The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication/Index

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INDEX

Abbas Pacha, a fancier of fantailed pigeons, i. 206.
Abbey, Mr., on grafting, ii. 147;
on mignonette, ii. 237.
Abbott, Mr. Keith, on the Persian tumbler pigeon, i. 150.
Abbreviation of the facial bones, i. 73.
Abortion of organs, ii. 315-318, 397.
Absorption of minority in crossed races, ii. 87-89, 174.
Acclimatisation, ii. 305-315;
of maize, i. 322.
Acerbi, on the fertility of domestic animals in Lapland, ii. 112.
Achatinella, ii. 53.
Achillea millefolium, bud variation in, i. 408.
Aconitum napellus, roots of, innocuous in cold climates, ii. 274.
Acorus calamus, sterility of, ii. 170.
Acosta, on fowls in South America at its discovery, i. 237.
Acropera, number of seeds in, ii. 379.
Adam, Mr., origin of Cytisus Adami, i. 390.
Adam, W., on consanguineous marriages, ii. 123.
Adams, Mr., on hereditary diseases, ii. 7.
Advancement in scale of organisation, i. 8.
Ægilops triticoides, observations of Fabre and Godron on, i. 313;
increasing fertility of hybrids of, with wheat, ii. 110.
Æsculus flava and rubicunda, i. 392.
Æsculus pavia, tendency of, to become double, ii. 168.
Æthusa cynapium, ii. 337.
Affinity, sexual elective, ii. 180.
Africa, white bull from, i. 91;
feral cattle in, i. 85;
food-plants of savages of, i. 307-309;
South, diversity of breeds of cattle in, i. 80;
West, change in fleece of sheep in, i. 98.
Agave vivipara, seeding of, in poor soil, ii. 169.
Age, changes in trees, dependent on, i. 387.
Agouti, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Agriculture, antiquity of, ii. 243.
Agrostis, seeds of, used as food, i. 309.
Aguara, i. 26.
Ainsworth, Mr., on the change in the hair of animals at Angora, ii. 278.
Akbar Khan, his fondness for pigeons, i. 205; ii. 204.
Alauda arvensis, ii. 154.
Albin, on "Golden Hamburgh" fowls, i. 247;
figure of the hook-billed duck, i. 277.
Albinism, i. 111, ii. 17.
Albino, negro, attacked by insects, ii. 229.
Albinoes, heredity of, ii. 9.
Albinus, thickness of the epidermis on the palms of the hands in man, ii. 297.
Alco, i. 31, ii. 102.
Aldrovandi, on rabbits, i. 104;
description of the nun pigeon, i. 156;
on the fondness of the Dutch for pigeons in the seventeenth century, i. 205;
notice of several varieties of pigeons, i. 207-210;
on the breeds of fowls, i. 247;
on the origin of the domestic duck, i. 278.
Alefield, Dr., on the varieties of peas and their specific unity, i. 326;
on the varieties of beans, i. 330.
Alexander the Great, his selection of Indian cattle, ii. 202.
Algæ, retrogressive metamorphosis in, ii. 361;
division of zoospores of, ii. 378.
Allen, W., on feral fowls, i. 237; ii. 33.
Allman, Professor, on a monstrous Saxifraga geum, ii. 166;
on the development of the Hydroida, ii. 368.
Almond, i. 337;
antiquity of, ii. 429;
bitter, not eaten by mice, ii. 232.
Alnus glutinosa and incana, hybrids of, ii. 130.
Alpaca, selection of, ii. 208.
Althæa rosea, i. 378, ii. 107.
Amaryllis, ii. 139.
Amaryllis vittata, effect of foreign pollen on, i. 400.
Amaurosis, hereditary, ii. 9.
America, limits within which no useful plants have been furnished by, i. 310;
colours of feral horses in, i. 60-61;
North, native cultivated plants of, i. 312;
skin of feral pig from, i. 77;
South, variations in cattle of, i. 88, 92.
Amygdalus persica, i. 336-344, 374.
Ammon, on the persistency of colour in horses, ii. 21.
Anagallis arvensis, ii. 190.
Analogous variation, i. 409, ii. 348-352;
in horses, i. 55;
in the horse and ass, i. 64;
in fowls, i. 243-246.
Anas boschas, i. 277, ii. 40;
skull of, figured, i. 282.
Anas moschata, ii. 40.
"Ancon" sheep of Massachusetts, i. 100, ii. 103.
Andalusian fowls, i. 227.
Andalusian rabbits, i. 105.
Anderson, J., on the origin of British sheep, i. 94;
on the selection of qualities in cattle, ii. 196;
on a one-eared breed of rabbits, i. 108;
on the inheritance of characters from a one-eared rabbit and three-legged bitch, ii. 12;
on the persistency of varieties of peas, i. 329;
on the production of early peas by selection, ii. 201;
on the varieties of the potato, i. 330-331;
on crossing varieties of the melon, i. 399;
on reversion in the barberry, i. 384.
Anderson, Mr., on the reproduction of the weeping ash by seed, ii. 19;
on the cultivation of the tree pæony in China, ii. 205.
Andersson, Mr., on the Damara, Bechuana, and Namaqua cattle, i. 88;
on the cows of the Damaras, ii. 300;
selection practised by the Damaras and Namaquas, ii. 207;
on the use of grass-seeds and the roots of reeds as food in South Africa, i. 309.
Anemone coronaria, doubled by selection, ii. 200.
Angina pectoris, hereditary, occurring at a certain age, ii. 79.
Anglesea, cattle of, i. 80.
Angola sheep, i. 95.
Angora, change in hair of animals at, ii. 278;
cats of, i. 45, 47;
rabbits of, i. 106, 120.
Animals, domestication of, facilitated by fearlessness of man, i. 20;
refusal of wild, to breed in captivity, ii. 149;
compound, individual peculiarities of, reproduced by budding, i. 374;
variation by selection in useful qualities of, ii. 220.
Annual plants, rarity of bud-variation in, i. 408.
Anomalies in the osteology of the horse, i. 50.
Anomalous breeds of pigs, i. 75;
of cattle, i. 89.
Anser albifrons, characters of, reproduced in domestic geese, i. 288.
Anser ægyptiacus, i. 282; ii. 68.
Anser canadensis, ii. 157.
Anser cygnoides, i. 237.
Anser ferus, the original of the domestic goose, i. 287;
fertility of cross of, with domestic goose, i. 288.
Anson, on feral fowls in the Ladrones, i. 238.
Antagonism between growth and reproduction, ii. 384.
Anthemis nobilis, bud-variation in flowers of, i. 379;
becomes single in poor soil, ii. 167.
Antherozoids, apparent independence of, in algæ, ii. 384.
Anthers, contabescence of, ii. 165-166.
Antigua, cats of, i. 46;
changed fleece of sheep in, i. 98.
Antirrhinum majus, peloric, i. 365; ii. 59, 70, 166;
double-flowered, ii. 167;
bud-variation in, i. 381.
Ants, individual recognition of, ii. 251.
Apes, anthropomorphous, ii. 123.
Aphides, attacking pear-trees, ii. 231;
development of, ii. 361-362.
Apoplexy, hereditary, occurring at a certain age, ii. 78.
Apple, i. 348-350;
fruit of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 317;
rendered fastigate by heat in India, i. 361;
bud-variation in the, i. 376;
with dimidiate fruit, i. 392-393;
with two kinds of fruit on the same branch, i. 392;
artificial fecundation of, i. 401;
St. Valéry, i. 401; ii. 166;
reversion in seedlings of, ii. 31;
crossing of varieties of, ii. 129;
growth of the, in Ceylon, ii. 277;
Winter Majetin, not attacked by coccus, ii. 231;
flower-buds of, attacked by bullfinches, ii. 232;
American, change of when grown in England, ii. 275.
Apricot, i. 344-345;
glands on the leaves of, ii. 231;
analogous variation in the, ii. 348.
Aquila fusca, copulating in captivity, ii. 154.
Aquilegia vulgaris, i. 365; ii. 330.
Arab boarhound, described by Harcourt, i. 17.
Arabis blepharophylla and A. Soyeri, effects of crossing, i. 400.
Aralia trifoliata, bud-variation in leaves of, i. 382.
Araucarias, young, variable resistance of, to frost, ii. 309.
Archangel pigeon, ii. 240.
Arctic regions, variability of plants and shells of, ii. 256.
Aria vestita, grafted on thorns, i. 387.
Aristophanes, fowls mentioned by, i. 246.
Aristotle, on solid-hoofed pigs, i. 75;
domestic duck unknown to, i. 277;
on the assumption of male characters by old hens, ii. 51.
Arni, domestication of the, i. 82.
Arrest of development, ii. 315-318.
Arteries, increase of anastomosing branches of, when tied, ii. 230.
Aru islands, wild pig of, i. 67.
Arum, Polynesian varieties of, ii. 256.
Ascaris, number of eggs of, ii. 379.
Ash, varieties of the, i. 360;
weeping, i. 361;
simple-leaved, i. 362;
bud-variation in, i. 382;
effects of graft upon the stock in the, i. 394;
production of the blotched Breadalbane, ibid.;
weeping, capricious reproduction of, by seed, ii. 19.
Asinus Burchellii, i. 64.
Asinus hemionus, ii. 43.
Asinus indicus, ii. 42-43, 48.
Asinus quagga, i. 64.
Asinus tæniopus, ii. 41;
the original of the domestic ass, i. 62.
Asparagus, increased fertility of cultivated, ii. 113.
Ass, early domestication of the, i. 62;
breeds of, ibid.;
small size of, in India, ibid.;
stripes of, i. 62-63; ii. 351;
dislike of to cross water, i. 181;
reversion in, ii. 41-43, 47;
hybrid of the, with mare and zebra, ii. 42;
prepotency of the, over the horse, ii. 67-68;
crossed with wild ass, ii. 206;
variation and selection of the, ii. 236.
Assyrian sculpture of a mastiff, i. 17.
Asters, ii. 20, 316.
Asthma, hereditary, ii. 8, 79.
Atavism. See Reversion.
Athelstan, his care of horses, ii. 203.
Atkinson, Mr., on the sterility of the Tarroo silk-moth in confinement, ii. 157.
Aubergine, ii. 91.
Audubon, on feral hybrid ducks, i. 190; ii. 46;
on the domestication of wild ducks on the Mississippi, i. 278;
on the wild cock turkey visiting domestic hens, i. 292;
fertility of Fringilla ciris in captivity, ii. 154;
fertility of Columba migratoria and leucocephala in captivity, ii. 155;
breeding of Anser canadensis in captivity, ii. 157.
Audubon and Bachman, on the change of coat in Ovis montana, i. 99;
sterility of Sciurus cinerea in confinement, ii. 152.
Auricula, effect of seasonal conditions on the, ii. 273;
blooming of, ii. 346.
Australia, no generally useful plants derived from, i. 310;
useful plants of, enumerated by Hooker, i. 311.
Austria, heredity of character in emperors of, ii. 65.
Autenrieth, on persistency of colour in horses, ii. 21.
Ava, horses of, i. 53.
Avena fatua, cultivability of, i. 313.
Ayeen Akbery, pigeons mentioned in the, i. 150, 155, 185, 205, 207, 208.
Ayres, W. P., on bud-variation in pelargoniums, i. 378.
Azalea indica, bud-variation in, i. 377.
Azara, on the feral dogs of La Plata, i. 27;
on the crossing of domestic with wild cats in Paraguay, i. 45;
on hornlike processes in horses, i. 50;
on curled hair in horses, i. 54; ii. 205, 325;
on the colours of feral horses, i. 60, 61; ii. 259;
on the cattle of Paraguay and La Plata, i. 82, 86, 89; ii. 250;
on a hornless bull, ii. 205;
on the increase of cattle in South America, ii. 119;
on the growth of horns in the hornless cattle of Corrientes, ii. 39;
on the "Niata" cattle, i. 90;
on naked quadrupeds, ii. 279;
on a race of black-skinned fowls in South America, i. 258; ii. 209;
on a variety of maize, i. 321.
Babington, C. C., on the origin of the plum, i. 345;
British species of the genus Rosa, i. 366;
distinctness of Viola lutea and tricolor, i. 368.
Bachmann, Mr., on the turkey, ii. 262.
See also Audubon.
Badger, breeding in confinement, ii. 151.
"Bagadotten-Taube," i. 141.
Baily, Mr., on the effect of selection on fowls, ii. 198;
on Dorking fowls, ii. 238.
Baird, S., on the origin of the turkey, i. 292.
Baker, Mr., on heredity in the horse, ii. 11;
on the degeneration of the horse by neglect, ii. 239;
orders of Henrys VII. and VIII. for the destruction of undersized mares, ii. 203.
Bakewell, change in the sheep effected by, ii. 198.
Balancement, ii. 342-344;
of growth, law of, i. 274.
Baldhead, pigeon, i. 151.
Baldness, in man, inherited, ii. 73-74;
with deficiency in teeth, ii. 326-327.
Ballance, Mr., on the effects of interbreeding on fowls, ii. 125;
on variation in the eggs of fowls, i. 248.
Ballota nigra, transmission of variegated leaves in, i. 383.
Bamboo, varieties of the, ii. 256.
Banana, variation of the, i. 372; ii. 256, 258;
bud-variation in the, i. 377;
sterility of the, ii. 268.
Bantam fowls, i. 230;
Sebright, origin of, ii. 96;
sterility of, ii. 101.
Barb (Pigeon), i. 144-146, 210; ii. 227;
figure of, i. 145;
figure of lower jaw of, i. 164.
Barbs, of wheat, i. 314.
Barberry, dark or red-leaved variety, i. 362; ii. 19;
reversion in suckers of seedless variety, i. 384.
Barbut, J., on the dogs of Guinea, i. 25;
on the domestic pigeons in Guinea, i. 186;
fowls not native in Guinea, i. 237.
Barking, acquisition of the habit of, by various dogs, i. 27.
Barley, wild, i. 313;
of the lake-dwellings, i. 317-318;
ancient variety of, ii. 429.
Barnes, Mr., production of early peas by selection, ii. 201.
Barnet, Mr., on the intercrossing of strawberries, i. 351;
diœciousness of the Hautbois strawberry, i. 353;
on the scarlet American strawberry, ii. 200.
Barth, Dr., use of grass-seeds as food in Central Africa, i. 308.
Bartlett, A. D., on the origin of "Himalayan" rabbits by intercrossing, i. 109;
on the feral rabbits of Porto Santo, i. 114;
on geese with reversed feathers on the head and neck, i. 288;
on the young of the black-shouldered peacock, i. 290;
on the breeding of the Felidæ in captivity, ii. 150.
Bartram, on the black wolf-dog of Florida, i. 22.
Bates, H. W., refusal of wild animals to breed in captivity, ii. 150, 152;
sterility of American monkeys in captivity, ii. 153;
sterility of tamed guans, ii. 156.
Batrachia, regeneration of lost parts in, ii. 15.
Beach, raised, in Peru, containing heads of maize, i. 320.
Beak, variability of, in fowls, i. 258;
individual differences of, in pigeons, i. 160;
correlation of, with the feet in pigeons, i. 171-174.
Beale, Lionel, on the contents of cells, ii. 370;
on the multiplication of infectious atoms, ii. 378;
on the origin of fibres, ii. 382.
Beans, i. 330;
of Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 319;
varieties of, produced by selection, ii. 218;
French and scarlet, variable resistance of to frost, ii. 309, 314;
superiority of native seed of, ii. 314;
a symmetrical variation of scarlet, ii. 322;
experiments on kidney, i. 330;
with monstrous stipules and abortive leaflets, ii. 343.
Beard, pigeon, i. 151.
Bears, breeding in captivity, ii. 151.
Beasley, J., reversion in crossed cattle, ii. 41.
Beaton, D., effect of soil upon strawberries, i. 353;
on varieties of pelargonium, i. 364, ii. 274, 311;
bud-variation in Gladiolus colvillii, i. 382;
cross between Scotch kail and cabbage, ii. 98;
hybrid gladiolus, ii. 139;
constant occurrence of new forms among seedlings, ii. 235;
on the doubling of the compositæ, ii. 316.
Bechuana cattle, i. 88.
Beck, Mr., constitutional differences in pelargoniums, i. 364.
Beckmann, on changes in the odours of plants, ii. 274.
Beckstein, on the burrowing of wolves, i. 27;
"Spitz" dog, i. 31;
origin of the Newfoundland dog, i. 42;
crossing of domestic and wild swine, i. 66;
on the Jacobin pigeon, i. 154, 209;
notice of swallow-pigeons, i. 156;
on a fork-tailed pigeon, i. 157;
variations in the colour of the croup in pigeons, i. 184;
on the German dove-cot pigeon, i. 185;
fertility of mongrel pigeons, i. 192;
on hybrid turtle-doves, i. 193;
on crossing the pigeon with Columba œnas, C. palumbus, Turtur risoria, and T. vulgaris, i. 193;
development of spurs in the silk-hen, i. 256;
on Polish fowls, i. 257, 264;
on crested birds, i. 257;
on the Canary-bird, i. 295, ii. 22, 161;
German superstition about the turkey, i. 293;
occurrence of horns in hornless breeds of sheep, ii. 30;
hybrids of the horse and ass, ii. 68;
crosses of tailless fowls, ii. 92;
difficulty of pairing dove-cot and fancy pigeons, ii. 103;
fertility of tame ferrets and rabbits, ii. 112;
fertility of wild sow, ibid.;
difficulty of breeding caged birds, ii. 154;
comparative fertility of Psittacus erithacus in captivity, ii. 155;
on changes of plumage in captivity, ii. 158;
liability of light-coloured cattle to the attacks of flies, ii. 229;
want of exercise a cause of variability, ii. 257;
effect of privation of light upon the plumage of birds, ii. 280;
on a sub-variety of the monk-pigeon, ii. 350.
Beddoe, Dr., correlation of complexion with consumption, ii. 335.
Bedeguar gall, ii. 284.
Bee, persistency of character of, ii. 236, 254;
intercrossing, ii. 126;
conveyance, of pollen of peas by, i. 329.
Bee-Ophrys, self-fertilisation of, ii. 91.
Beech, dark-leaved, i. 362, ii. 19;
fern-leaved, reversion of, i. 382;
weeping, non-production of by seed, ii. 19.
Beechey, horses of Loochoo Islands, i. 53.
Beet, i. 326;
increase of sugar in, by selection, ii. 201.
Begonia frigida, singular variety of, i. 365;
sterility of, ii. 166.
Belgian rabbit, i. 106.
Bell, T., statement that white cattle have coloured ears, i. 85.
Bell, W., bud-variation in Cistus tricuspis, i. 377.
Bellingeri, observations on gestation in the dog, i. 30;
on the fertility of dogs and cats, ii. 112.
Belon, on high-flying pigeons in Paphlagonia, i. 209;
varieties of the goose, i. 289.
Benguela, cattle of, i. 88.
Bennett, Dr. G., pigs of the Pacific islands, i. 70, 87;
dogs of the Pacific islands, i. 87;
varieties of cultivated plants in Tahiti, ii. 256.
Bennett, Mr., on the fallow deer, ii. 103.
Bentham, G., number and origin of cultivated plants, i. 306;
cereals all cultivated varieties, i. 312;
species of the orange group, i. 334-335;
distinctions of almond and peach, i. 338;
British species of Rosa, i. 366;
identity of Viola lutea and tricolor, i. 368.
Berberis vulgaris, i. 384, ii. 19.
Berberis Wallichii, indifference of, to climate, ii. 164.
Berjean, on the history of the dog, i. 16, 18.
Berkeley, G. F., production of hen-cocks in a strain of game-fowls, i. 253.
Berkeley, M. J., crossing of varieties of the pea, i. 397;
effect of foreign pollen on grapes, i. 400;
on hybrid plants, ii. 131;
analogy between pollen of highly-cultivated plants and hybrids, ii. 268;
on Hungarian kidney-beans, ii. 275;
failure of Indian wheat in England, ii. 307;
bud developed on the petal of a Clarkia, ii. 384.
Bernard, inheritance of disease in the horse, ii. 10.
Bernard, C., independence of the organs of the body, ii. 368-369;
special affinities of the tissues, ii. 380.
Bernhardi, varieties of plants with laciniated leaves, ii. 348.
Bernicla antarctica, i. 288.
Bertero, on feral pigeons in Juan Fernandez, i. 190.
Betula alba, ii. 18.
Bewick, on the British wild cattle, i. 84.
Bible, reference to breeding studs of horses in, i. 54;
references to domestic pigeons in the, i. 205;
indications of selection of sheep in the, ii. 201;
notice of mules in the, ii. 202.
Bidwell, Mr., on self-impotence in Amaryllis, ii. 139.
Birch, weeping, i. 387, ii. 18.
Birch, Dr. S., on the ancient domestication of the pigeon in Egypt, i. 205;
notice of bantam fowls in a Japanese encyclopædia, i. 230, 247.
Birch, Wyrley, on silver-grey rabbits, i. 109-110.
Birds, sterility caused in, by change of conditions, ii. 153-157.
Bladder-nut, tendency of the, to become double, ii. 168.
Blaine, Mr., on wry-legged terriers, ii. 245.
Blainville, origin and history of the dog, i. 15-16;
variations in the number of teeth in dogs, i. 34;
variations in the number of toes in dogs, i. 35;
on mummies of cats, i. 43;
on the osteology of solid-hoofed pigs, i. 75;
on feral Patagonian and N. American pigs, i. 77.
"Blass-Taube," i. 156.
Bleeding, hereditary, ii. 7, 8;
sexual limitation of excessive, ii. 73.
Blending of crossed races, time occupied by the, ii. 87.
Blindness, hereditary, ii. 9;
at a certain age, ii. 78;
associated with colour of hair, ii. 328.
Bloodhounds, degeneration of, caused by interbreeding, ii. 121.
Blumenbach, on the protuberance of the skull in Polish fowls, i. 257;
on the effect of circumcision, ii. 23;
inheritance of a crooked finger, ii. 23;
on badger-dogs and other varieties of the dog, ii. 220;
on Hydra, ii. 293;
on the "nisus formativus," ii. 294.
Blyth, E., on the Pariah dog, i. 24;
hybrids of dog and jackal, i. 32;
early domestication of cats in India, i. 43;
origin of domestic cat, ib.;
crossing of domestic and wild cats, i. 44;
on Indian cats resembling Felis chaus, i. 45;
on striped Burmese ponies, i. 58;
on the stripes of the ass, i. 63;
on Indian wild pigs, i. 66;
on humped cattle, i. 79, 80;
occurrence of Bos frontosus in Irish crannoges, i. 81;
fertile crossing of zebus and common cattle, i. 83;
on the species of sheep, i. 94;
on the fat-tailed Indian sheep, i. 96;
origin of the goat, i. 101;
on rabbits breeding in India, i. 112;
number of tail-feathers in fantails, i. 146;
Lotan tumbler pigeons, i. 150;
number of tail-feathers in Ectopistes, i. 159;
on Columba affinis, i. 183;
pigeons roosting in trees, i. 181;
on Columba leuconota, i. 182;
on Columba intermedia of Strickland, i. 184;
variation in colour of croup in pigeons, i. 184-185, 197;
voluntary domestication of rock-pigeons in India, i. 185;
feral pigeons on the Hudson, i. 190;
occurrence of sub-species of pigeons, i. 204;
notice of pigeon-fanciers in Delhi, &c., i. 206;
hybrids of Gallus Sonneratii and the domestic hen, i. 234;
supposed hybridity of Gallus Temminckii, i. 235;
variations and domestication of Gallus bankiva, i. 235-236, 237;
crossing of wild and tame fowls in Burmah, i. 236;
restricted range of the larger gallinaceous birds, i. 237;
feral fowls in the Nicobar islands, i. 238;
black-skinned fowls occurring near Calcutta, i. 256;
weight of Gallus bankiva, i. 272;
degeneration of the turkey in India, i. 294, ii. 278;
on the colour of gold-fish, i. 296;
on the Ghor-Khur (Asinus indicus), ii. 42;
on Asinus hemionus, ii. 43;
number of eggs of Gallus bankiva, ii. 112;
on the breeding of birds in captivity, ii. 157;
co-existence of large and small breeds in the same country, ii. 279;
on the drooping ears of the elephant, ii. 301;
homology of leg and wing feathers, ii. 323.
Boethius on Scotch wild cattle, i. 85.
