Digital Millennium Copyright Act/Title I

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Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Title I — WIPO TREATIES IMPLEMENTATION
(WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998)
This Act forms Title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (Pub. L. 105-304, 112 Stat. 2860).
From the U.S. Copyright Office.

TITLE I—WIPO TREATIES IMPLEMENTATION

Sec. 101. Short Title.[edit]

This title may be cited as the "WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998".

Sec. 102. Technical Amendments.[edit]

(a) Definitions.—
Section 101 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by striking the definition of ``Berne Convention work'';
(2) in the definition of ``The 'country of origin' of a Berne Convention work''—
(A) by striking ``The 'country of origin' of a Berne Convention work, for purposes of section 411, is the United States if'' and inserting ``For purposes of section 411, a work is a 'United States work' only if'';
(B) in paragraph (1)—
(i) in subparagraph (B) by striking ``nation or nations adhering to the Berne Convention'' and inserting ``treaty party or parties'';
(ii) in subparagraph (C) by striking ``does not adhere to the Berne Convention'' and inserting ``is not a treaty party''; and
(iii) in subparagraph (D) by striking ``does not adhere to the Berne Convention'' and inserting ``is not a treaty party''; and
(C) in the matter following paragraph (3) by striking ``For the purposes of section 411, the 'country of origin' of any other Berne Convention work is not the United States.'';
(3) by inserting after the definition of ``fixed'' the following:
``The 'Geneva Phonograms Convention' is the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms, concluded at Geneva, Switzerland, on October 29, 1971.'';
(4) by inserting after the definition of ``including'' the following:
``An 'international agreement' is—
``(1) the Universal Copyright Convention;
``(2) the Geneva Phonograms Convention;
``(3) the Berne Convention;
``(4) the WTO Agreement;
``(5) the WIPO Copyright Treaty;
``(6) the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty;
``and
``(7) any other copyright treaty to which the United States is a party.'';
(5) by inserting after the definition of ``transmit'' the following:
``A 'treaty party' is a country or intergovernmental organization other than the United States that is a party to an international agreement.'';
(6) by inserting after the definition of ``widow'' the following:
``The 'WIPO Copyright Treaty' is the WIPO Copyright Treaty concluded at Geneva, Switzerland, on December 20, 1996.'';
(7) by inserting after the definition of ``The 'WIPO Copyright Treaty' '' the following:
``The 'WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty' is the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty concluded at Geneva, Switzerland, on December 20, 1996.''; and
(8) by inserting after the definition of ``work made for hire'' the following:
``The terms 'WTO Agreement' and 'WTO member country' have the meanings given those terms in paragraphs (9) and (10), respectively, of section 2 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act.''.
(b) Subject Matter of Copyright; National Origin.—
Section 104 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in subsection (b)—
(A) in paragraph (1) by striking ``foreign nation that is a party to a copyright treaty to which the United States is also a party'' and inserting ``treaty party'';
(B) in paragraph (2) by striking ``party to the Universal Copyright Convention'' and inserting ``treaty party'';
(C) by redesignating paragraph (5) as paragraph (6);
(D) by redesignating paragraph (3) as paragraph (5) and inserting it after paragraph (4);
(E) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:
``(3) the work is a sound recording that was first fixed in a treaty party; or'';
(F) in paragraph (4) by striking ``Berne Convention work'' and inserting ``pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work that is incorporated in a building or other structure, or an architectural work that is embodied in a building and the building or structure is located in the United States or a treaty party''; and
(G) by inserting after paragraph (6), as so redesignated, the following:
``For purposes of paragraph (2), a work that is published in the United States or a treaty party within 30 days after publication in a foreign nation that is not a treaty party shall be considered to be first published in the United States or such treaty party, as the case may be.''; and
(2) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
``(d)— Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b), no works other than sound recordings shall be eligible for protection under this title solely by virtue of the adherence of the United States to the Geneva Phonograms Convention or the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.''.
(c) Copyright in Restored Works.—
Section 104A(h) of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in paragraph (1), by striking subparagraphs (A) and (B) and inserting the following:
``(A) a nation adhering to the Berne Convention;
``(B) a WTO member country;
``(C) a nation adhering to the WIPO Copyright Treaty;
``(D) a nation adhering to the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty; or
``(E) subject to a Presidential proclamation under subsection (g).'';
(2) by amending paragraph (3) to read as follows:
``(3) The term 'eligible country' means a nation, other than the United States, that—
``(A) becomes a WTO member country after the date of the enactment of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act;
``(B) on such date of enactment is, or after such date of enactment becomes, a nation adhering to the Berne Convention;
``(C) adheres to the WIPO Copyright Treaty;
``(D) adheres to the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty; or
``(E) after such date of enactment becomes subject to a proclamation under subsection (g).'';
(3) in paragraph (6)—
(A) in subparagraph (C)(iii) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon;
(B) at the end of subparagraph (D) by striking the period and inserting ``; and''; and
(C) by adding after subparagraph (D) the following:
``(E) if the source country for the work is an eligible country solely by virtue of its adherence to the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, is a sound recording.'';
(4) in paragraph (8)(B)(i)—
(A) by inserting ``of which'' before ``the majority''; and
(B) by striking ``of eligible countries''; and
(5) by striking paragraph (9).
(d) Registration and Infringement Actions.—
Section 411(a) of title 17, United States Code, is amended in the first sentence—
(1) by striking ``actions for infringement of copyright in Berne Convention works whose country of origin is not the United States and''; and
(2) by inserting ``United States'' after ``no action for infringement of the copyright in any''.
(e) Statute of Limitations.—
Section 507(a) of title 17, United State Code, is amended by striking ``No'' and inserting ``Except as expressly provided otherwise in this title, no''.

