Victoria: with a description of its principal cities, Melbourne and Geelong/Appendix
WHILST we were urging our book through the press, the mail of the 25th of July brought us still later intelligence, and amongst the pile of papers that came to hand we were pleased to find a report of a work on Port Philip, in two letters, in the "Weekly Herald," dated the 17th of July. These we lay before our readers as they appear:—
Mr. Bonwick's Book on Port Philip.
Comments and Remarks on "The Discovery and Settlement of Port Philip," compiled by Mr. Bonwick; and Refutations of many of the Errors that have crept into that work, by reason of mis-information given to that writer by some one or more incompetent relators of events.
Extract from Bonwick's Port Philip, p. 82:—"But What has been done for Batman, the originator and leader of the movement?" Again, same page:—"As it is undeniable that to John Batman's enterprise we owe the settlement of this wonderful colony, is it grateful, is it just, to disregard the memory of his services, and leave his very grave unnoticed?"—and closes by adding—"Justice to Batman."
If Batman did talk, and, with the aid of Mr. J. H. Wedge and Mr. J. T. Gellibrand, did write, about coming to Port Philip, I have a prior claim; for I was a resident and a cultivator on this harbour's banks in 1803: and I did settle down, and had already in cultivation a garden and orchard, and five acres of wheat growing, before Mr. Batman saw the Yarra, as Mr. Wedge in part acknowledges, p. 62 of Bonwick's work, in these words:—"It was with no little surprise, on arriving at the place Melbourne now stands on, that I observed in the basin, just below where the Prince of Wales' Bridge spans the Yarra-yarra with its noble arch, a vessel quietly and securely, moored. It turned out to be a vessel (I believe the Enterprise), belonging to Mr. Fawkner, which he had sent thither in charge of Mr. Lancey, to form an establishment, on the strength of Mr. Batman's favourable report of the country." This much for Mr. J. H. Wedge, who knew the latter part of his statement to be untrue, for he knew that Fawkner and party intended to come over, that Batman had revised all of them passages, and that the Enterprise was bought, to bring over Fawkner and party as soon as possible, on that vessel's return from Sydney. Now, let us see, what did Batman, and what claim has he upon this community for posthumous reward? Allowing him, for argument's sake, to be the first by a few days that actually landed in Port Philip, what did he do, or attempt to do? He attempted to found a large squatocratic establishment, and he asserted what can be proved to be totally untrue, viz., that he bought two plots of land,—one from Hobson's Bay, up the Yarra-yarra seven miles, then forty miles N.E., thence west forty miles, and from thence S.S.W. across Mount Vilamamator to Geelong Harbour, some 500,000 acres; and then another little plot—only that peninsula (Indented Head)—about 100,000 acres: falsely asserting that "his Sydney blacks" (his own words) "fully and properly interpreted and explained to the said chiefs," the written deed. This is most outrageous,—the Sydney blacks could not read print, except Bullet, who had been some time at school, and could make out with difficulty words of one syllable; and in defiance of its being a well established fact, after we arrived here, that the aborigines of Sydney and Melbourne did not understand each other's language. Then the deed recites that the two lots were bought from the same blacks. It is well known that the blacks about Melbourne had no rights over the tribes about Geelong. Nor were there any chiefs possessing the rights that the deeds describe; and further. Batman's Journal, as well as my information, establishes the fact that Batman was only ashore one night at the tract of land he says he met with the blacks upon, and then and there signed the so-called "deeds" and that they are both dated the 6th June, 1835. The words of the deeds convey a complete refutation of their validity. Batman only one night ashore! Yet the deeds say, after describing the tract as being "at the top of the port" (pray which is the bottom?)—the lines run thus:—"About seven miles from the mouth of the river, forty miles north-east, and from thence west forty miles across Tramoo (query—is this not "Iramoo"?) downs or plains, and from thence south-south-west across Mount Vilamarnator to Geelong harbour, at the head of the same." Now here are, first, seven, next forty, again forty; the last line is not stated, but, take it at twenty miles, here were, according to my reckoning, 107 miles to travel over; and thirty more from Geelong to where the vessel lay at Gellibrand's Point, in all 137 miles. Then it is stated that before the deeds were executed, they, the blacks (in presence of the whites, no doubt) "delineated and marked out by us, according to the custom of our tribes, by certain marks made upon the trees growing along the boundaries of the said tract of land." I reserve the Geelong plot of land for further comment. I deny that Batman and party went round the land at all. He was unable, from the disease under which he then laboured, and which finally carried him off. What are the people to do to give "justice to Batman" for attempting? Under the plea of buying the lands from the blacks, he, Batman, meant to shut out all persons (page 48, Batman's Journal), in these words;—"And I gave Gunu written authority to put off any person that may trespass on the land I have purchased from the natives." If Fawkner and others would have allowed Batman to rule, the colony would not have been settled—only squatter-seized. Fawkner invited all British subjects, and assisted many to settle. Batman only wanted land for himself, and Governor Arthur, and for the medley fourteen. In conclusion, what did Batman towards colonizing Port Philip? He came over here in May, 1835, at the cost of a copartnery, to find runs for Colonel Arthur, Captain Montague, and certain other squatters. He evidently attempted to secure these lands for squatting stations. Witness the words, in the famous—or infamous—so-called deeds, viz.: "To feed sheep and cattle upon." Then Mr. Batman leaves on Indented Head the Company's two or three men, and orders them "to warn off all persons from 'his lands,;" including the whole western side of Port Philip Bay. One of his (Batman's) partners followed the Enterprise up to Melbourne, from Indented Head, and ordered off Captain Lancey and Fawkner's party, claiming this land as private property. Does this look like fostering or founding a new colony?
What did Mr. J. Batman towards founding a colony at Port Philip? See page 45 of Bonwick's, 27th line:—"I joined this tribe about 12 o'clock, and stayed with them till 12 o'clock next day, during which time I fully explained to them that the object of my visit was to purchase from them a tract of their country; that I intended to settle amongst them with my wife and seven daughters; and that I intended to bring to their country sheep and cattle. Here the object of the pretended founder is very clearly depicted by his own pen. And I may add, that if Mr. Batman did really, as Mr. Bonwick asserts (page 48), find a river from the east, it could not have been the Yarra, for he could not have gone, in his own words, "six miles up; found the river all good water, and very deep. This will be the place for a village." Batman could not from the junction—where (p. 47) it is stated he was on the eve of the 7th—have gone six miles up the Yarra, for the falls would have stopped his boat, and could not have escaped his notice (this has been subsequently added to his Journal). Or what is to be said of his foundership of the colony, when he left the banks of the Yarra, and fixed on that badly watered spot on Indented Head, where he left, June 9th, Gunu and others "to commence a garden, hut, or house," &c.? (See p. 48, line 12 from top of page.)