Boitard and Corbié, on the breeds of pigeons, i. 132;
Lille pouter pigeon, i. 138;
notice of a gliding pigeon, i. 156;
variety of the pouter pigeon, i. 162;
dove-cot pigeon, i. 185;
crossing pigeons, i. 192-193, ii. 97, 126;
sterility of hybrids of turtle-doves, i. 193;
reversion of crossed pigeons, i. 197, ii. 40;
on the fantail, i. 208, ii. 66;
on the trumpeter, ii. 66;
prepotency of transmission in silky fantail, ii. 67, 69;
secondary sexual characters in pigeons, ii. 74;
crossing of white and coloured turtle-doves, ii. 92;
fertility of pigeons, ii. 112.
Bombycidæ, wingless females of, ii. 299.
Bombyx hesperus, ii. 304.
Bombyx Huttoni, i. 302.
Bombyx mori, i. 300-304.
Bonafous, on maize, i. 320, 321.
Bonaparte, number of species of Columbidæ, i. 133;
number of tail-feathers in pigeons, i. 158;
size of the feet in Columbidæ, i. 174;
on Columba guinea, i. 182;
Columba turricola, rupestris, and Schimperi, i. 184.
Bonatea speciosa, development of ovary of, i. 403.
Bonavia, Dr., growth of cauliflowers in India, ii. 310.
Bones, removal of portions of, ii. 296;
regeneration of, ii. 294;
growth and repair of, ii. 381-382.
Bonnet, on the salamander, ii. 15, 341, 358, 385;
theory of reproduction, ii. 385.
Borchmeyer, experiments with the seeds of the weeping ash, ii. 19.
Borecole, i. 323.
Borelli, on Polish fowls, i. 247.
Borneo, fowls of, with tail-bands, i. 235.
Bornet, E., condition of the ovary in hybrid Cisti, i. 389;
self-impotence of hybrid Cisti, ii. 140.
Borrow, G., on pointers, i. 42.
Bory de Saint-Vincent, on gold-fish, i. 297.
Bos, probable origin of European domestic cattle from three species of, i. 83.
Bos frontosus, i. 79, 81-82.
Bos indicus, i. 79.
Bos longifrons, i. 79, 81.
Bos primigenius, i. 79-81, 119.
Bos sondaicus, ii. 206.
Bos taurus, i. 79.
Bos trochoceros, i. 81.
Bosc, heredity in foliage-varieties of the elm, i. 362.
Bosse, production of double flowers from old seed, ii. 167.
Bossi, on breeding dark-coloured silkworms, i. 302.
Bouchardat, on the vine disease, i. 334.
Boudin, on local diseases, ii. 276;
resistance to cold of dark-complexioned men, ii. 335.
"Boulans," i. 137.
"Bouton d'Alep," ii. 276.
Bowen, Prof., doubts as to the importance of inheritance, ii. 3.
Bowman, Mr., hereditary peculiarities in the human eye, ii. 8-10;
hereditary cataract, ii. 79.
Brace, Mr., on Hungarian cattle, i. 80.
Brachycome iberidifolia, ii. 261.
Bracts, unusual development of, in gooseberries, i. 355.
Bradley, Mr., effect of grafts upon the stock in the ash, i. 394;
effect of foreign pollen upon apples, i. 401;
on change of soil, ii. 146.
"Brahma Pootras," a new breed of fowls, i. 245.
Brain, proportion of, in hares and rabbits, i. 126-129.
Brandt, origin of the goat, i. 101.
Brassica, varieties of, with enlarged stems, ii. 348.
Brassica asperifolia, ii. 343.
Brassica napus, i. 325.
Brassica oleracea, i. 323.
Brassica rapa, i. 325, ii. 165.
Braun, A., bud-variation in the vine, i. 375;
in the currant, i. 376;
in Mirabilis jalapa, i. 382;
in Cytisus adami, i. 388;
on reversion in the foliage of trees, i. 382;
spontaneous production of Cytisus purpureo-elongatus, i. 390;
reversion of flowers by stripes and blotches, ii. 37;
excess of nourishment a source of variability, ii. 257.
Brazil, cattle of, i. 88.
Bread-fruit, varieties of, ii. 256;
sterility and variability of, ii. 262.
Bree, W. T., bud-variation in Geranium pratense and Centaurea cyanus, i. 379;
by tubers in the dahlia, i. 385;
on the deafness of white cats with blue eyes, ii. 329.
Breeding, high, dependent on inheritance, ii. 3-4.
Breeds, domestic, persistency of, ii. 246, 428-429;
artificial and natural, ii. 413-414;
extinction of, ii. 425;
of domestic cats, i. 45-47;
of pigs produced by crossing, i. 78;
of cattle, i. 86-87, 91-93;
of goats, i. 101.
Brehm, on Columba amaliæ, i. 183.
Brent, B. P., number of mammæ in rabbits, i. 106;
habits of the tumbler pigeon, i. 151;
Laugher pigeon, i. 155;
colouring of the kite tumbler, i. 160;
crossing of the pigeon with Columba œnas, i. 193;
mongrels of the trumpeter pigeon, ii. 66;
close interbreeding of pigeons, ii. 126;
opinion on Aldrovandi's fowls, i. 247;
on stripes in chickens, i. 249-250;
on the combs of fowls, i. 253;
double-spurred Dorking fowls, i. 255;
effect of crossing on colour of plumage in fowls, i. 258;
incubatory instinct of mongrels between non-sitting varieties of fowls, ii. 44;
origin of the domestic duck, i. 277;
fertility of the hook-billed duck, ibid.;
occurrence of the plumage of the wild duck in domestic breeds, i. 280;
voice of ducks, i. 281;
occurrence of a short upper mandible in crosses of hook-billed and common ducks, i. 281;
reversion in ducks produced by crossing, ii. 40;
variation of the canary-bird, i. 295;
fashion in the canary, ii. 240;
hybrids of canary and finches, ii. 45.
Brickell, on raising nectarines from seed, i. 340;
on the horses of North Carolina, ii. 300.
Bridges, Mr., on the dogs of Tierra del Fuego, i. 39;
on the selection of dogs by the Fuegians, ii. 207.
Bridgman, W. K., reproduction of abnormal ferns, i. 383, ii. 379.
Briggs, J. J., regeneration of portions of the fins of fishes, ii. 15.
Broca, P., on the intercrossing of dogs, i. 31-32;
on hybrids of hare and rabbit, i. 105;
on the rumpless fowl, i. 259;
on the character of half-castes, ii. 47;
degree of fertility of mongrels, ii. 100;
sterility of descendants of wild animals bred in captivity, ii. 160.
Broccoli, i. 323;
rudimentary flowers in, ii. 316;
tenderness of, ii. 310.
Bromehead, W., doubling of the Canterbury bell by selection, ii. 200.
Bromfield, Dr., sterility of the ivy and Acorus calamus, ii. 170.
Bromus secalinus, i. 314.
Bronn, H. G., bud-variation in Anthemis, i. 379;
effects of cross-breeding on the female, i. 404;
on heredity in a one-horned cow, ii. 12, 13;
propagation of a pendulous peach by seed, ii. 18;
absorption of the minority in crossed races, ii. 88;
on the crossing of horses, ii. 92;
fertility of tame rabbits and sheep, ii. 112;
changes of plumage in captivity, ii. 158;
on the dahlia, ii. 261.
Bronze period, dog of, i. 18.
Brown, G., variations in the dentition of the horse, i. 50.
Brown-Séquard, Dr., inheritance of artificially-produced epilepsy in the guinea-pig, ii. 24.
Brunswigia, ii. 139.
Brussels Sprouts, i. 323, ii. 429.
Bubo maximus, ii. 154.
Buckland, F., on oysters, ii. 280;
number of eggs in a codfish, ii. 379.
Buckle, Mr., doubts as to the importance of inheritance, ii. 3.
Buckley, Miss, carrier-pigeons roosting in trees, i. 181.
Buckman, Prof., cultivation of Avena fatua, i. 313;
cultivation of the wild parsnip, i. 326, ii. 201, 277;
reversion in the parsnip, ii. 31.
Buckwheat, injurious to white pigs, when in flower, ii. 337.
Bud and seed, close analogy of, i. 411.
Bud-reversion, ii. 37.
Buds, adventitious, ii. 384.
Bud-variation, i. 373-411, ii. 254, 287-288, 291;
contrasted with seminal reproduction, i. 373;
peculiar to plants, i. 374;
in the peach, i. 340, 374;
in plums, i. 375;
in the cherry, ibid.;
in grapes, ibid.;
in the gooseberry, currant, pear, and apple, i. 376;
in the banana, camellia, hawthorn, Azalea indica, and Cistus tricuspis, i. 377;
in the hollyhock and pelargonium, i. 378;
in Geranium pratense and the chrysanthemum, i. 379;
in roses, i. 367, 379-381;
in sweet williams, carnations, pinks, stocks, and snapdragons, i. 381;
in wall-flowers, cyclamen, Œnothera biennis, Gladiolus colvillii, fuchsias, and Mirabilis jalapa, i. 382;
in foliage of various trees, i. 382-384;
in cryptogamic plants, i. 383;
by suckers in Phlox and barberry, i. 384;
by tubers in the potato, ibid.;
in the dahlia, i. 385;
by bulbs in hyacinths, Imatophyllum miniatum, and tulips, i. 385;
in Tigridia conchiflora, i. 386;
in Hemerocallis, ibid.;
doubtful cases, i. 386-387;
in Cytisus Adami, i. 387-394;
probable in Æsculus rubicunda, i. 392;
summary of observations on, 406.
Buffon, on crossing the wolf and dog, i. 32;
increase of fertility by domestication, ii. 111;
improvement of plants by unconscious selection, ii. 216;
theory of reproduction, ii. 375.
Bulimus, ii. 53.
Bull, apparent influence of, on offspring, ii. 68.
Bullace, i. 345.
Bulldog, recent modifications of, i. 42.
Bullfinch, breeding in captivity, ii. 154;
attacking flower-buds, ii. 232.
Bult, Mr., selection of pouter pigeons, ii. 197.
"Bündtnerschwein," i. 67.
Bunting, reed, in captivity, ii. 158.
Burdach, crossing of domestic and wild animals, i. 66;
aversion of the wild boar to barley, ii. 303.
Burke, Mr., inheritance in the horse, ii. 10.
Burlingtonia, ii. 135.
Burmah, cats of, i. 47.
Burmese ponies, striped, i. 58, 59.
Burnes, Sir A., on the Karakool sheep, i. 98, ii. 278;
varieties of the vine in Cabool, i. 333;
hawks, trained in Scinde, ii. 153;
pomegranates producing seed, ii. 168.
Burton Constable, wild cattle at, i. 84.
"Burzel-Tauben," i. 150.
Bussorah carrier, i. 141.
Buteo vulgaris, copulation of, in captivity, ii. 154.
Butterflies, polymorphic, ii. 399-400.
Buzareingues, Girou de, inheritance of tricks, ii. 6.
Cabanis, pears grafted on the quince, ii. 239.
Cabbage, i. 323-326;
varieties of, i. 323;
unity of character in flowers and seeds of, i. 323-324;
cultivated by ancient Celts, i. 324;
classification of varieties of, ibid.;
ready crossing of, ibid., ii. 90, 91, 98, 130;
origin of, i. 325;
increased fertility of, when cultivated, ii. 113;
growth of, in tropical countries, ii. 277.
Cabool, vines of, i. 333.
Cabral, on early cultivation in Brazil, i. 311.
Cactus, growth of cochineal on, in India, ii. 275.
Cæsar, Bos primigenius wild in Europe in the time of, i. 81;
notice of fowls in Britain, i. 246;
notice of the importation of horses by the Celts, ii. 203.
Caffre fowls, i. 230.
Caffres, different kinds of cattle possessed by the, i. 88.
"Cágias," a breed of sheep, i. 95.
Calceolarias, i. 364; ii. 147;
effects of seasonal conditions on, ii. 274;
peloric flowers in, ii. 346.
"Calongos," a Columbian breed of cattle, i. 88.
Calver, Mr., on a seedling peach producing both peaches and nectarines, i. 341.
Calyx, segments of the, converted into carpels, ii. 392.
Camel, its dislike to crossing water, i. 181.
Camellia, bud-variations in, i. 377;
recognition of varieties of, ii. 251;
variety in, hardiness of, ii. 308.
Cameron, D., on the cultivation of Alpine plants, ii. 163.
Cameronn, Baron, value of English blood in race-horses, ii. 11.
Campanula medium, ii. 200.
Canary-bird, i. 295;
conditions of inheritance in, ii. 22;
hybrids of, ii. 45;
period of perfect plumage in, ii. 77;
diminished fertility of, ii. 161;
standard of perfection in, ii. 195;
analogous variation in, ii. 349.
Cancer, heredity of, ii. 7, 8, 79.
Canine teeth, development of the, in mares, ii. 318.
Canis alopex, i. 29.
Canis antarcticus, i. 20.
Canis argentatus, ii. 151.
Canis aureus, i. 29.
Canis cancrivorus, domesticated and crossed in Guiana, i. 23.
Canis cinereo-variegatus, i. 29.
Canis fulvus, i. 29.
Canis Ingæ, the naked Peruvian dog, i. 23.
Canis latrans, resemblance of, to the Hare Indian dog, i. 22;
one of the original stocks, i. 26.
Canis lupaster, i. 25.
Canis lupus, var. occidentalis, resemblance of, to North American dogs, i. 21;
crossed with dogs, i. 22;
one of the original stocks, i. 26.
Canis mesomelas, i. 25, 29.
Canis primævus, tamed by Mr. Hodgson, i. 26.
Canis sabbar, i. 25.
Canis simensis, possible original of greyhounds, i. 33.
Canis thaleb, i. 29.
Canis variegatus, i. 29.
Canterbury Bell, doubled by selection, ii. 200.
Cape of Good Hope, different kinds of cattle at the, i. 88;
no useful plants derived from the, i. 310.
Capercailzie, breeding in captivity, ii. 156.
Capra ægagrus and C. Falconeri, probable parents of domestic goat, i. 101.
Capsicum, i. 371.
Cardan, on a variety of the walnut, i. 356;
on grafted walnuts, ii. 259-260.
Cardoon, ii. 34.
Carex rigida, local sterility of the, ii. 170.
Carlier, early selection of sheep, ii. 204.
Carlisle, Sir A., inheritance of peculiarities, ii. 6, 8;
of polydactylism, ii. 13.
"Carme" pigeon, i. 156.
Carnation, bud-variation in, i. 381;
variability of, i. 370;
striped, produced by crossing red and white, i. 393;
effect of conditions of life on the, ii. 273.
Carnivora, general fertility of, in captivity, ii. 150.
Caroline Archipelago, cats of, i. 47.
Carp, ii. 236.
Carpels, variation of, in cultivated cucurbitaceæ, i. 359.
Carpenter, W. B., regeneration of bone, ii. 294;
production of double monsters, ii. 340;
number of eggs in an Ascaris, ii. 379.
Carpinus betulus, i. 362.
Carpophaga littoralis and luctuosa, i. 182.
Carrier pigeon, i. 139-142;
English, i. 139-141;
figured, i. 140;
skull figured, i. 163;
history of the, i. 211;
Persian, i. 141;
Bussorah, ibid.;
Bagadotten, skull figured, i. 163;
lower jaw figured, i. 165.
Carrière, cultivation of the wild carrot, i. 326;
intermediate form between the almond and the peach, i. 338;
glands of peach-leaves, i. 343;
bud-variation in the vine, i. 375;
grafts of Aria vestita upon thorns, i. 387;
variability of hybrids of Erythrina, ii. 265.
Carrot, wild, effects of cultivation on the, i. 326;
reversion in the, ii. 31;
run wild, ii. 33;
increased fertility of cultivated, ii. 113;
experiments on the, ii. 277;
acclimatisation of the, in India, ii. 311.
Carthamus, abortion of the pappus in, ii. 316.
Cartier, cultivation of native plants in Canada, i. 312.
Caryophyllaceæ, frequency of contabescence in the, ii. 165.
Caspary, bud-variation in the moss-rose, i. 380;
on the ovules and pollen of Cytisus, i. 388-389;
crossing of Cytisus purpureus and C. laburnum, i. 389;
trifacial orange, i. 391;
differently-coloured flowers in the wild Viola lutea, i. 408;
sterility of the horse-radish, ii. 170.
Castelnau, on Brazilian cattle, i. 88.
Castration, assumption of female characters caused by, ii. 51-52.
Casuarius bennettii, ii. 156.
Cat, domestic, i. 43-48;
early domestication and probable origin of the, i. 43-44;
intercrossing of with wild species, i. 44-45;
variations of, i. 45-48;
feral, i. 47, ii. 33;
anomalous, i. 48;
polydactylism in, ii. 14;
black, indications of stripes in young, ii. 55;
tortoiseshell, ii. 73;
effects of crossing in, ii. 86;
fertility of, ii. 111;
difficulty of selection in, ii. 234, 236;
length of intestines in, ii. 302;
white with blue eyes, deafness of, ii. 329;
with tufted ears, ii. 350.
Cataract, hereditary, ii. 9, 79.
Caterpillars, effect of changed food on, ii. 280.
Catlin, G., colour of feral horses in North America, i. 61.
Cattle, European, their probable origin from three original species, i. 79-82;
humped, or Zebus, i. 79-80;
intercrossing of, i. 83, 91-93;
wild, of Chillingham, Hamilton, Chartley, Burton Constable, and Gisburne, i. 84, ii. 119;
colour of feral, i. 84-85, ii. 102;
British breeds of, i. 86-87;
South African breeds of, i. 88;
South American breeds of, i. 89, ii. 205;
Niata, i. 89-91, ii. 205, 208, 332;
effects of food and climate on, i. 91-92;
effects of selection on, i. 92-93;
Dutch-buttocked, ii. 8;
hornless, production of horns in, ii. 29-30, 39;
reversion in, when crossed, ii. 41;
wildness of hybrid, ii. 45;
short-horned, prepotency of, ii. 65;
wild, influence of crossing and segregation on, ii. 86;
crosses of, ii. 96, 104, 118;
of Falkland islands, ii. 102;
mutual fertility of all varieties of, ii. 110;
effects of interbreeding on, ii. 117-119;
effects of careful selection on, ii. 194, 199;
naked, of Columbia, ii. 205;
crossed with wild banteng in Java, ii. 206;
with reversed hair in Banda Oriental, ii. 205;
selection of trifling characters in, ii. 209;
fashion in, ii. 210;
similarity of best races of, ii. 241;
unconscious selection in, ii. 214;
effects of natural selection on anomalous breeds of, ii. 226-227;
light-coloured, attacked by flies, ii. 229, 336;
Jersey, rapid improvement of, ii. 234;
effects of disuse of parts in, ii. 299;
rudimentary horns in, ii. 315;
supposed influence of humidity on the hair of, ii. 326;
white spots of, liable to disease, ii. 337;
supposed analogous variation in, ii. 349;
displacement of long-horned by short-horned, ii. 426.
Cauliflower, i. 323;
free-seeding of, in India, ii. 310;
rudimentary flowers in, ii. 316.
Cavalier pigeon, ii. 97.
Cavia aperea, ii. 152.
Cay (Cebus azaræ), sterility of, in confinement, ii. 153.
Cebus azaræ, ii. 153.
Cecidomyia, larval development of, ii. 283, 360, 367;
and Misocampus, i. 5.
Cedars of Lebanon and Atlas, i. 364.
Celery, turnip-rooted, i. 336;
run wild, ii. 33.
Cell-theory, ii. 370.
Celosia cristata, i. 365.
Celsus, on the selection of seed-corn, i. 318, ii. 203.
Celts, early cultivation of the cabbage by the, i. 324;
selection of cattle and horses by the, ii. 202-203.
Cenchrus, seeds of a, used as food, i. 309.
Centaurea cyanus, bud-variation in, i. 379.
Cephalopoda, spermatophores of, ii. 383.
Cerasus padus, yellow-fruited, ii. 19.
Cercoleptes, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Cercopithecus, breeding of a species of, in captivity, ii. 153.
Cereals, i. 312-313;
of the Neolithic period in Switzerland, i. 317;
adaptation of, to soils, ii. 305.
Cereus, ii. 38.
Cereus speciosissimus and phyllanthus, reversion in hybrids of, i. 392.
Cervus canadensis, ii. 158.
Cervus dama, ii. 120.
Cetacea, correlation of dermal system and teeth in the, ii. 328.
Ceylon, cats of, i. 46;
pigeon-fancying in, i. 206.
Chamærops humilis, crossed with date palm, i. 399.
Chamisso, on seeding bread-fruit, ii. 168.
Channel islands, breeds of cattle in, i. 80.
Chapman, Professor, peach-trees producing nectarines, i. 341.
Chapuis, F., sexual peculiarities in pigeons, i. 162, ii. 74;
effect produced by first male upon the subsequent progeny of the female, i. 405;
sterility of the union of some pigeons, ii. 162.
Characters, fixity of, ii. 239;
latent, ii. 51-56, 399-400;
continued divergence of, ii. 241;
antagonistic, ii. 401.
Chardin, abundance of pigeons in Persia, i. 205.
Charlemagne, orders as to the selection of stallions, ii. 203.
Chartley, wild cattle of, i. 84.
Chaté, reversion of the upper seeds in the pods of stocks, ii. 347-348.
Chatin, on Ranunculus ficaria, ii. 170.
Chaundy, Mr., crossed varieties of cabbage, ii. 130.
Cheetah, general sterility of, in captivity, ii. 151.
Cheiranthus cheiri, i. 382.
Cherries, i. 347-348;
bud-variation in, i. 375;
white Tartarian, ii. 230;
variety of, with curled petals, ii. 232;
period of vegetation of, changed by forcing, ii. 311.
Chevreul, on crossing fruit-trees, ii. 129.
Chickens, differences in characters of, i. 249-250;
white, liable to gapes, ii. 228, 336.
Chigoe, ii. 275.
Chile, sheep of, i. 95.
Chillingham cattle, identical with Bos primigenius, i. 81;
characters of, i. 83-84.
Chiloe, half-castes of, ii. 46.
China, cats of, with drooping ears, i. 47;
horses of, i. 53;
striped ponies of, i. 59;
asses of, i. 62;
notice of rabbits in, by Confucius, i. 103;
breeds of pigeons reared in, i. 206;
breeds of fowls of, in fifteenth century, i. 232, 247;
goose of, i. 237.
Chinchilla, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Chinese, selection practised by the, ii. 204-205;
preference of the, for hornless rams, ii. 209;
recognition of the value of native breeds by the, ii. 313.
Chinese, or Himalayan rabbit, i. 108.
"Chivos," a breed of cattle in Paraguay, i. 89.
Choux-raves, i. 323.
Christ, H., on the plants of the Swiss Lake-dwellings, i. 309, 318;
intermediate forms between Pinus sylvestris and montana, i. 363.
Chrysanthemum, i. 379.
Chrysotis festiva, ii. 280.
Cineraria, effects of selection on the, ii. 200.
Circassia, horses of, ii. 102.
Circumcision, ii. 23.
Cirripedes, metagenesis in, ii. 366.
Cistus, intercrossing and hybrids of, i. 336, 389, ii. 140.
Cistus tricuspis, bud-variation in, i. 377.
Citrons, i. 334-335.
"Citrus aurantium fructu variabili," i. 336.
Citrus decumana, i. 335.
Citrus lemonum, i. 336.
Citrus medica, i. 335-336.
Cleft palate, inheritance of, ii. 24.
Clemente, on wild vines in Spain, i. 332.
Clermont-Tonnerre, on the St. Valery apple, i. 401.
Clapham, A., bud-variation in the hawthorn, i. 377.
"Claquant," i. 138.
"Claquers" (pigeons), i. 156.
Clark, G., on the wild dogs of Juan de Nova, i. 27;
on striped Burmese and Javanese ponies, i. 59;
breeds of goats imported into the Mauritius, i. 101;
variations in the mammæ of goats, i. 102;
bilobed scrotum of Muscat goat, ibid.
Clark, H. J., on fission and gemmation, ii. 359.
Clarke, R. T., intercrossing of strawberries, i. 352.
Clarke, T., hybridisation of stocks, i. 399, ii. 93.
Clarkson, Mr., prize-cultivation of the gooseberry, i. 355.
Classification, explained by the theory of natural selection, i. 11.
Climate, effect of, upon breeds of dogs, i. 37;
on horses, i. 52, 53;
on cattle, i. 91, 92;
on the fleece of sheep, i. 98, 99;
on seeds of wheat, i. 316;
on cultivated cabbages, i. 325;
adaptation of maize to, i. 322.
Climate and pasture, adaptation of breeds of sheep to, i. 96-97.
Climate and soil, effects of, upon strawberries, i. 353.
Cline, Mr., on the skull in horned and hornless rams, ii. 333.
Clos, on sterility in Ranunculus ficaria, ii. 170.
Clotzsch, hybrids of various trees, ii. 130.
