The History Of England From the Accession of James II

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The History Of England From the Accession of James II  (1848) 
by Thomas Babington Macaulay
The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as "The History of England".

The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive model of British history, according to which the country threw off superstition, autocracy and confusion to create a balanced constitution and a forward-looking culture combined with freedom of belief and expression. This model of human progress has been called the Whig interpretation of history.

Volume I[edit]

IntroductionBritain under the RomansBritain under the SaxonsConversion of the Saxons to ChristianityDanish InvasionsThe NormansThe Norman ConquestSeparation of England and NormandyAmalgamation of RacesEnglish Conquests on the ContinentWars of the RosesExtinction of VillenageBeneficial Operation of the Roman Catholic ReligionThe early English Polity often misrepresented, and why?Nature of the Limited Monarchies of the Middle AgesPrerogatives of the early English KingsLimitations of the PrerogativeResistance an ordinary Check on Tyranny in the Middle AgesPeculiar Character of the English AristocracyGovernment of the TudorsLimited Monarchies of the Middle Ages generally turned into Absolute MonarchiesThe English Monarchy a singular ExceptionThe Reformation and its EffectsOrigin of the Church of EnglandHer peculiar CharacterRelation in which she stood to the CrownThe PuritansTheir Republican SpiritNo systematic parliamentary Opposition offered to the Government of ElizabethQuestion of the MonopoliesScotland and Ireland become Parts of the same Empire with EnglandDiminution of the Importance of England after the Accession of James IDoctrine of Divine RightThe Separation between the Church and the Puritans becomes widerAccession and Character of Charles ITactics of the Opposition in the House of CommonsPetition of RightPetition of Right violatedCharacter and Designs of WentworthCharacter of LaudStar Chamber and High CommissionShip-MoneyResistance to the Liturgy in ScotlandA Parliament called and dissolvedThe Long ParliamentFirst Appearance of the Two great English PartiesThe RemonstranceImpeachment of the Five MembersDeparture of Charles from LondonCommencement of the Civil WarSuccesses of the RoyalistsRise of the IndependentsOliver CromwellSelfdenying OrdinanceVictory of the ParliamentDomination and Character of the ArmyRising against the Military Government suppressedProceedings against the KingHis ExecutionSubjugation of Ireland and ScotlandExpulsion of the Long ParliamentThe Protectorate of Oliver CromwellOliver succeeded by RichardFall of Richard and Revival of the Long ParliamentSecond Expulsion of the Long ParliamentThe Army of Scotland marches into EnglandMonk declares for a Free ParliamentGeneral Election of 1660The Restoration

Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly censuredAbolition of Tenures by Knight ServiceDisbandment of the ArmyDisputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewedReligious DissensionUnpopularity of the PuritansCharacter of Charles IICharacter of the Duke of York and Earl of ClarendonGeneral Election of 1661Violence of the Cavaliers in the new ParliamentPersecution of the PuritansZeal of the Church for Hereditary MonarchyChange in the Morals of the CommunityProfligacy of PoliticiansState of ScotlandState of IrelandThe Government become unpopular in EnglandWar with the DutchOpposition in the House of CommonsFall of ClarendonState of European Politics, and Ascendancy of FranceCharacter of Lewis XIVThe Triple AllianceThe Country PartyConnection between Charles II. and FranceViews of Lewis with respect to EnglandTreaty of DoverNature of the English CabinetThe CabalShutting of the ExchequerWar with the United Provinces, and their extreme DangerWilliam, Prince of OrangeMeeting of the ParliamentDeclaration of IndulgenceIt is cancelled, and the Test Act passedThe Cabal dissolvedPeace with the United ProvincesAdministration of DanbyEmbarrassing Situation of the Country PartyDealings of that Party with the French EmbassyPeace of NimeguenViolent Discontents in EnglandFall of DanbyThe Popish PlotViolence of the new House of CommonsTemple's Plan of GovernmentCharacter of HalifaxCharacter of SunderlandProrogation of the ParliamentHabeas Corpus ActSecond General Election of 1679Popularity of MonmouthLawrence HydeSidney GodolphinViolence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion BillNames of Whig and ToryMeeting of ParliamentThe Exclusion Bill passes the CommonsExclusion Bill rejected by the LordsExecution of StaffordGeneral Election of 1681Parliament held at Oxford, and dissolvedTory ReactionPersecution of the WhigsCharter of the City confiscatedWhig ConspiraciesDetection of the Whig ConspiraciesSeverity of the GovernmentSeizure of ChartersInfluence of the Duke of YorkHe is opposed by HalifaxLord GuildfordPolicy of LewisState of Factions in the Court of Charles at the time of his Death

Great Change in the State of England since 1685Population of England in 1685Increase of Population greater in the North than in the SouthRevenue in 1685Military SystemThe NavyThe OrdnanceNoneffective ChargeCharge of Civil GovernmentGreat Gains of Ministers and CourtiersState of AgricultureMineral Wealth of the CountryIncrease of RentThe Country GentlemenThe ClergyThe YeomanryGrowth of the TownsBristolNorwichOther Country TownsManchesterLeedsSheffieldBirminghamLiverpoolWatering-placesCheltenhamBrightonBuxtonTunbridge WellsBathLondonThe CityFashionable Part of the CapitalPolice of LondonLighting of LondonWhitefriarsThe CourtThe Coffee HousesDifficulty of TravellingBadness of the RoadsStage CoachesHighwaymenInnsPost OfficeNews-lettersNewspapersThe ObservatorScarcity of Books in Country PlacesFemale EducationLiterary Attainments of GentlemenInfluence of French LiteratureImmorality of the Polite Literature of EnglandState of Science in EnglandState of the Fine ArtsState of the Common PeopleAgricultural WagesWages of ManufacturersLabour of Children in FactoriesWages of different Classes of ArtisansNumber of PaupersBenefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of CivilisationDelusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preceding Generations