Was this the sane act of any person about to found a colony, or was it not the act of a squatter wishing to seize the snug peninsula of Indented Head for his own flocks and herds? And on the same page, line 18, are these words:—"And gave Gunu written authority to put off any persons that may trespass on the land I have purchased from the natives." Readers, call you this the act of a man intending or anxious to found a colony?
"Justice to Batman!" Would his friends really like to see Batman's acts and his closing career fully stated? If so, it can be done. It has been hitherto withheld, but it is ready if called for.
July 17th, 1856.
From the Melbourne Weekly Herald.
BONWICK'S PORT PHILIP.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD.
Sir,—Purchasing a copy of your weekly paper on Saturday evening, I read a critique of Mr. Fawkner's upon my "Discovery and Settlement of Port Philip." Starting this morning for Castlemaine, I have not time to reply. I must, however, thank Mr. Fawkner for attending to the hint in my preface where I solicit "corrections of misstatements."
I rejoice to find that Mr. Fawkner, so far admits the general truthfulness of my book, and admits the many difficulties of dependence upon oral testimony. Though he will not acknowledge the story of spirituous rappings, he confesses to threshing Smith out of his wooden house, not sod hut. Though he denies letting the place to Smith himself, he allows that this person rented it of his lessees.
Mr. Fawkner would fain know the "funny stories" about his first public house. But, without waiting for a reply, he adds "another misstatement." The stories, though curious and suggestive, were not necessary to the work. Some reminiscences of Melbourne public houses were given as illustrations of our primitive colonial society. The narrative Mr. Fawkner has given of the doings of Mr. Smith and himself, is a striking exemplification of national manners and private virtue. As Dr. Cotter, to whom no creditable reference is made, resides in a neighbouring colony, he will surely speak for himself. I owe no story of your correspondent to Mr. Willoughby.
My simple object, as the humble historian of the colony, has been to ascertain the truth, and the whole truth, of the occurrences of bygone times. Happy, therefore, shall I be to receive suggestions and facts from any person. While gratefully acknowledging the ready assistance I have obtained from old colonists, I must confess that I had to go elsewhere for information I sought from Mr. Fawkner. To do that gentleman every justice, for I honour his public services, I quoted at length his own previously published account of the settlement of the colony. I would respectfully direct your readers' attention to it in my work, now on sale at Mr. Robertson's, as I may have a few remarks to make upon it, in defence of my own position. Mr. Fawkner would have me say that which I cannot say,—that more credit is due to himself than to Mr. Batman for the occupation of this country.
- Boroondara, Monday morning.
From the Melbourne Weekly Herald.
NEW PLAN FOR. IMMIGRATION.
In another paper we find a long article upon immigration, which we copy verbatim, desirous to give every information on this important matter.
We subjoin a sketch of a Prospectus forwarded by a gentleman well acquainted with the land and emigration regulations of this colony.
It will be recollected by may of our readers that, some months ago, we called attention to this subject In this colony we have boundless regions, prepared by nature for the plough. In Europe there are teeming populations prepared to send forth exhaustless swarms. An improvement in trade, the excitement and waste of war, and the distraction of revolutions, for a time divert attention from the ample provisions in this new world for the masses, but soon hard necessity recalls their crowded populations to these only permanent resources, and compels them to pursue the example set by all the families of man since the Babel scheme was finally exploded. The surrender of the land to the management of the colonial Legislatures has placed the question of emigration in their power. They will compete with each other; the wisest arrangements will be rewarded with the greatest success. Population in such a country as this means an overflowing land fund—ample revenue—a wide basis for taxation, railroads, agricultural prosperity: and last, not least, political strength. We have land—in the United Kingdom and Europe, population—how then can they be brought together? That is an inquiry before which the great Candle Question fades into darkness.
The Prospectus below, good in many points, as far as it goes, does not take in all the aspects of the subject, and would perhaps, if considered alone, be liable to some objections in practice. The great danger would be the abuse of the Remission Tickets. We could not trust an emigration agent, acting alone, and dependent—even if honest—on the information of persons totally untrustworthy. We should be in great danger of a cargo of "reformed convicts," and of the mere paupers of the United Kingdom. It might, however, be possible to prevent such abuses by an active supervision of the scheme, not only in England, but in the colonies themselves.
Let us look what has been the course of colonization in England. A company has be chartered—an upset price of land paid— agents for the transfer of emigrants employed, and large expenses incurred to launch the scheme. The failure of these companies has resulted from their total ignorance of colonization, and the sacrifice of capital in worthless improvements. Would it not be more rational for the colonies to take the task of colonization into their own hands? If a company can hope to operate in England, remote from the scene of action, would it not be much more natural to expect success were the head-quarters fixed in the colonies themselves? We believe most of the English schemes have been supposed to originate in philanthropy and public spirit. Thus there has been an array of great and distinguished names: bishops, lords, members of the House of Commons, bankers, and all that sort of people, who are supposed to guarantee the purity and reasonableness of the undertaking, but who generally know nothing beyond a prospectus. Might not a body of colonial gentlemen be found acting on their own responsibility, but with the friendly countenance of Government, to constitute a company, to plant agricultural families, and to facilitate the formation of towns and cities within this vast territory? And might it not be possible to gain a profit sufficient to justify the investment of capital in the undertaking? Never would such an effort proceed under fairer auspices. The land is accessible—steamboats would keep open a communication with the port—the wants of the emigrants would be met without the vast preparation demanded by a new country—and provisions would be obtainable in abundance. There would be no need in wasting strength on undertakings which have often embarrassed the founders of new colonies. Besides these material advantages, it would not be difficult to furnish such religious and scholastic instruction from the older settlements as new comers might at first demand.
To operate with any success we should require a tract of country suitable for the experiment. It would be necessary for an English agency to be appointed, and under stringent restrictions to organize a workable population, disposed on their landing to proceed to their destination at once. They would meet with slight difficulties compared with those encountered by a colony in its infancy, and probably two years would be sufficient to relieve a colonial society from any care or incumbrance. As capital returned, the process could be repeated. If successful, it would find many copyists, and the country would be covered at a rate of progress which by ordinary means can never be realized.—Sydney Morning Herald.
WASTE LAND AND IMMIGRATION.
Prospectus of a company to be called the Sydney Land and Immigration Company.
