The Trial of Joan of Arc :being a verbatim report of the proceedings from the Orleans manuscript/The University of Paris
|←Torture||The Trial of Joan of Arc : being the verbatim report of the proceedings from the Orleans manuscript
, translated by W. S. Scot
The University of Paris
|The Charitable Admonition→|
THE CONSIDERATION OF THE OPINION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS
In the year one thousand four hundred XXXI, on Saturday, the XIXth day of May,
The judges assembled in the chapel of the archiepiscopal manor of Rouen, before the Bishop of Beauvais and the Vice‑Inquisitor of the Faith: MaÓtres Raoul Roussel, Nicolas de VenderËs, the Abbot of FÈcamp, AndrÈ Marguerie, Jean Pichon, Jean de Ch‚tillon, Evrard Emengard, Guillaume Le Boucher, the Prior of Longueville, Jean BeaupËre, Nicolas Midi, Maurice du ChÍne, Pierre de Hodeng, Jean LefÀvre, the Abbot of Mortemer, the Prior of Saint LÙ, Pierre Maurice, Jacques Quesdon, Jean Foucher, the Abbot of Cormeilles, Jean Foucher, Thomas de Courcelles, Nicolas de Couppequesne, Raoul Silvestre, Jean Pigache, Richard Gruchel, Nicolas Loiseleur, Pasquier de Vaux, Denis Gastinel, Jean Mauger, Jean Secart, Jean Adensem, Geoffroi du Crotoy, Guillaume de la Chambre, Jean du Quemyn, Martin Ladvenu, Ysambard de la Pierre, Guillaume de Lyvet, Jean Le Doulx, Jean Colombel, Richard Dessaul, Laurens du Bosc, Pierre le Mynier, Pierre CarrÈ and Raoul Auguy.
In the presence of all of these, the Bishop of Beauvais read at length the report of the trial of Jeanne.
This done, on the advice of all the judges it was ordered that the Articles that had been sent to the University of Paris should be read in their presence.
[After the Opinion of the University had been considered by the doctors and masters assembled at Rouen, these latter agreed with it, and advised that it should be read to Jeanne, and that she should be charitably admonished and warned before a final Sentence was pronounced.]
THE READING OF THE CENSURES OF THE UNIVERSITY
Read and pronounced by M‚itre Pierre Maurice, doctor in theology, together with the University's deliberations upon each of the Articles.
Firstly, he addressed himself to Jeanne, saying to her:
You, Jeanne, have said that from the age of thirteen you have had revelations and apparitions of angels, of Saint Catherine and of Saint Margaret, and that you have frequently seen them with your bodily eyes; and that they have spoken to you.
On this first point the clerks of the University of Paris have considered the form of the said revelations and apparitions and the purpose and matter of the things revealed, and the condition of the person. Taking all these things into consideration, they have said and declared that all the aforementioned things are lies, untrue, pernicious and evil; and that all such revelations are superstitious, and proceed from evil and devilish spirits.
You have said that your king had a sign whereby he knew that you were sent from God; for Saint Michael, accompanied by several angels, some having wings, and others crowns, and with them Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, came to you in the castle of Chinon, and climbed the steps of the castle as far as the hall of your king, before whom the angel who carried a crown, bowed. On one occasion you said that when your king received this sign, he was alone; on another occasion you said that this crown, which you call 'a sign', was given to the Archbishop of Rheims, who handed it to your king in the presence of several princes and lords whom you named.
As for this Article, the clerks say that it is not true; but is a presumptuous lie, seductive and pernicious, and a pretence that is derogatory of both ecclesiastical and angelic dignity.
You have said that you recognized the angels and the saints by the good advice, and the comfort and teaching that they gave you. And you also believe that it was Saint Michael who appeared to you; and you declare that their deeds and words are good; and that you believe this as firmly as you believe the Faith of Jesus Christ.
As for this Article, the clerks say that such things are not sufficient to [enable you to] recognize these angels and saints; that you believed too lightly and affirmed your belief too rashly; and that inasmuch as you make a comparison saying you believe these things as firmly as you believe in the Faith of Jesus Christ, you err in the faith.
You have said that you are aware of certain things to come, and that you have known hidden secrets; and that you have recognized people whom you had never seen before; and that you have done so by means of the voices of Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret.
As for this Article, they say that in this matter there are both superstition and divination, presumptuous assertion, and vain boasting.
You have said that, by God's command, you have continually worn man's dress, wearing the short robe, doublet, and hose attached by points; that you have also worn your hair short, cut en rond above your ears, with nothing left that could show you to be a woman; and that on many occasions you received the Body of our Lord dressed in this fashion, although you have been frequently admonished to leave it off, which you have refused to do, saying that you would rather die than leave it off, save by God's command. And you said further that if you were still so dressed and with the king and those of his party, it would be one of the greatest blessings for the kingdom of France; and you have said that not for anything would you take an oath not to wear this dress or carry arms; and concerning all these matters you have said that you did well, and obediently to God's command.