Death of Charles IISuspicions of PoisonSpeech of James II. to the Privy CouncilJames proclaimedState of the AdministrationNew ArrangementsSir George JeffreysThe Revenue collected without an Act of ParliamentA Parliament calledTransactions between James and the French KingChurchill sent Ambassador to FranceHis HistoryFeelings of the Continental Governments towards EnglandPolicy of the Court of RomeStruggle in the Mind of JamesFluctuations in his PolicyPublic Celebration of the Roman Catholic Rites in the PalaceHis CoronationEnthusiasm of the ToriesAddressesThe ElectionsProceedings against OatesProceedings against DangerfieldProceedings against BaxterMeeting of the Parliament of ScotlandFeeling of James towards the PuritansCruel Treatment of the Scotch CovenantersFeeling of James towards the QuakersWilliam PennPeculiar Favour shown to Roman Catholics and QuakersMeeting of the English ParliamentTrevor chosen SpeakerCharacter of SeymourThe King's Speech to the ParliamentDebate in the CommonsSpeech of SeymourThe Revenue votedProceedings of the Commons concerning ReligionAdditional Taxes votedSir Dudley NorthProceedings of the LordsBill for reversing the Attainder of Stafford

Whig Refugees on the ContinentTheir Correspondents in EnglandCharacters of the leading RefugeesAyloffeWadeGoodenoughRumboldLord GreyMonmouthFergusonScotch RefugeesEarl of ArgyleSir Patrick HumeSir John CochraneFletcher of SaltounUnreasonable Conduct of the Scotch RefugeesArrangement for an Attempt on England and ScotlandJohn LockePreparations made by Government for the Defence of ScotlandConversation of James with the Dutch AmbassadorsIneffectual Attempts to prevent Argyle from sailingDeparture of Argyle from HollandHe lands in ScotlandHis Disputes with his FollowersTemper of the Scotch NationArgyle's Forces dispersedArgyle a PrisonerHis ExecutionExecution of RumboldDeath of AyloffeDevastation of ArgyleshireIneffectual Attempts to prevent Monmouth from leaving HollandHis Arrival at LymeHis DeclarationHis Popularity in the West of EnglandEncounter of the Rebels with the Militia at BridportEncounter of the Rebels with the Militia at AxminsterNews of the Rebellion carried to LondonLoyalty of the ParliamentReception of Monmouth at TauntonHe takes the Title of KingHis Reception at BridgewaterPreparations of the Government to oppose himHis Design on BristolHe relinquishes that DesignSkirmish at Philip's NortonDespondence of MonmouthHe returns to BridgewaterThe Royal Army encamps at SedgemoorBattle of SedgemoorPursuit of the RebelsMilitary ExecutionsFlight of MonmouthHis CaptureHis Letter to the KingHe is carried to LondonHis Interview with the KingHis ExecutionHis Memory cherished by the Common PeopleCruelties of the Soldiers in the WestKirkeJeffreys sets out on the Western CircuitTrial of Alice LisleThe Bloody AssizesAbraham HolmesChristopher BattiscombeThe HewlingsPunishment of TutchinRebels TransportedConfiscation and ExtortionRapacity of the Queen and her LadiesGreyCochraneStoreyWade, Goodenough, and FergusonJeffreys made Lord ChancellorTrial and Execution of CornishTrials and Executions of Fernley and Elizabeth GauntTrial and Execution of BatemanPersecution of the Protestant Dissenters

Volume II[edit]

The Power of James at the HeightHis Foreign PolicyHis Plans of Domestic GovernmentThe Habeas Corpus ActThe Standing ArmyDesigns in favour of the Roman Catholic ReligionViolation of the Test ActDisgrace of HalifaxGeneral DiscontentPersecution of the French HuguenotsEffect of that Persecution in EnglandMeeting of ParliamentSpeech of the KingAn Opposition formed in the House of CommonsSentiments of Foreign GovernmentsCommittee of the Commons on the King's SpeechDefeat of the GovernmentSecond Defeat of the GovernmentThe King reprimands the CommonsCoke committed by the Commons for Disrespect to the KingOpposition to the Government in the LordsThe Earl of DevonshireThe Bishop of LondonViscount MordauntProrogationTrials of Lord Gerard and of HampdenTrial of DelamereEffect of his AcquittalParties in the CourtFeeling of the Protestant ToriesPublication of Papers found in the Strong Box of Charles II.Feeling of the respectable Roman CatholicsCabal of violent Roman CatholicsCastlemaineJermynWhiteTyrconnelFeeling of the Ministers of Foreign GovernmentsThe Pope and the Order of Jesus opposed to each otherThe Order of JesusFather PetreThe King's Temper and OpinionsThe King encouraged in his Errors by SunderlandPerfidy of JeffreysGodolphinThe QueenAmours of the KingCatharine SedleyIntrigues of Rochester in favour of Catharine SedleyDecline of Rochester's InfluenceCastelmaine sent to RomeThe Huguenots ill-treated by JamesThe Dispensing PowerDismission of Refractory JudgesCase of Sir Edward HalesRoman Catholics authorised to hold Ecclesiastical BeneficesSclaterWalkerThe Deanery of Christchurch given to a Roman CatholicDisposal of BishopricsResolution of James to use his Ecclesiastical Supremacy against the ChurchHis DifficultiesHe creates a new Court of High CommissionProceedings against the Bishop of LondonDiscontent excited by the Public Display of Roman Catholic Rites and VestmentsRiotsA Camp formed at HounslowSamuel JohnsonHugh SpekeProceedings against JohnsonZeal of the Anglican Clergy against PoperyThe Roman Catholic Divines overmatchedState of ScotlandQueensberryPerth and MelfortFavour shown to the Roman Catholic Religion in ScotlandRiots at EdinburghAnger of the KingHis Plans concerning ScotlandDeputation of Scotch Privy Councillors sent to LondonTheir Negotiations with the KingMeeting of the Scotch EstatesThey prove refractoryThey are adjournedArbitrary System of Government in ScotlandIrelandState of the Law on the Subject of ReligionHostility of RacesAboriginal PeasantryAboriginal AristocracyState of the English ColonyCourse which James ought to have followedHis ErrorsClarendon arrives in Ireland as Lord LieutenantHis MortificationsPanic among the ColonistsArrival of Tyrconnel at Dublin as GeneralHis Partiality and ViolenceHe is bent on the Repeal of the Act of SettlementHe returns to EnglandThe King displeased with ClarendonRochester attacked by the Jesuitical CabalAttempts of James to convert RochesterDismission of RochesterDismission of ClarendonTyrconnel Lord DeputyDismay of the English Colonists in IrelandEffect of the Fall of the Hydes