- There can be no doubt that in order to obtain a constant influx of population, and particularly of labouring immigrants, a passage to this colony must be found for them.
- There can be no doubt that the waste lands of the colony (some 760 millions of acres) should be made to furnish the means of paying for the passage of immigrants.
- All the laws relative to the waste lands being now abrogated, and the disposal of these lands being now entirely in the hands of the Colonial Government, there can be no difficulty in making with the Government such arrangements as are contemplated by the proposed Company.
- It is considered that the deportation of labourers and others could be much more economically and satisfactorily managed, and carried out to a far greater extent, by private enterprise than by the Government.
- It is, therefore, proposed to offer to the Government, that for so many acres of land per head, as may be agreed on, say twenty or twenty-five acres, the intended Company would land any number of immigrants, not more than ten or twenty thousand per annum, as might be agreed upon.
- That, on the part of the Government, no restraint shall be exercised in the selection of emigrants either as to age, sex, or calling, but that there may be an inspection previous to shipment, by an agent of the colony, who in each case shall grant to the Company a separate certificate as to the health and character of each individual.
- That the Company are not to be paid for the emigrants who may die on the passage, nor yet for any one who cannot be personally presented to the authorities in the colony as having been passed by the colonial agents in Great Britain.
- That the payment for the passages of the emigrants shall be in remission tickets receivable by the Colonial Treasurer in the purchase of waste lands at auction.
- The Company will look for its profits in the difference between the actual cost to them of an emigrant's passage, and the value of the number of acres received per head; the Government guaranteeing not to reduce the minimum upset price of land, pending the contract with the Company. The Company will either sell remission tickets at a slight discount, or purchase lands with a view to sell at a profit, or lease to the emigrants they may bring out, or to others.
- The Company will not be bound in any way as to the bargains they may make with intending emigrants; all the control that the Company would acknowledge would be the Passage Acts and other laws upon the subject, and, as before provided, the examination as to health and character by the colony's agent.
- Under such an arrangement, passengers might be called upon by the Company to contribute towards the expense of their passage,—whilst the whole of the more respectable emigrants—intermediate and even cabin passengers—would be brought out by the Company, because they would be able to deduct £20 or so per head from the passage money.
- It is considered that if a Company of this sort were got up in the colony, and in conjunction with parties at home, connected with the shipping interests, that whilst the colony might be benefited to an incalculable extent, and the affairs of every colonial shareholder improved, a very handsome profit might be realized.
- Such an arrangement as is here contemplated would be recommended to the attention of the Government, by their being saved all trouble, expense, and responsibility, except the employment of inspecting agents. It may be said that the Government should not sanction such an arrangement as would admit of a profit being realized by a Company, when, by proper management, that profit could be secured for the public treasury, but the privileges of the Company might be granted only on the calculation of what every possible outgoing the emigrant cost the colony per head; and if it were found that this would not pay a Company, it would be useless to try it; but it could scarcely be but that private enterprise, with a sufficient capital, could conduct on extensive deportation at a very low rate, whilst the Government would always pay the highest. Moreover, now that peace has been proclaimed, freights will be very low, and it might even be profitable for a Company to take a contract as low as fifteen acres per head; for, supposing that passages came down as low as £10, the remaining five acres, otherwise £5, after deducting for discount on the sale of remissions, and other such expenses, would leave a very handsome margin for profit, besides what could be got from the emigrants themselves; but this could not be carried to any great extent, because it might check the desire to emigrate, and the great profit of the Company will be in numbers.
The official return for the month of June, of arrivals and departures at this colony, exhibits a more favourable state of affairs than any previous month of the current year.
The arrivals from the United Kingdom and foreign ports were 3629 The departures for ditto 418
- Gain to the colony from British and Foreign emigration
To this balance in our favour may be added some five or six hundred Chinese, who made their way overland during the month, and therefore escape enumeration.
Our gain from the neighbouring colonies, although much checked by the severe weather of the month, continues to be large. The following Table will show our gain from each colony:—
Arrivals from. Departure to. New South Wales 672 611 South Australia 637 100 Tasmania 496 226 New Zealand 20 81 1725 868
Showing a gain to the colony, from the neighbouring provinces, of 857 persons, independent of any excess of arrivals over departures that may have taken place overland, with New South Wales and South Australia.
The following important notice was issued in the "Gazette:"—
His Excellency the Senior Military Officer administering the Government, with the advice of the Executive Council, has been pleased to direct that from the 1st day of August next ensuing, the Immigration Remittance Regulations of the 1st June, 1853, and all rules made in pursuance of those regulations, be cancelled; and that in lieu thereof the following revised regulations be adopted and published for the information of persons desirous of securing passages for their relatives and friends from the United Kingdom to Victoria.
By his Excellency's Command,
Hugh C. E. Childers
Notice to the Public.
Persons wishing to bring their relatives and friends from the United Kingdom to Victoria can secure passages for them in vessels chartered by her Majesty's Government on the following conditions:—
1. The persons to be brought into the colony must be in good health, free from all bodily or mental defects; of good moral character, sober, industrious, and in the habit of working for wages at the occupation specified in the application forms. Children under the age of fifteen years must be accompanied by some competent person who will take charge of them during the voyage.
2. The names, ages, relationship, married or single state, occupation and address of the persons for whom passages are requested, must be furnished by the applicant according to the accompanying form:
Christian Name and Surname at full length. Age. Whether Married or Single. Relation-
Trade or Calling. Address at full length of the place or town and street where living in the United Kingdom.
3. The applicant will then be informed of the amount to be paid to secure the passages, and upon payment of this sum he will receive a certificate which he will forward to his friends by post.
4. The amount to be paid will depend on the number of the persons to be introduced, their age, sex, occupation, and other circumstances. It will generally be within the following limits:—
Sex. Under 1 year l and under 12. 12 and under 30. 30 and under 40. 40 and under 50. 50 and upwards. £ £ £ £ £ £ Male 1 to 2 3 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 12 12 to 18 Female 1 to 2 2 to 3 2 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 6 10 to 18
6. Application forms and every information will be given, and deposits received at the under-mentioned places:—
Melbourne, by the Immigration Agent.
Geelong, Portland, Port Fairy, Warrnambool, and Port Albert, by the Assistant Immigration Agents.
Castlemaine, Sandhurst, Ballaarat, Avoca, and Beechworth, by the Sub-Treasurers.
And at other places by persons to be specially appointed for that purpose.
