Treaty of Washington
|Treaty of Washington (1871)|
|Treaty of Washington (1871) on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.The Treaty of Washington, negotiiated between the United States and the United Kingdon, dealt with grievances stemming from the American Civil War (such as the Alabama claims and Fenian raids) as well as cross-border issues with the newly-formed Dominion of Canada. Its negotiation helped to avert what some felt was an inevitable war between the two parties.— Excerpted from|
Signed at Washington, May 8, 1871. (Ratifications exchanged at London, June 17, 1871.)
Article I. Whereas differences have arisen between the Government of the United States and the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, and still exist, growing out of the Acts committed by the several vessels which have given rise to the claims generically known as the Alabama Claims: And whereas Her Britannic Majesty has authorized her High Commissioners and Plenipotentiaries to express in a friendly spirit, the regret felt by Her Majesty's Government for the escape, under whatever circumstances, of the Alabama and other vessels from British ports, and for the depredations committed by those vessels; Now, in order to remove and adjust all complaints and claims on the part of the United States, and to provide for the speedy settlement of such claims, which are not admitted by Her Britannic Majesty's Government, the High Contracting Parties agree that all the said claims, growing out of Acts committed by the aforesaid vessels, and generically known as the Alabama Claims, shall be referred to a tribunal of arbitration to be composed of five arbitrators to be appointed in the following manner, that is to say: one shall be named by Her Britannic Majesty; one shall be named by the President of the United States; His Majesty the King of Italy shall be requested to name one; the President of the Swiss Confederation shall be requested to name one; and His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil shall be requested to name one.
II. The Arbitrators shall meet at Geneva, in Switzerland, at the earliest convenient day after they shall have been named, and shall proceed impartially and carefully to examine and decide all questions that shall be laid before them on the part of the Governments of Her Britannic Majesty and the United States respectively. All questions considered by the Tribunal, including the final award, shall be decided by a majority of all the Arbitrators. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall also name one person to attend the Tribunal as its Agent to represent it generally in all matters connected with the Arbitration.
III. The written or printed case of each of the two parties, accompanied by the documents, the official correspondence, and other evidence on which each relies, shall be delivered in duplicate to each of the Arbitrators and to the Agent of the other Party as soon as may be after the organization of the Tribunal, but within a period not exceeding 6 months from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this Treaty.
IV. Within four months after the delivery on both sides of the written or printed case, either Party may, in like manner, deliver in duplicate to each of the said Arbitrators, and to the Agent of the other Party, a Counter-Case and additional documents, correspondence and evidence, in reply to the case, documents, correspondence, and evidence, so presented, by the other Party. The Arbitrators may, however, extend the time for delivering such Counter-Case, documents, correspondence, and evidence, when in their judgment, it becomes necessary, in consequence of the distance of the place from which the evidence to be presented is to be procured. If in the case submitted to the Arbitrators, either Party shall have specified or alluded to any report or document in its own exclusive possession without annexing a copy, such Party shall be bound, if the other Party thinks proper to apply for it, to furnish that Party with a copy thereof, and either Party may call upon the other, through the Arbitrators, to produce the originals or certified copies of any papers adduced as evidence, giving in each instance such reasonable notice as the Arbitrators may require.
V. It shall be the duty of the Agent of each Party, within two months after the expiration of the time limited for the delivery of the Counter-Case on both sides, to deliver in duplicate to each of the said Arbitrators and to the Agent of the other Party a written or printed argument showing the pints and referring to the evidence upon which his Government relies; and the arbitrators may, if they desire further elucidation with regard to any point, require a written or printed statement or argument or oral argument by counsel upon it; but in such case the other Party shall be entitled to reply either orally, or in writing, as the case may be.
VI. In deciding the matters submitted to the Arbitrators they shall be governed by the following three rules, which are agreed upon by the High Contracting Parties as rules to be taken as applicable to the case, and by such principles of international law not inconsistent therewith as the Arbitrators shall determine to have been applicable to the case.