William, Prince of OrangeHis AppearanceHis early Life and EducationHis Theological OpinionsHis Military QualificationsHis Love of DangerHis bad HealthColdness of his Manners and Strength of his EmotionsHis Friendship for BentinckMary, Princess of OrangeGilbert BurnetHe brings about a good Understanding between the Prince and PrincessRelations between William and English PartiesHis Feelings towards EnglandHis Feelings towards Holland and FranceHis Policy consistent throughoutTreaty of AugsburgWilliam becomes the Head of the English OppositionMordaunt proposes to William a Descent on EnglandWilliam rejects the AdviceDiscontent in England after the Fall of the HydesConversions to PoperyPeterboroughSalisburyWycherleyTindalHainesDrydenThe Hind and PantherChange in the Policy of the Court towards the PuritansPartial Toleration granted in ScotlandClosetingIt is unsuccessfulAdmiral HerbertDeclaration of IndulgenceFeeling of the Protestant DissentersFeeling of the Church of EnglandThe Court and the ChurchLetter to a DissenterConduct of the DissentersSome of the Dissenters side with the CourtCareAlsopRosewellLobbPennThe Majority of the Puritans are against the CourtBaxterHoweBunyanKiffinThe Prince and Princess of Orange hostile to the Declaration of IndulgenceTheir Views respecting the English Roman Catholics vindicatedEnmity of James to BurnetMission of Dykvelt to EnglandNegotiations of Dykvelt with English StatesmenDanbyNottinghamHalifaxDevonshireEdward RussellComptonHerbertChurchillLady Churchill and the Princess AnneDykvelt returns to the Hague with Letters from many eminent EnglishmenZulestein's MissionGrowing Enmity between James and WilliamInfluence of the Dutch PressCorrespondence of Stewart and FagelCastelmaine's embassy to Rome

Consecration of the Nuncio at Saint James's PalaceHis public ReceptionThe Duke of SomersetDissolution of the ParliamentMilitary Offences illegally punishedProceedings of the High CommissionThe UniversitiesProceedings against the University of CambridgeThe Earl of MulgraveState of OxfordMagdalene College, OxfordAnthony Farmer recommended by the King for PresidentElection of the PresidentThe Fellows of Magdalene cited before the High CommissionParker recommended as PresidentThe CharterhouseThe Royal ProgressThe King at OxfordHe reprimands the Fellows of MagdalenePenn attempts to mediateSpecial Ecclesiastical Commissioners sent to OxfordProtest of HoughParkerEjection of the FellowsMagdalene College turned into a Popish SeminaryResentment of the ClergySchemes of the Jesuitical Cabal respecting the SuccessionScheme of James and Tyrconnel for preventing the Princess of Orange from succeeding to the Kingdom of IrelandThe Queen pregnantGeneral IncredulityFeeling of the Constituent Bodies, and of the PeersJames determines to pack a ParliamentThe Board of RegulatorsMany Lords Lieutenants dismissedThe Earl of OxfordThe Earl of ShrewsburyThe Earl of DorsetQuestions put to the MagistratesTheir AnswersFailure of the King's PlansList of SheriffsCharacter of the Roman Catholic Country GentlemenFeeling of the DissentersRegulation of CorporationsInquisition in all the Public DepartmentsDismission of SawyerWilliams Solicitor GeneralSecond Declaration of IndulgenceThe Clergy ordered to read itThey hesitatePatriotism of the Protestant Nonconformists of LondonConsultation of the London ClergyConsultation at Lambeth PalacePetition of the Seven Bishops presented to the KingThe London Clergy disobey the Royal OrderHesitation of the GovernmentIt is determined to prosecute the Bishops for a LibelThey are examined by the Privy CouncilThey are committed to the TowerBirth of the PretenderHe is generally believed to be supposititiousThe Bishops brought before the King's Bench and bailedAgitation of the public MindUneasiness of SunderlandHe professes himself a Roman CatholicTrial of the BishopsThe VerdictJoy of the PeoplePeculiar State of Public Feeling at this Time