Clover, pelorism in, ii. 340.
Coate, Mr., on interbreeding pigs, ii. 122.
Coccus of apple trees, ii. 231.
Cochin fowls, i. 227, 250, 252, 260-261;
occipital foramen of, figured, i. 261;
section of skull of, figured, i. 263;
cervical vertebra of, figured, i. 267.
Cochineal, persistence of, ii. 236;
preference of, for a particular cactus, ii. 275.
Cochlearia armoracia, ii. 170.
Cock, game, natural selection in, ii. 225;
spur of, grafted on the comb, ii. 296;
spur of, inserted into the eye of an ox, ii. 369;
effect of castration upon the, ii. 51-52.
Cock's-comb, varieties of the, i. 365.
Cocoons, of silkworms, variations in, i. 302-303.
Codfish, bulldog, i. 89;
number of eggs in the, ii. 379.
Cœlogenys paca, ii. 152.
Colin, prepotency of the ass over the horse, ii. 67-68;
on cross-breeding, ii. 97;
on change of diet, ii. 304.
Collinson, Peter, peach-tree producing a nectarine, i. 340.
Coloration, in pigeons, an evidence of unity of descent, i. 195-197.
Colour, correlation of, in dogs, i. 28-29;
persistence of, in horses, i. 50;
inheritance and diversity of, in horses, i. 55;
variations of, in the ass, i. 62-63;
of wild or feral cattle, i. 85;
transmission of, in rabbits, i. 107;
peculiarities of, in Himalayan rabbits, i. 111;
influence of, ii. 227-230;
correlation of, in head and limbs, ii. 324;
correlated with constitutional peculiarities, ii. 335-338.
Colour and odour, correlation of, ii. 325.
Colour-blindness, hereditary, ii. 9;
more common in men than in women, ii. 72-73;
associated with inability to distinguish musical sounds, ii. 328.
Colours, sometimes not blended by crossing, ii. 92.
Columba affinis, Blyth, a variety of C. livia, i. 183.
Columba amaliæ, Brehm, a variety of C. livia, i. 183.
Columba guinea, i. 182.
Columba gymnocyclus, Gray, a form of C. livia, i. 184.
Columba gymnophthalmos, hybrids of, with C. œnas, i. 193;
with C. maculosa, i. 194.
Columba intermedia, Strickland, a variety of C. livia, i. 184.
Columba leucocephala, ii. 155.
Columba leuconota, i. 182, 195.
Columba littoralis, i. 182.
Columba livia, ii. 29, 40;
the parent of domestic breeds of pigeons, i. 183;
measurements of, i. 134;
figured, i. 135;
skull figured, i. 163;
lower jaw figured, i. 164, 168;
scapula figured, i. 167.
Columba luctuosa, i. 182.
Columba migratoria and leucocephala, diminished fertility of, in captivity, ii. 155.
Columba œnas, i. 183;
crossed with common pigeon and C. gymnophthalmos, i. 193.
Columba palumbus, i. 193, ii. 350.
Columba rupestris, i. 182, 184, 195.
Columba Schimperi, i. 184.
Columba torquatrix, ii. 350.
Columba turricola, i. 184.
Columbia, cattle of, i. 88.
Columbine, double, i. 365, ii. 330.
Columbus, on West Indian dogs, i. 23.
Columella, on Italian shepherd's dogs, i. 23;
on domestic fowls, i. 231, 247, ii. 202, 429;
on the keeping of ducks, i. 277;
on the selection of seed-corn, i. 318;
on the benefits of change of soil to plants, ii. 146;
on the value of native breeds, ii. 313.
Colza, i. 325.
Comb, in fowls, variations of, i. 253-254;
sometimes rudimentary, ii. 315.
Compensation, law of, i. 274.
Compensation of growth, ii. 342-344.
Complexion, connexion of, with constitution, ii. 335.
Compositæ, double flowers of, i. 365, ii. 167, 316.
Conception, earlier in Alderney and Zetland cows than in other breeds, i. 87.
Conditions of life, changed, effect of, ii. 418-419;
on horses, i. 52;
upon variation in pigeons, i. 212-213;
upon wheat, i. 315-316;
upon trees, i. 361;
in producing bud-variation, i. 408;
advantages of, ii. 145-148, 176-177;
sterility caused by, ii. 148-165;
conducive to variability, ii. 255-261, 394;
accumulative action of, ii. 261-263;
direct action of, ii. 271-292.
Condor, breeding in captivity, ii. 154.
Confinement, effect of, upon the cock, ii. 52.
Confucius, on the breeding of rabbits in China, i. 103.
Conolly, Mr., on Angora goats, ii. 326.
Constitutional differences in sheep, i. 96-97;
in varieties of apples, i. 349-350;
in pelargoniums, i. 364;
in dahlias, i. 370.
Constitutional peculiarities in strawberries, i. 353;
in roses, i. 367.
Consumption, hereditary, ii. 8;
period of appearance of, ii. 77;
correlated with complexion, ii. 335.
Contabescence, ii. 165-166.
Convolvulus batatas, ii. 169, 309.
Convolvulus tricolor, bud-variation in, i. 408.
Cooper, Mr., improvement of vegetables by selection, ii. 204.
Cooper, White, hereditary peculiarities of vision, ii. 9;
association of affections of the eyes with those of other systems, ii. 328.
Corals, bud-variation in, i. 374;
non-diffusion of cell-gemmules in, ii. 379.
Corbié. See Boitard.
Cornea, opacity of, inherited, ii. 9.
Cornus mascula, yellow-fruited, ii. 19.
Correlation, ii. 319;
of neighbouring parts, ii. 320;
of change in the whole body and in some of its parts, ii. 321;
of homologous parts, ii. 322-331;
inexplicable, ii. 331-333;
commingling of, with the effects of other agencies, ii. 333-335.
Correlation of skull and limbs in swine, i. 73;
of tusks and bristles in swine, i. 76;
of multiplicity of horns and coarseness of wool in sheep, i. 95;
of beak and feet in pigeons, i. 172-173;
between nestling down and colour of plumage in pigeons, i. 194;
of changes in silkworms, i. 304;
in plants, ii. 219;
in maize, i. 323;
in pigeons, i. 167-171, 218;
in fowls, i. 274-275.
Corresponding periods, inheritance at, ii. 75-80.
Corrientes, dwarf cattle of, i. 89.
Corringham, Mr., influence of selection on pigs, ii. 198.
Corsica, ponies of, i. 52.
"Cortbeck" (pigeon) of Aldrovandi, i. 209.
Corvus corone and C. cornix, hybrids of, ii. 94.
Corydalis, flower of, ii. 304.
Corydalis cava, ii. 132-133.
Corydalis solida, sterile when peloric, ii. 167.
Corydalis tuberosa, peloric by reversion, ii. 58-59.
Corylus avellana, i. 357.
Costa, A., on shells transferred from England to the Mediterranean, ii. 280.
"Couve Tronchuda," i. 323.
Cow, inheritance of loss of one horn in the, ii. 12, 23;
amount of milk furnished by the, ii. 300;
development of six mammæ in, ii. 317.
Cowslip, ii. 21, 182.
Cracidæ, sterility of the, in captivity, ii. 156.
Cranes, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Cratægus oxyacantha, i. 363, ii. 18, 232, 258, 377.
Cratægus monogyna, i. 364.
Cratægus sibirica, i. 364.
Crawfurd, J., Malasian cats, i. 47;
horses of the Malay Archipelago, i. 49;
horses of Japan, i. 53;
occurrence of stripes in young wild pigs of Malacca, i. 76;
on a Burmese hairy family with deficient teeth, ii. 77, 327;
Japanese origin of the bantam, i. 230;
game fowls of the Philippine islands, i. 232;
hybrids of Gallus varius and domestic fowl, i. 234;
domestication of Gallus bankiva, i. 236;
feral fowls in the Pellew islands, i. 238;
history of the fowl, i. 246;
history of the domestic duck, i. 277;
domestication of the goose, i. 287;
cultivated plants of New Zealand, i. 312;
breeding of tame elephants in Ava, ii. 150;
sterility of Goura coronata in confinement, ii. 155;
geese of the Philippine islands, ii. 162.
Creepers, a breed of fowls, i. 230.
Crested fowl, i. 227;
figured, i. 229.
"Crève-cœur," a French sub-breed of fowls, i. 229.
Crisp, Dr., on the brains of the hare and rabbit, i. 126.
Crocker, C. W., singular form of Begonia frigida, i. 365-366, ii. 166;
sterility in Ranunculus ficaria, ii. 170.
Crocus, ii. 165.
Cross-breeding, permanent effect of, on the female, i. 404.
Crossing, ii. 85-144, 173-192;
a cause of uniformity, ii. 85-90, 173;
occurs in all organised beings, ii. 90-92;
some characters not blended by, ii. 92-95, 173;
modifications and new races produced by, ii. 95-99;
causes which check, ii. 100-109;
domestication and cultivation favourable to, ii. 109-113, 189;
beneficial effects of, ii. 114-131, 174-176;
necessary in some plants, ii. 131-140, 175-176, 423;
summary of subject of, ii. 140-144;
of dogs with wolves in North America, i. 21-22;
with Canis cancrivorus in Guiana, i. 23;
of dog with wolf, described by Pliny and others, i. 24;
characters furnished by, brought out by reversion in the progeny, ii. 34-36;
a direct cause of reversion, ii. 39-47, 48;
a cause of variability, ii. 264-267.
Crustacea, macrourous, differences in the development of the, ii. 368.
Crustacean with an antenna-like development of the eye-peduncle, ii. 391.
Cryptogamic plants, bud-variation in, i. 383.
Cuba, wild dogs of, i. 27.
"Cuckoo," sub-breeds of fowls, i. 244.
Cucumber, variation in number of carpels of, i. 359;
supposed crossing of varieties of the, i. 400.
Cucumis momordica, i. 360.
Cucumis sativa, i. 359.
Cucurbita, dwarf, correlation of leaves in, ii. 330.
Cucurbita maxima, i. 357, 359.
Cucurbita moschata, i. 357, 359.
Cucurbita pepo, i. 357, ii. 108;
varieties of, i. 358;
relation in size and number of fruit of, ii. 343.
Cucurbitaceæ, i. 357-360;
supposed crossing of, i. 399;
Naudin's observations on hybrids of, ii. 172;
acclimatisation of, ii. 313.
"Culbutants" (pigeons), i. 150.
Cultivation of plants, origin of, among savages, i. 309-310;
fertility increased by, ii. 111-113.
Cunier, on hereditary night-blindness, ii. 9.
Currants, of Tierra del Fuego, i. 309;
bud-variation in, i. 376.
Curtis, Mr., bud-variation in the rose, i. 381.
Cuvier, on the gestation of the wolf, i. 29;
the odour of the jackal, an obstacle to domestication, i. 30;
differences of the skull in dogs, i. 34;
external characters of dogs, i. 35;
elongation of the intestines in domestic pigs, i. 73, ii. 303;
fertility of the hook-billed duck, i. 277;
number of digits, ii. 13;
hybrid of ass and zebra, ii. 42;
breeding of animals in the Jardin des Plantes, ii. 149;
sterility of predaceous birds in captivity, ii. 154;
facility of hybridisation in confinement, ii. 160.
Cyanosis, affection of fingers in, ii. 332.
Cyclamen, bud-variation in, i. 382.
Cynara cardunculus, ii. 34.
Cynips fecundatrix, ii. 283.
Cynocephalus hamadryas, ii. 153.
Cyprinus auratus, i. 296-297.
Cyrtanthus, ii. 139.
Cyrtopodium, ii. 134.
Cytisus Adami, ii. 364;
its bud-variation, i. 387-389, 406, ii. 37;
seedlings from, i. 388;
different views of its origin, i. 389-390;
experiments in crossing C. purpureus and laburnum to produce, i. 389;
its production by M. Adam, i. 390;
discussion of origin of, i. 396.
Cytisus alpino-laburnum, ovules and pollen of, i. 389;
origin of, i. 390.
Cytisus alpinus, i. 388.
Cytisus laburnum, i. 387, 389, 390, 396.
Cytisus purpureo-elongatus, ovules and pollen of, i. 389;
production of, i. 390.
Cytisus purpureus, i. 387, 388, 389, 390, 396.
Dahlbom, effects of food on hymenoptera, ii. 281.
Dahlia, i. 369-370, ii. 147;
bud-variation by tubers in the, i. 385;
improvement of, by selection, ii. 216;
steps in cultivation of, ii. 261;
effect of conditions of life on, ii. 273;
correlation of form and colour in, ii. 331.
Daisy, hen and chicken, i. 365;
Swan River, ii. 261.
Dalbret, varieties of wheat, i. 314.
Dalibert, changes in the odours of plants, ii. 274.
Dally, Dr., on consanguineous marriages, ii. 122.
Daltonism, hereditary, ii. 9.
Damaras, cattle of, i. 88, ii. 207-208.
Damson, i. 347.
Dandolo, Count, on silkworms, i. 301.
Daniell, fertility of English dogs in Sierra Leone, ii. 161.
Danish Middens, remains of dogs in, i. 18.
Dappling in horses, asses, and hybrids, i. 55.
Dareste. C., on the skull of the Polish fowl, i. 262;
on the production of monstrous chickens, ii. 289;
co-existence of anomalies, ii. 331;
production of double monsters, ii. 340.
Darvill, Mr., heredity of good qualities in horses, ii. 11.
Darwin, C., on Lepus magellanicus, i. 112;
on the wild potato, i. 330;
dimorphism in the polyanthus and primrose, ii. 21.
Darwin, Dr., improvement of vegetables by selection, ii. 204.
Darwin, Sir F., wildness of crossed pigs, ii. 45.
D'Asso, monogynous condition of the hawthorn in Spain, i. 364.
Dasyprocta aguti, ii. 152.
Date-palm, varieties of the, ii. 256;
effect of pollen of, upon the fruit of Chamærops, i. 299.
Datura, ii. 38;
variability in, ii. 266.
Datura lævis and stramonium, reversion in hybrids of, i. 392.
Datura stramonium, ii. 67.
Daubenton, variations in the number of mammæ in dogs, i. 35;
proportions of intestines in wild and domestic cats, i. 48, ii. 302.
Daudin, on white rabbits, ii. 230.
Davy, Dr., on sheep in the West Indies, i. 98.
Dawkins and Sandford, early domestication of Bos longifrons in Britain, i. 81.
Deaf-mutes, non-heredity of, ii. 22.
Deafness, inheritance of, ii. 78.
Deby, wild hybrids of common and musk ducks, ii. 46.
De Candolle, Alph., number and origin of cultivated plants, i. 306-307, 371;
regions which have furnished no useful plants, i. 310;
wild wheat, i. 312-313;
wild rye and oats, i. 313;
antiquity of varieties of wheat, i. 316;
apparent inefficacy of selection in wheat, i. 318;
origin and cultivation of maize, i. 320, ii. 307;
colours of seeds of maize, i. 321;
varieties and origin of the cabbage, i. 324-325;
origin of the garden-pea, i. 326;
on the vine, i. 332, ii. 308;
cultivated species of the orange group, i. 335;
probable Chinese origin of the peach, i. 337;
on the peach and nectarine, i. 340, 342;
varieties of the peach, i. 342;
origin of the apricot, i. 344;
origin and varieties of the plum, i. 345;
origin of the cherry, i. 347;
varieties of the gooseberry, i. 354;
selection practised with forest-trees, i. 361;
wild fastigate oak, i. 361;
dark-leaved varieties of trees, i. 362;
conversion of stamens into pistils in the poppy, i. 365;
variegated foliage, i. 366;
heredity of white hyacinths, i. 371, ii. 20;
changes in oaks dependent on age, i. 387;
inheritance of anomalous characters, ii. 19;
variation of plants in their native countries, ii. 256;
deciduous bushes becoming evergreen in hot climates, ii. 305;
antiquity of races of plants, ii. 429.
De Candolle, P., non-variability of monotypic genera, ii. 266;
relative development of root and seed in Raphanus sativus, ii. 343.
Decaisne, on the cultivation of the wild carrot, i. 326;
varieties of the pear, i. 350;
inter-crossing of strawberries, i. 351;
fruit of the apple, i. 401;
sterility of Lysimachia nummularia, ii. 170;
tender variety of the peach, ii. 308.
Deer, assumption of horns by female, ii. 51;
imperfect development of horns in a, on a voyage, ii. 158.
Deer, fallow, ii. 103.
Deerhound. Scotch, difference in size of the sexes of, ii. 73;
deterioration of, ii. 121.
Degeneration of high-bred races, under neglect, ii. 239.
De Jonghe, J., on strawberries, i. 352, ii. 243;
soft-barked pears, ii. 231;
on accumulative variation, ii. 262;
resistance of blossoms to frost, ii. 306.
Delamer, E. S., on rabbits, i. 107, 112.
Delphinium ajacis, ii. 21.
Delphinium consolida, ii. 20-21.
Dendrocygna viduata, i. 182, ii. 157.
Dentition, variations of, in the horse, i. 50.
Deodar, i. 364.
Desmarest, distribution of white on dogs, i. 29;
cat from the Cape of Good Hope, i. 47;
cats of Madagascar, i. 47;
occurrence of striped young in Turkish pigs, i. 76;
French breeds of cattle, i. 80;
horns of goats, i. 102;
on hornless goats, ii. 315.
Desor, E., on the Anglo-Saxon race in America, ii. 276.
Desportes, number of varieties of roses, i. 367.
Devay, Dr., singular case of albinism, ii. 17;
on the marriage of cousins, ii. 122;
on the effects of close interbreeding, ii. 143, 263.
Development and metamorphosis, ii. 388-389.
Development, arrests of, ii. 315-318.
Development, embryonic, ii. 366-368.
D'Hervey-Saint-Denys, L., on the ya-mi, or imperial rice of the Chinese, ii. 205.
Dhole, fertility of the, in captivity, ii. 151.
Diabetes, occurrence of, in three brothers, ii. 17.
Dianthus, contabescent plants of, ii. 165-166;
hybrid varieties of, ii. 267.
Dianthus armeria and deltoides, hybrids of, ii. 98.
Dianthus barbatus, i. 381.
Dianthus caryophyllus, i. 381.
Dianthus japonicus, contabescence of female organs in, ii. 166.
Dichogamous plants, ii. 90.
Dickson, Mr., on "running" in carnations, i. 381;
on the colours of tulips, i. 386.
Dicotyles torquatus and labiatus, ii. 150.
Dieffenbach, dog of New Zealand, i. 26;
feral cats in New Zealand, i. 47;
polydactylism in Polynesia, ii. 14.
Dielytra, ii. 59.
Diet, change of, ii. 303-304.
Digitalis, properties of, affected by culture, ii. 274;
poison of, ii. 380.
Digits, supernumerary, ii. 57;
analogy of, with embryonic conditions, ii. 16;
fusion of, ii. 341.
Dimorphic plants, ii. 166;
conditions of reproduction in, ii. 181-184.
Dimorphism, reciprocal, ii. 90.
Dingo, i. 25;
variation of, in colour, i. 28;
half-bred, attempting to burrow, i. 28;
attraction of foxes by a female, i. 31;
variations of, in confinement, ii. 263.
Diœciousness of strawberries, i. 353.
Diseases, inheritance of, ii. 7-8;
family uniformity of, ii. 57;
inherited at corresponding periods of life, ii. 77-80;
peculiar to localities and climates, ii. 276;
obscure correlations in, ii. 331-332;
affecting certain parts of the body, ii. 380;
occurring in alternate generations, ii. 401.
Distemper, fatal to white terriers, ii. 227.
Disuse and use of parts, effects of, ii. 295-303, 352-353, 418-419;
in the skeleton of rabbits, i. 124-128;
in pigeons, i. 171-177;
in fowls, i. 270-274;
in ducks, i. 284-286;
in the silk-moth, i. 300-304.
Divergence, influence of, in producing breeds of pigeons, i. 220.
Dixon, E. S., on the musk duck, i. 182;
on feral ducks, i. 190;
on feral pigeons in Norfolk Island, i. 190;
crossing of pigeons, i. 192;
origin of domestic fowls, i. 230;
crossing of Gallus Sonneratii and common fowl, i. 234;
occurrence of white in the young chicks of black fowls, i. 244;
Paduan fowl of Aldrovandi, i. 247;
peculiarities of the eggs of fowls, i. 248;
chickens, i. 249-250;
late development of the tail in Cochin cocks, i. 250;
comb of lark-crested fowls, i. 256;
development of webs in Polish fowls, i. 259;
on the voice of fowls, i. 259;
origin of the duck, i. 277;
ducks kept by the Romans, i. 278;
domestication of the goose, i. 287;
gander frequently white, i. 288;
breeds of turkeys, i. 293;
incubatory instinct of mongrels of non-sitting races of fowls, ii. 44;
aversion of the dove-cot pigeon to pair with fancy birds, ii. 103;
fertility of the goose, ii. 112;
general sterility of the guans in captivity, ii. 156;
fertility of geese in captivity, ii. 157;
white peafowl, ii. 332.
Dobell, H., inheritance of anomalies of the extremities, ii. 14;
non-reversion to a malformation, ii. 36.
Dobrizhoffer, abhorrence of incest by the Abipones, ii. 123.
Dogs, origin of, i. 15;
ancient breeds of, i. 17, ii. 429;
of neolithic, bronze and iron periods in Europe, i. 18-19, ii. 427;
resemblance of to various species of canidæ, i. 21;
of North America compared with wolves, i. 21-22;
of the West Indies, South America, and Mexico, i. 23, 31;
of Guiana, i. 23;
naked dogs of Paraguay and Peru, ibid. and 31;
dumb, on Juan Fernandez, i. 27;
of Juan de Nova, i. 27;
of La Plata, i. 27;
of Cuba, i. 27;
of St. Domingo, i. 28;
correlation of colour in, i. 28-29;
gestation of, i. 29-30;
hairless Turkish, i. 30, ii. 227;
inter-crossing of different breeds of, i. 31;
characters of different breeds of, discussed, i. 34-37;
degeneration of European, in warm climates, i. 36, 38; ii. 278, 305;
liability to certain diseases in different breeds of, i. 36 and note;
causes of differences of breeds discussed, i. 37-43;
catching fish and crabs in New Guinea and Tierra del Fuego, i. 39;
webbing of the feet in, i. 39;
influence of selection in producing different breeds of, i. 39, 43;
retention of original habits by, i. 182;
inheritance of polydactylism in, ii. 14;
feral, ii. 33;
reversion in fourth generation of, ii. 34;
of the Pacific Islands, ii. 87, 220, 303;
mongrel, ii. 92-93;
comparative facility of crossing different breeds of, ii. 102;
fertility of, ii. 111, 151;
inter-breeding of, ii. 120-121;
selection of, among the Greeks, ii. 202, 209;
among savages, ii. 206-207;
unconscious selection of, ii. 211-212;
valued by the Fuegians, ii. 215;
climatal changes in hair of, ii. 278;
production of drooping ears in, ii. 301;
rejection of bones of game by, ii. 303;
inheritance of rudiments of limbs in, ii. 315;
development of fifth toe in, ii. 317;
hairless, deficiency of teeth in, ii. 326;
short-faced, teeth of, ii. 345;
probable analogous variation in, ii. 349;
extinction of breeds of, ii. 425.
Dombrain, H. H., on the auricula, ii. 346-347.
Domestication, essential points in, ii. 405-406;
favourable to crossing, ii. 109-110;
fertility increased by, ii. 111-113, 174.
Domesticated animals, origin of, ii. 160-161;
occasional sterility of, under changed conditions, ii. 161-162.
Donders, Dr., hereditary hypermetropia, ii. 8.
Dorking fowl, i. 227, 261;
furcula of, figured, i. 268.
Dormouse, ii. 152.
Double flowers, ii. 167-168, 171-172;
produced by selection, ii. 200.
Doubleday, H., cultivation of the filbert pine strawberry, i. 354.
Douglas, J., crossing of white and black game-fowls, ii. 92.
Downing, Mr., wild varieties of the hickory, i. 310;
peaches and nectarines from seed, i. 339-340;
origin of the Boston nectarine, i. 340;
American varieties of the peach, i. 343;
North American apricot, i. 344;
varieties of the plum, i. 346;
origin and varieties of the cherry, i. 347-348;
"twin cluster pippins," i. 349;
varieties of the apple, i. 350;
on strawberries, i. 351, 353;
fruit of the wild gooseberry, i. 355;
effects of grafting upon the seed, ii. 26;
diseases of plum and peach trees, ii. 227-228;
injury done to stone fruit in America by the "weevil," ii. 231;
grafts of the plum and peach, ii. 259;
wild varieties of pears, ii. 260;
varieties of fruit-trees suitable to different climates, ii. 306.
