Hackney.'"--Id. et al. cor. "And, in such recollection, the thing is not figured as in our view, nor is any image formed."--Kames cor. "Intrinsic beauty and relative beauty must be handled separately."--Id. "He should be on his guard not to do them injustice by disguising them or placing them in a false light."--Dr. Blair cor. "In perusing that work, we are frequently interrupted by the author's unnatural thoughts."--L. Murray cor. "To this point have tended all the rules which I have just given."--Dr. Blair cor. "To this point have tended all the rules which have just been given."--L. Murray cor. "Language, as written, or as oral, is addressed to the eye, or to the ear."--Journal cor. "He will learn, Sir, that to accuse and to prove are very different."--Walpole cor. "They crowded around the door so as to prevent others from going out."--Abbott cor. "A word denoting one person or thing, is of the singular number; a word denoting more than one person or thing: is of the plural number."--J. Flint cor. "Nouns, according to the sense or relation in which they are used, are in the nominative, the possessive, or the objective case: thus, Nom. man. Poss. man's, Obj. man."--Rev. D. Blair cor. "Nouns or pronouns in the possessive case are placed before the nouns which govern them, and to which they belong."--Sanborn cor. "A teacher is explaining the difference between a noun and a verb."--Abbott cor. "And therefore the two ends, or extremities, must directly answer to the north and the south pole."--Harris cor. "WALKS or WALKETH, RIDES or RIDETH, and STANDS or STANDETH, are of the third person singular."--Kirkham cor. "I grew immediately roguish and pleasant, to a high degree, in the same strain."--Swift cor. "An Anapest has the first two syllables unaccented, and the last one accented."--Rev. D. Blair cor.; also Kirkham et al.; also L. Mur. et al. "But hearing and vision differ not more than words spoken and words written." Or: "But hearing and vision do not differ more than spoken words and written."--Wilson cor. "They are considered by some authors to be prepositions."--Cooper cor. "When those powers have been deluded and have gone astray."--Phil Mu. cor. "They will understand this, and will like it."--Abbott cor. "They had been expelled from their native country Romagna."--Hunt cor. "Future time is expressed in two different ways."--Adam and Gould cor. "Such as the borrowing of some noted event from history."--Kames cor. "Every finite verb must agree with its nominative in number and person."--Bucke cor. "We are struck, we know not how, with the symmetry of any handsome thing we see."--L. Murray cor. "Under this head, I shall consider every thing that is necessary to a good delivery."--Sheridan cor. "A good ear is the gift of nature; it may be much improved, but it cannot be acquired by art."--L. Murray cor. "Truth is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case."--Bullions cor. by Brown's Form. "Possess is a regular active-transitive verb, found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number."--Id. "Fear is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of is: according to the Rule which says, 'A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case. Because the meaning is--fear is.'"--Id. "Is is an irregular neuter verb, from be, was, being, been; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and singular number: and agrees with its nominative fear; according to the Rule which says, 'Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number Because the meaning is--fear is.'"--Id. "Ae in the word Gælic, has the sound of long a."--Wells cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XI.--OF LITERARY BLUNDERS.

"Repeat some adverbs that are composed of the prefix or preposition a and nouns."--Kirkham cor. "Participles are so called, because they participate or partake the properties of verbs and of adjectives or nouns. The Latin word participium, which signifies a participle, is derived from participo, to partake."--Merchant cor. "The possessive precedes an other noun, and is known by the sign 's, or by this ', the apostrophe only."--Beck cor. "Reciprocal pronouns, or compound personal pronouns, are formed by adding self or selves to the simple possessives of the first and second persons, and to the objectives of the third person; as, myself, yourselves, himself, themselves."--Id. "The word SELF, and its plural SELVES, when used separately as names, must be considered as nouns; but when joined to the simple pronouns, they are not nouns, but parts of the compound personal pronouns."--Wright cor. "The Spondee 'rolls round,' expresses beautifully the majesty of the sun in his course."--Webster and Frazee cor. "Active-transitive verbs govern the objective case; as, 'John learned his lesson.'"--Frazee cor. "Prosody primarily signified accent, or the modulation of the voice; and, as the name implies, related to poetry, or song."--Hendrick cor. "On such a principle of forming them, there would be as many moods as verbs; and, in stead of four moods, we should have four thousand three hundred, which is the number of verbs in the English language, according to Lowth." [556]--Hallock cor. "The phrases, 'To let out blood,'--'To go a hunting,' are not elliptical; for out is needless, and a is a preposition, governing hunting."--Bullions cor. "In Rhyme, the last syllable of every line corresponds in sound with that of some other line or lines."--Id. "The possessive case plural, where the nominative ends in s, has the apostrophe only; as, Eagles wings,'--lions whelps,'--bears claws.'"--Weld cor. "'Horses-manes,' plural, should be written possessively, 'horses' manes:'" [one "mane" is never possessed by many "horses."]--Id. "W takes its usual form from the union of two Vees, V being the figure of the Roman capital letter which was anciently called U."--Fowler cor. "In the sentence, 'I saw the lady who sings,' what word is nominative to SINGS?"--J. Flint cor. "In the sentence, 'This is the pen which John made,' what word expresses the object of MADE?"--Id. "'That we fall into no sin:' no is a definitive or pronominal adjective, not compared, and relates to sin."--Rev. D. Blair cor. "'That all our doings may be ordered by thy governance:' all is a pronominal adjective, not compared, and relates to doings."--Id. "'Let him be made to study.' Why is the sign to expressed before study? Because be made is passive; and passive verbs do not take the infinitive after them without the preposition to."--Sanborn cor. "The following verbs have both the preterit tense and the perfect participle like the present: viz., Cast, cut, cost, shut, let, bid, shed, hurt, hit, put, &c."--Buchanan cor. "The agreement which any word has with an other in person, number, gender, or case, is called CONCORD; and the power which one word has over an other, in respect to ruling its case, mood, or form, is called GOVERNMENT."--Bucke cor. "The word ticks tells what the watch is doing."--Sanborn cor. "The Breve ([~]) marks a short vowel or syllable, and the Macron ([=]), a long one."--Bullions and Lennie cor. "'Charles, you, by your diligence, make easy work of the task given you by your preceptor.' The first you is in the nominative case, being the subject of the verb make."--Kirkham cor. "Uoy in buoy is a proper triphthong; eau in flambeau is an improper triphthong."--Sanborn cor. "'While I of things to come, As past rehearsing, sing.'--POLLOK. That is, 'While I sing of things to come, as if I were rehearsing things that are past.'"--Kirkham cor. "A simple sentence usually has in it but one nominative, and but one finite verb."--Folker cor. "An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed."--Brown's Inst., p. 75. "But, when the antecedent is used in a restricted sense, a comma is sometimes inserted before the relative; as, 'There is no charm in the female sex, which can supply the place of virtue.'"--L. Murray's Gram., p. 273. Or: "But, when the antecedent is used in a restricted sense, no comma is usually inserted before the relative; as, 'There is in the female sex no charm which can supply the place of virtue.'"--Kirkham cor. "Two capitals used in this way, denote different words; but one repeated, marks the plural number: as, L. D. Legis Doctor; LL. D. Legum Doctor."--Gould cor. "Was any person present besides the mercer? Yes; his clerk."--L. Murray cor. "The word adjective comes from the Latin adjectivum; and this, from ad, to, and jacio, I cast."--Kirkham cor. "Vision, or Imagery, is a figure by which the speaker represents the objects of his imagination, as actually before his eyes, and present to his senses. Thus Cicero, in his fourth oration against Cataline: 'I seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered heaps of citizens lying unburied in the midst of their ruined country. The furious countenance of Ceth[=e]'gus rises to my view, while with savage joy he is triumphing in your miseries.'"--Dr. Blair cor.; also L. Murray. "When two or more verbs follow the same nominative, an auxiliary that is common to them both or all, is usually expressed to the first, and understood to the rest: as, 'He has gone and left me;' that is, 'He has gone and has left me.'"--Comly cor. "When I use the word pillar to denote a column that supports an edifice, I employ it literally."--Hiley cor. "In poetry, the conjunction nor is often used for neither; as

   'A stately superstructure, that nor wind,
   Nor wave, nor shock of falling years, could move.'--POLLOK."--Id.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XII--OF PERVERSIONS.

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."--Genesis, i, 1. "Canst thou by searching find out God?"--Job, xi, 7. "Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints."--Rev., xv. 3. "Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven."--Matt., vii, 21. "Though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor."--2 Cor., viii, 9. "Whose foundation was overthrown with a flood."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Job, xxii, 16. "Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me;" &c.--Matt., xi, 29. "I go to prepare a place for you."--John, xiv, 2. "And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins."--Ephesians, ii, 1. "Go, flee thee away into the land of Judah."--Amos, vii, 12; Lowth's Gram., p. 44. Or: "Go, flee away into the land of Judah."--Hart cor. "Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further."--Job, xxxviii, 11. "The day is thine, the night also is thine."--Psal., lxxiv, 16. "Tribulation worketh patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope."--Romans, v, 4. "Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it."--Ecclesiastes, xii, 7. "At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder. Thine eyes shall behold strange women, and thine heart shall utter perverse things: Yea, thou shalt be as he that lieth down in the midst of the sea."--Prov., xxiii, 32, 33, 34. "The memory of the just is blessed; but the name of the wicked shall rot."--Prov., x, 7. "He that is slow to anger, is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city."--Prov., xvi, 32. "For whom the Lord loveth, he correcteth; even as a father the son in whom he delighteth."--Prov., iii, 12. "The first-future tense is that which expresses what will take place hereafter."--Brown's Inst. of E. Gram., p. 54. "Teach me to feel another's woe, To hide the fault I see."--Pope's Univ. Prayer. "Surely thou art one of them; for thou art a Galilean."--Mark, xiv, 70. "Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech bewrayeth thee."--Matt., xxvi, 73. "Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life."--Matt., vii, 14. "Thou buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king."--Nehemiah, vi, 6. "There is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared."--Psalms, cxxx, 4. "But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might Have stood against the world."--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 250. "The North-East spends his rage."--Thomson's Seasons, p. 34. "Tells how the drudging goblin swet."--Milton's Allegro, l. 105. "And to his faithful champion hath in place Borne witness gloriously."--Milton's Sam. Agon., l. 1752. "Then, if thou fall'st, O Cromwell, Thou fall'st a blessed martyr."--Beauties of Shakspeare, p. 173. Better: "Then, if thou fall, O Cromwell! thou fallst a blessed martyr."--Shak. and Kirk. cor. "I see the dagger-crest of Mar, I see the Moray's silver star, Wave o'er the cloud of Saxon war, That up the lake comes winding far!"--Scott's Lady of the Lake, p. 162. "Each beast, each insect, happy in its own."--Pope, on Man, Ep. i, l. 185. "And he that is learning to arrange his sentences with accuracy and order, is learning, at the same time, to think with accuracy and order."--Blair's Lect., p. 120. "We, then, as workers together with him, beseech you also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain."--2 Cor., vi, 1. "And on the boundless of thy goodness calls."--Young's Last Day, B. ii, l. 320. "Knowledge dwells In heads replete with thoughts of other men; Wisdom, in minds attentive to their own."--Cowper's Task, B. vi, l. 90. "O! let me listen to the words of life!"--Thomson's Paraphrase on Matt. vi. "Save that, from yonder ivy-mantled tower." &c.--Gray's Elegy, l. 9. "Weighs the men's wits against the Lady's hair."--Pope's Rape of the Lock, Canto v, l. 72. "Till the publication of Dr. Lowth's small Introduction, the grammatical study of our language formed no part of the ordinary method of instruction."--Hiley's Preface, p. vi. "Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee."--Gen., xiii, 8.

  "What! canst thou not forbear me half an hour?"--Shakspeare.
   "Till then who knew the force of those dire arms?"--Milton.
   "In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold;
   Alike fantastic, if too new or old:
   Be not the first by whom the new are tried
   Nor yet the last to lay the old aside."--Pope, on Criticism, l. 333.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIII.--OF AWKWARDNESS.

"They slew Varus, whom I mentioned before."--L. Murray cor. "Maria rejected Valerius, whom she had rejected before." Or: "Maria rejected Valerius a second time."--Id. "In the English language, nouns have but two different terminations for cases."--Churchill's Gram., p. 64. "Socrates and Plato were the wisest men, and the most eminent philosophers in Greece."--Buchanan's Gram., Pref., p. viii. "Whether more than one were concerned in the business, does not yet appear." Or: "How many were concerned in the business, does not yet appear."--L. Murray cor. "And that, consequently, the verb or pronoun agreeing with it, can never with propriety be used in the plural number."--Id. et al. cor. "A second help may be, frequent and free converse with others of your own sex who are like minded."--Wesley cor. "Four of the semivowels, namely, l, m, n, and r, are termed LIQUIDS, on account of the fluency of their sounds."--See Brown's Inst., p. 16. "Some conjunctions are used in pairs, so that one answers to an other, as its regular correspondent."--Lowth et al. cor. "The mutes are those consonants whose sounds cannot be protracted; the semivowels have imperfect sounds of their own, which can be continued at pleasure."--Murray et al. cor. "HE and SHE are sometimes used as nouns, and, as such, are regularly declined: as, 'The hes in birds.'--BACON. 'The shes of Italy.'--SHAK."--Churchill cor. "The separation of a preposition from the word which it governs, is [censured by some writers, as being improper."--C. Adams cor. "The word WHOSE, according to some critics, should be restricted to persons; but good writers still occasionally use it with reference to things."--Priestley et al. cor. "New and surpassing wonders present themselves to our view."--Sherlock cor. "The degrees of comparison are often inaccurately applied and construed."--Alger's Murray. Or: "Passages are often found in which the degrees of comparison have not an accurate construction."--Campbell cor.; also Murray et al. "The sign of possession is placed too far from the name, to form a construction that is either perspicuous or agreeable."--L. Murray cor. "The simple tenses are those which are formed by the principal verb without an auxiliary."--Id. "The more intimate men are, the more they affect one another's happiness."--Id. "This is the machine that he invented."--Nixon cor. "To give this sentence the interrogative form, we must express it thus." Or: "This sentence, to have the interrogative form, should be expressed thus."--L. Murray cor. "Never employ words that are susceptible of a sense different from that which you intend to convey."--Hiley cor. "Sixty pages are occupied in explaining what, according to the ordinary method, would not require more than ten or twelve."--Id. "The participle in ing always expresses action, suffering, or being, as continuing, or in progress."--Bullions cor. "The first participle of all active verbs, has usually an active signification; as, 'James is building the house.' Often, however, it takes a passive meaning; as, 'The house is building.'"--Id. "Previously to parsing this sentence, the young pupil may be taught to analyze it, by such questions as the following: viz."--Id. "Since that period, however, attention has been paid to this important subject."--Id. and Hiley cor. "A definition of a word is a brief explanation of what it means."--G. BROWN: Hiley cor.


UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIV.--OF IGNORANCE.

"What is a verb? It is a word which signifies to be, to act, or to be acted upon." Or thus: "What is an assertor? Ans. 'One who affirms positively; an affirmer, supporter, or vindicator.'--WEBSTER'S DICT."--Peirce cor. "Virgil wrote the Æneid."--Kirkham cor. "Which, to a supercilious or inconsiderate native of Japan, would seem very idle and impertinent."--Locke cor. "Will not a look of disdain cast upon you throw you into a ferment?"--Say cor. "Though only the conjunction if is here set before the verb, there are several others, (as that, though, lest, unless, except,) which may be used with the subjunctive mood."--L. Murray cor. "When proper names have an article before them, they are used as common names."--Id. et al. cor. "When a proper noun has an article before it, it is used as a common noun."--Merchant cor. "Seeming to rob the death-field of its terrors."--Id. "For the same reason, we might, without any detriment to the language, dispense with the terminations of our verbs in the singular."--Kirkham cor. "It removes all possibility of being misunderstood."--Abbott cor. "Approximation to perfection is all that we can expect."--Id. "I have often joined in singing with musicians at Norwich."--Gardiner cor. "When not standing in regular prosaic order." Or:--"in the regular order of prose."--O. B. Peirce cor. "Regardless of the dogmas and edicts of the philosophical umpire."--Kirkham cor. "Others begin to talk before their mouths are open, prefixing the mouth-closing M to most of their words; as, M-yes,' for Yes.'"--Gardiner cor. "That noted close of his 'esse videatur,' exposed him to censure among his contemporaries."--Dr. Blair cor. "A man's own is what he has, or possesses by right; the word own being a past participle of the verb to owe, which formerly signified to have or possess."--Kirkham cor. "As requires so; expressing a comparison of manner; as, 'As the one dieth, so dieth the other.'"--L. Mur. et al. cor. "To obey our parents, is an obvious duty."--Parker and Fox cor. "Almost all the political papers of the kingdom have touched upon these things."--H. C. Wright cor. "I shall take the liberty to make a few observations on the subject."--Hiley cor. "His loss I have endeavoured to supply, so far as by additional vigilance and industry I could."--Id. "That they should make vegetation so exuberant as to anticipate every want."--Frazee cor. "The guillemets, or quotation points, [""] denote that one or more words are extracted from an other author."--P. E. Day cor. "Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, was one of the most noted cities of ancient times."--Id. "It may, however, be rendered definite by the mention of some particular time; as, yesterday, last week, &c."--Bullions cor. "The last is called heroic measure, and is the same that is used by Milton, Young, Thomson, Pollok. &c."--Id. "Perennial ones must be sought in the delightful regions above."--Hallock cor. "Intransitive verbs are those which are inseparable from the effect produced." Or better: "Intransitive verbs are those which express action without governing an object."--Cutler cor. "The Feminine gender belongs to women, and animals of the female kind."--Id. "Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!"--ALGER'S BIBLE: Luke, xi, 44. "A pyrrhic, which has both its syllables short."--Day cor. "What kind of jessamine? A jessamine in flower, or a flowery jessamine."--Barrett cor. "LANGUAGE, a word derived from LINGUA, the tongue, now signifies any series of sounds or letters formed into words, and used for the expression of thought."--Id. See this Gram. of E. Grammars, p. 145. "Say none,' not ne'er a one.'"--Staniford cor. "'E'er a one,' [is sometimes used for any'] or either.'"--Pond cor.

  "Earth loses thy pattern for ever and aye;
   O sailor-boy! sailor-boy! peace to thy soul."
       --Dymond.
   "His brow was sad; his eye beneath
   Flashed like a falchion from its sheath."
       --Longfellow's Ballads, p. 129.

[The examples exhibited for exercises under Critical Notes 15th and 16th, being judged either incapable of correction, or unworthy of the endeavour, are submitted to the criticism of the reader, without any attempt to amend them, or to offer substitutes in this place.]


PROMISCUOUS CORRECTIONS OF FALSE SYNTAX.

LESSON I.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"Why is our language less refined than that of Italy, Spain, or France?"--L. Murray cor. "Why is our language less refined than the French?"--Ingersoll cor. "I believe your Lordship will agree with me, in the reason why our language is less refined than that of Italy, Spain, or France."--Swift cor. "Even in this short sentence, 'why our language is less refined than those of Italy, Spain, or France,' we may discern an inaccuracy; the pronominal adjective 'those' is made plural, when the substantive to which it refers, or the thing for which it stands, 'the language of Italy, Spain, or France,' is singular."--Dr. H. Blair cor. "The sentence would have run much better in this way:--'why our language is less refined than the Italian, the Spanish, or the French.'"--Id. "But when arranged in an entire sentence, as they must be to make a complete sense, they show it still more evidently."--L. Murray cor. "This is a more artificial and refined construction, than that in which the common connective is simply used."--Id. "I shall present to the reader a list of certain prepositions or prefixes, which are derived from the Latin and Greek languages."--Id. "A relative sometimes comprehends the meaning of a personal pronoun and a copulative conjunction."--Id. "Personal pronouns, being used to supply the places of nouns, are not often employed in the same clauses with the nouns which they represent."--Id. and Smith cor. "There is very seldom any occasion for a substitute where the principal word is present."--L. Mur. cor. "We hardly consider little children as persons, because the term person gives us the idea of reason, or intelligence."--Priestley et al. cor. "The occasions for exerting these two qualities are different."--Dr. Blair et al. cor. "I'll tell you with whom time ambles withal, with whom time trots withal, with whom time gallops withal, and with whom he stands still withal. I pray thee, with whom doth he trot withal?"--Buchanan's Gram., p. 122. "By greatness, I mean, not the bulk of any single object only but the largeness of a whole view."--Addison cor. "The question may then be put, What more does he than mean?"--Dr. Blair cor. "The question might be put, What more does he than mean?"--Id. "He is surprised to find himself at so great a distance from the object with which he set out."--Id.; also Murray cor. "Few rules can be given which will hold good in all cases."--Lowth and Mur. cor. "Versification is the arrangement of words into metrical lines, according to the laws of verse."--Johnson cor. "Versification is the arrangement of words into rhythmical lines of some particular length, so as to produce harmony by the regular alternation of syllables differing in quantity."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Amelia's friend Charlotte, to whom no one imputed blame, was too prompt in her own vindication."--L. Murray cor. "Mr. Pitt's joining of the war party in 1793, the most striking and the most fatal instance of this offence, is the one which at once presents itself."--Brougham cor. "To the framing of such a sound constitution of mind."--Lady cor. "'I beseech you,' said St. Paul to his Ephesian converts, 'that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.' "--See Eph., iv, 1. "So as to prevent it from being equal to that."--Booth cor. "When speaking of an action as being performed." Or: "When speaking of the performance of an action."--Id. "And, in all questions of actions being so performed, est is added for the second person."--Id. "No account can be given of this, but that custom has blinded their eyes." Or: "No other account can be given of this, than that custom has blinded their eyes."--Dymond cor.

  "Design, or chance, makes others wive;
   But nature did this match contrive."--Waller cor.


LESSON II.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"I suppose each of you thinks it is his own nail."--Abbott cor. "They are useless, because they are apparently based upon this supposition."--Id. "The form, or manner, in which this plan may be adopted is various."--Id. "The making of intellectual effort, and the acquiring of knowledge, are always pleasant to the human mind."--Id. "This will do more than the best lecture that ever was delivered."--Id. "The doing of easy things is generally dull work."--Id. "Such are the tone and manner of some teachers."--Id. "Well, the fault is, that some one was disorderly at prayer time."--Id. "Do you remember to have spoken on this subject in school?"--Id. "The course above recommended, is not the trying of lax and inefficient measures"--Id. "Our community agree that there is a God."--Id. "It prevents them from being interested in what is said."--Id. "We will also suppose that I call an other boy to me, whom I have reason to believe to be a sincere Christian."--Id. "Five minutes' notice is given by the bell."--Id. "The Annals of Education give notice of it." Or: "The work entitled 'Annals of Education' gives notice of it."--Id. "Teachers' meetings will be interesting and useful."--Id. "She thought a half hour's study would conquer all the difficulties."--Id. "The difference between an honest and a hypocritical confession."--Id. "There is no point of attainment at which we must stop."--Id. "Now six hours' service is as much as is expected of teachers."--Id. "How many are seven times nine?"--Id. "Then the reckoning proceeds till it comes to ten hundred."--Frost cor. "Your success will depend on your own exertions; see, then, that you be diligent."--Id. "Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense: If I be known, If thou be known, If he be known;" &c.--Id. "If I be loved, If thou be loved, If he be loved;" &c.--Frost right. "An Interjection is a word used to express sudden emotion. Interjections are so called because they are generally thrown in between the parts of discourse, without any reference to the structure of those parts."--Frost cor. "The Cardinal numbers are those which simply tell how many; as, one, two, three."--Id. "More than one organ are concerned in the utterance of almost every consonant." Or thus: "More organs than one are concerned in the utterance of almost any consonant."--Id. "To extract from them all the terms which we use in our divisions and subdivisions of the art."--Holmes cor. "And there were written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe."--Bible cor. "If I were to be judged as to my behaviour, compared with that of John."--Whiston's Jos. cor. "The preposition to, signifying in order to, was anciently preceded by for; as, 'What went ye out for to see?"--L. Murray's Gram., p. 184. "This makes the proper perfect tense, which in English is always expressed by the auxiliary verb have; as, 'I have written.'"--Dr. Blair cor. "Indeed, in the formation of character, personal exertion is the first, the second, and the third virtue."--Sanders cor. "The reducing of them to the condition of the beasts that perish."--Dymond cor. "Yet this affords no reason to deny that the nature of the gift is the same, or that both are divine." Or: "Yet this affords no reason to aver that the nature of the gift is not the same, or that both are not divine."--Id. "If God has made known his will."--Id. "If Christ has prohibited them, nothing else can prove them right."--Id. "That the taking of them is wrong, every man who simply consults his own heart, will know."--Id. "From these evils the world would be spared, if one did not write."--Id. "It is in a great degree our own fault."--Id. "It is worthy of observation, that lesson-learning is nearly excluded."--Id. "Who spares the aggressor's life, even to the endangering of his own."--Id. "Who advocates the taking of the life of an aggressor."--Id. "And thence up to the intentionally and voluntarily fraudulent."--Id. "And the contention was so sharp between them, that they departed asunder one from the other."--SCOTT'S, FRIENDS', ALGER'S, BRUCE'S BIBLE, AND OTHERS: Acts, xv, 39. "Here the man is John, and John is the man; so the words are imagination and fancy; but THE imagination and THE fancy are not words: they are intellectual powers."--Rev. M. Harrison cor. "The article, which is here so emphatic in the Greek, is quite forgotten in our translation."--Id. "We have no fewer than twenty-four pronouns."--Id. "It will admit of a pronoun joined to it."--Id. "From intercourse and from conquest, all the languages of Europe participate one with an other."--Id. "It is not always necessity, therefore, that has been the cause of our introducing of terms derived from the classical languages."--Id. "The man of genius stamps upon it any impression that pleases him." Or: "any impression that he chooses."--Id. "The proportion of names ending in SON preponderates greatly among the Dano-Saxon population of the North."--Id. "As a proof of the strong similarity between the English language and the Danish."--Id. "A century from the time when (or at which) Hengist and Horsa landed on the Isle of Thanet."--Id.

  "I saw the colours waving in the wind,
   And them within, to mischief how combin'd."--Bunyan cor.


LESSON III.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"A ship excepted: of which we say, 'She sails well.'"--Jonson cor. "Honesty is reckoned of little worth."--Lily cor. "Learn to esteem life as you ought."--Dodsley cor. "As the soundest health is less perceived than the lightest malady, so the highest joy toucheth us less sensibly than the smallest sorrow."--Id. "Youth is no apology for frivolousness."--Whiting cor. "The porch was of the same width as the temple."--Milman cor. "The other tribes contributed neither to his rise nor to his downfall."--Id. "His whole religion, with all its laws, would have been shaken to its foundation."--Id. "The English has most commonly been neglected, and children have been taught only in the Latin syntax."--J. Ward cor. "They are not noticed in the notes."-- Id. "He walks in righteousness, doing what he would have others do to him."--Fisher cor. "They stand independent of the rest of the sentence."--Ingersoll cor. "My uncle and his son were in town yesterday."--Lennie cor. "She and her sisters are well."--Id. "His purse, with its contents, was abstracted from his pocket."--Id. "The great constitutional feature of this institution being, that directly after the acrimony of the last election is over, the acrimony of the next begins."--Dickens cor. "His disregarding of his parents' advice has brought him into disgrace."--Farnum cor. "Can you tell me why his father made that remark?"--Id. "Why does our teacher detain us so long?"--Id. "I am certain that the boy said so."--Id. "WHICH means any thing or things before named; and THAT may represent any person or persons, thing or things, that have been speaking, spoken to, or spoken of."--Perley cor. "A certain number of syllables occurring in a particular order, form a foot. Poetic feet are so called because it is by their aid that the voice, as it were, steps along."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Questions asked by a principal verb only--as, 'Teach I?' 'Burns he?' &c.,--are archaisms, and now peculiar to the poets."--A. Murray cor. "Tell whether the 18th, the 19th, the 20th, the 21st, the 22d, or the 23d rule is to be used, and repeat the rule."--Parker and Fox cor. "The resolution was adopted without much deliberation, and consequently caused great dissatisfaction." Or: "The resolution, which caused great dissatisfaction, was adopted without much deliberation."-- Iid. "The man is now much noticed by the people thereabouts."--Webb's Edward's Gram. cor. "The sand prevents them from sticking to one an other."--Id. "Defective verbs are those which are used only in some of the moods and tenses."--Greenleaf's Gram., p. 29; Ingersoll's, 121; Smith's, 90; Merchant's, 64; Nutting's, 68; L. Murray, Guy, Russell, Bacon, Frost, Alger, S. Putnam, Goldsbury, Felton, et al. cor. "Defective verbs are those which want some of the moods or tenses."--Lennie et al. cor. "Defective verbs want some of the parts common to other verbs."--Bullions cor. "A Defective verb is one that wants some of the parts common to verbs."--Id. "To the irregular verbs may be added the defective; which are not only irregular, but also wanting in some parts."--Lowth cor. "To the irregular verbs may be added the defective; which are not only wanting in some parts, but are, when inflected, irregular."--Churchill cor. "When two or more nouns occur together in the possessive case."--Farnum cor. "When several short sentences come together"--Id. "Words are divided into ten classes, called Parts of Speech."--L. Ainsworth cor. "A passive verb has its agent or doer always in the objective case, governed by a preposition."--Id. "I am surprised at your inattention."--Id. "SINGULAR: Thou lovest, not You love. You has always a plural verb."--Bullions cor. "How do you know that love is of the first person? Ans. Because we, the pronoun, is of the first person."--Id. and Lennie cor. "The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea."--Gray's Elegy, l. 2: Bullions cor. "Iambic verses have their second, fourth, and other even syllables accented."--Bullions cor. "Contractions that are not allowable in prose, are often made in poetry."--Id. "Yet to their general's voice they soon obey'd"-- Milton. "It never presents to his mind more than one new subject at the same time."--Felton cor. "An abstract noun is the name of some particular quality considered apart from its substance."--Brown's Inst. of E. Gram., p. 32. "A noun is of the first person when it denotes the speaker."--Felton cor. "Which of the two brothers is a graduate?"-- Hallock cor. "I am a linen-draper bold, As all the world doth know."--Cowper. "Oh the pain, the bliss of dying!"--Pope. "This do; take to you censers, thou, Korah, and all thy company."--Bible cor. "There are three participles; the imperfect, the perfect, and the preperfect: as, reading, read, having read. Transitive verbs have an active and passive participle: that is, their form for the perfect is sometimes active, and sometimes passive; as, read, or loved."--S. S. Greene cor.