Change in the Opinion of the Tories concerning the Lawfulness of ResistanceRussell proposes to the Prince of Orange a Descent on EnglandHenry SidneyDevonshireShrewsburyHalifaxDanbyBishop ComptonNottinghamLumleyInvitation to William despatchedConduct of MaryDifficulties of William's EnterpriseConduct of James after the Trial of the BishopsDismissions and PromotionsProceedings of the High CommissionSprat resigns his SeatDiscontent of the ClergyTransactions at OxfordDiscontent of the GentryDiscontent of the ArmyIrish Troops brought overPublic IndignationLillibulleroPolitics of the United ProvincesErrors of the French KingHis Quarrel with the Pope concerning FranchisesThe Archbishopric of CologneSkilful Management of WilliamHis Military and Naval PreparationsHe receives numerous Assurances of Support from EnglandSunderlandAnxiety of WilliamWarnings conveyed to JamesExertions of Lewis to save JamesJames frustrates themThe French Armies invade GermanyWilliam obtains the Sanction of the States General to his ExpeditionSchombergBritish Adventurers at the HagueWilliam's DeclarationJames roused to a Sense of his DangerHis Naval MeansHis Military MeansHe attempts to conciliate his SubjectsHe gives Audience to the BishopsHis Concessions ill receivedProofs of the Birth of the Prince of Wales submitted to the Privy CouncilDisgrace of SunderlandWilliam takes leave of the States of HollandHe embarks and sailsHe is driven back by a StormHis Declaration arrives in EnglandJames questions the LordsWilliam sets sail the second TimeHe passes the StraitsHe lands at TorbayHe enters ExeterConversation of the King with the BishopsDisturbances in LondonMen of Rank begin to repair to the PrinceLovelaceColchesterAbingdonDesertion of CornburyPetition of the Lords for a ParliamentThe King goes to SalisburyCourt of William at ExeterSeymourNorthern InsurrectionSkirmish at WincantonDesertion of Churchill and GraftonRetreat of the Royal Army from SalisburyDesertion of Prince George and OrmondFlight of the Princess AnneCouncil of Lords held by JamesHe appoints Commissioners to treat with WilliamThe Negotiation a FeintDartmouth refuses to send the Prince of Wales into FranceAgitation of LondonForged ProclamationRisings in various Parts of the CountryClarendon joins the Prince at SalisburyDissension in the Prince's CampThe Prince reaches HungerfordSkirmish at ReadingThe King's Commissioners arrive at HungerfordNegotiationThe Queen and the Prince of Wales sent to FranceLauzunThe King's Preparations for FlightHis Flight

The Flight of James knownGreat AgitationThe Lords meet at GuildhallRiots in LondonThe Spanish Ambassador's House sackedArrest of JeffreysThe Irish NightThe King detained near SheernessThe Lords order him to be set at LibertyWilliam's EmbarrassmentArrest of FevershamArrival of James in LondonConsultation at WindsorThe Dutch Troops occupy WhitehallMessage from the Prince delivered to JamesJames sets out for RochesterArrival of William at Saint James'sHe is advised to assume the Crown by Right of ConquestHe calls together the Lords and the Members of the Parliaments of Charles II.Flight of James from RochesterDebates and Resolutions of the LordsDebates and Resolutions of the Commoners summoned by the PrinceConvention calledExertions of the Prince to restore OrderHis tolerant PolicySatisfaction of Roman Catholic PowersState of Feeling in FranceReception of the Queen of England in FranceArrival of James at Saint GermainsState of Feeling in the United ProvincesElection of Members to serve in the ConventionAffairs of ScotlandState of Parties in EnglandSherlock's PlanSancroft's PlanDanby's PlanThe Whig PlanMeeting of the ConventionLeading Members of the House of CommonsChoice of a SpeakerDebate on the State of the NationResolution declaring the Throne vacantIt is sent up to the LordsDebate in the Lords on the Plan of RegencySchism between the Whigs and the Followers of DanbyMeeting at the Earl of Devonshire'sDebate in the Lords on the Question whether the Throne was vacantMajority for the NegativeAgitation in LondonLetter of James to the ConventionDebatesNegotiationsLetter of the Princess of Orange to DanbyThe Princess Anne acquiesces in the Whig PlanWilliam explains his viewsThe Conference between the housesThe Lords yieldNew Laws proposed for the Security of LibertyDisputes and CompromiseThe Declaration of RightArrival of MaryTender and Acceptance of the CrownWilliam and Mary proclaimedPeculiar Character of the English Revolution

Volume III[edit]

William and Mary proclaimed in LondonRejoicings throughout EnglandRejoicings in HollandDiscontent of the Clergy and of the ArmyReaction of Public FeelingTemper of the ToriesTemper of the WhigsMinisterial ArrangementsWilliam his own Minister for Foreign AffairsDanbyHalifaxNottinghamShrewsburyThe Board of AdmiraltyThe Board of TreasuryThe Great SealThe JudgesThe HouseholdSubordinate AppointmentsThe Convention turned into a ParliamentThe Members of the two Houses required to take the OathsQuestions relating to the RevenueAbolition of the Hearth MoneyRepayment of the Expenses of the United ProvincesMutiny at IpswichThe first Mutiny BillSuspension of the Habeas Corpus ActUnpopularity of WilliamPopularity of MaryThe Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton CourtThe Court at KensingtonWilliam's foreign FavouritesGeneral MaladministrationDissensions among Men in OfficeDepartment of Foreign AffairsReligious DisputesThe High Church PartyThe Low Church PartyWilliam's Views concerning Ecclesiastical PolityBurnet, Bishop of SalisburyNottingham's Views concerning Ecclesiastical PolityThe Toleration BillThe Comprehension BillThe Bill for settling the Oaths of Allegiance and SupremacyThe Bill for settling the Coronation OathThe CoronationPromotionsThe Coalition against FranceThe Devastation of the PalatinateWar declared against France