7. Persons residing at a distance from the above places can obtain application forms at the nearest post-office, and, on sending them (duly filled up and signed) to the Immigration Agent in Melbourne, will receive immediate information. The amount required can be sent to the Immigration Agent in Melbourne by cheque or order on a bank or mercantile house, or by bank notes in a registered letter. Upon receipt of the remittance, the usual certificate for the passages of his friends will be forwarded to the depositor, and he will transmit it by post to their address in the United Kingdom.
Melbourne, August 1, 1856.
2. The persons eligible for passages under these regulations are, agricultural labourers of every kind, domestic servants, railway labourers, mechanics and artisans, and their wives, children, and near relations. They must be in sound health, free from bodily or mental defects, of good moral character, and accustomed to work for wages at the occupation specified by the depositor on the application form.
3. Children under fifteen years of age cannot be accepted unless accompanied by some suitable person, who will take charge of them during the voyage.
4. Should a family contain more than two children under seven years of age, an extra rate of four pounds for each child in excess must be paid by the applicant before passages can be secured. The same extra rate must be paid to secure passages for single men coming alone.
5. In ordinary cases the applicant will pay a proportion of the cost of the passage according to the subjoined scale, the remainder of the cost being defrayed by her Majesty's Government:—
Class 1.—Agricultural labourers, shepherds, herdsmen, farm and domestic servants, railway labourers, blacksmiths, brickmakers, bricklayers, carpenters, masons, quarrymen, sawyers, and wheelwrights, with their near relatives.
Sex. Children under 1 year of age Children between 1 and 12. Persons between 12 and 30. Persons between 30 and 40. Persons between 40 and 50. Persons between 50 and 60. Persons exceeding 60. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Male 1 3 4 6 8 12 18 Female 1 2 2 3 4 10 16 Sex. Children under 1 year of age Children between 1 and 12. Persons between 12 and 30. Persons between 30 and 40. Persons between 40 and 50. Persons between 50 and 60. Persons exceeding 60. £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Male 2 4 6 8 12 16 18 Female 2 2 3 4 6 12 18
7. No payment is required by the Commissioners from the persons sent for, but they will have to defray their own expenses to the nearest railway or packet station, and to show that they possess an outfit for the voyage, in accordance with the regulations.
8. It will be advisable, therefore, whenever practicable, to receive from the applicant (in addition to the sums in the above scale) five pounds, or such amount as he may find convenient to remit, for these expenses. This amount will be paid through the Commissioners to the persons nominated, in the United Kingdom.
9. On inquiring at any of the Immigration Offices or Sub-Treasuries, the applicant is to be furnished with an application form (Form A), which he will duly fill up, sign, and leave with the officer. He is then to be informed of the amount required to be paid, and of the outfit (Form B). As soon as he has paid this amount to the Assistant Immigration Agent or Sub-Treasurer (as the case may be), the money or a receipt for it from the Treasury is to be remitted to the Immigration Agent in Melbourne, with the application form (Form C), and a statement of the sums paid for passages and outfit. The Immigration Agent will then transmit a certificate for the persons nominated, either to the office at which the money was paid, or to such address as the applicant may request. This certificate is to be sent by the applicant to his friends in the United Kingdom.
10. For the convenience of persons at a distance the application form (A) may be obtained at the district post-offices. The applicant will fill up the particulars, sign his name and address, and forward it to the Immigration Agent in Melbourne, who will inform him of the amount to be paid, and, on the receipt of the money, forward him the usual certificate.
11. The sums remitted to the Immigration Agent will be paid into the Treasury daily. The Treasurer will furnish a monthly return of the amounts, and the Immigration Agent will likewise furnish a monthly return for transmission to the Commissioners, of the names and other particulars of the persons nominated, and of the amount paid for passages and outfits.
12. Should the persons nominated decline or be unable to emigrate, the money paid towards their passages will be returned to the depositor in this colony. All applications for sums to be refunded should be addressed direct to the Immigration Agent, Melbourne.
13. Should the applicant wilfully misrepresent the particulars of the persons nominated, the deposits towards the passages will be liable to forfeiture.
14. Should a difficulty occur in any special case not included in the above instructions, the particulars should be forwarded to the Immigration Agent, who will afford every information on the subject.
(The new regulations of the Commissioners in England are also published; but the main provisions of these have already been supplied by our London correspondent.)
Victoria Gold Circular.
We also extract the latest Gold Circular, showing the prices for gold the week ending July 18; and again, that of July 25.
The escorts have supplied us with a fair quantity of gold.
The generally prevailing heavy rains appear to have much retarded the operations of the miner, to an extent, we regret to learn, which has in some cases occasioned privation and distress. At both Castlemaine and Bendigo there is reported to be much suffering from the above cause.
A new rush is spoken of in the neighbourhood of Taradale called McMillan's diggings. The result is reported as satisfactory, and instances of 30 ounces to the tub are known to have occurred. As an instance of the vicissitudes which attend the operation of digging, and how little practical advantage is derivable from books, we may refer to the sudden alteration which has occurred in the lead at Fiery Creek, where the bottom has suddenly deepened from 5 to 60 feet.
A short time since a report was circulated by our contemporary broker that an extensive fraud had been committed in ingots. As the details of this affair got wind, however, it appears to partake more of the nature of ignorance or indiscretion on the part of the party purchasing.
The Champion of the Seas, which vessel sailed on Wednesday last, took gold to the amount of £370,000. There is yet no other vessel laid on for London until the James Baines, on the 6th of next month.
The escorts from Mount Alexander and Ballaarat arrived at the Gold Office, and bring the following returns, viz.:—
Name of Gold Field. Quantity. Number of Last Receipt Gold. Cash. ozs dwts. £ s. d. Castlemaine, 5,909 10 4,4962 10 0 17,491 Sandhurst, 8,802 0 1,982 0 0 32,186 Ballaarat, 13,790 0 14,759 10 0 5,744 Do. left at Geelong, 1,165 5 200 0 0 Cheswick Creek, 1,751 0 1,687 Fiery Creek, 3,773 0 2,912 0 0 571 Mount Franklin, 1,820 15 204 10 0 1,143 Amherst, 1,067 0 563 Do 253 0 565 Maryborough 3,877 0 1,171 0 0 3,480 Do 2,251 10 1,361 0 0 3,497 45,033 0 27,552 10 0
William Clarke, Gold Broker,
s. d. Castlemain and Bendigo, 76 0
76 6 Ovens, 76 9 Ballaarat, 77 6 Standard ounce, 73 9
The business has been good, though the demand has not been extensive, in consequence of the length of time to elapse previous to the sailing of the James Baines, on the 5th of next month.