  "O Heav'n, in my connubial hour decree
   My spouse this man, or such a man as he."--Pope cor.


LESSON IV.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"The past tenses (of Hiley's subjunctive mood) represent conditional past facts or events, of which the speaker is uncertain."--Hiley cor. "Care also should be taken that they be not introduced too abundantly."--Id. "Till they have become familiar to the mind." Or: "Till they become familiar to the mind."--Id. "When once a particular arrangement and phraseology have become familiar to the mind."--Id. "I have furnished the student with the plainest and most practical directions that I could devise."--Id. "When you are conversant with the Rules of Grammar, you will be qualified to commence the study of Style."--Id. "C before e, i, or y, always has a soft sound, like s."--L. Murray cor. "G before e, i, or y, is generally soft; as in genius, ginger, Egypt."--Id. "C before e, i, or y, always sounds soft, like s."--Hiley cor. "G is generally soft before e, i, or y; as in genius, ginger, Egypt."--Id. "A perfect alphabet must always contain just as many letters as there are elementary sounds in the language: the English alphabet, having fewer letters than sounds, and sometimes more than one letter for the same sound, is both defective and redundant."--Id. "A common noun is a name, given to a whole class or species, and is applicable to every individual of that class."--Id. "Thus an adjective has usually a noun either expressed or understood."--Id. "Emphasis is extraordinary force used in the enunciation of such words as we wish to make prominent in discourse." Or: "Emphasis is a peculiar stress of voice, used in the utterance of words specially significant."--Dr. H. Blair cor.; also L. Murray. "So simple a question as. 'Do you ride to town to-day?' is capable of as many as four different acceptations, the sense varying as the emphasis is differently placed."--Iid. "Thus, bravely, for 'in a brave manner.' is derived from brave-like."--Hiley cor. "In this manner, several different parts of speech are often formed from one root by means of different affixes."--Id. "Words derived from the same root, are always more or less allied in signification."--Id. "When a noun of multitude conveys the idea of unity, the verb and pronoun should be singular; but when it conveys the idea of plurality, the verb and pronoun must be plural."--Id. "They have spent their whole time to make the sacred chronology agree with the profane."--Id. "I have studied my lesson, but you have not looked at yours."--Id. "When words are connected in pairs, there is usually a comma after each pair."-- Hiley, Bullions, and Lennie, cor. "When words are connected in pairs, the pairs should be marked by the comma."--Farnum cor. "His book entitled, 'Studies of Nature,' is deservedly a popular work."--Biog. Dict. cor.

  "Here rests his head upon the lap of earth,
   A youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown."--GRAY.

"'Youth,' here, is in the nominative case, (the verb rests being, in this instance, transitive,) and is the subject of the sentence. The meaning is, 'A youth here rests his head,' &c."--Hart cor. "The pronoun I, as well as the interjection O, should be written with a capital." Or: "The pronoun I, and the interjection O, should be written with capitals"--Weld cor. "The pronoun I should always be written with a capital."--Id. "He went from London to York."--Id. "An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb, to modify its meaning."--Id. (See Lesson 1st under the General Rule.) "SINGULAR signifies, 'expressing only one;' denoting but one person or thing. PLURAL, (Latin pluralis, from plus, more,) signifies, expressing more than one.'"--Weld cor. "When the present ends in e, d only is added to form the imperfect tense and the perfect participle of regular verbs."--Id. "Synæresis is the contraction of two syllables into one; as, seest for seëst, drowned for drown-ed."--Id. (See Brown's Inst. p. 230.) "Words ending in ee are often inflected by mere consonants, and without receiving an additional syllable beginning with e: as, see, seest, sees; agree, agreed, agrees."--Weld cor. "In monosyllables, final f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, is doubled; as in staff, mill, grass."--Id. "Before ing, words ending in ie drop the e, and change the i into y; as, die, dying."--Id." One number may be used for the other--or, rather, the plural may be used for the singular; as, we for I, you for thou."--S. S. Greene cor. "STR~OB'ILE, n. A pericarp made up of scales that lie one over an other."--Worcester cor.

  "Yet ever, from the clearest source, hath run
   Some gross alloy, some tincture of the man."--Lowth cor.


LESSON V.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"The possessive case is usually followed by a noun, expressed or understood, which is the name of the thing possessed."--Felton cor. "Hadmer of Aggstein was as pious, devout, and praying a Christian, as was Nelson, Washington, or Jefferson; or as is Wellington, Tyler, Clay, or Polk."--H. C. Wright cor. "A word in the possessive case is not an independent noun, and cannot stand by itself."--J. W. Wright cor. "Mary is not handsome, but she is good-natured; and good-nature is better than beauty."--St. Quentin cor. "After the practice of joining all words together had ceased, a note of distinction was placed at the end of every word."--L. Murray et al. cor. "Neither Henry nor Charles dissipates his time."--Hallock cor. "'He had taken from the Christians above thirty small castles.' KNOLLES:"--Brown's Institutes, p. 200; Johnson's Quarto Dict., w. What. "In what character Butler was admitted, is unknown." Or: "In whatever character Butler was admitted, that character is unknown."--Hallock cor. "How are the agent of a passive and the object of an active verb often left?"--Id. "By SUBJECT, is meant the word of whose object something is declared." Or: "By SUBJECT, is meant the word which has something declared of the thing signified."--Chandler cor. "Care should also be taken that a transitive verb be not used in stead of a neuter or intransitive; as, lay for lie, raise for rise, set for sit, &c."--Id. "On them depends the duration of our Constitution and our country."--Calhoun cor. "In the present sentence, neither the sense nor the measure requires WHAT."--Chandler cor. "The Irish thought themselves oppressed by the law that forbid them to draw with their horses' tails."--Brightland cor. "So and willingly are adverbs. So is an adverb of degree, and qualifies willingly. Willingly is an adverb of manner, and qualifies deceives."--Cutler cor. "Epicurus, for experiment's sake, confined himself to a narrower diet than that of the severest prisons."--Id. "Derivative words are such as are formed from other words by prefixes or suffixes; as, injustice, goodness, falsehood."--Id. "The distinction here insisted on is as old as Aristotle, and should not be lost from sight." Or: "and it should still be kept in view."--Hart cor. "The Tenses of the Subjunctive and Potential Moods." Or: "The Tenses of the Subjunctive and the Potential Mood."--Id. "A triphthong is a union of three vowels, uttered by a single impulse of the voice; as, uoy in buoy"--Pardon Davis cor. "A common noun is the name of a species or kind."--Id. "The superlative degree implies a comparison either between two or among more."--Id. "An adverb is a word serving to give an additional idea to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb."--Id. "When several nouns in the possessive case occur in succession, each showing possession of things of the same sort, it is generally necessary to add the sign of the possessive case to each of them: as, 'He sells men's, women's, and children's shoes.'--'Dogs', cats, and tigers feet are digitated.'"--Id. "'A rail-road is being made,' should be, 'A railroad is making;' 'A school-house is being built,' should be, 'A schoolhouse is building.'"--Id. "Auxiliaries are of themselves verbs; yet they resemble, in their character and use, those terminational or other inflections which, in other languages, serve to express the action in the mood, tense, person, and number desired."--Id. "Please to hold my horse while I speak to my friend."--Id. "If I say, 'Give me the book,' I demand some particular book."--Noble Butler cor. "Here are five men."--Id. "After the active verb, the object may be omitted; after the passive, the name of the agent may be omitted."--Id. "The Progressive and Emphatic forms give, in each case, a different shade of meaning to the verb."--Hart cor. "THAT may be called a Redditive Conjunction, when it answers to so or SUCH."--Ward cor. "He attributes to negligence your want of success in that business."--Smart cor. "Do WILL and GO express but one action?" Or: "Does will go express but one action?"--Barrett cor. "Language is the principal vehicle of thought."--G. Brown's Inst., Pref., p. iii. "Much is applied to things weighed or measured; many, to those that are numbered. Elder and eldest are applied to persons only; older and oldest, to either persons or things."--Bullions cor. "If there are any old maids still extant, while misogynists are so rare, the fault must be attributable to themselves."--Kirkham cor. "The second method, used by the Greeks, has never been the practice of any other people of Europe."--Sheridan cor. "Neither consonant nor vowel is to be dwelt upon beyond its common quantity, when it closes a sentence." Or: "Neither consonants nor vowels are to be dwelt upon beyond their common quantity, when they close a sentence." Or, better thus: "Neither a consonant nor a vowel, when it closes a sentence, is to be protracted beyond its usual length."--Id. "Irony is a mode of speech, in which what is said, is the opposite of what is meant."--McElligott's Manual, p. 103. "The person speaking, and the person or persons spoken to, are supposed to be present."--Wells cor.; also Murray. "A Noun is a name, a word used to express the idea of an object."--Wells cor. "A syllable is such a word, or part of a word, as is uttered by one articulation."--Weld cor.

  "Thus wond'rous fair; thyself how wond'rous then!
   Unspeakable, who sitst above these heavens."--Milton, B. v, l. 156.
   "And feel thy sovran vital lamp; but thou
   Revisitst not these eyes, that roll in vain."--Id., iii, 22.
   "Before all temples th' upright heart and pure."--Id., i, 18.
   "In forest wild, in thicket, brake, or den."--Id., vii, 458.
   "The rogue and fool by fits are fair and wise;
   And e'en the best, by fits, what they despise."--Pope cor.


THE KEY.--PART IV.--PROSODY.


CHAPTER I.--PUNCTUATION.

SECTION I.--THE COMMA.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF SIMPLE SENTENCES.

"A short simple sentence should rarely be divided by the comma."--Felton cor. "A regular and virtuous education is an inestimable blessing."--L. Mur. cor. "Such equivocal expressions mark an intention to deceive."--Id. "They are this and that, with their plurals these and those."--Bullions cor. "A nominative and a verb sometimes make a complete sentence; as, He sleeps."--Felton cor. "TENSE expresses the action as connected with certain relations of time; MOOD represents it as further modified by circumstances of contingency, conditionality, &c."--Bullions cor. "The word noun means name."--Ingersoll cor. "The present or active participle I explained then."--Id. "Are some verbs used both transitively and intransitively?"--Cooper cor. "Blank verse is verse without rhyme."--Brown's Institutes, p. 235. "A distributive adjective denotes each one of a number considered separately."--Hallock cor.

  "And may at last my weary age
   Find out the peaceful hermitage."
       --MILTON: Ward's Gr., 158; Hiley's, 124.


UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING SIMPLE SENTENCES.

"A noun without an article to limit it, is taken in its widest sense."--Lennie, p. 6. "To maintain a steady course amid all the adversities of life, marks a great mind."--Day cor. "To love our Maker supremely and our neighbour as ourselves, comprehends the whole moral law."--Id. "To be afraid to do wrong, is true courage."--Id. "A great fortune in the hands of a fool, is a great misfortune."--Bullions cor. "That he should make such a remark, is indeed strange."--Farnum cor. "To walk in the fields and groves, is delightful."--Id. "That he committed the fault, is most certain."--Id. "Names common to all things of the same sort or class, are called Common nouns; as, man, woman, day."--Bullions cor. "That it is our duty to be pious, admits not of any doubt."--Id. "To endure misfortune with resignation, is the characteristic of a great mind."--Id. "The assisting of a friend in such circumstances, was certainly a duty."--Id. "That a life of virtue is the safest, is certain."--Hallock cor. "A collective noun denoting the idea of unity, should be represented by a pronoun of the singular number."--Id.


UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS.

"When the sun had arisen, the enemy retreated."--Day cor. "If he become rich, he may be less industrious."--Bullions cor. "The more I study grammar, the better I like it."--Id. "There is much truth in the old adage, that fire is a better servant than master."--Id. "The verb do, when used as an auxiliary, gives force or emphasis to the expression."--P. E. Day cor. "Whatsoever is incumbent upon a man to do, it is surely expedient to do well."--Adams cor. "The soul, which our philosophy divides into various capacities, is still one essence."--Channing cor. "Put the following words in the plural, and give the rule for forming it."--Bullions cor. "We will do it, if you wish."--Id. "He who does well, will be rewarded."--Id. "That which is always true, is expressed in the present tense."--Id. "An observation which is always true, must be expressed in the present tense."--Id. "That part of orthography which treats of combining letters to form syllables and words, is called SPELLING."--Day cor. "A noun can never be of the first person, except it is in apposition with a pronoun of that person."--Id. "When two or more singular nouns or pronouns refer to the same object, they require a singular verb and pronoun."--Id. "James has gone, but he will return in a few days."--Id. "A pronoun should have the same person, number, and gender, as the noun for which it stands."--Id. "Though he is out of danger, he is still afraid."--Bullions cor. "She is his inferior in sense, but his equal in prudence."--Murray's Exercises, p. 6. "The man who has no sense of religion, is little to be trusted."--Bullions cor. "He who does the most good, has the most pleasure."--Id. "They were not in the most prosperous circumstances, when we last saw them."--Id. "If the day continue pleasant, I shall return."--Felton cor. "The days that are past, are gone forever."--Id. "As many as are friendly to the cause, will sustain it."--Id. "Such as desire aid, will receive it."--Id. "Who gave you that book, which you prize so much?"--Bullions cor. "He who made it, now preserves and governs it."--Id.

