The Southern Literary Messenger, 1834-1864/George W. Bagby's Editorship
|←John Reuben Thompson's Administration||The Southern Literary Messenger, 1834-1864 by
George W. Bagby's Editorship
|Frank H. Alfriend's Editorship →|
Dr. George W. Bagby's Editorship
The leader for Editor Bagby's first numberis: "The Difference of Race between the Northern and Southern People." It was his purpose to admit and even solicit articles treating of public affairs, but they were to be done in fairness and "with breadth of contemplation" and non-partizan. He says that the above leader is open to some objection on the score of personality, a fact that was overlooked in the hurry of the recent editorial change. But such a mistake should not be repeated. Klutz writes "Hannibal: a Nigger," in several parts. There is an extended notice, with illustrations, for a mock heroic poem published in Richmond and entitled "The Mock Auction, or Ossawotomie sold." Chapel Hill, N. C., puts in a plea for wine-bibbing. W. S. Grayson discusses "Civil Liberty." There is a short lecture, not on the Devil. "Crawford, the Sculptor," is borrowed from the biographical sketches of Geo. W. Greene. The poetry is anonymous, except that by J. H. Hewitt, John D. Stockton and Jno. R. Thompson.
The Editor's Table is very copious and a part of its contents have been already given in the account of the complimentary dinner extended to Mr. Thompson, to whom the new editor pays a high and deserved tribute. Among many other things, the editor says: "We desire especially to obtain home-made, purely Southern articles-tales, stories, sketches, poems that smack of the soil. We want the tone of the Messenger to be something different from the common run of magazines—we want it to be as distinct in character and style as are our people and institutions." As to illustrations, he means to continue them and hopes to be able to draw Porte Crayon from the Harpers and to keep him employed at home. He notices the three great political conventions and comes very near trenching, if he does not really do so, upon the principle which he had laid down. Governor Littleton W. Tazewell and Peter Parley have departed this life.
"The Negro Races" opens the second volume of this year. This may be (?) by Prof. H. A. Washington, having been delivered as a lecture in his lifetime. Some one commences "The Knight of Espalion, a Romance of the Thirteenth Century." Life and Literature in Japan are described and illustrated. "Not a Fancy Sketch," is by Mabel. Klutz gives "The Widow Huff and her Son." Then we have "The One-eyed Beauty with Two Eyes," from Blackwood! "The Future of American Railways" is taken from the Atlantic Monthly! Dr. W. H. Holcombe writes a poem, "The Southern Man." He has published a volume of his poems. Susan A. Talley is inspired by a lily. Cameron Risque poetizes on the old Latin caution, "Festina lente." Some one, in an ode styled "Virginia," tries to stir up her sons to maintain the renown of their fathers.
The Editor's Table is an extension one and new leaves are put in for quips, quirks, "wise saws and modern instances," which are spread thereon almost to surfeiting. Judge Peter V. Daniel, Hon. Wm. C. Preston and Theodore Parker have gone to their fathers. J. E. Thompson and John E. Cooke are preparing a work on "The Poets and Poetry of the South" and there is some curiosity as to what Mr. Dana will think of it. What he might think of it would not be known; but what he would say of it could be very easily foretold.
There are proofs given that the Yankees sold Indians into slavery in the Southern States, about 1716. New publications are well attended to.
Wyndham Robertson gives an account of the marriage of Pocahontas and some other incidents of her life. He was one of her descendants. Klutz now takes up "Love in the Country." "Fun from North Carolina" is illustrated. Grayson resumes "Civil Liberty." R., of Tennessee, describes a week in the Great Smoky Mountains. He seems to have been a forerunner of our Chas. Egbert Craddock. We have the letter of H. S. Randall to the New York Times, in regard to Lord Macaulay's opinions of Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Randall makes his side of the case very clear. "The Knight of Espalion" keeps on. Among the poets, E. A. C. writes "The Rain Storm;" John D. Stockton, "The River;" Fanny Fielding, "Jenny Blossom," and "Lines to a Bouquet of Spring Flowers Gathered in a Cemetery," and Acmet, "Repentance."
The editor declares that the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. is no soulless corporation, but a body of educated and polished gentlemen, because they give elegant and luxurious free transportation, from Wheeling to the lions of the Federal metropolis and the monuments of Baltimore, to a thousand Western editors and their wives, for two of the most beautiful months of the year. The writer knows what that means; for he was a guest of that company when it celebrated its completion to Wheeling and carried thither and brought back and feasted all the way, going and returning, such a multitude of the officials and citizens of Maryland and Virginia. It was an excursion of excursions.