Draba sylvestris, ii. 163.
Dragon, pigeon, i. 139, 141.
"Draijer" (pigeon), i. 156.
Drinking, effects of, in different climates, ii. 289.
Dromedary, selection of, ii. 205-206.
Druce, Mr., inter-breeding of pigs, ii. 121.
Du Chaillu, fruit-trees in West Africa, i. 309.
Duchesne on Fragaria vesca, i. 351, 352, 353.
Dufour, Léon, on Cecidomyia and Misocampus, i. 5.
Duck, musk, retention of perching habit by the, i. 182;
feral hybrid of, i. 190.
Duck, penguin, hybrid of, with Egyptian goose, ii. 68.
Duck, wild, difficulty of rearing, ii. 233;
effects of domestication on, ii. 278.
Ducks, breeds of, i. 276-277;
origin of, i. 277;
history of, ibid.;
wild, easily tamed, i. 278-279;
fertility of breeds of, when crossed, i. 279;
with the plumage of Anas boschas, i. 280;
Malayan penguin, identical in plumage with English, i. 280;
characters of the breeds of, i. 281-284;
eggs of, i. 281;
effects of use and disuse in, i. 284-286, ii. 298;
feral, in Norfolk, i. 190;
Aylesbury, inheritance of early hatching by, ii. 25;
reversion in, produced by crossing, ii. 40;
wildness of half-bred wild, ii. 45;
hybrids of, with the musk duck, ii. 45-46;
assumption of male plumage by, ii. 51;
crossing of Labrador and penguin, ii. 97;
increased fertility of, by domestication, ii. 112;
general fertility of, in confinement, ii. 157;
increase of size of, by care in breeding, ii. 199;
change produced by domestication in, ii. 262.
Duméril, Aug., breeding of Siredon in the branchiferous stage, ii. 384.
Dun-coloured horses, origin of, i. 59.
Dureau de la Malle, feral pigs in Louisiana, ii. 33;
feral fowls in Africa, ibid.;
bud-variation in the pear, i. 376;
production of mules among the Romans, ii. 110.
Dusicyon sylvestris, i. 23.
Dutch rabbit, i. 107.
Dutch roller pigeon, i. 151.
Dutrochet, pelorism in the laburnum, ii. 346.
Duval, growth of pears in woods in France, ii. 260.
Duval-Jouve, on Leersia oryzoides, ii. 91.
Duvernoy, self-impotence in Lilium candidum, ii. 137.
Dzierzon, variability in the characters and habits of bees, i. 298.
Earle, Dr., on colour-blindness, ii. 72, 328.
Ears, of fancy rabbits, i. 106;
deficiency of, in breeds of rabbits, i. 108;
rudimentary, in Chinese sheep, ii. 315;
drooping, ii. 301;
fusion of, ii. 341.
Eaton, J. M., on fancy pigeons, i. 148, 153;
variability of characters in breeds of pigeons, i. 161;
reversion of crossed pigeons to coloration of Columba livia, i. 198;
on pigeon-fancying, i. 206, 215-216;
on tumbler-pigeons, i. 209, ii. 242;
carrier-pigeon, i. 211;
effects of interbreeding on pigeons, ii. 126;
properties of pigeons, ii. 197-198;
death of short-faced tumblers in the egg, ii. 226;
Archangel pigeon, ii. 240.
Echinodermata, metagenesis in, ii. 367.
Ectopistes, specific difference in number of tail-feathers in, i. 159.
Ectopistes migratorius, sterile hybrids of, with Turtur vulgaris, i. 193.
Edentata, correlation of dermal system and teeth in the, ii. 328.
Edgeworth, Mr., use of grass-seeds as food in the Punjab, i. 309.
Edmonston, Dr., on the stomach in Larus argentatus and the raven, ii. 302.
Edwards and Colin, on English wheat in France, ii. 307.
Edwards, W. F., absorption of the minority in crossed races, ii. 87.
Edwards, W. W., occurrence of stripes in a nearly thoroughbred horse, i. 57;
in foals of racehorses, i. 59.
Eggs, of fowls, characters of, i. 248;
variations of, in ducks, i. 281;
of the silkmoth, i. 301.
Egypt, ancient dogs of, i. 17-18;
ancient domestication of the pigeon in, i. 204;
absence of the fowl in ancient, i. 246.
Egyptian goose, hybrids of, with penguin duck, i. 282.
Ehrenberg, Prof., multiple origin of the dog, i. 16;
dogs of Lower Egypt, i. 25;
mummies of Felis maniculata, i. 43.
Element, male, compared to a premature larva, ii. 384.
Elements of the body, functional independence of the, ii. 368-371.
Elephant, its sterility in captivity, ii. 150.
Elk, Irish, correlations in the, ii. 333-334.
Elliot, Sir Walter, on striped horses, i. 58;
Indian domestic and wild swine, i. 66;
pigeons from Cairo and Constantinople, i. 132;
fantail pigeons, i. 146;
Lotan tumbler pigeons, i. 150;
a pigeon uttering the sound Yahu, i. 155;
Gallus bankiva in Pegu, i. 236.
Ellis, Mr., varieties of cultivated plants in Tahiti, ii. 256.
Elm, nearly evergreen Cornish variety of the, i. 363, ii. 310;
foliage-varieties of the, i. 362.
Elm, weeping, i. 361;
not reproduced by seed, ii. 19.
Emberiza passerina, ii. 158.
Embryos, similarity of, i. 12;
fusion of, ii. 339.
Engel, on Laurus sassafras, ii. 274.
England, domestication of Bos longifrons in, i. 81;
selection of horses in, in mediæval times, ii. 203;
laws against the early slaughter of rams in, ii. 203.
Ephemeridæ, development of the, ii. 366.
Epidendrum cinnabarinum and E. zebra, ii. 134.
Epilepsy, hereditary, ii. 8, 78.
Erdt, disease of the white parts of cattle, ii. 337.
Ericaceæ, frequency of contabescence in the, ii. 165.
Erichthonius, an improver of horses by selection, ii. 202.
Erman, on the fat-tailed Kirghisian sheep, i. 98, ii. 280;
on the dogs of the Ostyaks, ii. 206.
Erodium, ii. 59.
Erythrina Crista-galli and E. herbacea, hybrids of, ii. 265.
Esquilant, Mr., on the naked young of dun-coloured pigeons, i. 170.
Esquimaux dogs, their resemblance to wolves, i. 21;
selection of, ii. 206.
Eudes-Deslongchamps, on appendages under the jaw of pigs, i. 75-76.
Euonymus Japonicus, i. 383.
European cultivated plants, still wild in Europe, i. 307.
Evans, Mr., on the Lotan tumbler pigeon, i. 150.
Evelyn, pansies grown in his garden, i. 368.
Everest, R., on the Newfoundland dog in India, i. 36, ii. 305;
degeneration of setters in India, i. 38;
Indian wild boars, i. 66.
Ewes, hornless, ii. 350.
Extinction of domestic races, i. 221.
Eyes, hereditary peculiarities of the, ii. 8-10;
loss of, causing microphthalmia in children, ii. 24;
modification of the structure of, by natural selection, ii. 222-223;
fusion of, ii. 341.
Eyebrows, hereditary elongation of hairs in, ii. 8.
Eyelids, inherited peculiarities of the, ii. 8.
Eyton, Mr., on gestation in the dog, i. 30;
variability in number of vertebræ in the pig, i. 74;
individual sterility, ii. 162.
Faba vulgaris, i. 330.
Fabre, observations on Ægilops triticoides, i. 313.
Fagus sylvatica, ii. 19.
Fairweather, Mr., production of double flowers from old seed, ii. 167.
Falco albidus, resumption of young plumage by, in captivity, ii. 158.
Falco ossifragus, ii. 230.
Falco subbuteo, copulating in captivity, ii. 154.
Falco tinnunculus, breeding in captivity, ii. 154.
Falconer, Dr., sterility of English bulldogs in India, i, 38;
resemblance between Sivatherium and Niata cattle, i. 89;
selection of the silkworm in India, i. 301;
fastigate apple-trees in Calcutta, i. 361;
reproduction of a supernumerary thumb after amputation, ii. 14;
fertility of the dhole in captivity, ii. 151;
fertility of English dogs in India, ii. 161;
sterility of the tiger in captivity, ii. 151;
turkeys at Delhi, ii. 161;
on Indian cultivated plants, ii. 165;
Thibet mastiff and goat, ii. 278.
Falcons, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 153.
Falkland Islands, horses of the, i. 52-53, 61;
feral pigs of the, i. 77;
feral cattle of the, i. 82, 86;
feral rabbits of the, i. 112.
Fallow deer, ii. 103, 120.
Fantail pigeons, i. 146-148, ii. 227;
figured, i. 147;
furcula of, figured, i. 167;
history of, i. 208;
absence of oil-gland in, ii. 344.
Faroe Islands, pigeons of the, i. 183.
Fashion, influence of, in breeding, ii. 240.
Fastigate trees, ii. 277, 348.
Faunas, geographical differences, of, i. 10.
"Favourite" bull, ii. 65, 118.
Feathers, homologous variation in, ii. 325.
Feet, of pigeons, individual differences of, i. 160;
correlations of external characters in, i. 170-171.
Feet and beak, correlation of, in pigeons, i. 171-174.
Felidæ, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 150.
Felis bubastes, i. 43.
Felis caffra, i. 44.
Felis caligulata, i. 43.
Felis chaus, i. 43-44.
Felis jubata, ii. 151.
Felis lybica, i. 44.
Felis maniculata, i. 43.
Felis manul, i. 45.
Felis ornata, i. 45.
Felis sylvestris, i. 44.
Felis torquata, i. 45.
Female, affected by male element, ii. 365, 387-388.
Female flowers, in male panicle of maize, i. 321.
Fennel, Italian variety of, i. 326.
Feral cats, i. 47;
cattle, i. 86;
rabbits, i. 111-115;
Guinea fowl, i. 294;
animals and plants, reversion in, ii. 32-34, 47.
Ferguson, Mr., supposed plurality of origin of domestic fowls, i. 231;
chickens of black game-fowls, i. 244;
relative size of eggs of fowls, i. 248;
yolk of eggs of game-fowls, i. 249;
early pugnacity of game-cocks, i. 250;
voice of the Malay fowl, i. 259;
effects of interbreeding on fowls, ii. 124;
selection in Cochin China fowls, ii. 196;
on fashion in poultry, ii. 240.
Fernandez, on Mexican dogs, i. 23.
Ferns, reproduction of abnormal forms of, by spores, i. 383;
non-diffusion of cell-gemmules in, ii. 379.
Ferrets, ii. 111, 151, 206.
Fertilisation, artificial, of the St. Valery apple, i. 350.
Fertility, various degrees of, in sheep, i. 97;
unlimited mutual, of breeds of pigeons, i. 192-194;
comparative of mongrels and hybrids, ii. 100-101, 178-180;
influence of nourishment on, ii. 111;
diminished by close interbreeding, ii. 118, 175;
reduced, of Chillingham wild cattle, ii. 119;
of domesticated varieties when crossed, ii. 189.
Festuca, species of, propagated by bulblets, ii. 170.
Filberts, spared by tomtits, ii. 231.
Filippi, on the breeding of branchiferous tritons, ii. 384.
Finches, general sterility of, in captivity, ii. 154.
Finnikin (pigeon), i. 156.
Finnochio, i. 326.
Fir, Scotch, acclimatisation of, ii. 310.
Fish, Mr., advantage of change of soil to plants, ii. 147.
Fishes, regeneration of portions of fins of, ii. 15;
variability of, when kept in tanks, ii. 259;
marine, living in fresh water, ii. 304;
double monsters of, ii. 340.
Fission and gemmation, ii. 358.
Fitch, Mr., persistency of a variety of the pea, i. 329.
Fittest, survival of the, i. 6.
Fitzinger, origin of sheep, i. 94;
African maned sheep, i. 96.
Fixedness of character, conditions of, discussed, ii. 62-64.
Flax, found in the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 317;
climatal difference in products of, ii. 274.
Fleece, fineness of, in Austrian merinos, ii. 197.
Fleischmann, on German sheep crossed with merinos, ii. 88-89.
"Florentiner-Taube," i. 142-143.
Flounder, ii. 53.
Flourens, crossing of wolf and dog, i. 32;
prepotency of the jackal over the dog, ii. 67;
hybrids of the horse and ass, ii. 68;
breeding of monkeys in Europe, ii. 153.
Flower-garden, earliest known, in Europe, ii. 217.
Flowers, capricious transmission of colour-varieties in, ii. 20-21;
tendency to uniformity in striped, ii. 70;
scorching of, dependent on colour, ii. 229;
change in, caused by conditions of life, ii. 273;
rudimentary, ii. 316;
relative position of, to the axis, ii. 345.
Fœtation, abdominal, ii. 294.
Foley, Mr., wild varieties of pears, ii. 260.
Foliage, inherited peculiarities of, i. 362;
variegation, of, i. 366;
bud-variation in, i. 382-384.
Food, influence of, on the pig, i. 72;
on cattle, i. 91;
excess of, a cause of variability, ii. 257.
Forbes, D., on Chilian sheep, i. 95;
on the horses of Spain, Chili, and the Pampas, i. 52.
Formica rufa, ii. 251.
Fortune, R., sterility of the sweet potato in China, ii. 169;
development of axillary bulbs in the yam, ibid.
Fowl, common, breeds of, i. 225-230;
supposed plurality of origin, i. 230;
early history of, i. 231-233;
causes of production of breeds of, i. 233;
origin of from Gallus bankiva, i. 236-239, 245;
feral, notices of, i. 237-238;
reversion and analogous variation in, i. 239-246, ii. 35, 38, 39, 40, 349, 350;
"cuckoo" sub-breeds of, i. 244;
history of, i. 246-247;
structural characters of, i. 247-250;
sexual peculiarities of, i. 251-257, ii. 74;
external differences of, i. 257-260;
differences of breeds of, from G. bankiva, i. 260;
osteological characters of, i. 260-270;
effects of disuse of parts in, i. 270-274, ii. 298;
feral, i. 190, ii. 33;
polydactylism in, ii. 14;
fertility of, increased by domestication, ii. 112, 167;
sterility of, under certain conditions, ii. 162;
influence of selection on, ii. 196, 198, 209, 210;
evils of close interbreeding of, ii. 124-125;
crossing of, ii. 95, 96, 97;
prepotency of transmission in, ii. 67;
rudimentary organs in, ii. 315;
crossing of non-sitting varieties of, ii. 43-44;
homology of wing and leg feathers in, ii. 323;
hybrids of, with pheasants and Gallus Sonneratii, ii. 45;
black-skinned, ii. 209-210;
black, preyed upon by the osprey in Iceland, ii. 230;
five-toed, mentioned by Columella, ii. 429;
rumpless, tailed chickens produced by, ii. 31;
Dorking, crosses of, ii. 93;
form of comb and colour of plumage in, ii. 238;
game, crossing of white and black, ii. 92;
five-spurred, ii. 391;
Spanish, liable to suffer from frost, ii. 306;
Polish, peculiarities of skull of, ii. 332-333.
Fox, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 151.
Fox, S. Bevan, races of bees, i. 298.
Fox, W. Darwin, gestation of the dog, i. 30;
"Negro" cat, i. 46;
reversion of sheep in colour, ii. 30;
period of gestation in the pig, i. 74;
young of the Himalayan rabbit, i. 109;
crossing of wild and domestic turkeys, i. 292;
reversion in crossed musk ducks, ii. 40;
spontaneous segregation of varieties of geese, ii. 104;
effects of close interbreeding upon bloodhounds, ii. 121;
deafness of white cats with blue eyes, ii. 329.
Foxhounds, i. 40, ii. 120.
Fragaria chiloensis, i. 351.
Fragaria collina, i. 351.
Fragaria dioica of Duchesne, i. 353.
Fragaria elatior, i. 351.
Fragaria grandiflora, i. 351.
Fragaria vesca, i. 351.
Fragaria virginiana, i. 351.
Fraxinus excelsior, i. 360, 362, ii. 19.
Fraxinus lentiscifolia, ii. 19.
Friesland cattle, probably descended from Bos primigenius, i. 81.
Frillback (pigeon), i. 155;
Indian, i. 153.
Fringilla ciris, ii. 154.
Fringilla spinus, ii. 154.
Frizzled fowls, i. 230;
horses, i. 54.
Frog, polydactylism in the, ii. 14.
Fruit, seedless, ii. 168.
Fruit-trees, varieties of, occurring wild, i. 310.
Fry, Mr., on fertile hybrid cats, i. 44;
on feral fowls in Ascension, i. 238.
Fuchsias, origin of, i. 364;
bud-variation in, i. 382.
Fuchsia coccinea and fulgens, twin seed produced by crossing, i. 391.
Fuegians, their superstition about killing young water-fowl, i. 310;
selection of dogs by the, ii. 207;
their comparative estimation of dogs and old women, ii. 215;
their power of distant vision, ii. 223.
Fungi, parasitic, ii. 284-285.
Furcula, characters and variations of the, in pigeons, i. 167;
alteration of, by disuse, in pigeons, i. 175;
characters of, in fowls, i. 268.
Fusion of homologous parts, ii. 393.
Gait, inheritance of peculiarities of, ii. 6.
Galapagos Archipelago, its peculiar fauna and flora, i. 9.
Galeobdolon luteum, pelorism in, ii. 59, 345.
Galls, ii. 282-284.
Gall-gnats, ii. 283.
Gall-like excrescences not inherited, ii. 23.
Gallinaceous birds, restricted range of large, i. 237;
general fertility of in captivity, ii. 155.
Gallinula chloropus, ii. 156.
Gallinula nesiotis, i. 287.
Galton, Mr., fondness of savages for taming animals, i. 20, ii. 160;
cattle of Benguela, i. 88;
on hereditary talent, ii. 7.
Gallesio, species of oranges, i. 334, 335, 336;
hybridisation of oranges, i. 336;
persistency of races in the peach, i. 339;
supposed specific distinctions of peach and nectarine, i. 340;
Bizzaria orange, i. 391;
crossing of red and white carnations, i. 393;
crossing of the orange and lemon, i. 399, ii. 365;
effect of foreign pollen on maize, i. 400;
spontaneous crossing of oranges, ii. 91;
monstrosities a cause of sterility in plants, ii. 166;
seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits, ii. 168;
sterility of the sugar cane, ii. 169;
tendency of male flowers to become double, ii. 171;
effects of selection in enlarging fruit, &c., ii. 217;
variation of the orange tree in North Italy, ii. 256;
naturalisation of the orange in Italy, ii. 309.
Gallus æneus, a hybrid of G. varius and the domestic fowl, i. 235.
Gallus bankiva, probable original of domestic fowls, i. 233, 236-239, 245;
game-fowl, nearest to, i. 226;
crossed with G. Sonneratii, i. 234;
its character and habits, i. 235-236, ii. 109;
differences of various breeds of fowls from, i. 260;
occipital foramen of, figured, i. 261;
skull of, figured, i. 262;
cervical vertebra of, figured, i. 267;
furcula of, figured, i. 268;
reversion to, in crossed fowls, ii. 39-40;
hybrid of, with G. varius, i. 235, ii. 40;
number of eggs of, ii. 112.
Gallus ferrugineus, i. 226.
Gallus furcatus, i. 234.
Gallus giganteus, i. 235.
Gallus Sonneratii, characters and habits of, i. 233;
hybrids of, i. 234, ii. 45.
Gallus Stanleyi, hybrids of, i. 234.
Gallus Temminckii, probably a hybrid, i. 235.
Gallus varius, character and habits of, i. 234;
hybrids and probable hybrids of, i. 234-235.
Gambier, Lord, his early cultivation of the pansy, i. 368.
Game-fowl, i. 226, 250, 251, 252.
Gapes, ii. 228.
Garcilazo de la Vega, annual hunts of the Peruvian Incas, ii. 207.
Garnett, Mr., migratory propensities of hybrid ducks, ii. 45.
Garrod, Dr., on hereditary gout, ii. 7.
Gasparini, a genus of pumpkins, founded on stigmatic characters, i. 359.
Gaudichaud, bud-variation in the pear, i. 376;
apple tree with two kinds of fruit on branch, i. 392.
Gaudry, anomalous structure in the feet of horses, i. 50.
Gay, on Fragaria grandiflora, i. 351;
on Viola lutea and tricolor, i. 368;
on the nectary of Viola grandiflora, i. 369.
Gayal, domestication of the, i. 82.
Gayot, see Moll.
Gärtner, on the sterility of hybrids, i. 192, ii. 101;
acquired sterility of varieties of plants when crossed, i. 358;
sterility in transplanted plants, and in the lilac in Germany, ii. 164;
mutual sterility of blue and red flowers of the pimpernel, ii. 190;
supposed rules of transmission in crossing plants, ii. 68;
on crossing plants, ii. 98, 127, 130, 131;
on repeated crossing, ii. 267;
absorption of one species by another, when crossed, ii. 88;
crossing of varieties of the pea, i. 397;
crossing maize, ii. 105;
crossing of species of Verbascum, ii. 93, 105;
reversion in hybrids, ii. 36, 49, 50;
of Cereus, i. 392;
of Tropæolum majus and minus, i. 392;
variability of hybrids, ii. 265;
variable hybrids from one variable parent, ii. 270;
graft hybrid produced by inosculation in the vine, i. 395;
effect produced by grafts on the stock, i. 394, ii. 278;
tendency of hybrid plants to produce double flowers, ii. 171;
production of perfect fruit by sterile hybrids, ii. 172;
sexual elective affinity, ii. 180;
self-impotence in Lobelia, Verbascum, Lilium, and Passiflora, ii. 136-137;
on the action of pollen, ii. 108;
fertilisation of Malva, i. 402-403, ii. 363;
prepotency of pollen, ii. 187;
prepotency of transmission in species of Nicotiana, ii. 67;
bud-variation in Pelargonium zonale, i. 375;
in Œnothera biennis, i. 382;
in Achillæa millefolium, i. 408;
effect of manure on the fertility of plants, ii. 163;
on contabescence, ii. 165-166;
inheritance of plasticity, ii. 241;
villosity of plants, ii. 277.
Geese (anseres) general fertility of, in captivity, ii. 157.
Gegenbaur, on the number of digits, ii. 13.
Gemmation and fission, ii. 358.
Gemmules, or cell-gemmules, ii. 374, 378-381, 384.
Genet, fertility of the, in captivity, ii. 151.
Generation, alternate, ii. 361, 367, 390.
Generation, sexual, ii. 359-364.
Genius, inheritance of, ii. 7.
Gentiana amarella, ii. 168.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, production of monstrous chickens, ii. 289;
"Loi de l'affinité de soi pour soi," ii. 339;
compensation of growth, ii. 342.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isid., origin of the dog, i. 66;
barking of a jackal, i. 27;
period of gestation and odour of the jackal, i. 30;
anomalies in the teeth of dogs, i. 34;
variations in the proportions of dogs, i. 35;
webbed feet of Newfoundland dogs, i. 39;
crossing of domestic and wild cats, i. 44;
domestication of the arni, i. 82;
supposed introduction of cattle into Europe from the East, ibid.;
absence of interdigital pits in sheep, i. 95;
origin of the goat, i. 101;
feral geese, i. 190;
ancient history of the fowl, i. 246;
skull of the Polish fowl, i. 262;
preference of the Romans for the liver of white geese, i. 289;
polydactylism, ii. 12;
assumption of male characters by female birds, ii. 51;
supernumerary mammæ in women, ii. 58;
development of a proboscis in the pig, ibid.;
transmission and blending of characters in hybrids, ii. 94;
refusal of animals to breed in captivity, ii. 149;
on the Guinea pig, ii. 152;
silkworms producing white cocoons, ii. 199;
on the carp, ii. 236;
on Helix lactea, ii. 280;
on monstrosities, ii. 254;
injury to the embryo a cause of monstrosity, ii. 269;
alteration in the coat of horses in coal mines, ii. 278;
length of the intestines in wild and tame animals, ii. 302-303;
inheritance of rudimentary limbs in the dog, ii. 315;
correlation in monstrosities, ii. 320;
supernumerary digits in man, ii. 322;
co-existence of anomalies, ii. 331;
fusion of homologous parts, ii. 341-342;
presence of hairs and teeth in ovarian tumours, ii. 370;
development of teeth on the palate in the horse, ii. 391.
Geographical differences of faunas, i. 10.
Geological succession of organisms, i. 11.
Geranium, ii. 59.
Geranium phæum and pyrenaicum, ii. 258.
Geranium pratense, i. 379.
Gerard, asserted climatal change in Burgundian bees, i. 297.