  "Shall he alone, whom rational we call,
   Be pleas'd with nothing, if not blest with all?"--Pope.


UNDER THE EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING SIMPLE MEMBERS.

"Newcastle is the town in which Akenside was born."--Bucke cor. "The remorse which issues in reformation, is true repentance."--Campbell cor. "Men who are intemperate, are destructive members of community."-- Alexander cor. "An active-transitive verb expresses an action which extends to an object."--Felton cor. "They to whom much is given, will have much, to answer for."--L. Murray cor. "The prospect which we have, is charming."--Cooper cor. "He is the person who informed me of the matter."--Id. "These are the trees that produce no fruit."--Id. "This is the book which treats of the subject."--Id. "The proposal was such as pleased me."--Id. "Those that sow in tears, shall reap in joy."--Id. "The pen with which I write, makes too large a mark."--Ingersoll cor. "Modesty makes large amends for the pain it gives the persons who labour under it, by the prejudice it affords every worthy person, in their favour."--Id. "Irony is a figure whereby we plainly intend something very different from what our words express."--Bucke cor. "Catachresis is a figure whereby an improper word is used in stead of a proper one."--Id. "The man whom you met at the party, is a Frenchman."--Frost cor.


UNDER RULE III.--OF MORE THAN TWO WORDS.

"John, James, and Thomas, are here: that is, John, and James, and Thomas, are here."--Cooper cor. "Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 116. "To Nouns belong Person, Gender, Number, and Case."--Id., ib., p. 9. "Wheat, corn, rye, and oats, are extensively cultivated."--Bullions cor. "In many, the definitions, rules, and leading facts, are prolix, inaccurate, and confused."--Finch cor. "Most people consider it mysterious, difficult, and useless."--Id. "His father, and mother, and uncle, reside at Rome."--Farnum cor. "The relative pronouns are who, which, and that."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 23. "That is sometimes a demonstrative, sometimes a relative, and sometimes a conjunction."--Bullions cor. "Our reputation, virtue, and happiness, greatly depend on the choice of our companions."--Day cor. "The spirit of true religion is social, kind, and cheerful."--Felton cor. "Do, be, have, and will, are sometimes principal verbs."--Id. "John, and Thomas, and Peter, reside at Oxford."--Webster cor. "The most innocent pleasures are the most rational, the most delightful, and the most durable."--Id. "Love, joy, peace, and blessedness, are reserved for the good."--Id. "The husband, wife, and children, suffered extremely."--L. Murray cor. "The husband, wife, and children, suffer extremely."--Sanborn cor. "He, you, and I, have our parts assigned us."--Id.

  "He moaned, lamented, tugged, and tried,
   Repented, promised, wept, and sighed."--Cowper.


UNDER RULE IV.--OF ONLY TWO WORDS.

"Disappointments derange and overcome vulgar minds."--L. Murray cor. "The hive of a city or kingdom, is in the best condition, when there is the least noise or buzz in it."--Id. "When a direct address is made, the noun or pronoun is in the nominative case, independent."--Ingersoll cor. "The verbs love and teach, make loved and taught, in the imperfect and participle."--Id. "Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him."--Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 152. "Thou or I am in fault."--Id., p. 152. "A verb is a word that expresses action or being."--P. E. Day cor. "The Objective Case denotes the object of a verb or a preposition."--Id. "Verbs of the second conjugation may be either transitive or intransitive."--Id. "Verbs of the fourth conjugation may be either transitive or intransitive."--Id. "If a verb does not form its past indicative by adding d or ed to the indicative present, it is said to be irregular."--Id. "The young lady is studying rhetoric and logic."--Cooper cor. "He writes and speaks the language very correctly."--Id. "Man's happiness or misery is, in a great measure, put into his own hands."--Mur. cor. "This accident or characteristic of nouns, is called their Gender."--Bullions cor.

  "Grant that the powerful still the weak control;
   Be man the wit and tyrant of the whole."--Pope cor.


UNDER EXCEPTION I.--TWO WORDS WITH ADJUNCTS.

"Franklin is justly considered the ornament of the New World, and the pride of modern philosophy."--Day cor. "Levity, and attachment to worldly pleasures, destroy the sense of gratitude to Him."--L. Mur. cor. "In the following Exercise, point out the adjectives, and the substantives which they qualify."--Bullions cor. "When a noun or pronoun is used to explain, or give emphasis to, a preceding noun or pronoun."--Day cor. "Superior talents, and brilliancy of intellect, do not always constitute a great man."--Id. "A word that makes sense after an article, or after the phrase speak of, is a noun."--Bullions cor. "All feet used in poetry, are reducible to eight kinds; four of two syllables, and four of three."--Hiley cor. "He would not do it himself, not let me do it."--Lennie's Gram., p. 64. "The old writers give examples of the subjunctive mood, and give other moods to explain what is meant by the words in the subjunctive."--O. B. Peirce cor.


UNDER EXCEPTION II.--TWO TERMS CONTRASTED.

"We often commend, as well as censure, imprudently."--L. Mur. cor. "It is as truly a violation of the right of property, to take a little, as to take much; to purloin a book or a penknife, as to steal money; to steal fruit, as to steal a horse; to defraud the revenue, as to rob my neighbour; to overcharge the public, as to overcharge my brother; to cheat the post-office, as to cheat my friend."--Wayland cor. "The classification of verbs has been, and still is, a vexed question."--Bullions cor. "Names applied only to individuals of a sort or class, and not common to all, are called Proper nouns."--Id. "A hero would desire to be loved, as well as to be reverenced."--Day cor. "Death, or some worse misfortune, now divides them." Better: "Death, or some other misfortune, soon divides them."--Murray's Gram., p. 151. "Alexander replied, 'The world will not permit two suns, nor two sovereigns.'"--Goldsmith cor.

  "From nature's chain, whatever link you strike,
   Tenth, or ten-thousandth, breaks the chain alike."--Pope.


UNDER EXCEPTION III.--OF AN ALTERNATIVE OF WORDS.

"Metre, or Measure, is the number of poetical feet which a verse contains."--Hiley cor. "The Cæsura, or division, is the pause which takes place in a verse, and which divides it into two parts."--Id. "It is six feet, or one fathom, deep."--Bullions cor. "A Brace is used in poetry, at the end of a triplet, or three lines which rhyme together."--Felton cor. "There are four principal kinds of English verse, or poetical feet."--Id. "The period, or full stop, denotes the end of a complete sentence."--Sanborn cor. "The scholar is to receive as many jetons, or counters, as there are words in the sentence."--St. Quentin cor. "That [thing], or the thing, which purifies, fortifies also the heart."--O. B. Peirce cor. "That thing, or the thing, which would induce a laxity in public or private morals, or indifference to guilt and wretchedness, should be regarded as the deadly Sirocco."--Id. "What is, elliptically, what thing, or that thing which."--Sanborn cor. "Demonstrate means show, or point out precisely."--Id. "The man, or that man, who endures to the end, shall be saved."--Hiley cor.


UNDER EXCEPTION IV.--OF A SECOND COMMA.

"That reason, passion, answer one great aim."--POPE: Bullions and Hiley cor. "Reason, virtue, answer one great aim."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 269; Cooper's Murray, 182; Comly, 145; Ingersoll, 282; Sanborn, 268; Kirkham, 212; et al. "Every good gift, and every perfect gift, is from above."--James, i, 17. "Every plant, and every tree, produces others after its kind."--Day cor. "James, and not John, was paid for his services."--Id. "The single dagger, or obelisk [Dagger], is the second."--Id. "It was I, not he, that did it."--St. Quentin cor. "Each aunt, each cousin, hath her speculation."--Byron. "'I shall see you when you come,' is equivalent to, 'I shall see you then, or at that time, when you come.'"--N. Butler cor.

  "Let wealth, let honour, wait the wedded dame;
   August her deed, and sacred be her fame."--Pope cor.


UNDER RULE V.--OF WORDS IN PAIRS.

"My hopes and fears, joys and sorrows, centre in you."--Greenleaf or Sanborn cor. "This mood implies possibility or liberty, will or obligation."--Ingersoll cor. "Substance is divided into body and spirit, into extended and thinking."--Brightland cor. "These consonants, [d and t,] like p and b, f and v, k and hard g, and s and z, are letters of the same organ."--J. Walker cor. "Neither fig nor twist, pigtail nor Cavendish, has passed my lips since; nor ever shall again."--Cultivator cor. "The words whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, and whatever or whatsoever, are called Compound Relative Pronouns."--Day cor. "Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, govern the dative."--Bullions cor.


UNDER RULE VI.--OF WORDS ABSOLUTE.

"Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me."--Psalm xxiii 4. "Depart, ye wicked."--J. W. Wright cor. "He saith unto his mother. Woman, behold thy son!"--John, xix, 26. "Thou, God, seest me."--Bullions cor. "John, write me a letter. Henry, go home."--O. B. Peirce cor., twice. "Now, G. Brown, let us reason together."--Id. "Mr. Smith, you say, on page 11th, 'The objective case denotes the object'"--Id. "Gentlemen, will you always speak as you mean?"--Id. "John, I sold my books to William, for his brothers."--Id. "Walter, and Seth, I will take my things, and leave yours."--Id. "Henry, Julia and Jane left their umbrella, and took yours."--Id. "John, harness the horses, and go to the mine for some coal."--Id. "William, run to the store, for a few pounds of tea."--Id. "The king being dead, the parliament was dissolved."--Chandler cor.

  "Cease, fond Nature, cease thy strife,
   And let me languish into life."
       --Pope, Brit. Poets, vi, 317.
   "Forbear, great man, in arms renown'd, forbear."
       --Hiley's Gram., p. 127.
   "Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind!
   Each prayer accepted, and each wish resign'd."
       --Pope, Brit. Poets, vi, 335.


UNDER RULE VII.--OF WORDS IN APPOSITION.

"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice," &c.--Constit. of U. S. "The Lord, the covenant God of his people, requires it."--A. S. Mag. cor. "He, as a patriot, deserves praise."--Hallock cor. "Thomson, the watchmaker and jeweller from London, was of the party."--Bullions cor. "Every body knows that the person here spoken of by the name of 'the Conqueror,' is William, duke of Normandy."--L. Mur. cor. "The words myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, and their plurals, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves, are called Compound Personal Pronouns."--Day cor.

  "For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
     This pleasing, anxious being e'er resign'd,
   Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day
      Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind?"--GRAY: Mur. Seq.


UNDER THE EXCEPTIONS CONCERNING APPOSITION.

"Smith & Williams's store; Nicholas the emperor's army."--Day cor. "He was named William the Conqueror."--Id. "John the Baptist was beheaded."--Id. "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil."--2 Tim., iv, 14. "A nominative in immediate apposition: as, 'The boy Henry speaks.'"--Smart cor. "A noun objective can be in apposition with some other; as, 'I teach the boy Henry.'"--Id.


UNDER RULE VIII.--OF ADJECTIVES.

"But he found me, not singing at my work, ruddy with health, vivid with cheerfulness; but pale," &c.--DR. JOHNSON: Murray's Sequel, p. 4. "I looked up, and beheld an inclosure, beautiful as the gardens of paradise, but of a small extent."--HAWKESWORTH: ib., p. 20. "A is an article, indefinite, and belongs to 'book.'"--Bullions cor. "The first expresses the rapid movement of a troop of horse over the plain, eager for the combat."--Id. "He [, the Indian chieftain, King Philip,] was a patriot, attached to his native soil; a prince, true to his subjects, and indignant of their wrongs; a soldier, daring in battle, firm in adversity, patient of fatigue, of hunger, of every variety of bodily suffering, and ready to perish in the cause he had espoused."--W. Irving.

  "For thee, who, mindful of th' unhonour'd dead,
   Dost in these lines their artless tale relate."
       --GRAY: Mur. Seq., p. 258.
   "Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest;
   Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood."
       --GRAY: Enf. Sp., p. 245.
   "Idle after dinner [,] in his chair,
   Sat a farmer, ruddy, fat, and fair."
       --Murray's Gram., p. 257.


UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING ADJECTIVES.

"When an attribute becomes a title, or is emphatically applied to a name, it follows it: as, Charles the Great; Henry the First; Lewis the Gross."--Webster cor. "Feed me with food convenient for me."--Prov., xxx, 8. "The words and phrases necessary to exemplify every principle progressively laid down, will be found strictly and exclusively adapted to the illustration of the principles to which they are referred."--Ingersoll cor. "The Infinitive Mood is that form of the verb which expresses being or action unlimited by person or number."--Day cor. "A man diligent in his business, prospers."--Frost cor.

  "Oh wretched state! oh bosom black as death!"
       --SHAK.: Enfield, p. 368.


UNDER RULE IX.--OF FINITE VERBS.

"The Singular denotes one; the Plural, more than one."--Bullions and Lennie cor. "The Comma represents the shortest pause; the Semicolon, a pause longer than the comma; the Colon, longer than the semicolon; and the Period, longer than the colon."--Hiley cor. "The Comma represents the shortest pause; the Semicolon, a pause double that of the Comma; the Colon, double that of the semicolon; and the Period, double that of the colon."--L. Murray's Gram., p. 266. "WHO is applied only to persons; WHICH, to animals and things; WHAT, to things only; and THAT, to persons, animals, and things."--Day cor. "A or an is used before the singular number only; the, before either singular or plural."--Bullions cor. "Homer was the greater genius; Virgil, the better artist."--Day cor.; also Pope. "Words are formed of syllables; syllables, of letters."--St. Quentin cor. "The conjugation of an active verb is styled the ACTIVE VOICE; and that of a passive verb, the PASSIVE VOICE."--Frost cor.; also Smith: L. Murray's Gram., p. 77. "The possessive is sometimes called the genitive case; and the objective, the accusative."--L. Murray cor. "Benevolence is allied to few vices; selfishness, to fewer virtues."--Kames cor. "Orthography treats of Letters; Etymology, of words; Syntax, of Sentences; and Prosody, of Versification."--Hart cor.

  "Earth praises conquerors for shedding blood;
   Heaven, those that love their foes, and do them good."--Waller.


UNDER RULE X.--OF INFINITIVES.