Mr. G. P. R. James is no more and is kindly remembered. But here is a slap at a better man: "N. P. Willis has joined the church. Look out for the litany served up in letters from Idlewild. The Apostles' Creed will be done into double-nouns immediately."
W. B. Reese, Jr., thinks he proves that Horace Walpole was Junius. E. T. commences "The Conquered Heart; or The Flirt of the White Sulphur." There are a glorification of Franklin, by Richard H. Anderson, and a hit at Richmond society,—"Who's Who?" in six chapters. Then we have Horace Greeley and his lost work, "The Knight of Espalion," etc. Finley Johnson, Cornelia, Cameron Risque and Alton (E. A. Pollard?) contribute poetry.
The Editor's Table names eighteen places of public resort: it also contains some variety and some fun. Three Virginia works are noticed, two of which are commended, viz.: "The Lost Principle; or The Sectional Equilibrium," by Barbarossa, and the new edition of Sam Mordecai's "Richmond in By-gone Days." The authors of the other, Rev. Philip Slaughter and Prof. A. T. Bledsoe, are scored and ridiculed: They had undertaken to solve the problem, "Why are so many more men than women Christians?" Did they put it in that way?
The novel "Beulah," by Mrs. Augusta J. Evans, is reviewed and there is afterwards a discussion as to her and George Eliot. Mr. Grayson propounds the question: "Is slavery right?" E. T. concludes "The Flirt of the White Sulphur." "The Mill on the Floss," by the English Evans, is reviewed by E. T. "The Knight of Espalion" (21 chapters) is concluded. Reese, Jr., comes again, with Walpole and Junius.
As to poetry, Stephen R. Smith, of Alabama, writes about Maud; some one, quite extensively, on Cuba; F. J. still more so, on a variety of subjects; and one other, on Dreaming—not Achieving.
The editor pounces upon some of his delinquents. He has had a pleasant summer tour, of which he will give an account. He says his "readers may look out for quite a collection of novelties, the combined effect of which will be to give the Messenger a livelier aspect and a more cheerful tone than ever before. They will also add to its usefulness." Some Richmond books are among those noticed.
Well, the next number opens with the poem, "The Two Voices," by Thos. Dunn English, read before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of William and Mary, on the Fourth of July, 1860, with the correspondence between Prof. Joynes, Secretary of that Society, and the author, who writes from Pond Cottage, Fort Lee, N. J.
The editor had invited papers on popular physical science, because Southern people were so ignorant of that subject. He now adopts some of Faraday's lectures, with diagrams. Skitt, who had been thar, sketches Ducktown. "Northern Mind and Character" is not particularly conciliatory. "The Mourner's Portfolio," by E. A. Pollard, the author of "Black Diamonds," presents a medley of prose and verse. "A Mississippi Hero" is illustrated. The Rev. E. Boyden, of Albemarle county, Va., enlarges upon the Epidemic of the Nineteenth Century; which he holds the anti-slavery fanaticism to be. He thus concludes: "Baseless in reason, as in Scripture, like the wild frenzy of the old Crusades, this epidemic 'African fever' shall infallibly pass away; not, perhaps, till it has disjoined and destroyed this otherwise sound and well compacted body of States, glorious in their youth and strength and happy promise." There are "Wild Sports in India," by Capt. Henry Shakespear, and the Tribune's translation of "The Musquitoe," from La Science pour tous.
Sarah J. C. Whittlesey writes a poem, "Summer is Over;" somebody writes one to his wife; F. J. describes, in three cantos, Tom Johnson's "Country Courting;" Preston Davis sends Lines and some Sonnets, from Hartford, Conn.; Wm. J. Miller, of Baltimore, and of the U. S. A., in Mexico, celebrates "The Dead in the Chaparral," and Mary Copland composes "Love's Flowers."
The Editor's Table has a half-length portrait of Adelina Patti and an account of the trip to Niagara and Canada, including the Saguenay. It is announced that Mr. Thompson intends to deliver in Southern cities his lecture on Poe. The writer had the pleasure of hearing it in Richmond. There is a special poem, by James Wood Davidson, of Columbia, S. C., to Mrs. Clemm, the "more than mother" of Edgar A. Poe. We are informed: "We had the assurance of Mr. Brodie that he would furnish us regularly with fashion plates. He has disappointed us. We must make other arrangements." Was Mr. Brodie's fashion plate depot in the South?
