Uhtred (d.1016) (DNB00)

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UHTRED or UCHTRED (d. 1016), Earl of Northumbria, was son of Waltheof the elder, earl of Northumbria, who had been deprived of the government of Deira (Yorkshire), the southern part of the earldom. Uhtred helped Ealdhun or Aldhun, bishop of Durham, when in 995 he moved his see from Chester-le-Street, to prepare the site for his new church. He married the bishop's daughter Ecgfrida, and received with her six estates belonging to the bishopric, on condition that as long as he lived he should keep her in honourable wedlock. When in 1006 the Scots invaded Northumbria under their king, Malcolm II (d. 1034) [q. v.], and besieged Durham, Waltheof, who was old and unfit for war, shut himself up in Bamborough; but Uhtred, who was a valiant warrior, went to the relief of his father-in-law the bishop, defeated the Scots, and slew a great number of them. Ethelred II (968?–1016) [q. v.], on hearing of Uhtred's success, gave him his father's earldom, adding to it the government of Deira. Uhtred then sent back the bishop's daughter, restoring the estates of the church that he had received with her, and married Sigen, the daughter of a rich citizen, probably of York or Durham, named Styr Ulfson, receiving her on condition that he would slay her father's deadly enemy, Thurbrand. He did not fulfil this condition and seems to have parted with Sigen also; for as he was of great service to the king in war, Ethelred gave him his daughter Elgiva or Ælfgifu to wife. When Sweyn [q. v.], king of Denmark, sailed into the Humber in 1013, Uhtred promptly submitted to him; but when Canute [q. v.] asked his aid in 1015 he returned, it is said, a lofty refusal, declaring that so long as he lived he would keep faithful to Ethelred, his lord and father-in-law. He joined forces with the king's son Edmund in 1016, and together they ravaged the shires that refused to help them against the Danes. Finding, however, that Canute was threatening York, Uhtred hastened northwards, and was forced to submit to the Danish king and give him hostages. Canute bade him come to him at a place called Wiheal (possibly Wighill, near Tadcaster), and instructed or allowed his enemy Thurbrand to slay him there. As Uhtred was entering into the presence of the king a body of armed men of Canute's retinue emerged from behind a curtain and slew him and forty thegns who accompanied him, and cut off their heads. He was succeeded in his earldom by Canute's brother-in-law Eric, and on Eric's banishment the earldom came to Uhtred's brother, Eadwulf Cutel, who had probably ruled the northern part of it under Eric.

By Ecgfrida, Uhtred had a son named Ealdred (or Aldred), who succeeded his uncle, Eadwulf Cutel, in Bernicia, the northern part of Northumbria, slew his father's murderer, Thurband, and was himself slain by Thurbrand's son Carl; he left five daughters, one of whom, named Elfleda, became the wife of Earl Siward [q. v.] and the mother of Earl Waltheof [q. v.]. By Ethelred's daughter Elgiva, Uhtred had a daughter named Aldgyth or Eadgyth, who married Maldred, and became the mother of Gospatric (or Cospatric), earl of Northumberland [q. v.]. He also had two other sons—Eadwulf, who succeeded his brother Ealdred as earl in Bernicia and was slain by Siward, and Gospatric. His wife, Ecgfrida, married again after he had repudiated her, and had a daughter named Sigrid, who had three husbands, one of them being this last-named Eadwulf, the son of her mother's husband. Ecgfrida was again repudiated, returned to her father, became a nun and died, and was buried at Durham (on these northern marriages see Robertson's Essays, p. 172).

[De Obsid. Dunelm. ap. Sym. of Durham, i. 215–20, also ii. 197, 383; Will. of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, ii. cc. 170, 180 (both Rolls Ser.); A.-S. Chron. ann. 1013, 1016; Flor. Wig. (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Freeman's Norm. Conq. i. 358, 394, 416.]

W. H.