"His business is, to observe the agreement or disagreement of words."--Bullions cor. "It is a mark of distinction, to be made a member of this society."--Farnum cor. "To distinguish the conjugations, let the pupil observe the following rules."--Day cor. "He was now sent for, to preach before the Parliament."--E. Williams cor. "It is incumbent on the young, to love and honour their parents."--Bullions cor. "It is the business of every man, to prepare for death."--Id. "It argued the sincerest candor, to make such an acknowledgement."--Id. "The proper way is, to complete the construction of the first member, and leave that of the second elliptical."--Id. "ENEMY is a name. It is a term of distinction, given to a certain person, to show the character in which he is represented."--Peirce cor. "The object of this is, to preserve the soft sounds of c and g."--Hart cor. "The design of grammar is, to facilitate the reading, writing, and speaking of a language."--Barrett cor. "Four kinds of type are used in the following pages, to indicate the portions that are considered more or less elementary."--Hart cor.


UNDER RULE XI.--OF PARTICIPLES.

"The chancellor, being attached to the king, secured his crown."--Murray's Grammar, p. 66. "The officer, having received his orders, proceeded to execute them."--Day cor. "Thus used, it is in the present tense."--Bullions, E. Gr., 2d Ed., p. 35. "The imperfect tense has three distinct forms, corresponding to those of the present tense."--Bullions cor. "Every possessive case is governed by some noun, denoting the thing possessed."--Id. "The word that, used as a conjunction, is [generally] preceded by a comma."--Hiley's Gram., p. 114. "His narrative, being composed upon so good authority, deserves credit."--Cooper cor. "The hen, being in her nest, was killed and eaten there by the eagle."--Murray cor. "Pronouns, being used in stead of nouns, are subject to the same modifications."--Sanborn cor. "When placed at the beginning of words, they are consonants."--Hallock cor. "Man, starting from his couch, shall sleep no more."--Young. "His and her, followed by a noun, are possessive pronouns; not followed by a noun, they are personal pronouns."--Bullions cor.

  "He, with viny crown advancing,
   First to the lively pipe his hand address'd."--Collins.


UNDER THE EXCEPTION CONCERNING PARTICIPLES.

"But when they convey the idea of many acting individually, or separately, they are of the plural number."--Day cor. "Two or more singular antecedents connected by and, [when they happen to introduce more than one verb and more than one pronoun,] require verbs and pronouns of the plural number."--Id. "Words ending in y preceded by a consonant change y into i, when a termination is added."--N. Butler cor. "A noun used without an article to limit it, is generally taken in its widest sense."--Ingersoll cor. "Two nouns meaning the same person or thing, frequently come together."--Bucke cor. "Each one must give an account to God for the use, or abuse, of the talents committed to him."--Cooper cor. "Two vowels united in one sound, form a diphthong."--Frost cor. "Three vowels united in one sound, form a triphthong."--Id. "Any word joined to an adverb, is a secondary adverb."--Barrett cor. "The person spoken to, is put in the Second person; the person spoken of, in the Third person."--Cutler cor. "A man devoted to his business, prospers."--Frost cor.


UNDER RULE XII.--OF ADVERBS.

"So, in indirect questions; as, 'Tell me when he will come.'"--Butler cor. "Now, when the verb tells what one person or thing does to an other, it is transitive."--Bullions cor. "Agreeably to your request, I send this letter."--Id. "There seems, therefore, to be no good reason for giving them a different classification."--Id. "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant-man seeking good pearls."--Scott's Bible, Smith's, and Bruce's. "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net that was cast into the sea."--Same. "Cease, however, is used as a transitive verb by our best writers."--Webster cor. "Time admits of three natural divisions; namely, Present, Past, and Future."--Day cor. "There are three kinds of comparison; namely, Regular, Irregular, and Adverbial"--Id. "There are five personal pronouns; namely, I, thou, he, she, and it."--Id. "Nouns have three cases: viz., the Nominative, the Possessive, and the Objective."--Bullions cor. "Hence, in studying Grammar, we have to study words."--Frazee cor. "Participles, like verbs, relate to nouns and pronouns."--Miller cor. "The time of the participle, like that of the infinitive, is estimated from the time of the leading verb."--Bullions cor.

  "The dumb shall sing, the lame his crutch forego,
   And leap exulting, like the bounding roe."--Pope.


UNDER RULE XIII.--OF CONJUNCTIONS.

"But he said, Nay; lest, while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them."--Scott's Bible et al. "Their intentions were good: but, wanting prudence, they missed the mark at which they aimed."--L. Mur. cor. "The verb be often separates the name from its attribute; as, 'War is expensive.'"--Webster cor. "Either and or denote an alternative; as, 'I will take either road at your pleasure.'"--Id. "Either is also a substitute for a name; as, 'Either of the roads is good.'"--Id. "But, alas! I fear the consequence."--Day cor. "Or, if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?"--Luke, xi, 11. "Or, if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?"--ALGER'S BIBLE: Luke, xi, 12. "The infinitive sometimes performs the office of a nominative case; as, 'To enjoy is to obey.'--POPE."--Cutler cor. "The plural is commonly formed by adding s to the singular; as, book, books."--Bullions, P. Lessons, p. 16. "As, 'I were to blame, if I did it.'"--Smart cor.

  "Or, if it be thy will and pleasure,
   Direct my plough to find a treasure."


UNDER RULE XIV.--OF PREPOSITIONS.

"Pronouns agree with the nouns for which they stand, in gender, number, and person."--Butler and Bullions cor. "In the first two examples, the antecedent is person, or something equivalent; in the last [one], it is thing."--N. Butler cor. "In what character he was admitted, is unknown."--Id. "To what place he was going, is not known."--Id. "In the preceding examples, John, Cæsar, and James, are the subjects."--Id. "Yes is generally used to denote assent, in answer to a question."--Id. "That, in its origin, is the passive participle of the Anglo-Saxon verb thean, [thegan, thicgan, thicgean, or thigan,] to take."--Id. "But, in all these sentences, as and so are adverbs."--Id. "After an interjection or an exclamatory sentence, is usually placed the mark of exclamation."--D. Blair cor. "Intransitive verbs, from their nature, can have no distinction of voice."--Bullions cor. "To the inflection of verbs, belong Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons."--Id. "As and so, in the antecedent member of a comparison, are properly Adverbs." Better: "As OR so, in the antecedent member of a comparison, is properly an adverb."--Id. "In the following Exercise, point out the words in apposition."--Id. "In the following Exercise, point out the noun or pronoun denoting the possessor."--Id. "Its is not found in the Bible, except by misprint."--Brown's Institutes, p. 49. "No one's interest is concerned, except mine."--Hallock cor. "In most of the modern languages, there are four concords."--St. Quentin cor. "In illustration of these remarks, let us suppose a case."--Hart cor. "On the right management of the emphasis, depends the life of pronunciation."--J. S. Hart and L. Murray cor. See Blair's Rhet., p. 330.


UNDER RULE XV.--OF INTERJECTIONS.

"Behold, he is in the desert."--Friend's Bible. "And Lot said unto them, Oh, not so, my Lord."--Alger's Bible. "Oh, let me escape thither, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live."--Friend's Bible, and Alger's. "Behold, I come quickly."--Rev., xxii, 7. "Lo, I am with you always."--Day cor. "And, lo, I am with you alway."--Alger's Bible: Day cor.; also Scott and Bruce. "Ha, ha, ha; how laughable that is!"--Bullions cor. "Interjections of laughter; ha, ha, Ha."--Wright cor.


UNDER RULE XVI.--OF WORDS REPEATED.

"Lend, lend your wings!" &c.--Pope. "To bed, to bed, to bed. There is a knocking at the gate. Come, come, come. What is done, cannot be undone. To bed, to bed, to bed."--SHAKSPEARE: Burghs Speaker, p. 130. "I will roar, that the duke shall cry, Encore, encore, let him roar, let him roar, once more, once more."--Id., ib., p. 136.

  "Vital spark of heavenly flame!
   Quit, oh quit this mortal frame!"--Pope.
   "O the pleasing, pleasing anguish,
   When we love, and when we languish."--Addison.
   "Praise to God, immortal praise,
   For the love that crowns our days!"--Barbauld.


UNDER RULE XVII.--OF DEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

"Thus, of an infant, we say, 'It is a lovely creature.'"--Bullions cor. "No being can state a falsehood in saying, 'I am;' for no one can utter this, if it is not true."--Cardell cor. "I know they will cry out against this, and say, 'Should he pay,' means, 'If he should pay.'"--O. B. Peirce cor. "For instance, when we say, The house is building,' the advocates of the new theory ask,--'building what?' We might ask in turn, When you say, 'The field ploughs well,'--ploughs what? 'Wheat sells well,'--sells what? If usage allows us to say, 'Wheat sells at a dollar,' in a sense that is not active; why may it not also allow us to say, 'Wheat is selling at a dollar' in a sense that is not active?"--Hart cor. "Man is accountable,' equals, 'Mankind are accountable.'"--Barrett cor. "Thus, when we say, 'He may be reading,' may is the real verb; the other parts are verbs by name only."--Smart cor. "Thus we say, an apple, an hour, that two vowel sounds may not come together."--Id. "It would be as improper to say, an unit, as to say, an youth; to say, an one, as to say, an wonder."--Id. "When we say, 'He died for the truth,' for is a preposition."--Id. "We do not say, 'I might go yesterday;' but, 'I might have gone yesterday.'"--Id. "By student, we understand, one who has by matriculation acquired the rights of academical citizenship; but, by bursché, we understand, one who has already spent a certain time at the university."--Howitt cor.


SECTION II.--THE SEMICOLON.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF COMPLEX MEMBERS.

"The buds spread into leaves, and the blossoms swell to fruit; but they know not how they grow, nor who causes them to spring up from the bosom of the earth."--Day cor. "But he used his eloquence chiefly against Philip, king of Macedon; and, in several orations, he stirred up the Athenians to make war against him."--Bullions cor. "For the sake of euphony, the n is dropped before a consonant; and, because most words begin with a consonant, this of course is its more common form."--Id. "But if I say, 'Will a man be able to carry this burden?' it is manifest the idea is entirely changed; the reference is not to number, but to the species; and the answer might be, 'No; but a horse will.'"--Id. "In direct discourse, a noun used by the speaker or writer to designate himself [in the special relation of speaker or writer], is said to be of the first person; used to designate the person addressed, it is said to be of the second person; and, when used to designate a person or thing [merely] spoken of, it is said to be of the third person."--Id. "Vice stings us, even in our pleasures; but virtue consoles us, even in our pains."--Day cor. "Vice is infamous, though in a prince; and virtue, honourable, though in a peasant."--Id. "Every word that is the name of a person or thing, is a noun; because, 'A noun is the name of any person, place, or thing.'"--Bullions cor.

  "This is the sword with which he did the deed;
   And that, the shield by which he was defended."--Bucke cor.

UNDER RULE II.--OF SIMPLE MEMBERS. "A deathlike paleness was diffused over his countenance; a chilling terror convulsed his frame; his voice burst out at intervals into broken accents."--Jerningham cor. "The Lacedemonians never traded; they knew no luxury; they lived in houses built of rough materials; they ate at public tables; fed on black broth; and despised every thing effeminate or luxurious."--Whelpley cor. "Government is the agent; society is the principal."--Wayland cor. "The essentials of speech were anciently supposed to be sufficiently designated by the Noun and the Verb; to which was subsequently added the Conjunction."--Bullions cor. "The first faint gleamings of thought in its mind, are but reflections from the parents' own intellect; the first manifestations of temperament, are from the contagious parental fountain; the first aspirations of soul, are but the warmings and promptings of the parental spirit."--Jocelyn cor. "Older and oldest refer to maturity of age; elder and eldest, to priority of right by birth. Farther and farthest denote place or distance; further and furthest, quantity or addition."--Bullions cor. "Let the divisions be natural; such as obviously suggest themselves to the mind; such as may aid your main design; and such as may be easily remembered."--Goldsbury cor.

  "Gently make haste, of labour not afraid;
   A hundred times consider what you've said."--Dryden cor.


UNDER RULE III.--OF APPOSITION, &C.

(1.) "Adjectives are divided [, in Frost's Practical Grammar,] into two classes; adjectives denoting quality, and adjectives denoting number."--Frost cor. (2.) "There are [, according to some authors,] two classes of adjectives; qualifying adjectives, and limiting adjectives."--N. Butler cor. (3-5.) "There are three genders; the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter."--Frost et al. cor.; also L. Mur. et al.; also Hendrick: Inst., p. 35. (6.) "The Singular denotes one; the Plural, more than one."--Hart cor. (7.) "There are three cases; viz., the Nominative, the Possessive, and the Objective."--Hendrick cor. (8.) "Nouns have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Kirkham cor. (9.) "In English, nouns have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective."--Smith cor. (10.) "Grammar is divided into four parts; namely, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, Prosody."--Hazen. (11.) "It is divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, Prosody."--Mur. et al. cor. (12.) "It is divided into four parts; viz., Orthography. Etymology, Syntax, Prosody."--Bucke cor. (13.) "It is divided into four parts; namely, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--Lennie, Bullions, et al. (14.) "It is divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--Hendrick cor. (15.) "Grammar is divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--Chandler cor. (16.) "It is divided into four parts; Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--Cooper and Frost cor. (17.) "English Grammar has been usually divided into four parts; viz., Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody."--Nutting cor. (18.) "Temperance leads to happiness; intemperance, to misery."--Hiley and Hart cor. (19, 20.) "A friend exaggerates a man's virtues; an enemy, his crimes."--Hiley cor.; also Murray. (21.) "Many writers use a plural noun after the second of two numeral adjectives; thus, 'The first and second pages are torn.'"--Bullions cor. (22.) "Of these, [i. e., of Cases,] the Latin has six; the Greek, five; the German, four; the Saxon, six; the French, three; &c."--Id.

  "In ing it ends, when doing is expressed;
   In d, t, n, when suffering's confessed."--Brightland cor.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"In old books, i is often used for j; v, for u; vv, for w; and ii or ij, for y."--Hart cor. "The forming of letters into words and syllables, is also called Spelling."--Id. "Labials are formed chiefly by the lips; dentals, by the teeth; palatals, by the palate; gutturals, by the throat; nasals, by the nose; and linguals, by the tongue."--Id. "The labials are p, b, f, v; the dentals, t, d, s, z; the palatals, g soft and j; the gutturals, k, q, and c and g hard; the nasals, m and n; and the linguals, l and r."--Id. "Thus, 'The man, having finished his letter, will carry it to the post-office.'"--Id. "Thus, in the sentence, 'He had a dagger concealed under his cloak,' concealed is passive, signifying being concealed; but, in the former combination, it goes to make up a form the force of which is active."--Id. "Thus, in Latin, 'He had concealed the dagger,' would be, Pugionem abdiderat;' but, He had the dagger concealed,' would be, 'Pugionem abditum habebat."--Id. "Here, for instance, means, 'in this place;' now, 'at this time;' &c."--Id. "Here when both declares the time of the action, and so is an adverb; and also connects the two verbs, and so resembles a conjunction."--Id. "These words were all, no doubt, originally other parts of speech; viz., verbs, nouns, and adjectives."--Id. "The principal parts of a sentence, are the subject, the attribute, and the object; in other words, the nominative, the verb, and the objective."--Id. "Thus, the adjective is connected with the noun; the adverb, with the verb or adjective; the pronoun, with its antecedent; &c." "Between refers to two; among, to more than two."--Id. "At is used after a verb of rest; to, after a verb of motion."--Id. "Verbs are of three kinds; Active, Passive, and Neuter."--L. Murray. [Active] "Verbs are divided into two classes; Transitive and Intransitive."--Hendrick cor. "The Parts of Speech, in the English language, are nine; viz., the Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction."--Bullions cor. See Lennie. "Of these, the Noun, Pronoun, and Verb, are declined; the rest are indeclinable."--Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram., p. 18. "The first expression is called 'the Active form;' the second, 'the Passive form.'"--Weld cor.