State of Ireland at the Time of the RevolutionThe Civil Power in the Hands of the Roman CatholicsThe Military Power in the Hands of the Roman CatholicsMutual Enmity between the Englishry and IrishryPanic among the EnglishryHistory of the Town of KenmareEnniskillenLondonderryClosing of the Gates of LondonderryMountjoy sent to pacify UlsterWilliam opens a Negotiation with TyrconnelThe Temples consultedRichard Hamilton sent to Ireland on his ParoleTyrconnel sends Mountjoy and Rice to FranceTyrconnel calls the Irish People to ArmsDevastation of the CountryThe Protestants in the South unable to resistEnniskillen and Londonderry hold outRichard Hamilton marches into Ulster with an ArmyJames determines to go to IrelandAssistance furnished by Lewis to JamesChoice of a French Ambassador to accompany JamesThe Count of AvauxJames lands at KinsaleJames enters CorkJourney of James from Cork to DublinDiscontent in EnglandFactions at Dublin CastleJames determines to go to UlsterJourney of James to UlsterThe Fall of Londonderry expectedSuccours arrive from EnglandTreachery of LundyThe Inhabitants of Londonderry resolve to defend themselvesTheir CharacterLondonderry besiegedThe Siege turned into a BlockadeNaval Skirmish in Bantry BayA Parliament summoned by James sits at DublinA Toleration Act passedActs passed for the Confiscation of the Property of ProtestantsIssue of base MoneyThe great Act of AttainderJames prorogues his ParliamentPersecution of the Protestants in IrelandEffect produced in England by the News from IrelandActions of the EnniskillenersDistress of LondonderryExpedition under Kirke arrives in Loch FoyleCruelty of RosenThe Famine in Londonderry extremeAttack on the BoomThe Siege of Londonderry raisedOperations against the EnniskillenersBattle of Newton ButlerConsternation of the Irish

The Revolution more violent in Scotland than in EnglandElections for the ConventionRabbling of the Episcopal ClergyState of EdinburghQuestion of an Union between England and Scotland raisedWish of the English Low Churchmen to preserve Episcopacy in ScotlandOpinions of William about Church Government in ScotlandComparative Strength of Religious Parties in ScotlandLetter from William to the Scotch ConventionWilliam's Instructions to his Agents in ScotlandThe DalrymplesMelvilleJames's Agents in Scotland: DundeeBalcarrasMeeting of the ConventionHamilton elected PresidentCommittee of ElectionsEdinburgh Castle summonedDundee threatened by the CovenantersLetter from James to the ConventionEffect of James's LetterFlight of DundeeTumultuous Sitting of the ConventionA Committee appointed to frame a Plan of GovernmentResolutions proposed by the CommitteeWilliam and Mary proclaimedThe Claim of RightAbolition of EpiscopacyTortureWilliam and Mary accept the Crown of ScotlandDiscontent of the CovenantersMinisterial Arrangements in ScotlandHamiltonCrawfordThe DalrymplesLockhartMontgomeryMelvilleCarstairsThe Club formed: AnnandaleRossHumeFletcher of SaltounWar breaks out in the HighlandsState of the HighlandsPeculiar Nature of Jacobitism in the HighlandsJealousy of the Ascendency of the CampbellsThe Stewarts and MacnaghtensThe MacleansThe CameronsLochielThe MacdonaldsFeud between the Macdonalds and MackintoshesInvernessInverness threatened by Macdonald of KeppochDundee appears in Keppoch's CampInsurrection of the Clans hostile to the CampbellsTarbet's Advice to the GovernmentIndecisive Campaign in the HighlandsMilitary Character of the HighlandersQuarrels in the Highland ArmyDundee applies to James for AssistanceThe War in the Highlands suspendedScruples of the Covenanters about taking Arms for King WilliamThe Cameronian Regiment raisedEdinburgh Castle surrendersSession of Parliament at EdinburghAscendancy of the ClubTroubles in AtholThe War breaks out again in the HighlandsDeath of DundeeRetreat of MackayEffect of the Battle of KilliecrankieThe Scottish Parliament adjournedThe Highland Army reinforcedSkirmish at Saint Johnston'sDisorders in the Highland ArmyMackay's Advice disregarded by the Scotch MinistersThe Cameronians stationed at DunkeldThe Highlanders attack the Cameronians and are repulsedDissolution of the Highland ArmyIntrigues of the ClubState of the Lowlands

Disputes in the English ParliamentThe Attainder of Russell reversedOther Attainders reversedCase of Samuel JohnsonCase of DevonshireCase of OatesBill of RightsDisputes about a Bill of IndemnityLast Days of JeffreysThe Whigs dissatisfied with the KingIntemperance of HoweAttack on CaermarthenAttack on HalifaxPreparations for a Campaign in IrelandSchombergRecess of the ParliamentState of IrelandAdvice of AvauxDismission of MelfortSchomberg lands in UlsterCarrickfergus takenSchomberg advances into LeinsterThe English and Irish Armies encamp near each otherSchomberg declines a BattleFrauds of the English CommissariatConspiracy among the French Troops in the English ServicePestilence in the English ArmyThe English and Irish Armies go into Winter QuartersVarious Opinions about Schomberg's ConductMaritime AffairsMaladministration of TorringtonContinental AffairsSkirmish at WalcourtImputations thrown on MarlboroughPope Innocent XI. succeeded by Alexander VIII.The High Church Clergy divided on the Subject of the OathsArguments for taking the OathsArguments against taking the OathsA great Majority of the Clergy take the OathsThe NonjurorsKenLeslieSherlockHickesCollierDodwellKettlewellFitzwilliamGeneral Character of the Nonjuring ClergyThe Plan of ComprehensionTillotsonAn Ecclesiastical Commission issued.Proceedings of the CommissionThe Convocation of the Province of Canterbury summonedTemper of the ClergyThe Clergy ill affected towards the KingThe Clergy exasperated against the Dissenters by the Proceedings of the Scotch PresbyteriansConstitution of the ConvocationElection of Members of ConvocationEcclesiastical Preferments bestowedCompton discontentedThe Convocation meetsThe High Churchmen a Majority of the Lower House of ConvocationDifference between the two Houses of ConvocationThe Lower House of Convocation proves unmanageableThe Convocation prorogued