Gerarde, on varieties of the hyacinth, i. 370.
Gerstäcker, on hive-bees, i. 299.
Gervais, Prof., origin of the dog, i. 16;
resemblance of dogs and jackals, i. 24;
taming of the jackal, i. 26;
number of teeth in dogs, i. 34;
breeds of dogs, i. 36;
on tertiary horses, i. 51;
biblical notices of horses, i. 55;
species of Ovis, i. 94;
wild and domestic rabbits, i. 103;
rabbits from Mount Sinai and Algeria, i. 105;
earless rabbits, i. 108;
batrachia with doubled limbs, ii. 391.
Gestation, period of, in the dog, wolf, &c, i. 29-30;
in the pig, i. 74;
in cattle, i. 87, ii. 321;
in sheep, i. 97.
Gestures, inheritance of peculiarities in, ii. 6.
"Ghoondooks" a sub-breed of fowls, i. 229.
Ghor-Khur, ii. 42.
Giles, Mr., effect of cross-breeding in the pig, i. 404.
Giraffe, co-ordination of structure of, ii. 221.
Girard, period of appearance of permanent teeth in dogs, i. 35.
Girou de Buzareingues, inheritance in the horse, ii. 10;
reversion by age in cattle, ii. 38;
prepotency of transmission of character in sheep and cattle, ii. 66;
on crossing gourds, ii. 108.
Gisburne, wild cattle at, i. 84.
Gladiolus, i. 364;
self-impotence of hybrids of, ii. 139.
Gladiolus colvillii, bud-variation in, i. 382.
Glands, compensatory development of, ii. 300.
Glastonbury thorn, i. 364.
Glenny, Mr., on the Cineraria, ii. 200.
Gloede, F., on strawberries, i. 353.
Gloger, on the wings of ducks, ii. 298.
"Glouglou" (pigeon), i. 154.
Gloxiniæ, peloric, i. 365, ii. 167.
Gmelin, on red cats, at Tobolsk, i. 47.
Goat, i. 101-102, ii. 33;
polydactylism in the, ii. 14;
sexual differences in horns of, ii. 73;
valued by South Africans, ii. 207;
Thibet, ii. 278;
amount of milk and development of udders in the, ii. 300;
hornless, rudimentary bony cores in, ii. 316;
Angora, ii. 326.
Godron, odour of the hairless Turkish dog, i. 30;
differences in the skull of dogs, i. 34;
increase of breeds of horses, i. 51;
crossing of domestic and wild swine, i. 66;
on goats, i. 101-102;
colour of the skin in fowls, i. 258;
bees of north and south of France, i. 297;
introduction of the silkworm into Europe, i. 300;
variability in the silkworm, i. 304;
supposed species of wheat, i. 312-314;
on Ægilops triticoides, i. 313;
variable presence of barbs in grasses, i. 314;
colours of the seeds of maize, i. 321;
unity of character in cabbages, i. 323;
correlation of colour and odour, i. 325;
effect of heat and moisture on the cabbage, i. 325;
on the cultivated species of Brassica, i. 325;
on the Rouncival and sugar peas, i. 327;
variation in the numbers of peas in the same pod, i. 328;
wild vines in Spain, i. 332;
on raising peaches from seed, i. 339;
supposed specific distinctness of peach and nectarine, i. 340;
nectarine producing peaches, i. 341;
on the flower of Corydalis, i. 344;
origin and variations of the plum, i. 345;
origin of the cherry, i. 347;
reversion of single-leaved strawberries, i. 353;
five-leaved variety of Fragaria collina, i. 353;
supposed immutability of specific characters, i. 358-359;
varieties of Robinia, i. 361;
permanency of the simple-leaved ash, i. 362;
non-inheritance of certain mutilations, ii. 23;
wild turnips, carrots, and celery, ii. 33;
pre-potency of a goat-like ram, ii. 66;
benefit of change of soil to plants, ii. 146;
fertility of peloric flowers of Corydalis solida, ii. 167;
seeding of ordinarily seedless fruit, ii. 168;
sexual sterility of plants propagated by buds, &c., ii. 169;
increase of sugar in beet-root, ii. 201;
effects of selection in enlarging particular parts of plants, ii. 217;
growth of the cabbage in the tropics, ii. 277;
rejection of bitter almonds by mice, ii. 232;
influence of marshy pasture on the fleece of sheep, ii. 278;
on the ears of ancient Egyptian pigs, ii. 301;
primitive distinctness of species, ii. 415;
solid hoofed swine, ii. 429.
Goethe, on compensation of growth, ii. 342.
Goldfish, i. 296-297, ii. 236.
Gomara, on South American cats, i. 46.
Gongora, number of seeds in the, ii. 379.
Goose, ancient domestication of, i. 287;
sacred to Juno in Rome, ibid.;
inflexibility of organisation of, i. 288;
skull perforated in tufted, i. 288;
characters of breeds and sub-breeds of, i. 288-289;
variety of, from Sebastopol, i. 289, ii. 392;
feral in La Plata, i. 190;
Egyptian, hybrid of, with penguin duck, ii. 68;
spontaneous segregation of varieties of, ii. 104;
fertility of, increased by domestication, ii. 112;
decreased fertility of, in Bogota, ii. 161;
sterility of, in the Philippine Islands, ii. 162;
selection of, ii. 204;
white, preference of the Romans for the liver of, ii. 209;
persistency of character in, ii. 254;
Egyptian, change in breeding season of, ii. 304.
Gooseberry, i. 354-356;
bud-variation in the, i. 376;
Whitesmith's, ii. 232.
Göppert, on monstrous poppies, ii. 166.
Gosse, P. H., feral dogs in Jamaica, i. 28;
feral pigs of Jamaica, i. 77-78;
feral rabbits of Jamaica, i. 112;
on Columba leucocephala, i. 183;
feral Guinea fowl in Jamaica, i. 190;
reproduction of individual peculiarities by gemmation in a coral, i. 374;
frequency of striped legs in mules, ii. 42.
Gould, Dr., on hereditary hæmorrhage, ii. 7.
Gould, John, origin of the turkey, i. 292.
Goura coronata and Victoriæ, hybrids of, i. 194, ii. 155.
Gourds, i. 357;
crossing of varieties of, ii. 108;
ancient Peruvian variety of, ii. 429.
Gout, inheritance of, ii. 7;
period of appearance of, ii. 77.
Graba, on the pigeon of the Faroe islands, i. 183.
Grafting, ii. 147;
effects of, ii. 259, 278;
upon the stock, i. 394-395;
upon the variability of trees, ii. 259;
changes analogous to bud-variation produced by, i. 387, 389.
Graft-hybrids, i. 390-391, 394-397, ii. 364-365.
Grapes, bud-variation in, i. 375;
cross of white and purple, i. 393;
green, liable to disease, ii. 336;
effect of foreign pollen on, i. 400.
Grasses, seeds of, used as food by savages, i. 307-309.
Gray, Asa, superior wild varieties of fruit-trees, i. 310;
cultivated native plants of North America, i. 312, 357;
non-variation of weeds, i. 317;
supposed spontaneous crossing of pumpkins, i. 399;
pre-ordination of variation, ii. 432;
progeny of husked form of maize, i. 320;
wild intermediate forms of strawberries, i. 352.
Gray, G. R., on Columba gymnocyclus, i. 184.
Gray, J. E., on Sus pliciceps, i. 70;
on a variety of the gold-fish, i. 297;
hybrids of the ass and zebra, ii. 42-43;
on the breeding of animals at Knowsley, ii. 149;
on the breeding of birds in captivity, ii. 157.
Greene, J. Reay, on the development of the echinodermata, ii. 367.
Greenhow, Mr., on a Canadian web-footed dog, i. 39.
Greening, Mr., experiments on Abraxas grossulariata, ii. 280.
Gregson, Mr., experiments on Abraxas grossulariata, ii. 280.
Grey, Sir George, preservation of seed-bearing plants by the Australian savages, i. 310;
detestation of incest by Australian savages, ii. 123.
Greyhounds, sculptured on Egyptian monuments, and in the Villa of Antoninus, i. 17;
modern breed of, i. 41;
crossed with the bulldog, by Lord Orford, ii. 95;
co-ordination of structure of, due to selection, ii. 221-222;
Italian, ii. 227.
Greyness, inherited at corresponding periods of life, ii. 77.
Grieve, Mr., on early-flowering dahlias, i. 370.
Grigor, Mr., acclimatisation of the Scotch fir, ii. 310.
Groom-Napier, C. O., on the webbed feet of the otter-hound, i. 40.
"Grosses-gorges" (pigeons), i. 137.
Ground-tumbler, Indian, i. 150.
Grouse, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Grönland, hybrids of Ægilops and wheat, ii. 110.
Grus montigresia, cinerea, and Antigone, ii. 156.
Guanacos, selection of, ii. 207.
Guans, general fertility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Guelder-rose, ii. 185.
Guelderland fowls, i. 230.
Guiana, selection of dogs by the Indians of, ii. 206.
Guinea fowl, i. 294;
feral in Ascension, and Jamaica, i. 190, ii. 33;
indifference of to change of climate, ii. 161.
Guinea pig, ii. 24, 152.
Güldenstadt, on the jackal, i. 25.
Gull, herring, breeding in confinement, ii. 157.
Gulls, general sterility of, in captivity, ii. 157.
Gulo, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Günther, A., on tufted ducks and geese, i. 274;
on the regeneration of lost parts in batrachia, ii. 15.
Gurney, Mr., owls breeding in captivity, ii. 154;
appearance of "black-shouldered" among ordinary peacocks, i. 291.
Habit, influence of, in acclimatisation, ii. 312-315.
Habits, inheritance of, ii. 395.
Häckel, on cells, ii. 370;
on the double reproduction of medusæ, ii. 384;
on inheritance, ii. 397.
Hackles, peculiarities of, in fowls, i. 254.
Hair, on the face, inheritance of, in man, ii. 4;
peculiar lock of, inherited, ii. 5;
growth of, under stimulation of skin, ii. 326;
homologous variation of, ii. 325;
development of, within the ears and in the brain, ii. 391.
Hair and teeth, correlation of, ii. 326-328.
Hairy family, corresponding period of inheritance in, ii. 77.
Half-castes, character of, ii. 46.
Half-lop rabbits, figured and described, i. 107-108;
skull of, i. 119.
Haliætus leucocephalus, copulating in captivity, ii. 154.
Hallam, Col., on a two-legged race of pigs, ii. 4.
Hamburgh fowl, i. 227, 261;
figured, i. 228.
Hamilton, wild cattle of, i. 84.
Hamilton, Dr., on the assumption of male plumage by the hen pheasant, ii. 51.
Hamilton, F. Buchanan, on the shaddock, i. 335;
varieties of Indian cultivated plants, ii. 256.
Hancock, Mr., sterility of tamed birds, ii. 155-157.
Handwriting, inheritance of peculiarities in, ii. 6.
Hanmer, Sir J., on selection of flower seeds, ii. 204.
Hansell, Mr., inheritance of dark yolks in duck's eggs, i. 281.
Harcourt, E. V., on the Arab boar-hound, i. 17;
aversion of the Arabs to dun-coloured horses, i. 55.
Hardy, Mr., effect of excess of nourishment on plants, ii. 257.
Hare, hybrids of, with rabbit, i. 105;
sterility of the, in confinement, ii. 152;
preference of, for particular plants, ii. 232.
Hare-lip, inheritance of, ii. 24.
Harlan, Dr., on hereditary diseases, ii. 7.
Harmer, Mr., on the number of eggs in a codfish, ii. 379.
Harvey, Mr., monstrous red and white African bull, i. 91.
Harvey, Prof., singular form of Begonia frigida, i. 365-366;
effects of cross-breeding on the female, i. 404;
monstrous saxifrage, ii. 166.
Hasora wheat, i. 313.
Hautbois strawberry, i. 353.
Hawker, Col., on call or decoy ducks, i. 281.
Hawthorn, varieties of, i. 360-364;
pyramidal, i. 361;
pendulous hybridised, ii. 18;
changes of, by age, i. 364, 387;
bud-variation in the, i. 377;
flower buds of, attacked by bullfinches, ii. 232.
Hayes, Dr., character of Esquimaux dogs, i. 21-22.
Haywood, W., on the feral rabbits of Porto Santo, i. 114.
Hazel, purple-leaved, i. 362, 395, ii. 330.
Head of wild boar and Yorkshire pig, figured, i. 72.
Head and limbs, correlated variability of, ii. 323.
Headache, inheritance of, ii. 79.
Heartsease, i. 368-369;
change produced in the, by transplantation, i. 386;
reversion in, ii. 31, 47;
effects of selection on, ii. 200;
scorching of, ii. 229;
effects of seasonal conditions on the, ii. 274;
annual varieties of the, ii. 305.
Heat, effect of, upon the fleece of sheep, i. 98.
Heber, Bishop, on the breeding of the rhinoceros in captivity, ii. 150.
Hebrides, cattle of the, i. 80;
pigeons of the, i. 183.
Heer, O., on the plants of the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 309, ii. 215, 427;
on the cereals, i. 317-319;
on the peas, i. 326;
on the vine growing in Italy in the bronze age, i. 332.
Helix lactea, ii. 280.
Hemerocallis fulva and flava, interchanging by bud-variation, i. 386.
Hemlock yields no conicine in Scotland, ii. 274.
Hemp, differences of, in various parts of India, ii. 165;
climatal difference in products of, ii. 274.
Hempseed, effect of, upon the colour of birds, ii. 280.
Hermaphrodite flowers, occurrence of, in Maize, i. 321.
Hen, assumption of male characters by the, ii. 51, 54;
development of spurs in the, ii. 318.
"Hennies," or hen-like male fowls, i. 252.
Henry, T. A., a variety of the ash produced by grafting, i. 394;
crossing of species of Rhododendron and Arabis, i. 400.
Henslow, Prof., individual variation in wheat, i. 314;
bud-variation in the Austrian bramble rose, i. 381;
partial reproduction of the weeping ash by seed, ii. 19.
Hepatica, changed by transplantation, i. 386.
Herbert, Dr., variations of Viola grandiflora, i. 368;
bud-variation in camellias, i. 377;
seedlings from reverted Cytisus Adami, i. 388;
crosses of Swedish and other turnips, ii. 93;
on hollyhocks, ii. 107;
breeding of hybrids, ii. 131;
self-impotence in hybrid hippeastrums, ii. 138-139;
hybrid Gladiolus, ii. 139;
on Zephyranthes candida, ii. 164;
fertility of the crocus, ii. 165;
on contabescence, ii. 165;
hybrid Rhododendron, ii. 265.
Herculaneum, figure of a pig found in, i. 67.
Heron, Sir R., appearance of "black-shouldered" among ordinary peacocks, i. 290-291;
non-inheritance of monstrous characters by goldfish, i. 296;
crossing of white and coloured Angora rabbits, ii. 92;
crosses of solid-hoofed pigs, ii. 93.
Herpestes fasciatus and griseus, ii. 151.
Heusinger, on the sheep of the Tarentino, ii. 227;
on correlated constitutional peculiarities, ii. 337.
Hewitt, Mr., reversion in bantam cocks, i. 240;
degeneration of silk fowls, i. 243;
partial sterility of hen-like male fowls, i. 252;
production of tailed chickens by rumpless fowls, i. 259;
on taming and rearing wild ducks, i. 278-279, ii. 233, 262-263;
conditions of inheritance in laced Sebright bantams, ii. 22;
reversion in rumpless fowls, ii. 31;
reversion in fowls by age, ii. 39;
hybrids of pheasant and fowl, ii. 45, 68;
assumption of male characters by female pheasants, ii. 51;
development of latent characters in a barren bantam hen, ii. 54;
mongrels from the silk-fowl, ii. 67;
effects of close interbreeding on fowls, ii. 124-125;
on feathered-legged bantams, ii. 323.
Hibbert, Mr., on the pigs of the Shetland Islands, i. 70.
Highland cattle, descended from Bos longifrons, i. 81.
Hildebrand, Dr., on the fertilisation of Orchideæ, i. 402-403;
occasional necessary crossing of plants, ii. 90;
on Primula sinensis and Oxalis rosea, ii. 132;
on Corydalis cava, ii. 132-133.
Hill, R., on the Alco, i. 31;
feral rabbits in Jamaica, i. 112;
feral peacocks in Jamaica, i. 190;
variation of the Guinea fowl in Jamaica, i. 294;
sterility of tamed birds in Jamaica, ii. 155, 157.
Himalaya, range of gallinaceous birds in the, i. 237.
Himalayan rabbit, i. 107, 108-111;
skull of, i. 120.
Himalayan sheep, i. 95.
Hindmarsh, Mr., on Chillingham cattle, i. 84.
"Hinkel-Taube," i. 142-143.
Hinny and mule, difference of, ii. 67-68.
Hipparion, anomalous resemblance to in horses, i. 50.
Hippeastrum, hybrids of, ii. 138-139.
Hive-bees, ancient domestication of, i. 297;
breeds of, i. 298;
smaller when produced in old combs, i. 297;
variability in, i. 298;
crossing of Ligurian and common, i. 299.
"Hocker-Taube," i. 141.
Hobbs, Fisher, on interbreeding pigs, ii. 121.
Hodgkin, Dr., on the attraction of foxes by a female Dingo, i. 31;
origin of the Newfoundland dog, i. 42;
transmission of a peculiar lock of hair, ii. 5.
Hodgson, Mr., domestication of Canis primævus, i. 26;
development of a fifth digit in Thibet mastiffs, i. 35;
number of ribs in humped cattle, i. 79;
on the sheep of the Himalaya, i. 95;
presence of four mammæ in sheep, ibid.;
arched nose in sheep, i. 96;
measurements of the intestines of goats, i. 102;
presence of interdigital pits in goats, ibid.;
disuse a cause of drooping ears, ii. 301.
Hofacker, persistency of colour in horses, i. 51, ii. 21;
production of dun horses from parents of different colours, i. 59;
inheritance of peculiarities in handwriting, ii. 6;
heredity in a one-horned stag, ii. 12;
on consanguineous marriages, ii. 123.
Hog, Red River, ii. 150.
Hogg, Mr., retardation of breeding in cows by hard living, ii. 112.
Holland, Sir H., necessity of inheritance, ii. 2;
on hereditary diseases, ii. 7;
hereditary peculiarity in the eyelid, ii. 8;
morbid uniformity in the same family, ii. 17;
transmission of hydrocele through the female, ii. 52;
inheritance of habits and tricks, ii. 395.
Holly, varieties of the, i. 360, 362;
bud-reversion in, i. 384;
yellow-berried, ii. 19, 230.
Hollyhock, bud-variation in, i. 378;
non-crossing of double varieties of, ii. 107;
tender variety of the, ii. 310.
Homer, notice of Geese, i. 287;
breeding of the horses of Æneas, ii. 202.
Homologous parts, correlated variability of, ii. 322-331, 354-355;
fusion of, ii. 393;
affinity of, ii. 339-342.
Hoofs, correlated with hair in variation, ii. 325.
Hook-billed duck, skull figured, i. 282.
Hooker, Dr. J. D., forked shoulder-stripe in Syrian asses, i. 63;
voice of the cock in Sikkim, i. 259;
use of Arum-roots as food, i. 307;
native useful plants of Australia, i. 311;
wild walnut of the Himalayas, i. 356;
variety of the plane tree, i. 362;
production of Thuja orientalis from seeds of T. pendula, i. 362;
singular form of Begonia frigida, i. 365;
reversion in plants run wild, ii. 33;
on the sugar-cane, ii. 169;
on Arctic plants, ii. 256;
on the oak grown at the Cape of Good Hope, ii. 274;
on Rhododendron ciliatum, ii. 277;
stock and mignonette, perennial in Tasmania, ii. 305.
Hopkirk, Mr., bud-variation in the rose, i. 381;
in Mirabilis jalapa, i. 382;
in Convolvulus tricolor, i. 408.
Hornbeam, heterophyllous, i. 362.
Horned fowl, i. 229;
skull figured, i. 265.
Hornless cattle in Paraguay, i. 89.
Horns of sheep, i. 95;
correlation of, with fleece in sheep, ii. 326;
correlation of, with the skull, ii. 333;
rudimentary in young polled cattle, ii. 315;
of goats, i. 102.
Horses, in Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 49;
different breeds of, in Malay Archipelago, i. 49;
anomalies in osteology and dentition of, i. 50;
mutual fertility of different breeds, i. 51;
feral, i. 51;
habit of scraping away snow, i. 53;
mode of production of breeds of, i. 54;
inheritance and diversity of colour in, i. 55;
dark stripes in, i. 56-61, ii. 351;
dun-coloured, origin of, i. 59;
colours of feral, i. 60-61;
effect of fecundation by a Quagga on the subsequent progeny of, i. 403-404;
inheritance of peculiarities in, ii. 10-11;
polydactylism in, ii. 14;
inheritance of colour in, ii. 21;
inheritance of exostoses in legs of, ii. 23;
reversion in, ii. 33, 41;
hybrids of, with ass and zebra, ii. 42;
prepotency of transmission in the sexes of, ii. 65;
segregation of, in Paraguay, ii. 102;
wild species of, breeding in captivity, ii. 150;
curly, in Paraguay, ii. 205, 325;
selection of, for trifling characters, ii. 209;
unconscious selection of, ii. 212-213;
natural selection in Circassia, ii. 225;
alteration of coat of, in coal-mines, ii. 278;
degeneration of, in the Falkland Islands, ii. 278;
diseases of, caused by shoeing, ii. 300;
feeding on meat, ii. 305;
white and white-spotted, poisoned by mildewed vetches, ii. 337;
analogous variations in the colour of, ii. 349;
teeth developed on palate of, ii. 391;
of bronze period in Denmark, ii. 427.
Horse-chesnut, early, at the Tuileries, i. 362;
tendency to doubleness in, ii. 168.
Horse-radish, general sterility of the, ii. 170.
"Houdan," a French sub-breed of fowls, i. 229.
Howard, C., on an Egyptian monument, i. 17;
on crossing sheep, ii. 95, 120.
Huc, on the Emperor Khang-hi, ii. 205;
Chinese varieties of the bamboo, ii. 256.
Humboldt, A., character of the Zambos, ii. 47;
parrot speaking the language of an extinct tribe, ii. 154;
on Pulex penetrans, ii. 275.
Humidity, injurious effect of, upon horses, i. 53.
Humphreys, Col., on Ancon sheep, i. 100.
Hungarian cattle, i. 80.
Hunter, John, period of gestation in the dog, i. 29;
on secondary sexual characters, i. 179;
fertile crossing of Anser ferus and the domestic goose, i. 288;
inheritance of peculiarities in gestures, voice, &c., ii. 6;
assumption of male characters by the human female, ii. 51;
period of appearance of hereditary diseases, ii. 78;
graft of the spur of a cock upon its comb, ii. 296;
on the stomach of Larus tridentatus, ii. 302;
double-tailed lizards, ii. 341.
Hunter, W., evidence against the influence of imagination upon the offspring, ii. 264.
Hutton, Capt., on the variability of the silk moth, i. 303;
on the number of species of silkworms, i. 300;
markings of silkworms, i. 302;
domestication of the rock-pigeon in India, i. 185;
domestication and crossing of Gallus bankiva, i. 236.
Hutchinson, Col., liability of dogs to distemper, i. 35.
Huxley, Prof., on the transmission of polydactylism, ii. 13;
on unconscious selection, ii. 194;
on correlation in the mollusca, ii. 320;
on gemmation and fission, ii. 359;
development of star-fishes, ii. 366.
Hyacinths, i. 370-371;
bud-variation in, i. 385;
graft-hybrid by union of half bulbs of, i. 395;
white, reproduced by seed, ii. 20;
red, ii. 229, 336;
varieties of, recognisable by the bulb, ii. 251.
Hyacinth, feather, ii. 185, 316.
Hyacinthus orientalis, i. 370.
Hybiscus syriacus, ii. 286.
Hybrids, of hare and rabbit, i. 105;
of various species of Gallus, i. 234-236;
of almond, peach, and nectarine, i. 339;
naturally produced, of species of Cytisus, i. 390;
from twin-seed of Fuchsia coccinea and fulgens, i. 391;
reversion of, i. 392-394, ii. 36, 48-50;
from mare, ass, and zebra, ii. 42;
of tame animals, wildness of, ii. 44-46;
female instincts of sterile male, ii. 52;
transmission and blending of characters in, ii. 92-95;
breed better with parent species than with each other, ii. 131;
self-impotence in, ii. 138-140;
readily produced in captivity, ii. 151.
Hybridisation, singular effects of, in oranges, i. 336;
of cherries, i. 347;
difficulty of, in Cucurbitæ, i. 358;
of roses, i. 366.