A larger quantity of gold has been brought to town by escort this week than we have known for some time, and, with the present escort, would make an excellent week's produce for our Fields. At Korong everything seems prosperous. Another nugget of about 168 ounces has been found, and report speaks of another still larger, found a few days since. We trust that the prospects thus made in that locality will not close without causing the diggers to search well the ground of the mallee, as in several parts of that hitherto terra incog. the gold has been found in considerable quantity.
We have also to notice the very much improved prospect which seems to be on the Caledonian diggings. To-day we have purchased 200 ounces from that field; the rush is to a place near One-Tree Hill, and the gold is nuggety and of good quality.
Again we have to record the appearance of spurious gold, in a sample from Ballaarat; the parcel consisted of 250 ounces, and contained about 25 ounces of the manufactured article, an ingenious approximate to the appearance of real gold dust, and such as might easily pass through the hands of any inexperienced broker without detection.
We hear of parties taking Castlemaine gold to Mount Franklin, where it fetches an advanced price for resale at Ballaarat, which is draining supplies from the neighbouring Fields, and even affecting in the manner indicated those more remote. A Government enactment to meet fraud in gold transactions appears to us to be especially needed; and as the high price given for Ballaarat gold is given on the faith of its being the produce of that Field, it should be made punishable to sell the produce of one Field under the pretence of its derivation from another.
Receipts per esc0rt.
Name Of Gold Field. Quantity. ozs. dwts. Castlemaine, 4,980 10 Sandhurst, 11,522 0 Heathcote, 581 0 Ballaarat, 13,231 5 Cheswick Creek, 1,706 10 Avoca, 570 10 Fiery Creek, 3,522 10 Mount Franklin, 199 5 Amherst, 503 0 Maryborough, 3,750 10 Blackwood, 241 10 Beechworth, 11,605 0 Buckland, 154 10 Total, 52,568 0 GOLD SHIPPED DURING WEEK.
Calcutta, per Cornelius Strait, 2,387 0 Sydney, per Telegraph, 3,546 15 Sydney, per City of Sydney, 3,000 0 Total, 8,933 15 William Clarke and Sons, Gold Brokers,
In another place we read a pleasing account of a Philharmonic Society; the theatrical performances; the Victorian Exhibition of Art; and also, sketches of Australian zoology. These we extract in like manner, to prove how our words are borne out in reference to the steady advancement of the colony: —
The Philharmonic Concert.
The wettest night of this most wet season tended very considerably to lessen the éclat that would otherwise have attended the first of the three extra concerts announced by the Philharmonic Society, which was given at the Theatre Royal last Friday, and a notice of which was accidentally and undeservedly omitted in our Saturday's impression. Not only did the unfavourable weather prevent the assemblage of a crowded audience, but it seemed to have a dispiriting influence on the exertions of the amateurs, which was not dispelled till Madame Bishop's brilliant execution of Guglielmi's Gratias agimua roused the dormant appreciation of the audience, who burst forth into enthusiastic applause.
The stage was fitted up with good taste and effect, as the choir of a cathedral, at the end of which stood the Society's organ. But Thursday having been an opera night, and the erection of the organ therefore delayed till Friday morning, it was found impossibleto complete it in time for the concert, a desideratum, the absence of which detracted very considerably from the general effect of the performances. The vocalists were ranged on each side of the stage, except the principals, who sat in front; and the instrumentalists reached back to the organ. In consequence, however, of the incline not being sufficiently great, the appearance in the lower part of the house of so large a number of performers was not so striking as it would otherwise have been. If, also, the stage, instead of being open at the top and wings, had been enclosed with drapery as it was during the promenade concerts, the ordinary orchestra covered over, and the principals brought before the foot-lights, and the orchestra thrown forward in proportion, the result, in the increase of the body of sound, would have been a great improvement. But it is hardly fair to suggest farther expense in preparations, while the public appear somewhat sparing of their patronage.
The first part of the concert consisted principally of selections from Handel's oratorio of "Samson." The performance of the overture calls for no particular remark, except that it was creditable to the combination of professionals and amateurs. The chorus, Then round about the Starry Throne, was very well executed—praise which we are sorry not to accord to Mr. F. Howson's Honour and Arms, a grand and difficult air, to which few can do justice, and which, on this occasion, failed to produce any effect, mainly from the singularly unimpassioned manner of the singer. Handel's Angels ever Bright and Fair was most expressively sung by Madame Bishop, who, however, did anything but add to the beautifully plaintive character of the melody by her peculiar delivery of the word "bright" each time it occurred. Owing to the organ being incomplete, Mrs. Testar could not sing Jerusalem, thou who killest the Prophets ("St. Paul"), which was to be regretted, because, in the first place, she has always been heard to great advantage in the Jerusalem, and in the second place, because she never appeared to less advantage than in Ye men of Gaza, which was substituted for it. In Guglielmi's "Gratias agimus," as we said above, Madame Bishop, by her admirable vocalization brought down the house; and obtained the first encore of the evening. We cannot agree in considering this composition as a mere example of florid execution. It possesses some of the highest characteristics as regards conception and expression, and has for many years been held in great esteem by the severest critics. The style in which Madame Bishop gave this piece and the Inflammatus in the "Stabat Mater" at once proved her claims to hold a position unattained by her predecessor, who utterly failed to divest herself of theatrical art while attempting the more arduous interpretation of "sacred" composition. We must not omit a tribute of praise to M. Lundberg for his excellent obligato accompaniment to the "Gratias."
Mr. S. Nelson's "Benedictus," composed in Australia, and sung for the first time at this concert, appears to possess considerable merit, but we prefer to hear it again before saying more of its claims, except that the father was evidently sacrificed to the daughter, and the composition thereby rendered much less effective than it would have been had a more perfect singer taken the place of the lady alluded to.
The second part of the concert, consisting of the greater portion of Rossini's "Stabat Mater," was decidedly the most satisfactory, so far as the principals were concerned. M. Laglaise, by the pathos and power which he threw into the Cujus Animam, seemed to excel even more in sacred music than in opera, and this and Guglielmi's air were the gems of the evening. Mr. Howson was also more successful in the Pro peccatis; and Mrs. Testar, in Fac ut portem, almost obtained an encore. Madame Bishop achieved a triumph in the Inflammatus, as we have said above, and the studied and vigorous support which she received from the chorus in this grand air reflected more credit upon them than any other part of the programme. The unaccompanied quartette Quando corpus, and the final Amen chorus brought the concert to a close, with great satisfaction to the choice spirits who had braved the elements (including mud) to encourage this most deserving effort to elevate and improve the taste of our Victorian musical public. The band, as a whole, was good and effective, and Mr. Russell conducted with his usual ability. The theatre was by no means so full as it might have been, and we regret to learn that loss is the result. Let us hope, however, that the "Creation," to-night, may attract, as it deserves, a crowded house.