Marion Harland's "Nemesis" is tartly noticed; but not so "The Sunny South;" five years' experience of a Northern governess in the land of the sugar and the cotton. Edited by Prof. J. H. Ingraham, of Mississippi.
Lady Mary Wortley Montague, with the portrait scene, in which she, Pope and Kneller are pictured, opens the number for December. Dr. A. E. Peticolas translates from Dumas, Jr., "The Pigeon Prize; or Variations on a Paradox." There is another of Faraday's lectures, with diagrams, and more leaves from a "Mourner's Portfolio." C. compares and contrasts Thackeray and Dickens. "Bricks" is a humorous and satirical rub-a-dub of folks at the Rainbow Sulphur Springs, Va., and is by R. H. Anderson, of Richmond. He died early. "Le petit Cootis" is a sad but lively sketch of college life and friendship. "Death and Burial of De Soto" is a long and ambitious poem, anonymous; also, B.'s "Northman's Cause." Fanny Fielding re-appears.
The editor is not merely a humorist: He can write seriously, vigorously and argumentatively. He now, in a long article, commits the Messenger to Secession and urges Virginia to enter into it quickly. He takes no special leave of his patrons.
The commencement of the great internecine war between the North and the South is now nigh: still the Messenger moves steadily on but becomes intensely secessional. The editor clamors from Washington as well as at home, for the secession of Virginia, and gathers from newspapers strong adjuvant articles by J. Randolph Tucker, James Lyons and M. R. H. Garnett. He exults in John M. Daniel's return to the Examiner and says: "His pen combines the qualities of the scimitar of Saladin and the battle axe of Coeur de Leon and he is wielding it like a very Orlando. Had he entered the fight six months ago, Virginia would now be in the Southern Confederacy." Virginia seceded on the 17th of April. Sumter had been taken, Lincoln had called for 75,000 men to maintain the Union and the Peace Congress had failed. In the meanwhile the Messenger had issued four numbers; filled with the usual variety of prose, poetry and editorial matter, with a few illustrated articles and a fashion plate from Brodie, of New York. Simms returns; F. R. S. begins "A Story of Champaigne;" the author of "Black Diamonds" writes "The Story of a California Faro Table;" Dr. W. H. Holcombe, from Louisiana, presents "The Alternative: A Separate Nationality, or the Africanization of the South;" some one discusses "The Disfederation of the States" and a number of others furnish a good deal of interesting reading.
The borrowed contribution of Attorney General J. R. Tucker is entitled "The Great Issue and our Relations to it," and occupies 28 pages. His nephew, St. Geo. Tucker, helps the same cause, with a poem on "The Southern Cross." Tenella reappears and is now in Texas.
In the May number (gotten up in April), the editor says: "A war most unholy and unnatural has begun. * * * As we write, the Virginia Convention is in secret session and the people are impatiently awaiting the passage of an ordinance of secession. * * * As to the issue of this war we have no fears. The 'rebels' of the South will conquer just as surely as the 'rebels' of '76 conquered." And he predicts that Washington will ere long be in the possession of the Confederates, though probably a mass of ruins. Among the strong articles of this month are: "The one Great Cause of the Failure of the Federal Government," by an Alabamian; "The Dutch Republic," a review of John Lothrop Motley, by Wm. Archer Cocke, a lawyer of Richmond and author of a treatise on Constitutional Law, and the New Republic,—the Southern Confederacy."
The Editor's Table has frequently some good poetry—original and copied. This one, besides "Virginia; Late but Sure," by Dr. Holcombe, copies a luscious description of hugging and kissing, by Annabel Montfort.
L. W. Spratt, in a letter to Hon. John Perkins, delegate from Louisiana, considers the "Slave Trade and the Southern Congress." John R. Thompson's "Poem for the Times" is taken from The Mercury. Mary J. Upshur, of Norfolk, sends forth her verses, "Little Footsteps." Oats, of Virginia, addresses "The Massachusetts Regiment, in a prose, not a prize poem, dedicated (without permission) to the Mutual Admiration Society of the Modern Athens, of which the Atlantic Monthly is at once the trumpet and the organ."