Hybridism, ii. 178-191;
the cause of a tendency to double flowers, ii. 171;
in relation to pangenesis, ii. 385.
Hybridity in cats, i. 44-45;
supposed of peach and nectarine, i. 342.
Hydra, i. 374, ii. 293, 359.
Hydrangea, colour of flowers of, influenced by alum, ii. 277.
Hydrocele, ii. 52.
Hydrocephalus, ii. 295.
Hypericum calycinum, ii. 170.
Hypericum crispum, ii. 227, 337.
Hypermetamorphosis, ii. 367.
Hypermetropia, hereditary, ii. 8.
Ichthyopterygia, number of digits in the, ii. 16.
Ilex aquifolium, ii. 19.
Imagination, supposed effect of, on offspring, ii. 263.
Imatophyllum miniatum, bud-variation in, i. 385.
Incest, abhorred by savages, ii. 123-124.
Incubation, by crossed fowls of non-sitting varieties, ii. 43-44.
India, striped horses of, i. 58;
pigs of, i. 66, 67, 76;
breeding of rabbits in, i. 112;
cultivation of pigeons in, i. 205-206.
Individual variability in pigeons, i. 158-160.
Ingledew, Mr., cultivation of European vegetables in India, ii. 169.
"Indische Taube," ii. 144.
Inheritance, ii. 1-84, 371-373, 395, 397-402;
doubts entertained of by some writers, ii. 3;
importance of to breeders, 3-4;
evidence of, derived from statistics of chances, 5;
of peculiarities in man, 5-7, 12-16;
of disease, 7-8, 17;
of peculiarities in the eye, 8-10;
of deviations from symmetry, 12;
of polydactylism, 12-16;
capriciousness of, 17-22, 27;
of mutilations, 22-24;
of congenital monstrosities, 24;
causes of absence of, 24-26;
by reversion or atavism, 28-61;
its connexion with fixedness of character, 62-64;
affected by prepotency of transmission of character, 65-71;
limited by sex, 71-75;
at corresponding periods of life, 75-80;
summary of the subject of, 80-84;
laws of, the same in seminal and bud varieties, i. 409;
of characters in the horse, i. 10-11;
in cattle, i. 87;
in rabbits, i. 107;
in the peach, i. 339;
in the nectarine, i. 340;
in plums, i. 347;
in apples, i. 350;
in pears, i. 351;
in the pansy, i. 369;
of primary characters of Columba livia in crossed pigeons, i. 201;
of peculiarities of plumage in pigeons, i. 160-161;
of peculiarities of foliage in trees, i. 362;
effects of, in varieties of the cabbage, i. 325.
Insanity, inheritance of, ii. 7, 78.
Insects, regeneration of lost parts in, ii. 15, 294;
agency of, in fecundation of larkspurs, ii. 21;
effect of changed conditions upon, ii. 157;
sterile neuter, ii. 186-187;
monstrosities in, ii. 269, 391.
Instincts, defective, of silkworms, i. 304.
Interbreeding, close, ill effects of, ii. 114-131, 175.
Intercrossing, of species, as a cause of variation, i. 188;
natural, of plants, i. 336;
of species of Canidæ and breeds of dogs, i. 31-33;
of domestic and wild cats, i. 44-45;
of breeds of pigs, i. 71, 78;
of cattle, i. 83;
of varieties of cabbage, i. 324;
of peas, i. 326, 329-330;
of varieties of orange, i. 336;
of species of strawberries, i. 351-352;
of Cucurbitæ, i. 357-358;
of flowering plants, i. 364;
of pansies, i. 368.
Interdigital pits, in goats, i. 102.
Intermarriages, close, ii. 122-123.
Intestines, elongation of, in pigs, i. 73;
relative measurements of parts of, in goats, i. 102;
effects of changed diet on, ii. 302.
Ipomœa purpurea, ii. 128.
Ireland, remains of Bos frontosus and longifrons found in, i. 81.
Iris, hereditary absence of the, ii. 9;
hereditary peculiarities of colour of the, ii. 9-10.
Irish, ancient, selection practised by the, ii. 203.
Iron period, in Europe, dog of, i. 18.
Islands, oceanic, scarcity of useful plants on, i. 311.
Islay, pigeons of, i. 183.
Isolation, effect of, in favour of selection, ii. 233-234.
Italy, vine growing in, during the bronze period, i. 332.
Ivy, sterility of, in the north of Europe, ii. 170.
Jack, Mr., effect of foreign pollen on grapes, i. 400.
Jackal, i. 24, 27, 30;
hybrids of, with the dog, i. 32;
prepotency of, over the dog, ii. 67.
Jacobin pigeon, i. 154, 208.
Jacquemet-Bonnefort, on the mulberry, i. 334.
Jaguar, with crooked legs, i. 17.
Jamaica, feral dogs of, i. 28;
feral pigs of, i. 77;
feral rabbits of, i. 112.
Japan, horses of, i. 53.
Japanese pig (figured), i. 69.
Jardine, Sir W., crossing of domestic and wild cats, i. 44.
Jarves, J., silkworm in the Sandwich islands, i. 301.
Java, Fantail pigeon in, i. 148.
Javanese ponies, i. 53, 59.
Jemmy Button, i. 309.
Jenyns, L., whiteness of ganders, i. 288;
sunfish-like variety of the goldfish, i. 297.
Jerdon, J. C., number of eggs laid by the pea-hen, ii. 112;
origin of domestic fowl, i. 237.
Jersey, arborescent cabbages of, i. 323.
Jessamine, i. 394.
Jeitteles, Hungarian sheep-dogs, i. 24;
crossing of domestic and wild cats, i. 44.
John, King, importation of stallions from Flanders by, ii. 203.
Johnson, D., occurrence of stripes on young wild pigs in India, i. 76.
Jordan, A., on Vibert's experiments on the vine, i. 332;
origin of varieties of the apple, i. 350;
varieties of pears found wild in woods, ii. 260.
Jourdan, parthenogenesis in the silk moth, ii. 364.
Juan de Nova, wild dogs on, i. 27.
Juan Fernandez, dumb dogs on, i. 27.
Juglans regia, i. 356-357.
Jukes, Prof., origin of the Newfoundland dog, i. 42.
Julien, Stanislas, early domestication of pigs in China, i. 68;
antiquity of the domestication of the silk-worm in China, i. 300.
Jumpers, a breed of fowls, i. 230.
Juniper, variations of the, i. 361, 364.
Juniperus suecica, i. 361.
Jussiæa grandiflora, ii. 170.
Jussieu, A. de, structure of the pappus in Carthamus, ii. 316.
Kail, Scotch, reversion in, ii. 32.
"Kala-par" pigeon, i. 142.
Kales, i. 323.
Kalm, P., on maize, i. 322, ii. 307;
introduction of wheat into Canada, i. 315;
sterility of trees growing in marshes and dense woods, ii. 170.
"Kalmi Lotan," tumbler pigeon, i. 151.
Kane, Dr., on Esquimaux dogs, i. 21.
Karakool sheep, i. 98.
Karkeek, on inheritance in the horse, ii. 10.
"Karmeliten Taube," i. 156.
Karsten on Pulex penetrans, ii. 275.
Kattywar horses, i. 58.
Keeley, R., pelorism in Galeobdolon luteum, ii. 59.
Kerner on the culture of Alpine plants, ii. 163.
Kestrel, breeding in captivity, ii. 154.
"Khandési," i. 141.
Khang-hi, selection of a variety of rice by, ii. 205.
Kiang, ii. 43.
Kidd, on the canary bird, i. 77, ii. 275.
Kidney Bean, i. 371;
varieties of, ii. 256, 275.
Kidneys, compensatory development of the, ii. 300;
fusion of the, ii. 341;
shape of, in birds, influenced by the form of the pelvis, ii. 344.
King, Col., domestication of rock doves from the Orkneys, i. 184, 185.
King, P. S., on the Dingo, i. 21, 28.
Kirby and Spence, on the growth of galls, ii. 283.
Kirghisian sheep, i. 98.
Kite, breeding in captivity, ii. 154.
Kleine, variability of bees, i. 298.
Knight, Andrew, on crossing horses of different breeds, i. 51;
crossing varieties of peas, i. 326, ii. 129;
persistency of varieties of peas, i. 329;
origin of the peach, i. 338;
hybridisation of the morello by the Elton cherry, i. 347;
on seedling cherries, ibid.;
variety of the apple not attacked by coccus, i. 349;
intercrossing of strawberries, i, 351, 352;
broad variety of the cock's comb, i. 365;
bud variation in the cherry and plum, i. 375;
crossing of white and purple grapes, i. 393;
experiments in crossing apples, i. 402, ii. 129;
hereditary disease in plants, ii. 11;
on interbreeding, ii. 116;
crossed varieties of wheat, ii. 130;
necessity of intercrossing in plants, ii. 175;
on variation, ii. 256, 257;
effects of grafting, i. 387, ii. 278;
bud-variation in a plum, ii. 289;
compulsory flowering of early potatoes, ii. 343;
correlated variation of head and limbs, ii. 323.
Knox, Mr., breeding of the eagle owl in captivity, ii. 154.
Koch, degeneracy in the turnip, i. 325.
Kohlrabi, i. 323.
Kölreuter, reversion in hybrids, i. 392, ii. 36;
acquired sterility of crossed varieties of plants, i. 358, ii. 101;
absorption of Mirabilis vulgaris by M. longiflora, ii. 88;
crosses of species of Verbascum, ii. 93, 107;
on the hollyhock, ii. 107;
crossing varieties of tobacco, ii. 108;
benefits of crossing plants, ii. 130, 131, 175-176;
self-impotence in Verbascum, ii. 136, 141;
effects of conditions of growth upon fertility in Mirabilis, ii. 164;
great development of tubers in hybrid plants, ii. 172;
inheritance of plasticity, ii. 241;
variability of hybrids of Mirabilis, ii. 265;
repeated crossing a cause of variation, ii. 267-268;
number of pollen-grains necessary for fertilization, ii. 363.
"Krauseschwein," i. 67.
Krohn, on the double reproduction of Medusæ, ii. 384.
"Kropf-Tauben," i. 137.
Labat, on the tusks of feral bears in the West Indies, i. 77;
on French wheat grown in the West Indies, ii. 307;
on the culture of the vine in the West Indies, ii. 308.
Laburnum, Adam's, see Cytisus Adami;
oak-leaved, reversion of, i. 382;
pelorism in the, ii. 346;
Waterer's, i. 390.
Lachmann, on gemmation and fission, ii. 358.
Lachnanthes tinctoria, ii. 227, 336.
Lactation, imperfect, hereditary, ii. 8;
deficient, of wild animals in captivity, ii. 158.
Ladrone islands, cattle of, i. 86.
Laing, Mr., resemblance of Norwegian and Devonshire cattle, i. 82.
Lake-dwellings, sheep of, i. 94, ii. 427;
cattle of, ii. 427;
absence of the fowl in, i. 246;
cultivated plants of, i. 309, ii. 427, 429;
cereals of, i. 317-319;
peas found in, i. 326;
beans found in, i. 330.
Lamare-Piquot, observations on half-bred North American wolves, i. 22.
Lambert, A. B., on Thuja pendula or filiformis, i. 362.
Lambert family, ii. 4, 76.
Lambertye on strawberries, i. 351, 352;
five-leaved variety of Fragaria collina, i. 353.
Landt, L., on sheep in the Faroe islands, ii. 103.
La Plata, wild dogs of, i. 27;
feral cat from, i. 47.
Larch, ii. 310.
Larkspurs, insect agency necessary for the full fecundation of, ii. 21.
Larus argentatus, ii. 157.
Larus tridactylus, ii. 302.
Lasterye, merino sheep in different countries, i. 99.
Latent characters, ii. 51-56.
Latham, on the fowl not breeding in the extreme north, ii. 161.
Lathyrus, ii. 38.
Lathyrus aphaca, ii. 343.
Lathyrus odoratus, ii. 20, 91, 93, 311, 393.
La Touche, J. D., on a Canadian apple with dimidiate fruit, i. 392-393.
"Latz-Taube," i. 154.
Laugher pigeon, i. 155, 207.
Laurus sassafras, ii. 274.
Lawrence, J., production of a new breed of fox-hounds, i. 40;
occurrence of canines in mares, i. 50;
on three-parts-bred horses, i. 54;
on inheritance in the horse, ii. 10-11.
Lawson, Mr., varieties of the potato, i. 330.
Laxton, Mr., bud-variation in the gooseberry, i. 376;
crossing of varieties of the pea, i. 397-398;
double-flowered peas, ii. 168.
Layard, E. L., resemblance of a Caffre dog to the Esquimaux breed, i. 25, ii. 286;
crossing of the domestic cat with Felis Caffra, i. 44;
feral pigeons in Ascension, i. 190;
domestic pigeons of Ceylon, i. 206;
on Gallus Stanleyi, i. 234;
on black-skinned Ceylonese fowls, i. 256.
Le Compte family, blindness inherited in, ii. 78.
Lecoq, bud-variation in Mirabilis jalapa, i. 382;
hybrids of Mirabilis, i. 393, ii. 169, 265;
crossing in plants, ii. 127;
fecundation of Passiflora, ii. 137;
hybrid Gladiolus, ii. 139;
sterility of Ranunculus ficaria, ii. 170;
villosity in plants, ii. 277;
double asters, ii. 316.
Le Couteur, J., varieties of wheat, i. 313-315;
acclimatisation of exotic wheat in Europe, i. 315;
adaptation of wheat to soil and climate, i. 316;
selection of seed-corn, i. 318;
on change of soil, ii. 147;
selection of wheat, ii. 200;
natural selection in wheat, ii. 233;
cattle of Jersey, ii. 234.
Ledger, Mr., on the Llama and Alpaca, ii. 208.
Lee, Mr., his early culture of the pansy, i. 368.
Leersia oryzoides, ii. 91.
Lefour, period of gestation in cattle, i. 87.
Legs, of fowls, effects of disuse on, i. 270-272;
characters and variations of, in ducks, i. 284-288;
fusion of, ii. 341.
Leguat, cattle of the Cape of Good Hope, i. 88.
Lehmann, occurrence of wild double-flowered plants near a hot spring, ii. 168.
Leighton, W. A., propagation of a weeping yew by seed, ii. 19.
Leitner, effects of the removal of anthers, ii. 167.
Lemming, ii. 152.
Lemoine, variegated Symphytum and Phlox, i. 384.
Lemon, i. 334, 335;
orange fecundated by pollen of the, i. 399.
Lemurs, hybrid, ii. 153.
Leporides, ii. 98-99, 152.
Lepsius, figures of ancient Egyptian dogs, i. 17;
domestication of pigeons in ancient Egypt, i. 204.
Leptotes, ii. 134.
Lepus glacialis, i. 111.
Lepus magellanicus, i. 112.
Lepus nigripes, i. 108.
Lepus tibetanus, i. 111.
Lepus variabilis, i. 111.
Lereboullet, double monsters of fishes, ii. 340.
Leslie, on Scotch wild cattle, i. 85.
Lesson, on Lepus magellanicus, i. 112.
Leuckart on the larva of Cecidomyidæ, ii. 360.
Lewis, G., cattle of the West Indies, ii. 229.
Lherbette and Quatrefages, on the horses of Circassia, ii. 102, 225.
Liebig, differences in human blood, according to complexion, ii. 276.
Liebreich, occurrence of pigmentary retinitis in deaf-mutes, ii. 328.
Lichens, sterility in, ii. 171.
Lichtenstein, resemblance of Bosjesman's dogs to Canis mesomelas, i. 25;
Newfoundland dog at the Cape of Good Hope, i. 36.
Lilacs, ii. 164.
Liliaceæ, contabescence in, ii. 165.
Lilium candidum, ii. 137.
Limbs, regeneration of, ii. 376-377.
Limbs and head, correlated variation of, ii. 323.
Lime, effect of, upon shells of the mollusca, ii. 280.
Lime tree, changes of by age, i. 364, 387.
Limitation, sexual, ii. 71-75.
Limitation, supposed, of variation, ii. 416.
Linaria, pelorism in, ii. 58, 61, 346;
peloric, crossed with the normal form, ii. 70;
sterility of, ii. 166.
Linaria vulgaris and purpurea, hybrids of, ii. 94.
Lindley, John, classification of varieties of cabbages, i. 324;
origin of the peach, i. 338;
influence of soil on peaches and nectarines, i. 340;
varieties of the peach and nectarine, i. 343;
on the New Town pippin, i. 349;
freedom of the Winter Majetin apple from coccus, i. 349;
production of monœcious Hautbois strawberries by bud-selection, i. 353;
origin of the large tawny nectarine, i. 375;
bud-variation in the gooseberry, i. 376;
hereditary disease in plants, ii. 11;
on double flowers, ii. 167;
seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits, ii. 168;
sterility of Acorus calamus, ii. 170;
resistance of individual plants to cold, ii. 309.
Linnæus, summer and winter wheat regarded as distinct species by, i. 315;
on the single-leaved strawberry, i. 353;
sterility of Alpine plants in gardens, ii. 163;
recognition of individual reindeer by the Laplanders, ii. 251;
growth of tobacco in Sweden, ii. 307.
Linnet, ii. 158.
Linota cannabina, ii. 158.
Linum, ii. 165.
Lion, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 150, 151.
Lipari, feral rabbits of, i. 113.
Livingstone, Dr., striped young pigs on the Zambesi, i. 77;
domestic rabbits at Loanda, i. 112;
use of grass-seeds as food in Africa, i. 308;
planting of fruit-trees by the Batokas, i. 309;
character of half-castes, ii. 46;
taming of animals among the Barotse, ii. 160;
selection practised in South Africa, ii. 207, 209.
Livingstone, Mr., disuse a cause of drooping ears, ii. 301.
Lizards, reproduction of tail in, ii. 294;
with a double tail, ii. 341.
Llama, selection of, ii. 208.
Lloyd, Mr., taming of the wolf, i. 26;
English dogs in northern Europe, i. 36;
fertility of the goose increased by domestication, i. 288;
number of eggs laid by the wild goose, ii. 112;
breeding of the capercailzie in captivity, ii. 156.
Loanda, domestic rabbits at, i. 112.
Loasa, hybrid of two species of, ii. 98.
Lobelia, reversion in hybrids of, ii. 392;
contabescence in, ii. 166.
Lobelia fulgens, cardinalis, and syphilitica, ii. 136.
Lockhart, Dr., on Chinese pigeons, i. 206.
Locust-tree, ii. 274.
Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, originals of cultivated plants, i. 307;
Mongolian varieties of wheat, i. 313;
characters of the ear in wheat, i. 314;
acclimatisation of exotic wheat in Europe, i. 315;
effect of change of climate on wheat, i. 316;
on the supposed necessity of the coincident variation of weeds and cultivated plants, i. 317;
advantage of change of soil to plants, ii. 146.
Lolium temulentum, variable presence of barbs in, i. 314.
Long-tailed sheep, i. 94, 95.
Loochoo islands, horses of, i. 53.
Lord, J. K., on Canis latrans, i. 22.
"Lori rajah," how produced, ii. 280.
Lorius garrulus, ii. 280.
"Lotan," tumbler pigeon, i. 150.
Loudon, J. W., varieties of the carrot, i. 326;
short duration of varieties of peas, i. 329;
on the glands of peach-leaves, i. 343;
presence of bloom on Russian apples, i. 349;
origin of varieties of the apple, i. 350;
varieties of the gooseberry, i. 354;
on the nut tree, i. 357;
varieties of the ash, i. 360;
fastigate juniper (J. suecica), i. 361;
on Ilex aquifolium ferox, i. 362;
varieties of the Scotch fir, i. 363;
varieties of the hawthorn, ibid.;
variation in the persistency of leaves on the elm and Turkish oak, i. 363;
importance of cultivated varieties, ibid.;
varieties of Rosa spinosissima, i. 367;
variation of dahlias from the same seed, i. 370;
production of Provence roses from seeds of the moss rose, i. 380;
effect of grafting the purple-leaved upon the common hazel, i. 395;
nearly evergreen Cornish variety of the elm, ii. 310.
Low, G., on the pigs of the Orkney islands, i. 70.
Low, Prof., pedigrees of greyhounds, ii. 3;
origin of the dog, i. 10;
burrowing instinct of a half-bred Dingo, i. 28;
inheritance of qualities in horses, i. 51;
comparative powers of English race-horses, Arabs, &c., i. 54;
British breeds of cattle, i. 80;
wild cattle of Chartley, i. 84;
effect of abundance of food on the size of cattle, i. 91;
effects of climate on the skin of cattle, i. 92, ii. 326;
on interbreeding, ii. 116;
selection in Hereford cattle, ii. 214;
formation of new breeds, ii. 244;
on "sheeted" cattle, ii. 349.
Lowe, Mr., on hive bees, i. 299.
Lowe, Rev. Mr., on the range of Pyrus malus and P. acerba, i. 348.
"Lowtan" tumbler pigeon, i. 150.
Loxia pyrrhula, ii. 154.
Lubbock, Sir J., developments of the Ephemeridæ, ii. 366.
Lucas, P., effects of cross-breeding on the female, i. 404;
hereditary diseases, ii. 7, 78-79;
hereditary affections of the eye, ii. 9-10;
inheritance of anomalies in the human eye and in that of the horse, ii. 10, 11;
inheritance of polydactylism, ii. 13;
morbid uniformity in the same family, ii. 17;
inheritance of mutilations, ii. 23;
persistency of cross-reversion, ii. 35;
persistency of character in breeds of animals in wild countries, ii. 64;
prepotency of transmission, ii. 65, 68;
supposed rules of transmission in crossing animals, ii. 68;
sexual limitations of transmission of peculiarities, ii. 72-73;
absorption of the minority in crossed races, ii. 88;
crosses without blending of certain characters, ii. 92;
on interbreeding, ii. 116;
variability dependent on reproduction, ii. 250;
period of action of variability, ii. 260;
inheritance of deafness in cats, ii. 329;
complexion and constitution, ii. 335.
Lucaze-Duthiers, structure and growth of galls, ii. 282-284.
Luizet, grafting of a peach-almond on a peach, i. 338.
Lütke, cats of the Caroline Archipelago, i. 47.
Luxuriance, of vegetative organs, a cause of sterility in plants, ii. 168-171.
Lyonnet, on the scission of Nais, ii. 358.
Lysimachia nummularia, sterility of, ii. 170.
Lythrum, trimorphic species of, ii. 400.
Lythrum salicaria, ii. 183;
contabescence in, ii. 166.
Lytta vesicatoria, affecting the kidneys, ii. 380.
Macacus, species of, bred in captivity, ii. 153.
Macaulay, Lord, improvement of the English horse, ii. 213.
McClelland, Dr., variability of fresh-water fishes in India, ii. 259.
McCoy, Prof., on the dingo, i. 26.
Macfayden, influence of soil in producing sweet or bitter oranges from the same seed, i. 335.
Macgillivray, domestication of the rock-dove, i. 185;
feral pigeons in Scotland, i. 190;
number of vertebræ in birds, i. 266;
on wild geese, i. 287;
number of eggs of wild and tame ducks, ii. 112.
Mackenzie, Sir G., peculiar variety of the potato, i. 330.
Mackenzie, P., bud-variation in the currant, i. 376.
Mackinnon, Mr., horses of the Falkland islands, i. 52;
feral cattle of the Falkland islands, i. 86.
MacKnight, C., on interbreeding cattle, ii. 118.
MacNab, Mr., on seedling weeping birches, ii. 18;
non-production of the weeping beech by seed, ii. 19.
Madagascar, cats of, i. 47.
Madden, H., on interbreeding cattle, ii. 118.
Madeira, rock pigeon of, i. 184.
Magnolia grandiflora, ii. 308.
Maize, its unity of origin, i. 320;
antiquity of, ibid.;
with husked grains said to grow wild, ibid.;
variation of, i. 321;
irregularities in the flowers of, i. 321;
persistence of varieties, ibid.;
adaptation of to climate, i. 322, ii. 307;
acclimatisation of, ii. 313, 347;
crossing of, i. 400, ii. 104-105;
extinct Peruvian varieties of, ii. 425.
Malay fowl, i. 227.
Malay Archipelago, horses of, i. 53;
short-tailed cats of, i. 47;
striped young wild pigs of, i. 76;
ducks of, i. 280.
Male, influence of, on the fecundated female, i. 397-406;
supposed influence of, on offspring, ii. 68.
Male flowers, appearance of, among female flowers in maize, i. 321.
Malformations, hereditary, ii. 79.
Malva, fertilisation of, i. 402, ii. 363.