Friday.—The repetition of "Martha" last night must have made many regret that the real and sterling merits of our little opera company are so scantily recognised. The selection of "Martha" was at first a doubtful step, but a better work could not have been adopted with respect to the general talents of the corps. The opera has improved on every repetition, and last night was performed admirably in every respect. It well deserves to be repeated again and again—but real lovers of music are still to be quoted as "scarce," and the manager, it is to be feared, finds novelty more attractive than excellence. The latter cannot be expected if a production like "Martha," with Bishop, Laglaise, and Coulon, added to Guerin, Howson, &c., will not draw for five or six nights. The smoothness and perfection of last night showed the advantage of a few nights' run. May the remaining eight nights prove more profitable.
Wednesday.—Some great authority lately stated, that tragic opera had few charms for an English, and still fewer for a Victorian audience. The best answer to this assertion is, the reception of "Lucrezia Borgia" last night; a result owing no less to the intrinsic merits of the opera itself, than to the manner in which the artistes acquitted themselves. Since the advent of opera among us, our ears, after being delighted by the strains of a Hayes or a Bishop, have been generally annoyed by whole pages of spoken English libretto of the most namby-pamby and unmusical character. Such, however, was not the case last night. From the rising of the curtain till its fall the attention of the audience was riveted to the stage; recitative took the place of that twaddling dialogue which would have well nigh destroyed the spell cast on all by the genius of Doninetti, and the result was that "Lucrezia" was decidedly the most successful Bishop-opera which has been produced here—"Martha" not excepted.
The part of Lucrezia, by Madame Bishop, was certainly one of her most successful characters. The Com' e bello was given with great delicacy; and the Di Pescatore brought out the sterling talents of the lady and Laglaise in a manner which at once established the representation. We have not room for a lengthened notice, but may at once record our opinion that in all the trying scenes and great points of the opera Madame Bishop, Coulon, and Laglaise, came out with a degree of perfection hitherto unattained here, and which carried away the audience and drew forth an enthusiastic recognition of sterling talents, that ought to insure a crowded house for the remaining nights.
Mrs. Fiddes, and Messrs. Hancock, Lyall, &c., deserve especial notice, but we defer our further remarks till the next night; and can only add that all the principal performers were called before the curtain at the close of the second act, and again at the end of the opera. Considering the spiteful weather, the house was well filled, and the audience was most enthusiastic in its appreciation of this, the greatest night of the season.
Tuesday.-0ur old and deserving favourites, Mr. and Mrs. C. Young, last night took their benefit at this theatre, which has lately become the scene of their acknowledged talents. It is gratifying to find that amidst the attractions of new faces and more highly lauded stars, with credentials from some five quarters of the globe, our two pioneers still remain not only Young, but green and fresh in the estimation of the followers of Thespis. Like their prototypes in London (the Keeleys), they have become members of the company in the house of which they were heretofore managers, and are no less deserving of esteem for the hearty and con amore manner in which they have adapted themselves to circumstances. Their versatile abilities entitle them to rank among our most useful and perfect actors, while their freedom from marked mannerisms or affected excellence imparts reality and character to every part they undertake.
Victorian Exhibition of Art.
Since the announcement made in a recent Number, of our intention to organize "An Exhibition of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Decorative Art," we have been honoured with so many communications from amateurs and artists approving of the object of such an exhibition—pledging themselves to become exhibitors, and otherwise promote, in every way in their power, the end in view—that we are prone to argue most favourably of the success of the project. "While prosecuting inquiries in furtherance of our plans, we must confess likewise to being agreeably surprised to discover the amount of talent, in almost every department of the Arts, at present available in the colony. One not inconsiderable benefit, therefore, we hope, will accrue from an exhibition of the proposed kind is, that it will influence the educated and wealthy, when they become acquainted with this circumstance, to extend to Art a more liberal patronage than has hitherto been their wont.
A rivalry, we are glad to perceive, is already springing up among the members of this class for building houses of architectural beauty, where Art is visible both in their construction and decoration, and adapted in every feature to the peculiar climate of the colony. This step should be followed by a corresponding desire on the part of their owners to possess fine pictures of local interest, and statues of classic beauty to adorn their interior. Such a taste for the beautiful and artistic will, as a natural consequence, spread among the colonists at large, for it is to be cultivated in a villa or a cottage no less than in a mansion. Let there once be a proper demand for works of Art in good taste and sound principles, and we can promise, from what we have recently seen of the artistic talent of the colony, that demand will be readily and satisfactorily met.
To show that every branch of Art is represented at the present time in Victoria, we can enumerate some six or seven gentlemen who have already intimated their intention to forward specimens of frescoes, in way of competition, to the Commissioner of Public Works. Recently we expressed an opinion that not more than two or three fresco painters were to be met with in any of the colonies, and are, therefore, much pleased to have to record this fact. In regard to Decorative Art, several specimens shown us in plastic ornament and carving will bear comparison, both in design and execution, with the best work of a similar character produced in the ateliers of home or foreign artists. These facts go to strengthen our confidence in the success of the Exhibition.
We shall steadily proceed, therefore, in organizing our plans, with a view to the opening the Exhibition as early as possible in September next. In the meantime, we hope all gentlemen amateurs, or artists, who possess pictures or statuary of intrinsic merit, will aid us in our purpose by according permission to exhibit them in the "Victorian Exhibition."—Australian Builder.
The Ornithology of Australia.
We may, perhaps, be allowed to draw the attention of our readers to the magnificent works of Mr. Gould on Australian Zoology. One of them, devoted to the kangaroo family, has since been merged in another now in course of publication, intended to comprise all the Mammalia of the country (exclusive, probably, of the Cetacea), and of which seven Parts have reached this colony. A third work, devoted to the birds of Australia (including also certain species from New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Lord Howe Island), was completed in 1848, and since then two Supplements have been published to describe and figure the birds discovered since that period. As the cost of the "Birds of Australia" (without the Supplements) to subscribers was £114 17s., it is, of course, not easily accessible to the mass of the public, except through the medium of public libraries, of which two in Sydney—the Australian Library, and that of the Mechanics' School of Arts—subscribed for it.