  "O, 'tis a godlike privilege to save;
   And he that scorns it, is himself a slave."--Cowper cor.


SECTION III.--THE COLON.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF ADDITIONAL REMARKS.

"Of is a preposition: it expresses the relation between fear and Lord."--Bullions cor. "Wealth and poverty are both temptations to man: that tends to excite pride; this, discontentment."--Id. et al cor. "Religion raises men above themselves; irreligion sinks them beneath the brutes: this binds them down to a poor pitiable speck of perishable earth; that opens for them a prospect to the skies."--Murray's Key, 8vo, p. 189. "Love not idleness: it destroys many."--Ingersoll cor. "Children, obey your parents: 'Honour thy father and mother,' is the first commandment with promise."--Bullions cor. "Thou art my hiding-place and my shield; I hope in thy word."--Psalm cxix, 114. "The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night. The Lord shall preserve thee from all evil: he shall preserve thy soul."--Psalm cxxi, 6. "Here to Greece is assigned the highest place in the class of objects among which she is numbered--the nations of antiquity: she is one of them."--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 114.

  "From short (as usual) and disturb'd repose,
   I wake: how happy they who wake no more!"--Young, N. T., p. 3.


UNDER RULE II.--OF GREATER PAUSES.

"A taste of a thing, implies actual enjoyment of it; but a tase [sic--KTH] for it, implies only capacity for enjoyment: as, 'When we have had a true taste of the pleasures of virtue, we can have no relish for those of vice.'"--Bullions cor. "The Indicative mood simply declares a thing: as, 'He loves;' 'He is loved:' or it asks a question; as, 'Lovest thou me?'"--Id. and Lennie cor.; also Murray. "The Imperfect (or Past) tense represents an action or event indefinitely as past; as, 'Cæsar came, and saw, and conquered:' or it represents the action definitely as unfinished and continuing at a certain time now entirely past; as, 'My father was coming home when I met him.'"--Bullions cor. "Some nouns have no plural; as, gold, silver, wisdom: others have no singular: as, ashes, shears, tongs: others are alike in both numbers; as, sheep, deer, means, news."--Day cor. "The same verb may be transitive in one sense, and intransitive in an other: thus, in the sentence, 'He believes my story,' believes is transitive; but, in this phrase, 'He believes in God,' it is intransitive."--Butler cor. "Let the divisions be distinct: one part should not include an other, but each should have its proper place, and be of importance in that place; and all the parts, well fitted together and united, should present a perfect whole."--Goldsbury cor. "In the use of the transitive verb, there are always three things implied; the actor, the act, and the object acted upon: in the use of the intransitive, there are only two; the subject, or the thing spoken of, and the state or action attributed to it."--Bullions cor.

  "Why labours reason? instinct were as well;
   Instinct, far better: what can choose, can err."--Young, vii, 622.


UNDER RULE III.--OF INDEPENDENT QUOTATIONS.

"The sentence may run thus: 'He is related to the same person, and is governed by him.'"--Hart cor. "Always remember this ancient proverb: 'Know thyself.'"--Hallock cor. "Consider this sentence: 'The boy runs swiftly.'"--Frazee cor. "The comparative is used thus: 'Greece was more polished than any other nation of antiquity.' The same idea is expressed by the superlative, when the word other is left out: thus, 'Greece was the most polished nation of antiquity.'"--Bullions and Lennie cor. "Burke, in his speech on the Carnatic war, makes the following allusion to the well known fable of Cadmus sowing dragon's teeth:--'Every day you are fatigued and disgusted with this cant: 'The Carnatic is a country that will soon recover, and become instantly as prosperous as ever.' They think they are talking to innocents, who believe that by the sowing of dragon's teeth, men may come up ready grown and ready made.'"--Hiley and Hart cor.

  "For sects he car'd not: 'They are not of us,
   Nor need we, brethren, their concerns discuss.'"--Crabbe cor.
   "Habit, with him, was all the test of truth:
   'It must be right; I've done it from my youth.'
   Questions he answer'd in as brief a way:
   'It must be wrong; it was of yesterday.'"--Id.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"This would seem to say, 'I doubt nothing, save one thing; namely, that he will fulfill his promise:' whereas that is the very thing not doubted."--Bullions cor. "The common use of language requires, that a distinction be made between morals and manners: the former depend upon internal dispositions; the latter, upon outward and visible accomplishments."--Beattie cor. "Though I detest war in each particular fibre of my heart, yet I honour the heroes among our fathers, who fought with bloody hand. Peacemakers in a savage way, they were faithful to their light: the most inspired can be no more; and we, with greater light, do, it may be, far less."--T. Parker cor. "The article the, like a, must have a substantive joined with it; whereas that, like one, may have it understood: thus, speaking of books, I may select one, and say, 'Give me that;' but not, 'Give me the;'--[so I may say,] 'Give me one;' but not, 'Give me a.'"--Bullions cor. "The Present tense has three distinct forms: the simple; as, I read: the emphatic; as, I do read: and the progressive; as, I am reading." Or thus: "The Present tense has three distinct forms;--the simple; as, 'I read;'--the emphatic; as, 'I do read;'--and the progressive; as, 'I am reading.'"--Id. "The tenses in English are usually reckoned six: the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, the First-future, and the Second-future."--Id. "There are three participles; the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect: as, loving, loved, having loved." Or, better: "There are three participles from each verb; namely, the Imperfect, the Perfect, and the Preperfect; as, turning, turned, having turned."--Murray et al. cor. "The participles are three; the Present, the Perfect, and the Compound Perfect: as, loving, loved, having loved." Better: "The participles of each verb are three; the Imperfect, the Perfect, and the Preperfect: as, turning, turned, having turned."--Hart cor. "Will is conjugated regularly, when it is a principal verb: as, present, I will; past, I willed; &c."--Frazee cor. "And both sounds of x are compound: one is that of gz, and the other, that of ks."--Id. "The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful."--L. Mur., p. 28: Cooper cor. "The pronoun stands in stead of the noun: as, 'The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful.'"--L. Murray cor. "A Pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun, to prevent too frequent a repetition of it: as, 'The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful.'"--Id. "A Pronoun is a word used in the room of a noun, or as a substitute for one or more words: as, 'The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful.'"--Cooper cor. "A common noun is the name of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things; as, Animal, tree, insect, fish, fowl."--Id. "Nouns have three persons; the first, the second, and the third."--Id.

  "So saying, her rash hand in evil hour
   Forth reaching to the fruit, she pluck'd, she eat:
   Earth felt the wound; and Nature from her seat,
   Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe,
   That all was lost."--MILTON, P. L., Book ix, l. 780.


SECTION IV.--THE PERIOD.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF DISTINCT SENTENCES.

"The third person is the position of a word by which an object is merely spoken of; as, 'Paul and Silas were imprisoned.'--'The earth thirsts.'--'The sun shines.'"--Frazee cor.

"Two, and three, and four, make nine. If he were here, he would assist his father and mother; for he is a dutiful son. They live together, and are happy, because they enjoy each other's society. They went to Roxbury, and tarried all night, and came back the next day."--Goldsbury cor.

"We often resolve, but seldom perform. She is wiser than her sister. Though he is often advised, yet he does not reform. Reproof either softens or hardens its object. He is as old as his classmates, but not so learned. Neither prosperity, nor adversity, has improved him. Let him that standeth, take heed lest he fall. He can acquire no virtue, unless he make some sacrifices."--Id.

  "Down from his neck, with blazing gems array'd,
   Thy image, lovely Anna! hung portray'd;
   Th' unconscious figure, smiling all serene,
   Suspended in a golden chain was seen."--Falconer.


UNDER RULE II.--OF ALLIED SENTENCES.

"This life is a mere prelude to an other which has no limits. It is a little portion of duration. As death leaves us, so the day of judgement will find us."--Merchant cor.

"He went from Boston to New York.--He went (I say) from Boston; he went to New York. In walking across the floor, he stumbled over a chair."--Goldsbury corrected.

"I saw him on the spot, going along the road, looking towards the house. During the heat of the day, he sat on the ground, under the shade of a tree."--Goldsbury corrected.

"'George came home; I saw him yesterday.' Here the word him can extend only to the individual George."--Barrett corrected.

"Commas are often used now, where parentheses were [adopted] formerly. I cannot, however, esteem this an improvement."--Bucke's Classical Grammar, p. 20.

  "Thou, like a sleeping, faithless sentinel,
   Didst let them pass unnotic'd, unimprov'd.
   And know, for that thou slumberst on the guard,
   Thou shalt be made to answer at the bar
   For every fugitive."--COTTON: Hallock and Enfield cor.


UNDER RULE III.--OF ABBREVIATIONS.

"The term pronoun (Lat. pronomen) strictly means a word used for, or in stead of, a noun."--Bullions corrected.

"The period is also used after abbreviations; as, A. D., P. S., G. W. Johnson."--N. Butler cor.

"On this principle of classification, the later Greek grammarians divided words into eight classes, or parts of speech: viz., the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, and Conjunction."-- Bullions cor.

"'Metre [Melody] is not confined to verse: there is a tune in all good prose; and Shakspeare's was a sweet one.'--Epea Pter., ii, 61. [First American Ed., ii, 50.] Mr. H. Tooke's idea was probably just, agreeing with Aristotle's; but [, if so, it is] not accurately expressed."-- Churchill cor.

"Mr. J. H. Tooke was educated at Eton and at Cambridge, in which latter college he took the degree of A. M. Being intended for the established church of England, he entered into holy orders when young; and obtained the living of Brentford, near London, which he held ten or twelve years."--Tooke's Annotator cor.

  "I, nor your plan, nor book condemn;
   But why your name? and why A. M.?"--Lloyd cor.

MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath," &c.--Isaiah, lviii, 13. "He that hath eeris of hervnge, here he."--WICKLIFFE: Matt., xi, 15. "See General Rules for Spelling, iii, v, and vii."--N. Butler cor. "False witnesses did rise up."--Ps., xxxv, 11.

"An explicative sentence is used for explaining; an interrogative sentence, for inquiring; an imperative sentence, for commanding."-- Barrett cor. "In October, corn is gathered in the field by men, who go from hill to hill with baskets, into which they put the ears.--Susan labours with her needle for a livelihood.--Notwithstanding his poverty, he is a man of integrity."--Golds, cor.

"A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable; a word of two syllables, a dissyllable; a word of three syllables, a trissyllable; a word of four or more syllables, a polysyllable."--Frazee cor.

"If I say, 'If it did not rain, I would take a walk;' I convey the idea that it does rain at the time of speaking. If it rained,' or, Did it rain,' in [reference to] the present time, implies that it does not rain. If it did not rain,' or, Did it not rain,' in [reference to the] present time, implies that it does rain. Thus, in this peculiar application, an affirmative sentence always implies a negation; and a negative sentence, an affirmation."--Id. "If I were loved and, Were I loved;' imply I am not loved: If I were not loved,' and, Were I not loved,' imply I am loved. A negative sentence implies an affirmation, and an affirmative sentence implies a negation, in these forms of the subjunctive."--Id.

"What is Rule III?"--Hart cor. "How is Rule III violated?"--Id. "How do you parse letter in the sentence, 'James writes a letter?' Ans. Letter is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is governed by the verb writes, according to Rule III, which says, 'A transitive verb governs the objective case.'"--Id.

  "Creation sleeps. 'Tis as the gen'ral pulse
   Of life stood still, and nature made a pause;
   An awful pause! prophetic of her end.
   And let her prophecy be soon fulfill'd:
   Fate, drop the curtain; I can lose no more."--Young.


SECTION V.--THE DASH.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF ABRUPT PAUSES.

"And there is something in your very strange story, that resembles--Does Mr. Bevil know your history particularly?"--Burgh's Speaker, p. 149. "Sir,--Mr. Myrtle--Gentlemen--You are friends--I am but a servant--But--"--Ib., p. 118.

"An other man now would have given plump into this foolish story; but I--No, no, your humble servant for that."--GARRICK, Neck or Nothing.

"Do not plunge thyself too far in anger, lest thou hasten thy trial; which if--Lord have mercy on thee for a hen!"--SHAKSPEARE, All's Well.

  "But ere they came,--O, let me say no more!
   Gather the sequel by that went before."--IDEM, Com. of Errors.


UNDER RULE II.--OF EMPHATIC PAUSES.

"M,--Malvolio;--M,--why, that begins my name."--SINGER'S SHAK., Twelfth Night.

"Thus, by the creative influence of the Eternal Spirit, were the heavens and the earth finished in the space of six days--so admirably finished--an unformed chaos changed into a system of perfect order and beauty--that the adorable Architect himself pronounced it very good, and all the sons of God shouted for joy."--Historical Reader, p. 10.

"If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop remained in my country, I never would lay down my arms--never, never, never."--Pitt's Speech.

  "Madam, yourself are not exempt in this,--
   Nor your son Dorset;--Buckingham, nor you."--SHAK.


UNDER RULE III.--OF FAULTY DASHES.

"'You shall go home directly, Le Fevre,' said my uncle Toby, 'to my house; and we'll send for a doctor to see what's the matter; and we'll have an apothecary; and the corporal shall be your nurse: and I'll be your servant, Le Fevre.'"--Sterne cor.

"He continued: 'Inferior artists may be at a stand, because they want materials.'"--Harris cor. "Thus, then, continued he: 'The end, in other arts, is ever distant and removed.'"--Id.

"The nouns must be coupled with and; and when a pronoun is used, it must be plural, as in the example. When the nouns are disjoined, the pronoun must be singular."--Lennie cor.

"Opinion is a common noun, or substantive, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case."--Wright cor.