Mamestra suasa, ii. 157.
Mammæ, variable in number in the pig, i. 74;
rudimentary, occasional full development of, in cows, i. 87, ii. 317;
four present in some sheep, i. 95;
variable in number in rabbits, i. 106;
latent functions of, in male animals, ii. 52, 317;
supernumerary and inguinal, in women, ii. 57.
Mangles, Mr., annual varieties of the heartsease, ii. 305.
Mantell, Mr., taming of birds by the New Zealanders, ii. 161.
Manu, domestic fowl noticed in the Institutes of, i. 246.
Manure, effect of, on the fertility of plants, ii. 163.
Manx cats, i. 46, ii. 66.
Marcel de Serres, fertility of the ostrich, ii. 156.
Marianne islands, varieties of Pandanus in, ii. 256.
Markham, Gervase, on rabbits, i. 104, ii. 204.
Markhor, probably one of the parents of the goat, i. 101.
Marquand, cattle of the channel islands, i. 80.
Marrimpoey, inheritance in the horse, ii. 10.
Marrow, vegetable, i. 357.
Marryatt, Capt., breeding of asses in Kentucky, ii. 237.
Marsden, notice of Gallus giganteus, i. 235.
Marshall, Mr., voluntary selection of pasture by sheep, i. 96;
adaptation of wheats to soil and climate, i. 316;
"Dutch-buttocked" cattle, ii. 8;
segregation of herds of sheep, ii. 103;
advantage of change of soil to wheat and potatoes, ii. 146;
fashionable change in the horns of cattle, ii. 210;
sheep in Yorkshire, ii. 235.
Marshall, Prof., growth of the brain in microcephalous idiots, ii. 389.
Martens, E. Von, on Achatinella, ii. 53.
Martin, W. C. L., origin of the dog, i. 16;
Egyptian dogs, i. 18;
barking of a Mackenzie River dog, i. 27;
African hounds in the Tower menagerie, i. 32;
on dun horses and dappled asses, i. 55;
breeds of the horse, i. 49;
wild horses, i. 51;
Syrian breeds of asses, i. 62;
asses without stripes, i. 63;
effects of cross-breeding on the female in dogs, i. 404;
striped legs of mules, ii. 42.
Martins, defective instincts of silkworms, i. 304.
Martins, C., fruit trees of Stockholm, ii. 307.
Mason, W., bud-variation in the ash, i. 382.
Masters, Dr., reversion in the spiral-leaved weeping willow, i. 383;
on peloric flowers, ii. 58;
pelorism in a clover, ii. 346;
position as a cause of pelorism, ii. 345, 347.
Masters, Mr., persistence of varieties of peas, i. 329;
reproduction of colour in hyacinths, ii. 20;
on hollyhocks, ii. 107;
selection of peas for seed, ii. 199-200;
on Opuntia leucotricha, ii. 286;
reversion by the terminal pea in the pod, ii. 347.
Mastiff, sculptured on an Assyrian monument, i. 17, ii. 429;
Tibetan, i. 35-36, ii. 278.
Matthews, Patrick, on forest trees, ii. 237.
Matthiola annua, i. 399, ii. 20.
Matthiola incana, i. 381, 399.
Mauchamp, merino sheep, i. 100.
Mauduyt, crossing of wolves and dogs in the Pyrenees, i. 24.
Maund, Mr. crossed varieties of wheat, ii. 130.
Maupertuis, axiom of "least action," i. 12.
Mauritius, importation of goats into, i. 101.
Maw, G., correlation of contracted leaves and flowers in pelargoniums, ii. 330, 331.
Mawz, fertility of Brassica rapa, ii. 165.
Maxillaria, self-fertilised capsules of, ii. 134;
number of seeds in, ii. 379.
Maxillaria atro-rubens, fertilisation of, by M. squalens, ii. 133.
Mayes, M., self-impotence in Amaryllis, ii. 139.
Meckel, on the number of digits, ii. 13;
correlation of abnormal muscles in the leg and arm, ii. 322.
Medusæ, development of, ii. 368, 384.
Meehan, Mr., comparison of European and American trees, ii. 281.
Meleagris mexicana, i. 292.
Meles taxus, ii. 151.
Melons, i. 359-360;
mongrel, supposed to be produced from a twin-seed, i. 391;
crossing of varieties of, i. 399, ii. 108, 129;
inferiority of, in Roman times, ii. 216;
changes in, by culture and climate, ii. 275;
serpent, correlation of variations in, ii. 330;
analogous variations in, ii. 349.
Membranes, false, ii. 294-295.
Ménétries, on the stomach of Strix grallaria, ii. 302.
Meningitis, tubercular, inherited, ii. 78.
Metagenesis, ii. 366.
Metamorphosis, ii. 366.
Metamorphosis and development, ii. 388, 389.
Metzger, on the supposed species of wheat, i. 312-313;
tendency of wheat to vary, i. 315;
variation of maize, i. 321-322;
cultivation of American maize in Europe, i. 322, ii. 347;
on cabbages, i. 323-325;
acclimatisation of Spanish wheat in Germany, ii. 26;
advantage of change of soil to plants, ii. 146;
on rye, ii. 254;
cultivation of different kinds of wheat, ii. 261.
Mexico, dog from, with tan spots on the eyes, i. 29;
colours of feral horses in, i. 61.
Meyen, on sending of bananas, ii. 168.
Mice, grey and white, colours of, not blended by crossing, ii. 92;
rejection of bitter almonds by, ii. 232;
naked, ii. 279.
Michaux, F., roan-coloured feral horses of Mexico, i. 61;
origin of domestic turkey, i. 292;
on raising peaches from seed, i. 339.
Michel, F., selection of horses in mediæval times, ii. 203;
horses preferred on account of slight characters, ii. 209.
Michely, effects of food on caterpillars, ii. 280;
on Bombyx hesperus, ii. 304.
Microphthalmia, associated with defective teeth, ii. 328.
Middens, Danish, remains of dogs in, i. 18, ii. 427.
Mignonette, ii. 237, 311.
Millet, i. 371.
Mills, J., diminished fertility of mares when first turned out to grass, ii. 161.
Milne-Edwards, on the development of the crustacea, ii. 368.
Milne-Edwards, A., on a crustacean with a monstrous eye-peduncle, ii. 391.
Milvus niger, ii. 154.
Mimulus luteus, ii. 128.
Minor, W. C., gemmation and fission in the Annelida, ii. 358.
Mirabilis, fertilisation of, ii. 363;
hybrids of, ii. 131, 169, 265.
Mirabilis jalapa, i. 382, 393.
Mirabilis longiflora, ii. 88.
Mirabilis vulgaris, ii. 88.
Misocampus and Cecidomyia, i. 5.
Mitchell, Dr., effects of the poison of the rattlesnake, ii. 289.
Mitford, Mr., notice of the breeding of horses by Erichthonius, ii. 202.
Moccas Court, weeping oak at, ii. 18.
Mogford, horses poisoned by fool's parsley, ii. 337.
Möller, L., effects of food on insects, ii. 281.
Moquin-Tandon, original form of maize, i. 320;
variety of the double columbine, i. 365;
peloric flowers, ii. 58-59, 61;
position as a cause of pelorism in flowers, ii. 345;
tendency of peloric flowers to become irregular, ii. 70;
on monstrosities, ii. 254;
correlation in the axis and appendages of plants, ii. 321;
fusion of homologous parts in plants, ii. 339, 341-342;
on a bean with monstrous stipules and abortive leaflets, ii. 343;
conversion of parts of flowers, ii. 392.
Mole, white, ii. 332.
Moll and Gayot, on cattle, i. 80, ii. 96, 210.
Mollusca, change in shells of, ii. 280.
Monke, Lady, culture of the pansy by, i. 368.
Monkeys, rarely fertile in captivity, ii. 153.
Monnier, identity of summer and winter wheat, i. 315.
Monster, cyclopean, ii. 341.
Monsters, double, ii. 339-340.
Monstrosities, occurrence of, in domesticated animals and cultivated plants, i. 366, ii. 254;
due to persistence of embryonic conditions, ii. 57;
occurring by reversion, ii. 57-60;
a cause of sterility, ii. 166-167;
caused by injury to the embryo, ii. 269.
Montegazza, growth of a cock's-spur inserted into the eye of an ox, ii. 369.
Montgomery, E., formation of cells, ii. 370.
Moor, J. H., deterioration of the horse in Malasia, i. 53.
Moorcroft, Mr., on Hasora wheat, i. 313;
selection of white-tailed yaks, ii. 206;
melon of Kaschmir, ii. 275;
varieties of the apricot cultivated in Ladakh, i. 345;
varieties of the walnut cultivated in Kaschmir, i. 356.
Moore, Mr., on breeds of pigeons, i. 148, 156, 208, 209, 211.
Mooruk, fertility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Morlot, dogs of the Danish Middens, i. 18;
sheep and horse of the bronze period, ii. 427.
Mormodes ignea, ii. 53.
Morocco, estimation of pigeons in, i. 205.
Morren, C., on pelorism, ii. 58;
in Calceolaria, ii. 346;
non-coincidence of double flowers and variegated leaves, ii. 167.
Morris, Mr., breeding of the Kestrel in captivity, ii. 154.
Morton, Lord, effect of fecundation by a quagga on an Arab mare, i. 403-404.
Morton, Dr., origin of the dog, i. 16;
hybrid of zebra and mare, ii. 42.
Morus alba, i. 334.
Moscow, rabbits of, i. 106, 120;
effects of cold on pear-trees at, ii. 307.
Mosses, sterility in, ii. 171;
retrogressive metamorphosis in, ii. 361.
Moss-rose, probable origin of, from Rosa centifolia, i. 379;
Provence roses produced from seeds of, i. 380.
Mosto, Cada, on the introduction of rabbits into Porto Santo, i. 113.
Mottling of fruits and flowers, i. 400.
Moufflon, i. 94.
Mountain-ash, ii. 230.
Mouse, Barbary, ii. 152.
"Möven-taube," i. 148.
Mowbray, Mr., on the eggs of game fowls, i. 248;
early pugnacity of game cocks, i. 251;
diminished fecundity of the pheasant in captivity, ii. 155.
Mowbray, Mr., reciprocal fecundation of Passiflora alata and racemosa, ii. 137.
Mulattos, character of, ii. 46.
Mulberry, i. 334, ii. 256.
Mule and hinny, differences in the, ii. 67-68.
Mules, striped colouring of, ii. 42;
obstinacy of, ii. 45;
production of, among the Romans, ii. 110;
noticed in the Bible, ii. 202.
Müller, Fritz, reproduction of orchids, ii. 134-135;
development of crustacea, ii. 368;
number of seeds in a maxillaria, ii. 379.
Müller, H., on the face and teeth in dogs, i. 34, 73, ii. 345.
Müller, J., production of imperfect nails after partial amputation of the fingers, ii. 15;
tendency to variation, ii. 252;
atrophy of the optic nerve consequent on destruction of the eye, ii. 297;
on Janus-like monsters, ii. 340;
on gemmation and fission, ii. 358;
identity of ovules and buds, ii. 360;
special affinities of the tissues, ii. 380.
Müller, Max, antiquity of agriculture, ii. 243.
Multiplicity of origin of pigeons, hypotheses of, discussed, i. 188-194.
Muniz, F., on Niata cattle, i. 90.
Munro, R., on the fertilisation of orchids, ii. 133;
reproduction of Passiflora alata, ii. 138.
"Murassa" pigeon, i. 144.
Murphy, J. J., the structure of the eye not producible by selection, ii. 222.
Mus alexandrinus, ii. 87-88.
Musa sapientum, Chinensis and Cavendishii, i. 377.
Muscari comosum, ii. 185, 316.
Muscles, effects of use on, ii. 297.
Musk duck, feral hybrid of, with the common duck, i. 190.
Musmon, female, sometimes hornless, i. 95.
Mutilations, inheritance or non-inheritance of, ii. 22-24, 397.
Myatt, on a five-leaved variety of the strawberry, i. 353.
Myopia, hereditary, ii. 8.
Myriapoda, regeneration of lost parts in, ii. 15, 294.
Nails, growing on stumps of fingers, ii. 394.
Nais, scission of, ii. 358.
Namaquas, cattle of the, i. 88, ii. 207.
Narcissus, double, becoming single in poor soil, ii. 167.
Narvaez, on the cultivation of native plants in Florida, i. 312.
Nasua, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
"Natas," or Niatas, a South American breed of cattle, i. 89-91.
Nathusius, H. von, on the pigs of the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 68;
on the races of pigs, i. 65-68;
convergence of character in highly-bred pigs, i. 73, ii. 241;
causes of changes in the form of the pig's skull, i. 72-73;
changes in breeds of pigs by crossing, i. 78;
change of form in the pig, ii. 279;
effects of disuse of parts in the pig, ii. 299;
period of gestation in the pig, i. 74;
appendages to the jaw in pigs, i. 76;
on Sus pliciceps, i. 70;
period of gestation in sheep, i. 97;
on Niata cattle, i. 89;
on short-horn cattle, ii. 118;
on interbreeding, ii. 116;
in the sheep, ii. 120;
in pigs, ii. 122;
unconscious selection in cattle and pigs, ii. 214;
variability of highly selected races, ii. 238.
Nato, P., on the Bizzaria orange, i. 391.
Natural selection, its general principles, i. 2-14.
Nature, sense in which the term is employed, i. 6.
Naudin, supposed rules of transmission in crossing plants, ii. 68;
on the nature of hybrids, ii. 48-49;
essences of the species in hybrids, ii. 386, 401;
reversion of hybrids, ii. 36, 49-50;
reversion in flowers by stripes and blotches, ii. 37;
hybrids of Linaria vulgaris and purpurea, ii. 94;
pelorism in Linaria, ii. 58, 346;
crossing of peloric Linaria with the normal form, ii. 70;
variability in Datura, ii. 266;
hybrids of Datura lævis and stramonium, i. 392;
prepotency of transmission of Datura stramonium when crossed, ii. 67;
on the pollen of Mirabilis and of hybrids, i. 389;
fertilisation of Mirabilis, ii. 363;
crossing of Chamærops humilis and the date palm, i. 399;
cultivated Cucurbitaceæ, i. 357-360, ii. 108;
rudimentary tendrils in gourds, ii. 316;
dwarf Cucurbitæ, ii. 330;
relation between the size and number of the fruit in Cucurbita pepo, ii. 343;
analogous variation in Cucurbitæ, ii. 349;
acclimatisation of Cucurbitaceæ, ii. 313;
production of fruit by sterile hybrid Cucurbitaceæ, ii. 172;
on the melon, i. 360, ii. 108, 275;
incapacity of the cucumber to cross with other species, i. 359.
Nectarine, i. 336-344;
derived from the peach, i. 337, 339-342;
hybrids of, i. 339;
persistency of characters in seedling, i. 340;
origin of, ibid.;
produced on peach trees, i. 340-341;
producing peaches, i. 341;
variation in, i. 342-343;
bud-variation in, i. 374;
glands in the leaves of the, ii. 231;
analogous variation in, ii. 348.
Nectary, variations of, in pansies, i. 369.
Nees, on changes in the odour of plants, ii. 274.
"Negro" cat, i. 46.
Negroes, polydactylism in, ii. 14;
selection of cattle practised by, ii. 207.
Neolithic period, domestication of Bos longifrons and primigenius in the, i. 81;
cattle of the, distinct from the original species, i. 87;
domestic goat in the, i. 101;
cereals of the, i. 317.
Nerve, optic, atrophy of the, ii. 297.
Neumeister, on the Dutch and German pouter pigeons, i. 138;
on the Jacobin pigeon, i. 154;
duplication of the middle flight feather in pigeons, i. 159;
on a peculiarly coloured breed of pigeons, "Staarhalsige Taube," i. 161;
fertility of hybrid pigeons, i. 192;
mongrels of the trumpeter pigeon, ii. 66;
period of perfect plumage in pigeons, ii. 77;
advantage of crossing pigeons, ii. 126.
Neuralgia, hereditary, ii. 79.
New Zealand, feral cats of, i. 47;
cultivated plants of, i. 311.
Newfoundland dog, modification of, in England, i. 42.
Newman, E., sterility of Sphingidæ under certain conditions, ii. 158.
Newport, G., non-copulation of Vanessæ in confinement, ii. 157;
regeneration of limbs in myriapoda, ii. 294;
fertilisation of the ovule in batrachia, ii. 363.
Newt, polydactylism in the, ii. 14.
Newton, A., absence of sexual distinctions in the Columbidæ, i. 162;
production of a "black-shouldered" pea-hen among the ordinary kind, i. 291;
on hybrid ducks, ii. 157.
Ngami, Lake, cattle of, i. 88.
"Niata" cattle, i. 89-91;
resemblance of to Sivatherium, i. 89;
prepotency of transmission of character by, ii. 66.
"Nicard" rabbit, i. 107.
Nicholson, Dr., on the cats of Antigua, i. 46;
on the sheep of Antigua, i. 98.
Nicotiana, crossing of varieties and species of, ii. 108;
prepotency of transmission of characters in species of, ii. 67;
contabescence of female organs in, ii. 166.
Nicotiana glutinosa, ii. 108.
Niebuhr, on the heredity of mental characteristics in some Roman families, ii. 65.
Night-blindness, non-reversion to, ii. 36.
Nilsson, Prof., on the barking of a young wolf, i. 27;
parentage of European breeds of cattle, i. 80, 81;
on Bos frontosus in Scania, i. 81.
Nind, Mr., on the dingo, i. 39.
"Nisus formativus," i. 293, 294, 355.
Nitzsch, on the absence of the oil-gland in certain Columbæ, i. 147.
Non-inheritance, causes of, ii. 24-26.
"Nonnain" pigeon, i. 154.
Nordmann, dogs of Awhasie, i. 25.
Normandy, pigs of, with appendages under the jaw, i. 75.
Norway, striped ponies of, i. 58.
Nott and Gliddon, on the origin of the dog, i. 16;
mastiff represented on an Assyrian tomb, i. 17;
on Egyptian dogs, i. 18;
on the Hare-Indian dog, i. 22.
Notylia, ii. 135.
Nourishment, excess of, a cause of variability, ii. 257.
Number, importance of, in selection, ii. 235.
Numida ptilorhyncha, the original of the Guinea-fowl, i. 294.
Nun pigeon, i. 155;
known to Aldrovandi, i. 207.
Nutmeg tree, ii. 237.
Oak, weeping, i. 361, ii. 18, 241;
pyramidal, i. 361;
Hessian, i. 361;
late-leaved, i. 363;
variation in persistency of leaves of, i. 363;
valueless as timber at the Cape of Good Hope, ii. 274;
changes in, dependent on age, i. 387;
galls of the, ii. 282.
Oats, wild, i. 313;
in the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 319.
Oberlin, change of soil beneficial to the potato, ii. 146.
Odart, Count, varieties of the vine, i. 333, ii. 278;
bud-variation in the vine, i. 375.
Odour and colour, correlation of, ii. 325.
Œcidium, ii. 284.
Œnothera biennis, bud-variation in, i. 382.
Ogle, W., resemblance of twins, ii. 252.
Oil-gland, absence of, in fantail pigeons, i. 147, 160.
Oldfield, Mr., estimation of European dogs among the natives of Australia, ii. 215.
Oleander, stock affected by grafting in the, i. 394.
Ollier, Dr., insertion of the periosteum of a dog beneath the skin of a rabbit, ii. 369.
Oncidium, reproduction of, ii. 133-135, 164.
Onions, crossing of, ii. 90;
white, liable to the attacks of fungi and disease, ii. 228, 336.
Ophrys apifera, self-fertilisation of, ii. 91;
formation of pollen by a petal in, ii. 392.
Opuntia leucotricha, ii. 277.
Orange, i. 334-336;
crossing of, ii. 91;
with the lemon, i. 399, ii. 365;
naturalisation of, in Italy, ii. 308;
variation of, in North Italy, ii. 256;
peculiar variety of, ii. 331;
Bizzaria, i. 391;
trifacial, ibid.
Orchids, reproduction of, i. 402, 403; ii. 133-135.
Orford, Lord, crossing greyhounds with the bulldog, i. 41.
Organisms, origin of, i. 13.
Organisation, advancement in, i. 8.
Organs, rudimentary and aborted, ii. 315-318;
multiplication of abnormal, ii. 391.
Oriole, assumption of hen-plumage by a male in confinement, ii. 158.
Orkney islands, pigs of, i. 70;
pigeons of, i. 184.
Orthoptera, regeneration of hind legs in the, ii. 294.
Orthosia munda, ii. 157.
Orton, R., on the effects of cross-breeding on the female, i. 404;
on the Manx cat, ii. 66;
on mongrels from the silk-fowl, ii. 67.
Osborne, Dr., inherited mottling of the iris, ii. 10.
Osprey, preying on Black-fowls, ii. 230.
Osten-Sacken, Baron, on American oak galls, ii. 282.
Osteological characters of pigs, i. 66, 67, 71-74;
of rabbits, i. 115-130;
of pigeons, i. 162-167;
of ducks, i. 282-284.
Ostrich, diminished fertility of the, in captivity, ii. 156.
Ostyaks, selection of dogs by the, ii. 206.
Otter, ii. 151.
"Otter" sheep of Massachusetts, i. 100.
Oude, feral humped cattle in, i. 79.
Ouistiti, breed in Europe, ii. 153.
Ovary, variation of, in Cucurbita moschata, i. 359;
development of, independently of pollen, i. 403.
Ovis montana, i. 99.
Ovules and buds, identity of nature of, ii. 360.
Owen, Capt., on stiff-haired cats at Mombas, i. 46.
Owen, Prof. R., palæontological evidence as to the origin of dogs, i. 15;
on Bos longifrons, i. 81;
on the skull of the "Niata" cattle, i. 89, 90;
on fossil remains of rabbits, i. 104;
on the significance of the brain, i. 124;
on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia, ii. 16;
on metagenesis, ii. 366;
theory of reproduction and parthenogenesis, ii. 375.
Owl, eagle, breeding in captivity, ii. 154.
Owl pigeon, i. 148;
African, figured, i. 149;
known in 1735, i. 209.
Oxalis, trimorphic species of, ii. 400.
Oxalis rosea, ii. 132.
Oxley, Mr., on the nutmeg tree, ii. 237.
Oysters, differences in the shells of, ii. 280.
Paca, sterility of the, in confinement, ii. 152.
Pacific islands, pigs of the, i. 70.
Padua, earliest known flower garden at, ii. 217.
Paduan fowl of Aldrovandi, i. 247.
Pæonia moutan, ii. 205.
Pæony, tree, ancient cultivation of, in China, ii. 205.
Pampas, feral cattle on the, i. 85.
Pandanus, ii. 256.
Pangenesis, hypothesis of, ii. 357-404.
Panicum, seeds of, used as food, i. 309;
found in the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 317.
Pansy, i. 368-370.
Pappus, abortion of the, in Carthamus, ii. 316.
Paget, on the Hungarian sheep dog, i. 24.
Paget, inheritance of cancer, ii. 7;
hereditary elongation of hairs in the eyebrow, ii. 8;
period of inheritance of cancer, ii. 79-80;
on Hydra, ii. 293;
on the healing of wounds, ii. 294;
on the reparation of bones, ibid.;
growth of hair near inflamed surfaces or fractures, ii. 295;
on false membranes, ibid.;
compensatory development of the kidney, ii. 300;
bronzed skin in disease of supra-renal capsules, ii. 331;
unity of growth and gemmation, ii. 359;
independence of the elements of the body, ii. 369;
affinity of the tissues for special organic substances, ii. 380.
Pallas, on the influence of domestication upon the sterility of intercrossed species, i. 31, 83, 193, ii. 109;
hypothesis that variability is wholly due to crossing, i. 188, 374, ii. 250, 264;
on the origin of the dog, i. 16;
variation in dogs, i. 33;
crossing of dog and jackal, i. 25;
origin of domestic cats, i. 43;
origin of Angora cat, i. 45;
on wild horses, i. 52, 60;
on Persian sheep, i. 94;
on Siberian fat-tailed sheep, ii. 279;
on Chinese sheep, ii. 315;
on Crimean varieties of the vine, i. 333;
on a grape with rudimentary seeds, ii. 316;
on feral musk-ducks, ii. 46;
sterility of Alpine plants in gardens, ii. 163;
selection of white-tailed yaks, ii. 206.
Paradoxurus, sterility of species of, in captivity, ii. 151.
Paraguay, cats of, i. 46;
cattle of, i. 89;
horses of, ii. 102;
dogs of, ii. 102;
black-skinned domestic fowl of, i. 232.
Parallel variation, ii. 348-352.
Paramos, woolly pigs of, i. 78.