Not less than 645 species of birds are known to inhabit Australia, and, doubtless, many more remained to be added to the list, even from the settled districts to say nothing of those parts of the country as yet unexplored by collectors, and an exceedingly large proportion of the Australian birds is peculiar to this country. Upwards of 400 inhabit the colony of New South Wales. Beginning with the birds of prey, there are twenty-six eagles, hawks, &c., and ten owls. In the interior, the wedge-tailed eagle, or eagle-hawk, is well known as destructive to lambs, sickly sheep, and even calves, while it also feeds on carrion, sometimes collecting in numbers, vulture-like, about a carcase. Its audacity is in proportion to its size and strength. A friend of ours has even seen one drag an opossum, from the spout of a tree where it had taken refuge. The large white-headed fishing-eagle of Australia may daily be seen about the harbour, flying round in large sweeping circles, and scanning the water below for fish and floating garbage, even among the shipping, and finally bearing off its quarry to some favourite tree in a secluded spot at a distance.
Of the 400 incessorial or perching birds of Australia, we can only particularize a few. Of seven Australian swallows, one, the spine-tailed swift, the largest known member of the family, is occasionally seen about Sydney, and attracts attention from its great size, and the extreme rapidity of its flight. It is only known as a bird of passage; an individual has even been killed in England, in 1848; but, as Gould says, "whence it comes or whither it goes, has not yet been ascertained." We believe, however, from personal observation during a series of years that not only this bird, but the Australian swift, the bee-eater, and other migratory birds in Australia, come from and return to New Guinea, according to the season. Thus, in the month of December we have seen flocks of the spine-tailed swallow coming from the northward, at Cape York, passing low over Albany Island, where we have shot the bird within a few yards of the graves of Niblett and Wall, two of the members of Kennedy's last expedition, whose bones rest there.
Of the thirteen kingfishers of Australia, the most remarkable is that well known by the singular name laughing jackass, from its singular and indescribable note, and settlers' clock, from its announcing, after a fashion of its own, the break and close of day. We never met with a bird so remarkably tenacious of life as this. On one occasion, while desirous of killing a wounded individual, we were annoyed to find that it sustained the weight of a bag of shot, weighing 28 lbs., placed on its chest for a quarter of an hour, without causing the speedy and humane death we anticipated. Perhaps the most gorgeous kingfisher in the world (not even excepting that to which the specific name dea or the "goddess" has been applied) is a long-tailed one peculiar to Cape York, where it lights up the dark recess of the bushes during its arrowy flight as its bright colours catch the eye for a moment ere it is lost to view. According to the natives, it makes its nest in the enormous ant-hills of red clay, sometimes as much as fifteen feet in height, with pinnacles and buttresses, like the rude germ of Gothic architecture, and which form conspicuous objects even to those sailing along the coast in that neighbourhood.
Perhaps the most peculiarly characteristic bird of Australia is the menura, the lyre bird, or pheasant of the colonists. And if the singularity of its tail, reminding one of the representations of the musical instrument whence its name has been derived, immediately attracts the eye, the habits of the bird are found by those acquainted with them to be no leas curious. The menura imitates the note of almost every other bird in the bush, and resorts periodically to favourite well-beaten "corroborying places," where it practises certain extraordinary antics. A second kind of lyre-bird (M. Alberti) seems to be peculiar to the neighbourhood of the Richmond River. Its most prominent distinctive feature consists in the remarkable outer tail feathers curving inwards towards the tip, instead of outwards as in the common kind, which, we may add, is still to be found in some of the gulleys connected with Middle Harbour, within four or five miles of Sydney.
Of the twenty finches of Australia, one well merits the name bestowed upon it (Pœphila mirabilis, the wonderful grass-finch), from the very brilliant display of colours which it presents, and the effect of which in a flock, as we have witnessed at Port Essington, is very striking. Of the many beautiful finches from other parts of the world, none equals this in variety and depth of colours, and it would be a great acquisition to the aviary. The bower birds form a group peculiar to Australia. The name is derived from their singular habit of constructing bowers of twigs for the sole purpose of courtship. These constructions, which are not used in any way as nests, are variously ornamented with feathers, shells, berries, and even bones, &c., carried there by the birds and arranged about the entrances. At Cape York and Port Essington, we have witnessed two kinds of bower birds at play in these remarkable sylvan edifices, and even in captivity—as we observed both in a private aviary in Sydney, and in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. Another kind, the well-known satin bird of the colonists, exhibits this, the most remarkable of its instinctive manifestations, if provided with the materials for the construction of a bower.
Not less than sixty-four honeysuckers are found in Australia. These vary in size from the well-known guild bird and leatherhead down to the diminutive little soldier, and agree in being furnished with brush-tipped tongues. Like the humming birds of America, they are popularly believed to live on the honey or nectar of flowers; but the usual food of both these families of birds is most unquestionably the insects in the flowers to which they resort, judging from the invariable contents of the stomach of all those we have examined. The Ptiloris paradisea, or rifle bird, is well known to collectors, being much prized on account of the metallic brilliancy of its plumage. Yet splendid though it be, two others much finer have lately been discovered in Australia. The larger of these (Pt. magnifica) had previously been known as an inhabitant of New Guinea. We were present at Cape York when the first Australian specimen was shot at Cape York, by Mr. Wilcox, of Hunter-street, in whose window it now may be seen. The smaller one, discovered in June, 1847, during the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, on an island off the N.E. coast of Australia, has been deemed worthy to be associated with the name of our Queen, and is known as the Victoria rifle bird.
Before concluding this subject, we must, however, remark that, unlike her most gracious Majesty, as we most loyally hope, the Victoria rifle bird is remarkably pugnacious at times, of which we once saw an instance. While one day seated on the ground, skinning birds, at the Barnard Isles, attention was attracted by the noise to a group of these rifle birds fighting in a cluster among the boughs of a tree overhead; and so intent were they upon their quarrel that a half charge of dust shot sufficed to bring all three to the ground.