The Parliament meetsRetirement of HalifaxSupplies votedThe Bill of Rights passedInquiry into Naval AbusesInquiry into the Conduct of the Irish WarReception of Walker in EnglandEdmund LudlowViolence of the WhigsImpeachmentsCommittee of MurderMalevolence of John HampdenThe Corporation BillDebates on the Indemnity BillCase of Sir Robert SawyerThe King purposes to retire to HollandHe is induced to change his IntentionThe Whigs oppose his going to IrelandHe prorogues the ParliamentJoy of the ToriesDissolution and General ElectionChanges in the Executive DepartmentsCaermarthen Chief MinisterSir John LowtherRise and Progress of Parliamentary Corruption in EnglandSir John TrevorGodolphin retiresChanges at the AdmiraltyChanges in the Commissions of LieutenancyTemper of the WhigsDealings of some Whigs with Saint GermainsShrewsburyFergusonHopes of the JacobitesMeeting of the new ParliamentSettlement of the RevenueProvision for the Princess of DenmarkBill declaring the Acts of the preceding Parliament validDebate on the Changes in the Lieutenancy of LondonAbjuration BillAct of GraceThe Parliament proroguedPreparations for the first WarAdministration of James at DublinAn auxiliary Force sent from France to IrelandPlan of the English JacobitesClarendon, Aylesbury, DartmouthPennPrestonThe Jacobites betrayed by FullerCrone arrestedDifficulties of WilliamConduct of ShrewsburyThe Council of NineConduct of ClarendonPenn held to BailInterview between William and BurnetWilliam sets out for IrelandTrial of CroneDanger of Invasion and InsurrectionTourville's Fleet in the ChannelArrests of suspected PersonsTorrington ordered to give Battle to TourvilleBattle of Beachy HeadAlarm in LondonBattle of FleurusSpirit of the NationConduct of Shrewsbury

William lands at Carrickfergus, and proceeds to BelfastState of DublinWilliam's military ArrangementsWilliam marches southwardThe Irish Army retreatsThe Irish make a Stand at the BoyneThe Army of JamesThe Army of WilliamWalker, now Bishop of Derry, accompanies the ArmyWilliam reconnoitres the Irish PositionWilliam is woundedBattle of the BoyneFlight of JamesLoss of the two ArmiesFall of DroghedaState of DublinJames flies to FranceDublin evacuated by the French and Irish TroopsEntry of William into DublinEffect produced in France by the News from IrelandEffect produced at Rome by the News from IrelandEffect produced in London by the News from IrelandJames arrives in FranceHis Reception thereTourville attempts a Descent on EnglandTeignmouth destroyedExcitement of the English Nation against the FrenchThe Jacobite PressThe Jacobite Form of Prayer and HumiliationClamour against the nonjuring BishopsMilitary Operations in IrelandWaterford takenThe Irish Army collected at LimerickLauzun pronounces that the Place cannot be defendedThe Irish insist on defending LimerickTyrconnel is against defending LimerickLimerick defended by the Irish aloneSarsfield surprises the English ArtilleryArrival of Baldearg O'Donnel at LimerickThe Besiegers suffer from the RainsUnsuccessful Assault on LimerickThe Siege raisedTyrconnel and Lauzun go to FranceWilliam returns to EnglandReception of William in EnglandExpedition to the South of IrelandMarlborough takes CorkMarlborough takes KinsaleAffairs of ScotlandIntrigues of Montgomery with the JacobitesWar in the HighlandsFort William builtMeeting of the Scottish ParliamentMelville Lord High CommissionerThe Government obtains a MajorityEcclesiastical LegislationThe Coalition between the Club and the Jacobites dissolvedThe Chiefs of the Club betray each otherGeneral Acquiescence in the new Ecclesiastical PolityComplaints of the EpiscopaliansThe Presbyterian NonjurorsWilliam dissatisfied with the Ecclesiastical Arrangements in ScotlandMeeting of the General Assembly of the Church of ScotlandState of Affairs on the ContinentThe Duke of Savoy joins the CoalitionSupplies votedWays and MeansProceedings against TorringtonTorrington's Trial and AcquittalAnimosity of the Whigs against CaermarthenJacobite PlotMeeting of the leading ConspiratorsThe Conspirators determine to send Preston to Saint GermainsPapers entrusted to PrestonInformation of the Plot given to CaermarthenArrest of Preston and his Companions

Volume IV[edit]