As for these points, the clerks say that you blaspheme God in His sacraments; that you transgress divine law, the Holy Scriptures and the canon law; you hold the Faith doubtfully and wrongly; you boast vainly; you are suspect of idolatry; and you condemn yourself in being unwilling to wear the customary clothing of your sex, and following the custom of the Gentiles and the heathen.
You have said that often in your letters you have put the two names JESUS MARIA and the sign of the Cross, in token that those to whom you have written should not do that which is contained in your letters; and in others of your letters you have boasted that you would see by the result who had the best right; and on many occasions you said that you had done nothing save by revelation and by God's command.
As for this Article, the clerks say that you are cruel and a murderess, desirous of the shedding of human blood, seditious, provoking to tyranny, and blaspheming God and His commandments and revelations.
You have said that, following the revelations you had had, at the age of seventeen you left your father and mother against their will, causing them such anxiety that they went almost out of their minds. And you went to Robert de Baudricourt, who, at your request, gave you a man's garments and a sword, and also men to lead you to your king, to whom you said that you had come to drive out his enemies; and you promised him that you would install him in his kingdom; and that he would have victory over all his enemies; and that God had sent you to do so. And you said that you had done all these things in obedience to God's revelation.
As for this Article, the clerks say that you have acted wrongly and impetuously towards your father and mother, therein transgressing the commandment of God to honour thy father and thy mother; that you have behaved scandalously, blaspheming God and erring in the Faith. And the promise that you made to your king was presumptuous and rash.
You have said that of your own will you leaped from the tower of Beaurevoir into the moat, preferring to die rather than to be put in the hands of the English and to live on after the destruction of CompiËgne; and that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret forbade you to leap, but you could not refrain from doing so, although you sinned greatly in leaping contrary to their orders; but you have since learned from your voices that God had forgiven the sin, after you had confessed it.
As for this Article, the clerks say that in this was cowardice tending to despair and to suicide; and that you have made a rash and presumptuous assertion in saying that God had forgiven the sin; showing that you wrongly understand [the doctrine of] free‑will and man's right to choose.
You have said that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret promised to bring you to heaven, provided you kept your virginity which you vowed and promised them. And of this you are as certain as if you were already in the glory of Paradise; and you do not believe that you have committed mortal sin; for if you were in mortal sin, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret would not come to you as they do.
As for this Article, the clerks say that herein you are guilty of a rash and presumptuous assertion and of pernicious lies; that you contradict what you previously said, and that you incorrectly understand the Christian Faith.
You have said that you are well assured that God loves certain others living more than yourself, and that you know this by revelation from these saints, who speak in the French language; and not in English, because they are not of their party. And that, ever since you learned that the voices were on your king's side, you have not loved the Burgundians.
As for this Article, the clerks say that this is a rash presumption and assertion, blasphemy against the saints, and transgression of God's commandment to love one's neighbour.
You have said that to those whom you call Saint Michael, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret you made several reverences, kneeling and kissing the ground they walked on, and vowing your virginity to them; and even that you have kissed and embraced them, and from the beginning [believed] that they came from God, without asking advice from your curÈ or from any churchman; but that none the less you believe that this voice has come from God, as firmly as you believe in the Christian Faith and that Jesus Christ suffered His death and passion; and that if any evil spirits were to appear in the form and feature of Saint Michael, you would know it. You have also said that not for anyone in the world would you tell the sign given to your king, save by God's command.
To which the clerks say that, supposing you have had the revelations and apparitions of which you boast, in the way that you say, you are an idolater, and invoker of demons, a wanderer from the Faith, and have rashly taken an unlawful oath.
You have said that if the Church desired you to do the opposite of the commandment which you say you have received from God, you would not do so for anything in the world. And you know for certain that what is contained in your trial came by God's command; and that it would be impossible for you to do the contrary. And that, concerning all the afore‑mentioned matters, you are not willing to refer them to the judgment of the Church on earth, nor of any man alive, but only to God alone. And you say further that you do not give your answers of your own intelligence, but by command of God, regardless of the fact that the article of the Faith which says that everyone must believe in the Catholic Church has been several times explained to you; and that every good Catholic Christian must submit all his deeds to the Church, and especially facts concerning revelations and such‑like.
As for this Article, the clerks say that you are schismatic, having no comprehension of the truth and authority of the Church; and that up to the present you have perniciously erred in the faith of God.