The official return of income and expenditure for the quarter ending 31st March was published so late as the 17th inst., the delay being attributed to a difficulty in making up the expenditure. "The statement (says the "Register") may be thus summarized:—Ordinary Revenue, total receipts, £52,221; against £54,757 of the corresponding quarter of 1855. Total decrease on the Ordinary Revenue of the last quarter, £2536. For the year ending March 31, the ordinary Revenue amounted to £178,788, against £200,155 of the previous year. Total falling off in the Ordinary Revenue of the year ending March 31 last, £21,367. The deficit in the last quarter's Custom receipts was £1695; upon the year's Customs, £28,787. Several items of revenue have increased, both upon the year and upon the quarter. The year's receipts from port and harbour charges have increased from £139 to £1487. Licenses have increased from £9856 to £12,662. This rapid increase in the number of licenses explains to some extent the depression of trade at the present time, many branches of commercial enterprise being subdivided among so great a number of persons as to render it impossible for all to prosper without a very much increased consumption. The Land Fund Revenue for the quarter was £53,757, against £70,035 for the corresponding quarter of the year 1865, showing a decrease of £16,277 upon the quarter lately ended. The year's Land Revenue, made up to the same dates, gives £242,070 for the later period, and £374,304 for the earlier; showing a deficit of £132,234 upon the year just made up. Putting these deficits together, we have, on Ordinary and Land Fund Revenues, a falling off of £18,813 upon the quarter, and of £153,601 upon the year ended in March last. The expenditure discharged to Ordinary Revenue for the last quarter is £63,148; that charged to Land Fund Revenue is £32,553, making £95,701. For the year ending expenditure charged to Ordinary Revenue was £273,867; and to Land Fund, £219,062; making a total of £492,929. For the quarter ending March 31, 1855, the expenditure charged to Ordinary Revenue was £63,775; and to Land Fund Revenue, £31,138; making together £94,913. For the year ending with that date the expenditure was—Ordinary Revenue, £342,661; Land Fund, £276,470; together, £619,131. The Land Fund expenditure includes the grants in aid of the Ordinary Revenue. The result is that the total expenditure for the quarter ending March 31st last was £788 less than in the corresponding quarter of the year before; and the total expenditure for the year ending March 3lst last was £116,202 more than in the year preceding. This expenditure is inclusive of remittances made to the Emigration Commissioners during the periods embraced in our calculations. The outlay upon public works has not very greatly fallen off during the year ending with March last. Taking the amounts disbursed on this account both from Ordinary and Land Fund Revenues, we find there was spent upon public works in the year ending March 31, 1855, the sum of £199,562; and in the year ending March 31, 1856, the sum of £183,801. The balance-sheet of the colony shows a credit balance to the amount of £346,090.
The Search for Gold.—We are happy in being able to announce to our readers that his Excellency the Governor has consented to supply immediate funds for prosecuting the search for gold. We, yesterday, explained the position in which the movement then stood, and now hasten to report progress. The plan resolved upon by the Government is to pay immediately to the order of two of the Commissioners the sum of £500; and upon receiving a report that that amount has been expended, to pay the second £500. His Excellency, however, still considers that there should have been an open subscription, but he is unwilling to impede the movement by insisting upon this condition being fulfilled, and is reluctant that the present favourable season should be lost for the want of funds. The "Register" adds that three very beautiful nuggets of gold, one weighing half an ounce, have been sent for the inspection of the Commission by Messrs. Collinson and Bayley, Gold Brokers, to whom they had been sold by a person who said he got them from Tanunda. We had the opportunity of inspecting them, and can only say, that, if they were really taken from Tanunda Creek, as alleged, and we have no reason to doubt the statement, there is every encouragement to prosecute an active search in that locality. We repeat our hope that one day will not be needlessly lost in starting the expedition.
We extract, lastly, intelligence from the mining district of Bendigo, in which is an interesting account of a new machine for washing gold drift:—
bendigo mining intelligence.
The late fine weather has not only dried up our roads, but has been very propitious to the mining interests generally, which is shown in the quantity of gold brought in for sale on Saturday last.
Some Chinamen are doing remarkably well on the brow of the Fourth and Fifth White Halls. We were yesterday shown a beautiful nugget weighing four ounces and some odd pennyweights, obtained by them in puddling red clay some eighteen inches from the surface. Some short time since we noticed the erection of a new machine for washing the gold drift on Grassy Flat, by Messrs. C. J. and H. Brown. Since that time the machine has been completed, and operations have been commenced. The works are situated a quarter of a mile behind the Third White Hill. The situation is chosen with great judgment, and certainly reflects great credit on the spirited proprietors. The system is an entirely new one on Bendigo, in fact, we believe, in Australia, although it is most extensively used in the Ural Mountains, where, notwithstanding the extreme poverty of the auriferous sands, a very large annual amount of the precious metal has been obtained. The motive power is steam, and the engine in use is an eight-horse power locomotive, and the peculiar style of washing is such as requires an immense supply of water; the Messrs. Brown have succeeded in obtaining it at an expenditure of something like five hundred pounds; the dam is a very large one, being about fourteen feet deep, and in some places sixteen feet, and is about three times the size of any dam on Bendigo.
The machine itself consists of a cylinder of iron pierced with upwards of three thousand holes, and strengthened on the inside by a strong iron trellis. The cone is about nine feet in length, and has a mean diameter of four feet and a half; it is larger at one extremity than the other, and is fixed on a spindle set in rapid motion by the engine. The wash dirt is carted up to the smaller end of the cylinder, and discharged into it down an inclined plane, and the water is raised by means of an eight-inch cylinder double-action pump, having 180 feet of four-inch iron piping, and discharged into a large reservoir, from which it is conveyed by means of four 4½ inch pipes into the small end of the cylinder, and are so arranged with regard to length as to afford a nearly equal supply of water throughout its capacity. The height raised is 25 feet, and the length the water is carried is about 180 feet
"When set in motion, the perforated cylinder makes twenty-five revolutions per minute, and consequently throws, by its centrifugal action, the water and finer particles of sand and gravel through the numerous perforations which it contains, whilst the pebbles and stones which are too large to pass through the holes are carried off through the larger end of the cylinder, and fall on an inclined plane, and are easily removed.
The washing-stuff, after having passed through the cylinder, falls into a sluice, and is there washed. The great advantage of this machine is the avoiding the necessity of employing labour in the sluice, the auriferous earth being puddled in the machine. The quantity washed in ten working hours is very great—the machine washing as fast as the carts can arrive.
The place has the appearance of a little village, the Messrs. Brown at present employing sixteen hands. Their domiciles, with the extensive stabling and other necessary offices, coupled with the picturesque beauty of the flat, convey the impression, as you approach, of the nucleus of what the Yankees would call a thriving locality, which is the first step, in that land of go-a-headism, towards the establishment of a township.
If Bendigo could obtain the requisite supply of water, the establishment of machinery similar in principle to that of the Messrs. Brown, at Grassy Mat, would supersede all the present systems of washing auriferous soil, and would bring us back to something like the old halcyon days of gold digging. But Grassy Flat, we are afraid, is peculiar both in its extreme beauty and its plentiful supply of water.
A new rush has taken place at the Whipstick, and we understand that nearly 2000 miners are busily at work; as this number may be exaggerated, we shall take an early opportunity of paying it a personal visit.—Advertiser, July 25, 1856.