The Young Moslem Looks at Life/Glossary
For a number of these words more than one spelling is current, and for them variant spellings are given. These variations are due to two facts: first, that some writers prefer the more scientific and others the more customary rendering of Arabic words; and second, that pronunciation varies in different regions. There are some consonants in Arabic which are unlike any in English. No attempt will be made to indicate these. Vowels are pronounced as in the Romance languages. Accented a is the same as a in father, though somewhat flatter in tone; unaccented a is also long, but it is pronounced more hurriedly. Approximate phonetic pronunciation of a few of the following words is suggested in italic type, although as already noted it is impossible to convey an accurate idea of the sound of certain consonants.
Ah ma di'ya (ah-ma-dee'ya) . The name of a modern sect of Moslems who follow the teaching of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.
Allah'. God; corresponds to the Jewish term Jehovah.
A mir', A meer' or E mir'. A ruler.
A zan'. The call to prayer.
Ca'liph Kha lif' (ka-leef') or Kha li'fah (ka-lee'fa). Leader; title of the head of the Moslem state.
Der'vish or Dar wish'. A member of a religious order or brotherhood.
Fa qir' or Fa kir'. A religious mendicant.
Ha dith' or Ha dis'. The Traditions; the authoritative collections of the sayings and deeds of Mohammed and his companions.
Ha'fiz. One who has learned the Koran by heart.
Ha'ji. One who has performed the pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca.
Ha rem' (ha-reem'). The women's apartments in a Moslem household.
He gi'ra' or Hij'rah. The migration or flight of Mohammed to Medina.
Ib lis'. The devil.
Id. Festival. There are two great festivals: the festival celebrated after the pilgrimage with the sacrifice of sheep and camels in Arabia and cows in India, and the festival at the close of the fast of Ramadan. Page:The young Moslem looks at life (1937).djvu/187 Page:The young Moslem looks at life (1937).djvu/188
IHRAM'. The sacred garb donned by the pilgrim as he approaches Mecca and worn during the rest of the pilgrimage.
Ij MA'. Agreement among the learned doctors of the Moslem community on any fundamental change in Moslem doctrine or practice that is generally accepted as lawful and right; one of the methods by which liberal Moslems consider that Islam may be modernized and reformed.
I MAM'. One who leads the congregation in prayer; also the term used by the Shiites for the leader of their sect.
I MAN'. Faith; especially the statement of the six articles of faith.
ISA (ee'sa) . The Moslem name for Jesus.
Is LAM'. Literally, resignation or submission to the will of God.
Ji HAD'. Religious war waged by Moslems against unbelievers for the sake of extending the faith, power and glory of Islam.
JINN (plural of JINNI). Spirit beings, some evil, others good.
KAA'BA. Literally, cube; the central shrine of Islam in Mecca.
KA'FIR. An infidel; one who does not believe in Islam.
KA'LIMA (ka! lee-ma). The short form of the Moslem creed: "There is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is the apostle of Allah."
KIS'WA. The cloth covering of the Kaaba, which is renewed every year at the time of the pilgrimage.
MAH'DI. Literally, the directed one; the ruler Moslems expect to appear on earth in the Last Days to convert the whole world to Islam.
MAS'JID. A Moslem mosque, or place of worship.
Mu EZ'ZIN or Mu EDH'DHIN. The one who gives the call to prayer.
Mu HAR'RAM. The first month of the Mohammedan year, in which the Shiites celebrate the martyrdom of their saints, Ali, Hasan and Husain.
MUL'LAH. A learned man; one of the Moslem clergy.
PIR. A religious teacher or guide, particularly one belonging to an order of dervishes.
PUR'DAH or PAR'DAH. Literally, curtain; seclusion of women of social position.
QIB'LA. The direction in which to face for prayer, i.e., toward Mecca.
RA MA DAN'. The ninth month of the Moslem calendar, during which fast is observed from earliest dawn to sunset.
SA LAT'. The Arabic term for ritual prayer.
SAY'YID (sy'yid). Literally, lord; a term or title used with personal names to indicate descent from the Prophet Mohammed.
SHAITAN' (shy-tan'). Another name for the devil; see Iblis.
SHA RI'AT. The sacred or canon law.
SHEIKH (shayk). Leader; head of tribe; religious leader.
SHI'ITE (shee'ite). The name of the sect composed of the followers of All, the son-in-law of Mohammed and the fourth caliph.
SULTAN'. Ruler; emperor.
SUN'NA. The customs sanctioned by Mohammed and his companions; handed down in the Hadith.
SUN'NITE. The name of the largest sect of Moslems, so called because they follow the Sunna, or Traditions.
SU'RA. A chapter of the Koran.
WAH HA'BI. A follower of the puritanical reformer of Arabia, Mohammed ibn Abdul Wahhab.
WAKF or WAQF. A religious endowment; property dedicated to pious uses.
ZA KAT'. Legal alms.
ZENA'NA. The Indian and Persian term for the women's apartments; see harem.
ZIK'R. The ritual used by the dervish orders for inducing a state of mystic ecstasy.