RULES A neutral Government is bound --
First. --To use due diligence to prevent the fitting out, arming or equipping, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel which it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise or to carry on war against a Power with which it is at peace; and also to use like diligence to prevent the departure from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise or carry on war as above, such vessel having been specially adapted, in whole or in part, within such jurisdiction, to warlike use.
Secondly. -- Not to permit or suffer either belligerent to make use of its ports or waters as the base of naval operations against the other, or for the purpose of the renewal or augmentation of military supplies or arms, within such jurisdiction, to warlike use.
Thirdly. --To exercise due diligence in its own ports and waters, and, as to all persons within its jurisdiction, to prevent any violation of the foregoing obligations and duties.
XXIX. It is agreed that, for the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII of this Treaty, goods, wares, or merchandise arriving at the ports of New York, Boston, and Portland, and any other ports in the United States which have been, or may from time to time be, specially designated by the President of the United States, and destined for Her Britannic Majesty's possessions in North America, may be entered at the proper Custom House and conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties, through the territory of the United States, under such rules, regulations, and conditions, goods, wares, or merchandise may be conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties, from such possessions through the territory of the United States for export from the said ports of the United States. It is further agreed that, for the like period, goods, wares, or merchandise arriving at any of the ports of Her Britannic Majesty's possessions in North America, and destined for the United States, may be entered at the proper Custom House, and conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties, through the said possessions, under such rules and regulations and conditions for the protection of the revenue, as the Governments of the said possessions may from time to time prescribe; and under like rules, regulations, and conditions, goods, wares, or merchandise may be conveyed in transit, without payment of duties, from the United States through the said possessions to other places in the United States, or for export from ports in the said possessions.
XXX. It is agreed that, for the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII of this Treaty, subjects of Her Britannic Majesty may carry in British vessels, without payment of duty, goods, wares, or merchandise from one port or place within the territory of the United States upon the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and the rivers connecting the same, to another port or place within the territory of the United States as aforesaid; provided, that a portion of such transportation is made through the Dominion of Canada by land carriage and in bond, under such rules and regulations as may be agreed upon between the Government of Her Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States. Citizens of the United States may for the like period carry in United States' vessels, without payment of duty, goods, wares, or merchandise from one port or place within the possessions of Her Britannic Majesty in North America, to another port or place within the said possessions; provided, that a portion of such transportation is made through the territory of the United States by land carriage and in bond, under such rules and regulations as may be agreed upon between the Government of Her Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States. The Government of the United States further engages not to impose any export duties on goods, wares, or merchandise carried under this Article through the territory of the United States; and Her Majesty's Government engages to urge the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada and the legislatures of the other Colonies not to impose any export duties on goods, wares, or merchandise carried under this Article; and the Government of the United States may, in case such export duties are imposed by the Dominion of Canada, suspend, during the period that such duties are imposed, the right of carrying granted under this Article in favor of the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty. The Government of the United States may suspend the right of carrying granted in favor of the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty under this Article, in case the Dominion of Canada should, at any time, deprive the citizens of the United States of the use of the canals in the said Dominion on terms of equality with the inhabitants of the Dominion, as provided in Article XXVII.
XLIII. The present Treaty shall be duly ratified by Her Britannic Majesty, and by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the ratifications shall be exchanged either at London or at Washington within six months from the date thereof, or earlier if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this Treaty, and have hereunto affixed our seals.
Done in duplicate at Washington, the 8th day of May, in the year of Our Lord, 1871.
- (L.S.) DE GREY & RIPON.
- (L.S.) STAFFORD H. NORTHCOTE.
- (L.S.) EDWD. THORNTON.
- (L.S.) JOHN A. MACDONALD
- (L.S.) MOUNTAGUE BERNARD.
- (L.S.) HAMILTON FISH.
- (L.S.) ROBT. C. SCHENCK.
- (L.S.) SAMUEL NELSON.
- (L.S.) EBENEZER ROCKWOOD HOAR.
- (L.S.) GEO. H. WILLIAMS.