"Nicaragua, its Monuments," etc., etc., is illustrated. "A Story of Champaigne" is running on. But who wrote "The Gathering of the Southern Volunteers," to the air of La Marseillaise?
Here comes the announcement: "Dr. G. W. Bagby has left for the war. * * * Many friends have come forward and offered to assist the proprietors in the editorial department, whose services have been thankfully received." They appeal earnestly to their subscribers to enable them to carry on the work, despite the great obstacles they were encountering, among which were the soldiering of some of their force, in addition to their editor, and the difficulty of obtaining printing materials. They had already been driven to paper of inferior quality. J. M. Kilgour, of Frederick, Md., dedicates to his friend Capt. (now General) Bradley T. Johnson his "Harp of the South, Awake!"
Now steps forth a new author, who, however, has been favorably heralded, the Hon. Wm. M. Burwell. He brings a historical novel, which continues into the next year: "Exile and Empire." Prior to this time, this writer had long been intimate with Mr. Burwell, who was prominent in the political and social life of his native and beloved Virginia. He and his family had a fine old mansion in Liberty, since foolishly and disastrously boomed into Bedford City. He was a man of high and refined culture and particularly fond of old English poetry, whose language was quaint and sometimes required a glossary. He used to exercise himself in composing verses after that style. Owing to his public spirit, free hospitality and neglect of economics, a reverse of fortune overtook him and he removed to New Orleans, where he took hold of Do Bow's Review. But his devotion to literature never abated and here we have some of its fruits, ripe and pleasing. He once edited "The Age" in Richmond.
Mrs. M. S. Whitaker furnishes a serial tale, to which there are many excellent sequents. The South is well defended both outside of the Editor's Table and in it, which is full and well sustained.
"Alice Dawson," a long love-story in verse, is anonymous. B., of Orange county, sends a poem: "The Great Fast Day in the South, June 13th." Can that be B. Johnson Barbour? Mary J. Upshur, of Norfolk, appears again. Susan A. Talley opens her "Battle Eye." Mrs. S. A. Dickins utters a "Monologue to the Seabreeze," at Sullivan's Island.
W. S. Bogart, of Norfolk and afterwards of Savannah, tells of the historic landmarks in lower Virginia; and E. C. Mead, of Australia. Mr. Spratt's letter to Honorable Delegate Perkins, about the slave trade by the Southern Confederacy, is ventilated; and so on.
Well, the battle of Bull Run, or first Manassas, has been fought and the Messenger celebrates the great victory; and also the one at Bethel. The reasons are given for Magruder's burning Hampton. Mrs. Whittaker's poem on Manassas, July 21, 1861, is copied from the Richmond Enquirer. The Messenger again appeals to its subscribers and to Southerners who are not such. From Clinch Mountain in East Tennessee, we descend to Manassas' fields, to hear Susan A. Talley recount the victory there. Then we follow W. S. B. and Mr. Burwell, but as we pass from one to the other, we hear Dr. Holcombe's strain about "Christian Love in Battle," an incident at Manassas. W. Howard Perigo, of Kentucky, sings of "Unknown Heroes." There is a candid letter to the Rev. Dr. Stephen H. Tyng, rebuking him for his "bloody zeal" and contrasting him with venerable Bishop Meade. Yes, after Dr. Tyng's long and apparently affectionate affiliations with the Episcopalians of Virginia better things might well have been expected from him.
Mildred has a long poem styled "The Visitation." Klutz makes a new story out of an old one. Dr. Holcombe addresses poetically General Winfield Scott. A comparison and parallel are run between the battles of Pharsalia and of Manassas.
The leader of the Editor's Table for September is injudicious and extravagant, even to absurdity. The wonder is who produced it. The acting editor corrects some mistakes made by W. S. Bogart. Mrs. Mary S. Whittaker describes Manassas after the battle. There are no notices of new publications. Even before communication with the North was cut off, publishers, except Harper & Brothers and Ticknor & Fields, had stopped sending their works to the Messenger. A few are published in Richmond and afterwards noticed. Holt Wilson makes reflections on the present crisis. Iris, a new poet of Fauqnier county, feels very much "Alone." Burwell continues, and so do Mead and W. S. B. with a sonnet and a poem between. "Boston Notions" is a letter and reply. The letter, from Fred. S. O., of Boston, expresses some Eastern "notions"; the reply is by M. E. L., of Norfolk. Pharsalia and Manassas is continued. Dr. Holcombe poetizes on "Sic Semper Tyrannis." Klutz's new old story runs on and a lady of Maryland offers an appeal to her State, from a dying soldier at Manassas.