William's Voyage to HollandWilliam's Entrance into the HagueCongress at the HagueWilliam his own Minister for Foreign AffairsWilliam obtains a Toleration for the WaldensesVices inherent in the Nature of CoalitionsSiege and Fall of MonsWilliam returns to EnglandTrials of Preston and AshtonExecution of AshtonPreston's Irresolution and ConfessionsLenity shown to the ConspiratorsDartmouthTurnerPennDeath of George FoxHis CharacterInterview between Penn and SidneyPreston pardonedJoy of the Jacobites at the Fall of MonsThe vacant Sees filledTillotson Archbishop of CanterburyConduct of SancroftDifference between Sancroft and KenHatred of Sancroft to the Established ChurchHe provides for the episcopal Succession among the NonjurorsThe new BishopsSherlock Dean of Saint Paul'sTreachery of some of William's ServantsRussellGodolphinMarlboroughWilliam returns to the ContinentThe Campaign of 1691 in FlandersThe War in IrelandState of the English Part of IrelandState of the Part of Ireland which was subject to JamesDissensions among the Irish at LimerickReturn of Tyrconnel to IrelandArrival of a French Fleet at LimerickSaint RuthThe English take the FieldFall of BallymoreSiege and Fall of AthloneRetreat of the Irish ArmySaint Ruth determines to fightBattle of AghrimFall of GalwayDeath of TyrconnelSecond Siege of LimerickThe Irish desirous to capitulateNegotiations between the Irish Chiefs and the BesiegersThe Capitulation of LimerickThe Irish Troops required to make their Election between their Country and FranceMost of the Irish Troops volunteer for FranceMany of the Irish who had volunteered for France desertThe last Division of the Irish Army sails from Cork for FranceState of Ireland after the War

Opening of the ParliamentDebates on the Salaries and Fees of Official MenAct excluding Papists from Public Trust in IrelandDebates on the East India TradeDebates on the Bill for regulating Trials in Cases of High TreasonPlot formed by Marlborough against the Government of WilliamMarlborough's Plot disclosed by the JacobitesDisgrace of MarlboroughVarious Reports touching the Cause of Marlborough's DisgraceRupture between Mary and AnneFuller's PlotClose of the SessionBill for ascertaining the Salaries of the Judges rejectedMisterial Changes in EnglandMinisterial Changes in ScotlandState of the HighlandsBreadalbane employed to negotiate with the Rebel ClansGlencoeWilliam goes to the ContinentDeath of LouvoisThe French Government determines to send an Expedition against EnglandJames believes that the English Fleet is friendly to himConduct of RussellA Daughter born to JamesPreparations made in England to repel InvasionJames goes down to his Army at La HogueJames's DeclarationEffect produced by James's DeclarationThe English and Dutch Fleets joinTemper of the English FleetBattle of La HogueRejoicings in EnglandYoung's Plot

Foreign Policy of WilliamThe Northern PowersThe PopeConduct of the AlliesThe EmperorSpainWilliam succeeds in preventing the Dissolution of the CoalitionNew Arrangements for the Government of the Spanish NetherlandsLewis takes the FieldSiege of NamurLewis returns to VersaillesLuxemburgBattle of SteinkirkConspiracy of GrandvalReturn of William to EnglandNaval MaladministrationEarthquake at Port RoyalDistress in EnglandIncrease of CrimeMeeting of ParliamentState of PartiesThe King's SpeechQuestion of Privilege raised by the LordsDebates on the State of the NationBill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of TreasonCase of Lord MohunDebates on the India TradeSupplyWays and MeansLand TaxOrigin of the National DebtParliamentary ReformThe Place BillThe Triennial BillThe First Parliamentary Discussion on the Liberty of the PressState of IrelandThe King refuses to pass the Triennial BillMinisterial ArrangementsThe King goes to HollandA Session of Parliament in Scotland

State of the Court of Saint GermainsFeeling of the JacobitesCompounders and NoncompoundersChange of Ministry at Saint GermainsMiddletonNew Declaration put forth by JamesEffect of the new DeclarationFrench Preparations for the CampaignInstitution of the Order of Saint LewisMiddleton's Account of VersaillesWilliam's Preparations for the CampaignLewis takes the FieldLewis returns to VersaillesManoeuvres of LuxemburgBattle of LandenMiscarriage of the Smyrna FleetExcitement in LondonJacobite LibelsWilliam AndertonWritings and Artifices of the JacobitesConduct of CaermarthenNow Charter granted to the East India CompanyReturn of William to EnglandMilitary Successes of FranceDistress of FranceA Ministry necessary to Parliamentary GovernmentThe First Ministry gradually formedSunderlandSunderland advises the King to give the Preference to the WhigsReasons for preferring the WhigsChiefs of the Whig PartyRussellSomersMontagueWhartonChiefs of the Tory PartyHarleyFoleyHoweMeeting of ParliamentDebates about the Naval MiscarriagesRussell First Lord of the AdmiraltyRetirement of NottinghamShrewsbury refuses OfficeDebates about the Trade with IndiaBill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of TreasonTriennial BillPlace BillBill for the Naturalisation of Foreign ProtestantsSupplyWays and MeansLottery LoanThe Bank of EnglandProrogation of ParliamentMinisterial ArrangementsShrewsbury Secretary of StateNew Titles bestowedFrench Plan of WarEnglish Plan of WarExpedition against BrestNaval Operations in the MediterraneanWar by LandComplaints of Trenchard's AdministrationThe Lancashire ProsecutionsMeeting of the ParliamentDeath of TillotsonTenison Archbishop of CanterburyDebates on the Lancashire ProsecutionsPlace BillBill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of TreasonThe Triennial Bill passedDeath of MaryFuneral of MaryGreenwich Hospital founded