  "The mountain, thy pall and thy prison, may keep thee;
   I shall see thee no more, but till death I will weep thee."
       --See Felton's Gram., p. 93.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"If to accommodate man and beast, heaven and earth--if this be beyond me, 'tis not possible.--What consequence then follows? Or can there be any other than this?--if I seek an interest of my own, detached from that of others, I seek an interest which is chimerical, and can never have existence."--Harris.

"Again: I must have food and clothing. Without a proper genial warmth, I instantly perish. Am I not related, in this view, to the very earth itself?--to the distant sun, from whose beams I derive vigour?"--Id.

"Nature instantly ebbed again; the film returned to its place; the pulse fluttered--stopped--went on--throbbed--stopped again--moved--stopped.-- Shall I go on?--No."--Sterne cor.

"Write ten nouns of the masculine gender;--ten of the feminine;--ten of the neuter; ten indefinite in gender."--Davis cor.

"The infinitive mood has two tenses; the indicative, six; the potential, four; the subjunctive, two; and the imperative, one."--Frazee cor. "Now notice the following sentences: 'John runs.'--'Boys run.'--'Thou runnest.'"--Id.

"The Pronoun sometimes stands for a name; sometimes for an adjective, a sentence, or a part of a sentence; and, sometimes, for a whole series of propositions."--Peirce cor.

  "The self-applauding bird, the peacock, see;
   Mark what a sumptuous pharisee is he!"--Cowper cor.


SECTION VI.--THE EROTEME.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF QUESTIONS DIRECT.

"When will his ear delight in the sound of arms? When shall I, like Oscar, travel in the light of my steel?"--Ossian, Vol. i, p. 357. "Will Henry call on me, while he shall be journeying south?"--Peirce cor.

"An Interrogative Pronoun is one that is used in asking a question; as, 'Who is he? and what does he want?'"--P. E. Day cor. "Who is generally used when we would inquire about some unknown person or persons; as, 'Who is that man?'"--Id. "Your fathers, where are they? and the prophets, do they live forever?"--Zech., i. 5.

"It is true, that some of our best writers have used than whom; but it is also true that they have used other phrases which we have rejected as ungrammatical: then why not reject this too?--The sentences in the exercises, with than who, are correct as they stand."--Lennie cor.

"When the perfect participle of an active-intransitive verb is annexed to the neuter verb to be, what does the combination form?"--Hallock cor. "Those adverbs which answer to the question where? whither? or whence? are called adverbs of place."--Id. "Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know?"--SCOTT, ALGER, BRUCE, AND OTHERS: Job, xi, 7 and 8.

  "Where, where, for shelter shall the wicked fly,
   When consternation turns the good man pale?"--Young.


UNDER RULE II.--OF QUESTIONS UNITED.

"Who knows what resources are in store, and what the power of God may do for thee?"--STERNE: Enfield's Speaker, p. 307.

"God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?"--SCOTT'S BIBLE, ALGER'S, FRIENDS', BRUCE'S, AND OTHERS: Numb., xxiii, 19. "Hath the Lord said it, and shall he not do it? hath he spoken it, and shall he not make it good?"--Lennie and Bullions cor.

  "Who calls the council, states the certain day,
   Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way?"--Pope's Essay.


UNDER RULE III.--OF QUESTIONS INDIRECT.

"To be, or not to be;--that is the question."--Shak. et al. cor. "If it be asked, why a pause should any more be necessary to emphasis than to an accent,--or why an emphasis alone will not sufficiently distinguish the members of sentences from each other, without pauses, as accent does words,--the answer is obvious: that we are preacquainted with the sound of words, and cannot mistake them when distinctly pronounced, however rapidly; but we are not preacquainted with the meaning of sentences, which must be pointed out to us by the reader or speaker."--Sheridan cor.

  "Cry, 'By your priesthood, tell me what you are.'"--Pope cor.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"Who else can he be?"--Barrett cor. "Where else can he go?"--Id. "In familiar language, here, there, and where, are used for hither, thither, and whither."--N. Butler cor. "Take, for instance, this sentence: 'Indolence undermines the foundation of virtue.'"--Hart cor. "Take, for instance, the sentence before quoted: 'Indolence undermines the foundation of virtue.'"--Id. "Under the same head, are considered such sentences as these: He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.'--Gad, a troop shall overcome him.'"--Id.

"Tenses are certain modifications of the verb, which point out the distinctions of time."--Bullions cor. "Calm was the day, and the scene, delightful."--Id. See Murray's Exercises, p. 5. "The capital letters used by the Romans to denote numbers, were C, I, L, V, X; which are therefore called Numeral Letters. I denotes one; V, five; X, ten; L, fifty; and C, a hundred."--Bullions cor. "'I shall have written;' viz., at or before some future time or event."--Id. "In Latin words, the liquids are l and r only; in Greek words, l, r, m, and n."--Id. "Each legion was divided into ten cohorts; each cohort, into three maniples; and each maniple, into two centuries."--Id. "Of the Roman literature previous to A. U. 514, scarcely a vestige remains."--Id.

  "And that which He delights in, must be happy.
   But when? or where? This world was made for Cæsar."--CATO.
   "Look next on greatness. Say where greatness lies.
   Where, but among the heroes and the wise?"--Pope.


SECTION VII--THE ECPHONEME.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF INTERJECTIONS, &c.

(1.) "O! that he were wise!"--Bullions cor. (2.) "O! that his heart were tender!"--See Murray's Ex. or Key, under Rule xix. (3 and 4.) "Oh! what a sight is here!"--Bullions, E. Gram., p. 71; (§37;) Pract. Les., p. 82; Analyt. and Pract. Gram., p. 111. (5-9.) "O Virtue! how amiable thou art!"--Farnum's Gram., p. 12; Bullions's Analyt. and Pract. Gram., p. 111. (10.) "Oh! that I had been more diligent!"--Hart cor.; and Hiley. (11.) "O! the humiliation to which vice reduces us!"--Farnum and Mur. cor. (12.) "O! that he were more prudent!"--Farnum cor. (13 and 14.) "Ah me!"--Davis cor.

         (15.) "Lately, alas! I knew a gentle boy," &c.--Dial cor.
   (16 and 17.) "Wo is me, Alhama!"--Byron's Poems: Wells cor.


UNDER RULE II.--OF INVOCATIONS.

"Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O maid of Inistore!"--Ossian. "Cease a little while, O wind! stream, be thou silent a while! let my voice be heard around. Let my wanderer hear me! Salgar! it is Colma who calls. Here is the tree, and the rock. Salgar, my love! I am here. Why delayest thou thy coming? Lo! the calm moon comes forth. The flood is bright in the vale."--Id., Vol. i, p. 369.

  "Ah, stay not, stay not! guardless and alone:
   Hector! my lov'd, my dearest, bravest son!"--Pope, II., xxii, 61.


UNDER RULE III.--OF EXCLAMATORY QUESTIONS.

"How much better is wisdom than gold!"--See Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 272. "O Virtue! how amiable art thou!"--See Murray's Grammar, 2d Edition, p. 95. "At that hour, O how vain was all sublunary happiness!"--Brown's Institutes, p. 117; see English Reader, p. 135. "Alas! how few and transitory are the joys which this world affords to man!"--P. E. Day cor. "Oh! how vain and transitory are all things here below!"--Id.

  "And O! what change of state, what change of rank,
   In that assembly everywhere was seen!"--Pollok cor.; also Day.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"O Shame! where is thy blush?"--Shak.[557] "John, give me my hat."--Barrett cor. "What! is Moscow in flames?"--Id. "O! what happiness awaits the virtuous!"--Id.

"Ah, welladay! do what we can for him, said Trim, maintaining his point,--the poor soul will die."--Sterne or Enfield cor.; also Kirkham.

"Will John return to-morrow?"--Barrett cor. "Will not John return to-morrow?"--Id. "John, return to-morrow."--Id. "Soldiers, stand firm."--Id. "If mea, which means my, is an adjective in Latin, why may not my be so called in English? and if my is an adjective, why not Barrett's?"--Id.

"O Absalom, my son!"--See 2 Sam., xix, 4. "O star-eyed Science! whither hast thou fled?"--Peirce cor. "Why do you tolerate your own inconsistency, by calling it the present tense?"--Id. "Thus the declarative mood [i.e., the indicative mood] may be used in asking a question: as, 'What man is frail?'"--Id. "What connection has motive, wish, or supposition, with the the term subjunctive?"--Id. "A grand reason, truly, for calling it a golden key!"--Id. "What suffering the man who can say this, must be enduring!"--Id. "What is Brown's Rule in relation to this matter?"--Id. "Alas! how short is life!"--P. E. Day cor. "Thomas, study your book."--Id. "Who can tell us who they are?"--Sanborn cor. "Lord, have mercy on my son; for he is lunatic, and sorely vexed."--See Matt., xvii, 15. "O ye wild groves! O where is now your bloom?"--Felton cor.

  "O who of man the story will unfold?"--Farnum cor..
   "Methought I heard Horatio say, To-morrow.
   Go to--I will not hear of it--to-morrow!"--COTTON.
   "How his eyes languish! how his thoughts adore
   That painted coat which Joseph never wore!"


SECTION VIII.--THE CURVES.

CORRECTIONS UNDER RULE I.--OF PARENTHESES.

"Another [, better written as a phrase, An other,] is composed of the indefinite article an, (which etymologically means one,) and other; and denotes one other."--Hallock cor.

"Each mood has its peculiar Tense, Tenses, or Times."--Bucke cor.

"In some very ancient languages, (as the Hebrew,) which have been employed chiefly for expressing plain sentiments in the plainest manner, without aiming at any elaborate length or harmony of periods, this pronoun [the relative] occurs not so often."--L. Murray cor.

"Before I shall say those things, O Conscript Fathers! about the public affairs, which are to be spoken at this time; I shall lay before you, in few words, the motives of the journey and the return."--Brightland cor.

  "Of well-chose words some take not care enough,
   And think they should be, like the subject, rough."--Id.
   "Then, having showed his wounds, he'd sit him down."--Bullions cor.


UNDER RULE II.--OF INCLUDED POINTS.

"Then Jael smote the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground: (for he was fast asleep, and weary:) so he died."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Judges, iv, 21.

"Every thing in the Iliad has manners, (as Aristotle expresses it,) that is, every thing is acted or spoken."--Pope cor.

"Those nouns that end in f, or fe. (except some few which I shall mention presently,) form plurals by changing those letters into ves: as, thief, thieves: wife, wives."--Bucke cor.

"As requires as; (expressing equality of degree;) thus, 'Mine is as good as yours.' As [requires] so; (expressing equality or proportion;) thus, As the stars, so shall thy seed be.' So [requires] as; (with a negative expressing inequality;) as, 'He is not so wise as his brother.' So [requires] that; (expressing a consequence:) as, 'I am so weak that I cannot walk.'" [558]--Bullions cor.

  "A captious question, sir, (and yours is one,)
   Deserves an answer similar, or none."--Cowper cor.


MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"Whatever words the verb TO BE serves to unite, referring to the same thing, must be of the same case; (§61;) as, 'Alexander is a student.'"--Bullions cor. "When the objective is a relative or [an] interrogative, it comes before the verb that governs it: (§40, Rule 9:) Murray's 6th rule is unnecessary."--Id. "It is generally improper, except in poetry, to omit the antecedent to a relative; and always, to omit a relative, when of the nominative case."--Id. "In every sentence, there must be a verb and a nominative or subject, expressed or understood."--Id. "Nouns and pronouns, and especially words denoting time, are often governed by prepositions understood; or are used to restrict verbs or adjectives, without a governing word: (§50, Rem. 6 and Rule:) as, 'He gave [to] me a full account of the affair.'"--Id. "When should is used in stead of ought, to express present duty, (§20, 4,) it may be followed by the present; as, 'You should study that you may become learned.'"--Id. "The indicative present is frequently used after the words when, till, before, as soon as, after, to express the relative time of a future action: (§24, I, 4;) as, 'When he comes, he will be welcome.'"--Id. "The relative is parsed, [according to Bullions,] by stating its gender, number, case, and antecedent; (the gender and number being always the same as those of the antecedent;) thus, 'The boy who'--'Who is a relative pronoun, masculine, singular, the nominative; and refers to boy as its antecedent."--Id.

  "'Now, now, I seize, I clasp thy charms;
   And now you burst, ah cruel! from my arms.'--Pope.

"Here is an unnecessary change from the second person singular to the second person plural. The text would have been better, thus:--

   'Now, now, I seize, I clasp your charms;
   And now you burst, ah cruel! from my arms.'"--John Burn cor.
       See Lowth's Gram., p. 35; Churchill's, 293.


SECTION IX.--ALL POINTS.

MIXED EXAMPLES CORRECTED.

"The principal stops are the following: the Comma [,], the Semicolon [;], the Colon [:], the Period, or Full Stop [.], the Note of Interrogation [?], the Note of Exclamation [!], the Parenthesis [()], and the Dash [--]."--Bullions cor. "The modern punctuation in Latin is the same as in English. The chief marks employed are the Comma [,], the Semicolon [;], the Colon [:], the Period [.], the Note of Interrogation [?], the Note of Exclamation (!), the Parenthesis [()], and the Dash [--]."--Id.

"Plato reproving a young man for playing at some childish game, 'You chide me,' says the youth, 'for a trifling fault.' 'Custom,' replied the philosopher, 'is no trifle.' 'And,' adds Montaigne, 'he was in the right; for our vices begin in infancy.'"--Home cor.

"A merchant at sea asked the skipper what death his father died. 'My father,' says the skipper, 'my grandfather, and my great-grandfather, were all drowned.' 'Well,' replies the merchant, 'and are not you afraid of being drowned too?'"--Id.

"The use of inverted commas derives from France, where one Guillemet was the author of them; [and,] as an acknowledgement for the improvement, his countrymen call them after his name, GUILLEMETS."--Hist. cor.

"This, however, is seldom if ever done, unless the word following the possessive begins with s; thus, we do not say, 'the prince' feather;' but, 'the prince's feather.'"--Bullions cor. "And this phrase must mean, the feather of the prince;' but prince's-feather,' written as one word, [and with both apostrophe and hyphen,] is the name of a plant, a species of amaranth."--G. Brown. "Boëthius soon had the satisfaction of obtaining the highest honours his country could bestow."--Ingersoll cor.; also L. Murray.

"When an example, a quotation, or a speech, is introduced, it is separated from the rest of the sentence either by a comma or by a colon; as, 'The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words: God is love.'"--Hiley cor. "Either the colon or the comma may be used, [according to the nature of the case,] when an example, a quotation, or a speech, is introduced; as, 'Always remember this ancient maxim: Know thyself.'--'The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity, in these words: God is love.'"--Bullions cor.