The Editor's Table has become critical, slashing and rasping. It contains a letter from the eminent Dr. Cartwright on the war-spirit among the women. What is it? What has caused it? Also a fine article from the N. O. Delta, on "A New Development of Southern Literature." Mrs. Browning is dead and a tribute to her is "extracted from an abolition print, the Atlantic Monthly, but in spite of that, it is well worth reading." She is afterwards reviewed by Samuel B. Holcombe. Tenella, who had been called for by the editor, returns with a letter and a poem on "Sadness." After the battle of Bull Run, Yankee Doodle do was changed to Yankee Doodle done.
"The Mystic Circle of Kate's Mountain" was composed by John Howard, a lawyer of Richmond. A few years ago, he republished it and showed it to this writer. It is a full poetical description of a visit which a party of ladies and gentlemen at the Greenbrier White, in 1860, made to the lofty Kate and hoisted upon a tall oak on its highest peak the first secession flag. Towards the close of 1861, the contributors of verse are Dr. Holcombe, Rev. Dr. John C. McCabe (now a Chaplain, C. S. A.), Mary J. Upshur, Henry C. Alexander, Dr. Ticknor, Mrs. S. A. Dinkins, of South Carolina, and James B. Randall, who does justice to Gen. Sterling Price—"Old Pap."
The prose writers are Dr. Holcombe, Klutz, W. S. Bogart, Augusta Washington, Burwell, Fannie G. Ireton, Iris, of Fauquier county, Mead, W. S. Grayson, and others anonymous.
One leading editorial is devoted to stirring up the subscribers and inciting them to do speedy justice to the proprietors, who have done so much to entitle them to gratitude, liberality and prompt payment. Another deplores the continued inactivity of the Confederate armies and urges a more vigorous and aggressive policy.
Three sisters of southwestern Virginia resent the onslaught which the acting editor made upon some of his female contributors, and do it so happily, that they are invited to send their effusions. One of them, Leola, sends "God and Liberty," respectfully inscribed to the Virginia Cavalry. She also makes another poetic contribution.
Dr. Bagby's physical condition did not permit him to remain long with the army, and the magazine still flies his name as editor. Its literary character is well sustained and some new writers enlist; among them Capt. W. T. Walthall, of Alabama, indites three letters to an Englishman, in behalf of the Confederate cause; and E. H. Anderson writes "Latter-day Fiction: Charles Beade." This was the bright young Richmonder and humorist, already mentioned, who died early of consumption. Lona Lee, of Alabama, is a new recruit. So is W. Gordon McCabe, who sends from the camp of the Howitzers both prose and verse. On one occasion he sat down chiefly to review Dante's "Divine Comedy;" but got so interested in his lesser works, that, Felix-like, he deferred the greater one to "a more convenient season." W. G. M. reappears, from a camp. Who was he? Rev. Robert R. Howison, already a historian of Virginia, commences the "History of the War;" which causes so many copies to be sold that the usual edition is readily exhausted and room is made for this home demand by striking off a number of delinquent subscribers; who are thus taunted: "Dear literary paupers, farewell. May you be happy. May you find some one else simple and rich enough to furnish you with reading matter free of cost. Good-bye." Then the work is put upon a cash basis.
Paul Hayne and Simms come back. Laura Bibb Rogers is a new contributor, with a short story; so is Lillian R. Messenger, with a poem; so is J. F. S., of Richmond, with a story; so is A. W. Dillard, with a review of Carlyle's philosophy and style; so is J. A. Via, with "The Death of Ashby;" so is G. Tochman, the Pole, with his Letters. Having had the "Reveries of a Bachelor," we now have "The Reverie of an Old Maid."
S. Teackle Wallis reappears from "Fort Warren Dungeon." James T. Shields is of the new ones; also Margaret Stilling, Samuel B. Davies, Gervase Rookwood and Ellen Key Blunt. There are a number of articles entirely anonymous, besides many by well known authors. Mr. Chas. Deane's denial of the rescue of Smith by Pocahontas is combatted; and "The Lady Rebecca" is sketched by W. S. Bogart
Mr. Burwell's novel is concluded and in the meanwhile he receives attention as follows: "The best epigram of the war is the following, which we wager came from the pen of the accomplished and witty author of 'Exile and Empire.' We know of no other man who could have done it; in fact, to the best of our belief, he is the only epigrammatist in all the South."