Parasites, liability to attacks of, dependent on colour, ii. 228.
Pariah dog, with crooked legs, i. 17;
resembling the Indian wolf, i. 24.
Pariset, inheritance of handwriting, ii. 6.
Parker, W. K., number of vertebræ in fowls, i. 266.
Parkinson, Mr., varieties of the hyacinth, i. 370.
Parkyns, Mansfield, on Columba guinea, i. 183.
Parmentier, differences in the nidification of pigeons, i. 178;
on white pigeons, ii. 230.
Parrots, general sterility of, in confinement, ii. 155;
alteration of plumage of, ii. 280.
Parsnip, reversion in, ii. 31;
influence of selection on, ii. 201;
experiments on, ii. 277;
wild, enlargement of roots of, by cultivation, i. 326.
Parthenogenesis, ii. 359, 364.
Partridge, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Parturition, difficult, hereditary, ii. 8.
Parus major, ii. 231.
Passiflora, self-impotence in species of, ii. 137-138;
contabescence of female organs in, ii. 166.
Passiflora alata, fertility of, when grafted, ii. 188.
Pasture and climate, adaptation of breeds of sheep to, i. 96, 97.
Pastrana, Julia, peculiarities in the hair and teeth of, ii. 328.
Patagonia, crania of pigs from, i. 77.
Patagonian rabbit, i. 105.
Paterson, R., on the Arrindy silk moth, ii. 306.
Paul, W., on the hyacinth, i. 370;
varieties of pelargoniums, i. 378;
improvement of pelargoniums, ii. 216.
Pavo cristatus and muticus, hybrids of, i. 290.
Pavo nigripennis, i. 290-291.
"Pavodotten-Taube," i. 141.
Peach, i. 336-344;
derived from the almond, i. 337;
stones of, figured, ibid.;
contrasted with almonds, i. 338;
double-flowering, i. 338-339, 343;
hybrids of, i. 339;
persistency of races of, ibid.;
trees producing nectarines, i. 340-341;
variation in, i. 342-343, ii. 256;
bud-variation in, i. 374;
pendulous, ii. 18;
variation by selection in, ii. 218;
peculiar disease of the, ii. 228;
glands on the leaves of the, ii. 231;
antiquity of the, ii. 308;
increased hardiness of the, ibid.;
varieties of, adapted for forcing, ii. 310;
yellow-fleshed, liable to certain diseases, ii. 336.
Peach-almond, i. 338.
Peafowl, origin of, i. 290;
japanned or black-shouldered, i. 290-291;
feral, in Jamaica, i. 190;
comparative fertility of, in wild and tame states, ii. 112, 268;
white, ii. 332.
Pears, i. 350;
bud-variation in, i. 376;
reversion in seedling, ii. 31;
inferiority of, in Pliny's time, ii. 215;
winter nelis, attacked by aphides, ii. 231;
soft-barked varieties of, attacked by wood-boring beetles, ii. 231;
origination of good varieties of, in woods, ii. 260;
Forelle, resistance of, to frost, ii. 306.
Peas, i. 326-330;
origin of, 326;
varieties of, 326-329;
found in Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 317, 319, 326-329;
fruit and seeds figured, i. 328;
persistency of varieties, i. 329;
intercrossing of varieties, i. 330, 397, ii. 129;
effect of crossing on the female organs in, i. 398;
double-flowered, ii. 168;
maturity of, accelerated by selection, ii. 201;
varieties of, produced by selection, ii. 218;
thin-shelled, liable to the attacks of birds, ii. 231;
reversion of, by the terminal seed in the pod, ii. 347.
Peccary, breeding of the, in captivity, ii. 150.
Pedigrees of horses, cattle, greyhounds, game-cocks, and pigs, ii. 3.
Pegu, cats of, i. 47;
horses of, i. 53.
Pelargoniums, multiple origin of, i. 364;
zones of, i. 366;
bud-variation in, i. 378;
variegation in, accompanied by dwarfing, i. 384;
pelorism in, ii. 167, 345;
by reversion, ii. 59;
advantage of change of soil to, ii. 147;
improvement of, by selection, ii. 216;
scorching of, ii. 229;
numbers of, raised from seed, ii. 235;
effects of conditions of life on, ii. 274;
stove-variety of, ii. 311;
correlation of contracted leaves and flowers in, ii. 330-331.
Pelargonium fulgidum, conditions of fertility in, ii. 164.
"Pelones," a Columbian breed of cattle, i. 88.
Peloric flowers, tendency of, to acquire the normal form, ii. 70;
fertility or sterility of, ii. 166-167.
Peloric races of Gloxinia speciosa and Antirrhinum majus, i. 365.
Pelorism, ii. 58-60, 345-346.
Pelvis, characters of, in rabbits, i. 122-123;
in pigeons, i. 166;
in fowls, i. 268;
in ducks, i. 284.
Pembroke cattle, i. 81.
Pendulous trees, i. 361, ii. 348;
uncertainty of transmission of, ii. 18-19.
Penguin ducks, i. 280, 282;
hybrid of the, with the Egyptian goose, i. 282.
Pennant, production of wolf-like curs at Fochabers, i. 37;
on the Duke of Queensberry's wild cattle, i. 84.
Pennisetum, seeds of, used as food in the Punjab, i. 309.
Pennisetum distichum, seeds of, used as food in Central Africa, i. 308.
Percival, Mr., on inheritance in horses, ii. 10;
on horn-like processes in horses, i. 50.
Perdix rubra, occasional fertility of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Period of action of causes of variability, ii. 269.
Periosteum of a dog, producing bone in a rabbit, ii. 369.
Periwinkle, sterility of, in England, ii. 170.
Persia, estimation of pigeons in, i. 205;
carrier pigeon of, i. 141;
tumbler pigeon of, i. 150;
cats of, i. 45-47;
sheep of, i. 94.
Persica intermedia, i. 338.
Persistence of colour in horses, i. 50;
of generic peculiarities, i. 111.
Peru, antiquity of maize in, i. 320;
peculiar potato from, i. 331;
selection of wild animals practised by the Incas of, ii. 207-208.
"Perücken-Taube," i. 154.
Petals, rudimentary, in cultivated plants, ii. 316;
producing pollen, ii. 392.
Petunias, multiple origin of, i. 364;
double-flowered, ii. 167.
"Pfauen-Taube," i. 146.
Phacochœrus Africanus, i. 76.
Phalænopsis, pelorism in, ii. 346.
Phalanges, deficiency of, ii. 73.
Phaps chalcoptera, ii. 349.
Phaseolus multiflorus, ii. 309, 322.
Phaseolus vulgaris, ii. 309.
Phasianus pictus, i. 275.
Phasianus Amherstiæ, i. 275.
Pheasant, assumption of male plumage by the hen, ii. 51;
wildness of hybrids of, with the common fowl, ii. 45;
prepotency of the, over the fowl, ii. 68;
diminished fecundity of the, in captivity, ii. 155.
Pheasants, golden and Lady Amherst's, i. 275.
Pheasant-fowls, i. 244.
Philipeaux, regeneration of limbs in the salamander, ii. 376.
Philippar, on the varieties of wheat, i. 314.
Philippine Islands, named breeds of game fowl in the, i. 232.
Phillips, Mr., on bud-variation in the potato, i. 385.
Phlox, bud-variation by suckers in, i. 384.
Phthisis, affection of the fingers in, ii. 332.
Pickering, Mr., on the grunting voice of humped cattle, i. 79;
occurrence of the head of a fowl in an ancient Egyptian procession, i. 246;
seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits, ii. 168;
extinction of ancient Egyptian breeds of sheep and oxen, ii. 425;
on an ancient Peruvian gourd, ii. 429.
Picotees, effect of conditions of life on, ii. 273.
Pictet, A., oriental names of the pigeon, i. 205.
Pictet, Prof., origin of the dog, i. 15;
on fossil oxen, i. 81.
Piebalds, probably due to reversion, ii. 37.
Pigeaux, hybrids of the hare and rabbit, ii. 99, 152.
Pigeon à cravate, i. 148.
Pigeon Bagadais, i. 142, 143.
Pigeon coquille, i. 155.
Pigeon cygne, i. 143.
Pigeon heurté, i. 156.
Pigeon Patu plongeur, i. 156.
Pigeon Polonais, i. 144.
Pigeon Romain, i. 142, 144.
Pigeon tambour, i. 154.
Pigeon Turc, i. 139.
Pigeons, origin of, i. 131-134, 180-204;
classified table of breeds of, i. 136;
pouter, i. 137-139;
carrier, i. 139-142;
runt, i. 142-144;
barbs, i. 144-146;
fantail, i. 146-148;
turbit and owl, i. 148-149;
tumbler, i. 150-153;
Indian frill-back, i. 153;
Jacobin, i. 154;
trumpeter, i. 154;
other breeds of, i. 155-157;
differences of, equal to generic, i. 157-158;
individual variations of, i. 158-160;
variability of peculiarities characteristic of breeds in, i. 161;
sexual variability in, i. 161-162;
osteology of, i. 162-167;
correlation of growth in, i. 167-171, ii. 321;
young of some varieties naked when hatched, i. 170, ii. 332;
effects of disuse in, i. 172-177;
settling and roosting in trees, i. 181;
floating in the Nile to drink, i. 181;
Dovecot, i. 185-186;
arguments for unity of origin of, i. 188-204;
feral in various places, i. 190, ii. 33;
unity of coloration in, i. 195-197;
reversion of mongrel, to coloration of, C. livia, i. 197-202;
history of the cultivation of, i. 205-207;
history of the principal races of, i. 207-212;
mode of production of races of, i. 212-224;
reversion in, ii. 29, 47;
by age, ii. 38;
produced by crossing in, ii. 40, 48;
prepotency of transmission of character in breeds of, ii. 66-67;
sexual differences in some varieties of, ii. 74;
period of perfect plumage in, ii. 77;
effect of segregation on, ii. 86;
preferent pairing of, within the same breed, ii. 103;
fertility of, increased by domestication, ii. 112, 155;
effects of interbreeding and necessity of crossing, ii. 125-126;
indifference of, to change of climate, ii. 161;
selection of, ii. 195, 199, 204;
among the Romans, ii. 202;
unconscious selection of, ii. 211, 214;
facility of selection of, ii. 234;
white, liable to the attacks of hawks, ii. 230;
effects of disuse of parts in, ii. 298;
fed upon meat, ii. 304;
effect of first male upon the subsequent progeny of the female, i. 405;
homology of the leg and wing feathers in, ii. 323;
union of two outer toes in feather-legged, ibid.;
correlation of beak, limbs, tongue, and nostrils in, ii. 324;
analogous variation in, ii. 349-350;
permanence of breeds of, ii. 429.
Pigs, of Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 67-68;
types of, derived from Sus scrofa and Sus indica, i. 66-67;
Japanese (Sus pliciceps, Gray), figured, i. 69;
of Pacific islands, i. 70, ii. 87;
modifications, of skull in, i. 71-73;
length of intestines in, i. 73, ii. 303;
period of gestation of, i. 74;
number of vertebræ and ribs in, i. 74;
anomalous forms, i. 75-76;
development of tusks and bristles in, i. 76;
striped young of, i. 76-77;
reversion of feral, to wild type, i. 77-78, ii. 33, 47;
production and changes of breeds of, by intercrossing, i. 78;
effects produced by the first male upon the subsequent progeny of the female, i. 404;
two-legged race of, ii. 4;
polydactylism in, ii. 14;
cross-reversion in, ii. 35;
hybrid, wildness of, ii. 45;
monstrous development of a proboscis in, ii. 57;
disappearance of tusks in male under domestication, ii, 74;
solid hoofed, ii. 429;
crosses of, ii. 93, 95;
mutual fertility of all varieties of, ii. 110;
increased fertility by domestication, ii. 111;
ill effects of close interbreeding in, ii. 121-122;
influence of selection on, ii. 198;
prejudice against certain colours in, ii. 210, 229, 336;
unconscious selection of, ii. 214;
black Virginian, ii. 227, 336;
similarity of the best breeds of, ii. 241;
change of form in, ii. 279;
effects of disuse of parts in, ii. 299;
ears of, ii. 301;
correlations in, ii. 327;
white, buck-wheat injurious to, ii. 337;
tail of, grafted upon the back, ii. 369;
extinction of the older races of, ii. 426.
Pimenta, ii. 91.
Pimpernel, ii. 190.
Pine-apple, sterility and variability of the, ii. 262.
Pink, Chinese. 322.
Pinks, bud-variation in, i. 381;
improvement of, ii. 216.
Pinus pumilio, Mughus, and nana, varieties of P. sylvestris, i. 363.
Pinus sylvestris, i. 363, ii. 310;
hybrids of, with P. nigricans, ii. 130.
Piorry, on hereditary disease, ii. 7, 78.
Pistacia lentiscus, ii. 274.
Pistils, rudimentary, in cultivated plants, ii. 316.
Pistor, sterility of some mongrel pigeons, i. 192;
fertility of pigeons, ii. 112.
Pisum arvense and sativum, i. 326.
Pityriasis versicolor, inheritance of, ii. 79.
Planchon, G., on a fossil vine, i. 332;
sterility of Jussiæa grandifiora in France, ii. 170.
Plane tree, variety of the, i. 362.
Plantigrade carnivora, general sterility of the, in captivity, ii. 151.
Plants, progress of cultivation of, i. 305-312;
cultivated, their geographical derivation, i. 311;
crossing of, ii. 98, 99, 127;
comparative fertility of wild and cultivated, ii. 112-113;
self-impotent, ii. 131-140;
dimorphic and trimorphic, ii. 132, 140;
sterility of, from changed conditions, ii. 163-165;
from contabescence of anthers, ii. 165-166;
from monstrosities, ii. 166-167;
from doubling of the flowers, ii. 167-168;
from seedless fruit, ii. 168;
from excessive development of vegetative organs, ii. 168-171;
influence of selection on, ii. 199-201;
variation by selection, in useful parts of, ii. 217-219;
variability of, ii. 237;
variability of, induced by crossing, ii. 265;
direct action of change of climate on, ii. 277;
change of period of vegetation in, ii. 304-305;
varieties of, suitable to different climates, ii. 306;
correlated variability of, ii. 330-331;
antiquity of races of, ii. 429.
Plasticity, inheritance of, ii. 241.
Plateau, F., on the vision of amphibious animals, ii. 223.
Platessa flesus, ii. 53.
Plato, notice of selection in breeding dogs by, ii. 212.
Plica polonica, ii. 276.
Pliny, on the crossing of shepherd's dogs with the wolf, i. 24;
on Pyrrhus' breed of cattle, ii. 202;
on the estimation of pigeons among the Romans, i. 205;
pears described by, ii. 215.
Plum, i. 345-347;
stones figured, i. 345;
varieties of the, i. 345-346, ii. 219;
bud-variation in the, i. 375;
peculiar disease of the, ii. 227;
flower-buds of, destroyed by bullfinches, ii. 232;
purple-fruited, liable to certain diseases, ii. 336.
Plumage, inherited peculiarities of, in pigeons, i. 160-161;
sexual peculiarities of, in fowls, i. 251-255.
Plurality of races, Pouchet's views on, i. 2.
Poa, seeds of, used as food, i. 308;
species of, propagated by bulblets, ii. 170.
Podolian cattle, i. 80.
Pointers, modification of, i. 42;
crossed with the foxhound, ii. 95.
Pois sans parchemin, ii. 231.
Poiteau, origin of Cytisus Adami, i. 390;
origin of cultivated varieties of fruit-trees, ii. 260.
Polish fowl, i. 227, 250, 254, 256-257, 262;
skull figured, i. 262;
section of skull figured, i. 263;
development of protuberance of skull, i. 250;
furcula figured, i. 268.
Polish, or Himalayan rabbit, i. 108.
Pollen, ii. 363-364;
action of, ii. 108;
injurious action of, in some orchids, ii. 134-135;
resistance of, to injurious treatment, ii. 164;
prepotency of, ii. 187.
Pollock, Sir F., transmission of variegated leaves in Ballota nigra, i. 383;
on local tendency to variegation, ii. 274.
Polyanthus, ii. 21.
Polydactylism, inheritance of, ii. 12-16;
significance of, ii. 16-17.
Polyplectron, i. 255.
Ponies, most frequent on islands and mountains, i. 52;
Javanese, i. 53.
Poole, Col., on striped Indian horses, i. 58, 59;
on the young of Asinus indicus, ii. 43.
Poplar, Lombardy, i. 361.
Pöppig, on Cuban wild dogs, i. 27.
Poppy, found in the Swiss lake-dwellings, i. 317, 319;
with the stamens converted into pistils, i. 365;
differences of the, in different parts of India, ii. 165;
monstrous, fertility of, ii. 166;
black-seeded, antiquity of, ii. 429.
Porcupine, breeding of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Porcupine family, ii. 4, 76.
Porphyrio, breeding of a species of, in captivity, ii. 156.
Portal, on a peculiar hereditary affection of the eye, ii. 9.
Porto Santo, feral rabbits of, i. 112.
Potamochœrus penicillatus, ii. 150.
Potato, i. 330-331;
bud-variation by tubers in the, i. 384-385;
graft-hybrid of, by union of half-tubers, i. 395;
individual self-impotence in the, ii. 137;
sterility of, ii. 169;
advantage of change of soil to the, ii. 146;
relation of tubers and flowers in the, ii. 343.
Potato, sweet, sterility of the, in China, ii. 169;
varieties of the, suited to different climates, ii. 309.
Pouchet, M., his views on plurality of races, i. 2.
Pouter pigeons, i. 137-139;
furcula figured, i. 167;
history of, i. 207.
Powis, Lord, experiments in crossing humped and English cattle, i. 83, ii. 45.
Poynter, Mr., on a graft-hybrid rose, i. 396.
Prairie wolf, i. 22.
Precocity of highly-improved breeds, ii. 321.
Prepotency of pollen, ii. 187.
Prepotency of transmission of character, ii. 65, 174;
in the Austrian emperors and some Roman families, ii. 65;
in cattle, ii. 65-66;
in sheep, ii. 66;
in cats, ibid.;
in pigeons, ii. 66-67;
in fowls, ii. 67;
in plants, ibid.;
in a variety of the pumpkin, i. 358;
in the jackal over the dog, ii. 67;
in the ass over the horse, ibid.;
in the pheasant over the fowl, ii. 68;
in the penguin duck over the Egyptian goose, ibid.;
discussion of the phenomena of, ii. 69-71.
Prescott, Mr., on the earliest known European flower-garden, ii. 217.
Pressure, mechanical, a cause of modification, ii. 344-345.
Prevost and Dumas, on the employment of several spermatozoids to fertilise one ovule, ii. 363.
Price, Mr., variations in the structure of the feet in horses, i. 50.
Prichard, Dr., on polydactylism in the negro, ii. 14;
on the Lambert family, ii. 77;
on an albino negro, ii. 229;
on Plica polonica, ii. 276.
Primrose, ii. 21;
double, rendered single by transplantation, ii. 167.
Primula, intercrossing of species of, i. 336;
contabescence in, ii. 166;
hose and hose, i. 365;
with coloured calyces, sterility of, ii. 166.
Primula sinensis, reciprocally dimorphic, ii. 132.
Primula veris, ii. 21, 109, 182.
Primula vulgaris, ii. 21, 109.
Prince, Mr., on the intercrossing of strawberries, i. 352.
Procyon, sterility of, in captivity, ii. 152.
Prolificacy, increased by domestication, ii. 174.
Propagation, rapidity of, favourable to selection, ii. 297.
Protozoa, reproduction of the, ii. 376.
Prunus armeniaca, i. 344-345.
Prunus avium, i. 347.
Prunus cerasus, i. 347, 375.
Prunus domestica, i. 345.
Prunus insititia, i. 345-347.
Prunus spinosa, i. 345.
Prussia, wild horses in, i. 60.
Psittacus erithacus, ii. 155.
Psittacus macoa, ii. 155.
Psophia, general sterility of, in captivity, ii. 157.
Ptarmigan fowls, i. 228.
Pulex penetrans, ii. 275.
Pumpkins, i. 357.
Puno ponies of the Cordillera, i. 52.
Purser, Mr. on Cytisus Adami, i. 389.
Pusey, Mr., preference of hares and rabbits for common rye, ii. 232.
Putsche and Vertuch, varieties of the potato, i. 330.
Puvis, effects of foreign pollen on apples, i. 401;
supposed non-variability of monotypic genera, ii. 266.
Pyrrhula vulgaris, ii. 232;
assumption of the hen-plumage by the male, in confinement, ii. 158.
Pyrrhus, his breed of cattle, ii. 202.
Pyrus, fastigate Chinese species of, ii. 277.
Pyrus acerba, i. 348.
Pyrus aucuparia, ii. 230.
Pyrus communis, i. 350, 376.
Pyrus malus, i. 348, 376.
Pyrus paradisiaca, i. 348.
Pyrus præcox, i. 348.
Quagga, effect of fecundation by, on the subsequent progeny of a mare, i. 403-404.
Quatrefages, A. de, on the burrowing of a bitch to litter, i. 77;
selection in the silkworm, i. 301;
development of the wings in the silkmoth, i. 303, ii. 298;
on varieties of the mulberry, i. 334;
special raising of eggs of the silkmoth, ii. 197;
on disease of the silkworm, ii. 228;
on monstrosities in insects, ii. 269, 391;
on the Anglo-Saxon race in America, ii. 276;
on a change in the breeding season of the Egyptian goose, ii. 304;
fertilisation of the Teredo, ii. 363;
tendency to similarity in the best races, ii. 241;
on his "tourbillon vital," ii. 61;
on the independent existence of the sexual elements, ii. 360.
Quercus cerris, i. 363.
Quercus robur and pedunculata, hybrids of, ii. 130.
Quince, pears grafted on the, ii. 259.
Rabbits, domestic, their origin, i. 103-105;
of Mount Sinai and Algeria, i. 105;
breeds of, i. 105-111;
Himalayan, Chinese, Polish, or Russian, i. 108-111, ii. 97;
feral, i. 111-115;
of Jamaica, i. 112;
of the Falkland islands, i. 112;
of Porto Santo, i. 112-115, ii. 103, 279;
osteological characters of, i. 115-129;
discussion of modifications in, i. 129-130;
one-eared, transmission of peculiarity of, ii. 12;
reversion in feral, ii. 33;
in the Himalayan, ii. 41;
crossing of white and coloured Angora, ii. 92;
comparative fertility of wild and tame, ii. 111;
high-bred, often bad breeders, ii. 121;
selection of, ii. 204;
white, liable to destruction, ii. 230;
effects of disuse of parts in, ii. 298;
skull of, affected by drooping ears, ii. 301;
length of intestines in, ii. 303;
correlation of ears and skull in, ii. 324-325;
variations in skull of, ii. 350;
periosteum of a dog producing bone in, ii. 369.
Race-horse, origin of, i. 54.
Races, modification and formation of, by crossing, ii. 95-99;
natural and artificial, ii. 245;
Pouchet's views on plurality of, i. 2;
of pigeons, i. 207-212.
Radishes, i. 326; crossing of, ii. 90;
varieties of, ii. 217-218.
Radclyffe, W. F., effect of climate and soil on strawberries, i. 354;
constitutional differences in roses, i. 367.
Radlkofer, retrogressive metamorphosis in mosses and algæ, ii. 361.
Raffles, Sir Stamford, on the crossing of Javanese cattle with Bos sondaicus, ii. 206.
Ram, goat-like, from the Cape of Good Hope, ii. 66.
Ranchin, heredity of diseases, ii. 7.
Range of gallinaceous birds on the Himalaya, i. 237.
Ranunculus ficaria, ii. 170.
Ranunculus repens, ii. 168.
Rape, i. 325.
Raphanus sativus, ii. 343.
Raspberry, yellow-fruited, ii. 230.
Rattlesnake, experiments with poison of the, ii. 289.
Raven, stomach of, affected by vegetable diet, ii. 302.
Rawson, A., self-impotence in hybrids of Gladiolus, ii. 139-140.
, Le Compte, on the assumption of a yellow colour by all varieties of maize, i. 321.
Réaumur, effect of confinement upon the cock, ii. 52;
fertility of fowls in most climates, ii. 161.
Reed, Mr., atrophy of the limbs of rabbits, consequent on the destruction of their nerves, ii. 297.
Regeneration of amputated parts in man, ii. 14;
in the human embryo, ii. 15;
in the lower vertebrata, insects, and myriapoda, ibid.
Reindeer, individuals recognised by the Laplanders, ii. 251.
Regnier, early cultivation of the cabbage by the Celts, i. 324.
Reissek, experiments in crossing Cytisus purpureus and laburnum, i.