"The first word of a quotation introduced after a colon, or of any sentence quoted in a direct form, must begin with a capital: as, Always remember this ancient maxim: Know thyself.'--'Our great lawgiver says, Take up thy cross daily, and follow me.'"--Bullions and Lennie cor.; also L. Murray; also Weld. See Luke, ix, 23.

"Tell me, in whose house do you live?"--N. Butler cor. "He that acts wisely, deserves praise."--Id. "He who steals my purse, steals trash."--Id. "The antecedent is sometimes omitted; as, 'Who steals my purse, steals trash.'--[Shak.] That is, 'He who,' or, 'The person who.'"--Id. "Thus, 'Whoever steals my purse, steals trash;'--'Whoever does no good, does harm.'"--Id. "Thus, 'Whoever sins, will suffer.' This means, that any one, without exception, who sins, will suffer."--Id.

"Letters form syllables; syllables, words; words, sentences; and sentences, combined and connected, form discourse."--Cooper cor. "A letter which forms a perfect sound when uttered by itself, is called a vowel; as, a, e, i."--Id. "A proper noun is the name of an individual, [or of a particular people or place]; as, John, Boston, Hudson, America."--Id.

"Many men have been capable of doing a wise thing; more, a cunning thing; but very few, a generous thing."--Davis cor. "In the place of an ellipsis of the verb, a comma must be inserted."--Id. "A common noun unlimited by an article, is sometimes understood in its broadest acceptation: thus, Fishes swim,' is understood to mean all fishes; Man is mortal,' all men."--Id.

"Thus, those sounds formed principally by the throat, are called gutturals; those formed principally by the palate, palatals; those formed by the teeth, dentals; those by the lips, labials; and those by the nose, nasals."--Davis cor.

"Some adjectives are compared irregularly: as, Good, letter, best; Bad, worse, worst; Little, less, least."--Felton cor.

"Under the fourth head of grammar, therefore, four topics will be considered; viz., PUNCTUATION, ORTHOEPY [sic--KTH], FIGURES, and VERSIFICATION."--Hart cor.

  "Direct her onward to that peaceful shore,
   Where peril, pain, and death, are felt no more!"--Falconer cor.


GOOD ENGLISH RIGHTLY POINTED.

LESSON I.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"Discoveries of such a character are sometimes made in grammar also; and such, too, are often their origin and their end."--Bullions cor.

"TRAVERSE, [literally to cross,] To deny what the opposite party has alleged. To traverse an indictment, or the like, is to deny it."--Id.

"The Ordinal numerals denote the order, or succession, in which any number of persons or things are mentioned; as, first, second, third, fourth, &c."--Hiley cor.

"Nouns have three persons; the First, the Second, and the Third. The First person is that which denotes the speaker: the Second is that which denotes the person or thing spoken to; the Third is that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of."--Hart cor.

"Nouns have three cases; the Nominative, the Possessive, and the Objective. The relations indicated by the cases of a noun, include three distinct ideas; viz., those of subject, object, and ownership."--Id.

"In speaking of animals that are of inferior size, or whose sex is not known or not regarded, we often treat them as without sex: thus, we say of a cat, It is treacherous;' of an infant, It is beautiful;' of a deer, 'It was killed.'"--Id.

"When THIS and THAT, or THESE and THOSE, refer to a preceding sentence; THIS or THESE represents the latter member or term, and THAT or THOSE, the former."--Churchill cor.; and Lowth.

"The rearing of them became his first care; their fruit, his first food; and the marking of their kinds, his first knowledge."--N. Butler cor.

"After the period used with abbreviations, we should employ other points, if the construction demands them; thus, after 'Esq.,' in the last example, there should be, besides the period, a comma."--Id.

"In the plural, the verb has the same form in all the persons; but still the principle in Rem. 5, under Rule iii, that the first or second person takes precedence, is applicable to verbs, in parsing."--Id.

"Rex and Tyrannus are of very different characters. The one rules his people by laws to which they consent; the other, by his absolute will and power: that government is called freedom; this, tyranny."--L. Murray cor.

"A noun is the name of any person, place, or thing, that can be known or mentioned: as, George, London, America, goodness, charity."--See Brown's Institutes, p. 31.

"Etymology treats of the classification of words, their various modifications, and their derivation"--P. E. Day cor.

"To punctuate correctly, implies a thorough acquaintance with the meaning of words and phrases, as well as with all their corresponding connexions."--W. Day cor.

"All objects that belong to neither the male nor the female kind, are said to be of the neuter gender, except certain things personified."--Weld cor twice.

"The Analysis of the Sounds in the English language, presented in the preceding statements, is sufficiently exact for the purpose in hand. Those who wish to pursue the subject further, can consult Dr. Rush's admirable work, 'The Philosophy of the Human Voice.'"--Fowler cor. "Nobody confounds the name of w or y with the sound of the letter, or with its phonetic import."--Id. This assertion is hardly true. Strange as such a blunder is, it has actually occurred. See, in Orthography, Obs. 5, on the Classes of the Letters, at p. 156.--G. B.]

  "Order is Heav'n's first law; and, this confess'd,
   Some are, and must be, greater than the rest."--Pope.


LESSON II--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"From adjectives of one syllable, and some of two, the comparative is formed by adding r or er to the positive; and the superlative, by adding st or est: as, sweet, sweeter, sweetest; able, abler, ablest."--Bullions cor.

"From monosyllables, or from dissyllables ending with a vowel or the accent, the comparative is formed by adding er or r to the positive; and the superlative, by adding est or st: as, tall, taller, tallest; wise, wiser, wisest; holy, holier, holiest; complete, completer, completest."--Id.

"By this method, the confusion and unnecessary labour occasioned by studying grammars, in these languages, constructed on different principles, are avoided; the study of one is rendered a profitable introduction to the study of an other; and an opportunity is furnished to the inquiring student, of comparing the languages in their grammatical structure, and of seeing at once wherein they agree, and wherein they differ."--Id.

"No larger portion should be assigned for each recitation, than the class can easily master; and, till the previous lessons are well learned, a new portion should not be given out."--Id. "The acquisitions made in every new lesson, should be riveted and secured by repeated revisals."--Id.

"The personal pronouns may be parsed briefly, thus: 'I is a personal pronoun, of the first person, singular number, masculine gender, (feminine, if the speaker is a female,) and nominative case.' 'His is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and possessive case.'"--Id.

"When the male and the female are expressed by distinct terms, as, shepherd, shepherdess, the masculine term has also a general meaning, expressing both male and female; and is always to be used when the office, occupation, or profession, and not the sex, of the individual, is chiefly to be expressed; the feminine term being used only when the discrimination of sex is indispensably necessary. Thus, when it is said, 'The poets of this country are distinguished for correctness of taste,' the term 'poets' clearly includes both male and female writers of poetry."--Id.

"Nouns and pronouns connected by conjunctions, must be in the same case"--Ingersoll cor.

"Verbs connected by and, or, or nor, must generally be in the same mood and tense; and, when the tense has different forms, they must be in the same form."--Id.

"This will habituate him to reflection; exercise his judgement on the meaning of the author; and, without any great effort on his part, impress indelibly on his memory the rules which he is required to give. After the exercises under any rule have been gone through, agreeably to the direction in the note at the bottom of page 88th, they may be read over again in a corrected state, the pupil making an emphasis on the correction made; or they may be presented in writing, at the next recitation."--Bullions cor.

  "Man, but for that, no action could attend;
   And, but for this, were active to no end."--Pope.


LESSON III.--UNDER VARIOUS RULES.

"'Johnson, the bookseller and stationer' indicates that bookseller and stationer are terms belonging to the same person; 'the bookseller and the stationer,' would indicate that they belong to different persons."--Bullions cor.

"Past is [commonly] an adjective; passed, the past tense or perfect participle of the verb: and they ought not (as they frequently are) to be confounded with each other."--Id.

"Not only the nature of the thoughts and sentiments, but the very selection or arrangement of the words, gives English poetry a character which separates it widely from common prose."--Id.

"Men of sound, discriminating, and philosophical minds--men prepared for the work by long study, patient investigation, and extensive acquirements--have laboured for ages to improve and perfect it; and nothing is hazarded in asserting, that, should it be unwisely abandoned, it will be long before an other, equal in beauty, stability, and usefulness, will be produced in its stead."--Id., on the common "system of English Grammar."

"The article the, on the other hand, is used to restrict; and is therefore termed Definite. Its proper office is, to call the attention to a particular individual or class, or to any number of such; and accordingly it is used with nouns of either number, singular or plural."--Id.

"Hence, also, the infinitive mood, a participle with its adjuncts, a member of a sentence, or a whole proposition, forming the subject of discourse, or the object of a verb or preposition, and being the name of an act or circumstance, is, in construction, regarded as a noun; and is usually called, 'a substantive phrase:' as, 'To play, is pleasant.'--'That he is an expert dancer, is no recommendation.'--'Let your motto be, Honesty is the best policy.'"--Id.

"In accordance with his definition, Murray has divided verbs into three classes: Active, Passive, and Neuter;--and included in the first class transitive verbs only; and, in the last, all verbs used intransitively"--Id.

"Moreover, as the name of the speaker or that of the person spoken to is seldom expressed, (the pronoun I being used for the former, and THOU or YOU for the latter,) a noun is very rarely in the first person; not often in the second; and hardly ever in either, unless it is a proper noun, or a common noun denoting an object personified."--Id.

"In using the parsing exercises, it will save much time, (and this saving is all-important,) if the pupil be taught to say all things belonging to the noun, in the fewest words possible; and to say them always in the same order, after the example above."--Id.

"In any phrase or sentence, the adjectives qualifying a noun may generally be found by prefixing the phrase, 'What kind of,' to the noun, in the form of a question; as, 'What kind of horse?' 'What kind of stone?' 'What kind of way?' The word containing the answer to the question, is an adjective."--Id.

"In the following exercise, let the pupil first point out the nouns, and then the adjectives; and tell how he knows them to be such."--Id.

"In the following sentences, point out the improper ellipses; show why they are improper; and correct them."--Id.

  "SINGULAR.                   PLURAL.
   1. I am smitten,      1. We are smitten,
   2. Thou art smitten,  2. You are smitten,
   3. He is smitten;     3. They are smitten."--Wright cor.


CHAPTER II.--UTTERANCE.

The second chapter of Prosody, treating of articulation, pronunciation, elocution and the minor topics that come under Utterance, contains no exercises demanding correction in this Key.


CHAPTER III.--FIGURES.

In the third chapter of Prosody, the several Figures of speech are explained; and, as the illustrations embrace no errors for correction, nothing here corresponds to the chapter, but the title.


CHAPTER IV.--VERSIFICATION.

FALSE PROSODY, OR ERRORS OF METRE, CORRECTED.

LESSON I.--RHYTHM RESTORED.

  "Where thy true treasure? Gold says, 'Not in me.'"
       --Young.
  "Canst thou grow sad, thou say'st, as earth grows bright."
       --Dana.
  "It must be so;--Plato, thou reason'st well"
       --CATO: Enfield, p. 321.
  "Slow rises worth by poverty depressed."
       --Wells's Gram., Late Ed., p. 211.
  "Rapt into future times, the bard begun."
       --POPE.--Ib., p. 165.
  "Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens
   To wash it white as snow? Whereto serves mercy
   But to confront the visage of offence?"
       --Shak., Hamlet.
  "Look! in this place ran Cassius' dagger through."
       --Id., J. Cæsar.
  "And when they list, their lean and flashy songs
   Grate on their scrannel pipes of wretched straw."
       --Milton, Lycidas.
  "Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake?"
       --Dodd and Shak. cor.
  "May I express thee' unblam'd? since God is light"
       --Milton, B. iii, l. 3.
  "Or hear'st thou rather pure ethereal stream?"
       --Id., B. iii, l. 7.
  "Republics, kingdoms, empires, may decay;
    Great princes, heroes, sages, sink to nought."
       --Peirce or La-Rue cor.
  "Thou bringst, gay creature as thou art,
   A solemn image to my heart."
       --Hallock cor.
  "Know then thyself, presume not God to scan;
   The proper study of mankind is Man."
       --Pope, on Man, Ep. ii, l. 1.
  "Raised on pilasters high of burnished gold."
       --Dr. S. Butler cor.
  "Love in Adalgise' breast has fixed his sting."
       --Id.
  "Thirty days each have September,
   April, June, and old November;
   Each of the rest has thirty-one,
   Bating February alone,
   Which has twenty-eight in fine,
   Till leap-year gives it twenty-nine."
       --Dean Colet cor.


LESSON II.--RHYTHM RESTORED.

  "'Twas not the fame of what he once had been,
   Or tales in records old and annals seen."
       --Rowe cor.
   "And Asia now and Afric are explored
   For high-priced dainties and the citron board."
       --Rowe cor.
   "Who knows not how the trembling judge beheld
   The peaceful court with arm~ed legions fill'd?"
       --Rowe cor.
   "With thee the Scythian wilds we'll wander o'er,
   With thee the burning Libyan sands explore."
       --Rowe cor.
   "Hasty and headlong, different paths they tread,
   As impulse blind and wild distraction lead."
       --Rowe cor.
   "But Fate reserv'd him to perform its doom,
   And be the minister of wrath to Rome."
       --Rowe cor.
   "Thus spoke the youth. When Cato thus express'd
   The sacred counsels of his inmost breast."
       --Rowe cor.
   "These were the rigid manners of the man,
   This was the stubborn course in which they ran;
   The golden mean unchanging to pursue,
   Constant to keep the purpos'd end in view."
       --Rowe cor.
   "What greater grief can on a Roman seize,
   Than to be forced to live on terms like these!"
       --Rowe cor.
   "He views the naked town with joyful eyes,
   While from his rage an arm~ed people flies."
       --Rowe cor.
   "For planks and beams, he ravages the wood,
   And the tough oak extends across the flood."
       --Rowe cor.
   "A narrow pass the horn~ed mole divides.
   Narrow as that where strong Euripus' tides
   Beat on Euboean Chalcis' rocky sides."
       --Rowe cor.
   "No force, no fears their hands unarm~ed bear,"--or,
   "No force, no fears their hands unarm'd now bear,
   But looks of peace and gentleness they wear."
       --Rowe cor.
   "The ready warriors all aboard them ride,
   And wait return of the retiring tide."
       --Rowe cor.
   "He saw those troops that long had faithful stood,
   Friends to his cause, and enemies to good,
   Grown weary of their chief, and satiate with blood."
       --Rowe cor.


END OF THE KEY.