Effect of Mary's Death on the ContinentDeath of LuxemburgDistress of WilliamParliamentary ProceedingsEmancipation of the PressDeath of HalifaxParliamentary Inquiries into the Corruption of the Public OfficesVote of Censure on the SpeakerFoley elected SpeakerInquiry into the Accounts of the East India CompanySuspicious Dealings of SeymourBill against Sir Thomas CookInquiry by a joint Committee of Lords and CommonsImpeachment of LeedsDisgrace of LeedsLords Justices appointedReconciliation between William and the Princess AnneJacobite Plots against William's PersonCharnockPorterGoodmanParkynsFenwickSession of the Scottish ParliamentInquiry into the Slaughter of GlencoeWar in the NetherlandsMarshal VilleroyThe Duke of MaineJacobite Plots against the Government during William's AbsenceSiege of NamurSurrender of the Town of NamurSurrender of the Castle of NamurArrest of BoufflersEffect of the Emancipation of the English PressReturn of William to EnglandDissolution of the ParliamentWilliam makes a Progress through the CountryThe ElectionsAlarming State of the CurrencyMeeting of the ParliamentLoyalty of the House of CommonsControversy touching the CurrencyParliamentary Proceedings touching the CurrencyPassing of the Act regulating Trials in Cases of High TreasonParliamentary Proceedings touching the Grant of Crown Lands in Wales to PortlandTwo Jacobite Plots formedBerwick's PlotThe Assassination PlotSir George BarclayFailure of Berwick's PlotDetection of the Assassination PlotParliamentary Proceedings touching the Assassination PlotState of Public FeelingTrial of Charnock, King and KeyesExecution of Charnock, King and KeyesTrial of FriendTrial of ParkynsExecution of Friend and ParkynsTrials of Rookwood, Cranburne and LowickThe AssociationBill for the Regulation of ElectionsAct establishing a Land Bank

Military Operations in the NetherlandsCommercial Crisis in EnglandFinancial CrisisEfforts to restore the CurrencyDistress of the PeopleTheir Temper and ConductNegotiations with FranceThe Duke of Savoy deserts the CoalitionSearch for Jacobite Conspirators in EnglandSir John FenwickCapture of FenwickFenwick's ConfessionReturn of William to EnglandMeeting of ParliamentState of the CountrySpeech of William at the Commencement of the SessionResolutions of the House of CommonsReturn of ProsperityEffect of the Proceedings of the House of Commons on Foreign GovernmentsRestoration of the FinancesEffects of Fenwick's ConfessionResignation of GodolphinFeeling of the Whigs about FenwickWilliam examines FenwickDisappearance of GoodmanParliamentary Proceedings touching Fenwick's ConfessionBill for attainting FenwickDebates of the Commons on the Bill of AttainderThe Bill of Attainder carried up to the LordsArtifices of MonmouthDebates of the Lords on the Bill of AttainderProceedings against MonmouthPosition and Feelings of ShrewsburyThe Bill of Attainder passedAttempts to save FenwickFenwick's ExecutionBill for the Regulating of ElectionsBill for the Regulation of the PressBill abolishing the Privileges of Whitefriars and the SavoyClose of the SessionPromotions and AppointmentsState of IrelandState of ScotlandA Session of Parliament at EdinburghAct for the Settling of SchoolsCase of Thomas AikenheadMilitary Operations in the NetherlandsTerms of Peace offered by FranceConduct of SpainConduct of the EmperorCongress of RyswickWilliam opens a distinct NegotiationMeetings of Portland and BoufflersTerms of Peace between France and England settledDifficulties caused by Spain and the EmperorAttempts of James to prevent a general PacificationThe Treaty of Ryswick signedAnxiety in EnglandNews of the Peace arrives in EnglandDismay of the JacobitesGeneral RejoicingThe King's Entry into LondonThe Thanksgiving Day

Volume V[edit]

Standing ArmiesSunderlandLord SpencerControversy touching Standing ArmiesMeeting of ParliamentThe King's Speech well receivedDebate on a Peace EstablishmentSunderland attackedThe Nation averse to a Standing ArmyMutiny Actthe Navy Acts concerning High TreasonEarl of ClancartyWays and MeansRights of the Sovereign in reference to Crown LandsProceedings in Parliament on Grants of Crown LandsMontague accused of PeculationBill of Pains and Penalties against DuncombeDissension between the housesCommercial QuestionsIrish ManufacturesEast India CompaniesFire at WhitehallVisit of the CzarPortland's Embassy to FranceThe Spanish SuccessionThe Count of Tallard's EmbassyNewmarket Meeting: the insecure State of the RoadsFurther Negotiations relating to the Spanish SuccessionThe King goes to HollandPortland returns from his EmbassyWilliam is reconciled to Marlborough

Altered Position of the MinistryThe ElectionsFirst Partition TreatyDomestic DiscontentLittleton chosen SpeakerKing's SpeechProceedings relating to the Amount of the Land ForceUnpopularity of MontagueBill for Disbanding the ArmyThe King's SpeechDeath of the Electoral Prince of Bavaria.Renewed Discussion of the Army QuestionNaval AdministrationCommission on Irish Forfeitures.Prorogation of ParliamentChanges in the Ministry and HouseholdSpanish SuccessionDarien

Trial of Spencer CowperDuelsDiscontent of the NationCaptain KiddMeeting of ParliamentAttacks on BurnetRenewed Attack on SomersQuestion of the Irish Forfeitures: Dispute between the HousesSomers again attackedProrogation of ParliamentDeath of James the SecondThe Pretender recognised as KingReturn of the KingGeneral ElectionDeath of William

Notes[edit]

This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.