This is a shaft at Gen. McClellan.
There is also a good supply of poetry, among which are J. R. Thompson's "Ashby;" "Battle Rainbow," and "Burial of Latane;" Susan A. Talley's "Story of the Merrimac" and Randall's "My Maryland." The Rev. J. Collins McCabe also writes a poem about Maryland; and there is one about her not coming.
The editor continues to be warlike, advisory, supervisory, eclectic, facetious and sometimes atrabilious. He still harps upon illustrations and refers to the rapid success of the Southern Illustrated News. The appearance of the Messenger was unavoidably greatly delayed and there were in this year four double numbers. Yet it pulled nobly through. It did likewise, month after month, for 1863, with one double number for November and December. Among the new contributors are P. W. Alexander, F. H. Alfriend, Samuel B. Davies, Lamar Fontaine (author of "All quiet along the Potomac to night"), Henry C. Alexander, Margaret Pigot, R. B. Witter, Jr., W. S. Forest, Barry Cornwall, Gerald Massey, A. Jeffery, Edward S. Joynes, professor in William and Mary, Wm. M. Semple, Robert Leslie, Dr. Stuart (on "The Anglo-Saxon Mania") and Geo. Fitzhugh. There is "The Fire Legend—a Nightmare," from an unpublished MS. of the late Edgar A. Poe.
Of old friends, Tenella shows how she can write prose as well as poetry; Judge A. B. Meek returns, with a War Song; Wm. M. Burwell has a witty poem, "John Bull Turned Quaker," and we have J. R. Thompson's poetic report of a debate on "Neutrality in the English Parliament," which was copied into the London Punch. Mr. Howison's history (in which he inserts Mr. Thompson's famous "On to Richmond") is to be continued into the next year; as is also Filia's novel, "Agnes." E. A. Pollard is publishing a history of the war. The Messenger had to enlarge its monthly editions and to raise its subscription price.
The Editor's Table continues bellicose and querulous, yet hopeful and even pious. It says: "But God does not intend that they shall obtain it (the whole South). In mercy to them, as well as to us, He has decreed, we firmly believe, the independence of the South, as the best possible solution of existing troubles. In this confident hope and belief, we must and will struggle on till the goal is won." Later on it says: "At present, our case is not hopeless, even supposing Charleston to be lost and Chattanooga abandoned, without a struggle, and East Tennessee imperilled."
Poetasters are scored for sending "two much trash in rhyme. What is called poetry, by its authors, is not wanted. Fires are not accessible at this time of year and it is too much trouble to tear up poetry. If it is thrown out of the window, the vexatious wind always blows it back."
Facetiæ are still prominent and Dr. Bagby announces that he is collecting materials for two books—one "Southern Heroes and Heroic Incidents," and the other "Humorous Anecdotes of the War." He requests the assistance of all who are friendly to him, or to the enterprise, and he afterwards states that he has matter for three volumes, with considerable winnowing. But there is a very good article showing what the South had done in the way of publications, despite its blockade by land and sea. West and Johnston actually published Hugo's "Les Misérables," besides a number of other works.
The immortal Stonewall has "crossed over the river and is resting under the shade of the trees" of everlasting life. The editor says: "Our idol has been taken from us. The man we delighted most to honor, the chieftain loved and trusted beyond all others is no more."
January, 1864. Jackson can now rest, but Lee and his other friends whom he left in the Wilderness cannot. The war goes on and so does the Messenger, but like Jackson's corps, it has a new commander. Wedderburn and Alfriend have become its proprietors and Frank H. Alfriend editor. Still, the old regime finishes the January number for 1864 and issues a very impolitic and unnecessary valedictory, in which its past is hugely decried and wonderful improvements by the new parties are promised. They "bid their friends and readers a cordial, hearty and hopeful farewell." What is the difference between cordial and hearty?
Filia's "Agnes" and Howison's history, with prose and poetry by others, old and new, fill the number. Among the new contributors are Mollie E. Moore and Edward Porter Thompson. Ikey Ingle also writes; but this may be only a nom de plume.