Sec. 103. Copyright Protection Systems and Copyright Management Information.[edit]

(a) In General.—
Title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new chapter:
``CHAPTER 12—COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
``Sec.
``1201. Circumvention of copyright protection systems.
``1202. Integrity of copyright management information.
``1203. Civil remedies.
``1204. Criminal offenses and penalties.
``1205. Savings clause.
``§ 1201. Circumvention of copyright protection systems
``(a) Violations Regarding Circumvention of Technological Measures.—
`(1)(A) No person shall circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title. The prohibition contained in the preceding sentence shall take effect at the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this chapter.
``(B) The prohibition contained in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to persons who are users of a copyrighted work which is in a particular class of works, if such persons are, or are likely to be in the succeeding 3-year period, adversely affected by virtue of such prohibition in their ability to make noninfringing uses of that particular class of works under this title, as determined under subparagraph (C).
``(C) During the 2-year period described in subparagraph (A), and during each succeeding 3-year period, the Librarian of Congress, upon the recommendation of the Register of Copyrights, who shall consult with the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the Department of Commerce and report and comment on his or her views in making such recommendation, shall make the determination in a rulemaking proceeding on the record for purposes of subparagraph (B) of whether persons who are users of a copyrighted work are, or are likely to be in the succeeding 3-year period, adversely affected by the prohibition under subparagraph (A) in their ability to make noninfringing uses under this title of a particular class of copyrighted works. In conducting such rulemaking, the Librarian shall examine—
``(i) the availability for use of copyrighted works;
``(ii) the availability for use of works for nonprofit archival, preservation, and educational purposes;
``(iii) the impact that the prohibition on the circumvention of technological measures applied to copyrighted works has on criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research;
``(iv) the effect of circumvention of technological measures on the market for or value of copyrighted works; and
``(v) such other factors as the Librarian considers appropriate.
``(D) The Librarian shall publish any class of copyrighted works for which the Librarian has determined, pursuant to the rulemaking conducted under subparagraph (C), that noninfringing uses by persons who are users of a copyrighted work are, or are likely to be, adversely affected, and the prohibition contained in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to such users with respect to such class of works for the ensuing 3-year period.
``(E) Neither the exception under subparagraph (B) from the applicability of the prohibition contained in subparagraph (A), nor any determination made in a rulemaking conducted under subparagraph (C), may be used as a defense in any action to enforce any provision of this title other than this paragraph.
``(2) No person shall manufacture, import, offer to the public, provide, or otherwise traffic in any technology, product, service, device, component, or part thereof, that—
``(A) is primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title;
``(B) has only limited commercially significant purpose or use other than to circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title; or
``(C) is marketed by that person or another acting in concert with that person with that person's knowledge for use in circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title.
``(3) As used in this subsection—
``(A) to 'circumvent a technological measure' means to descramble a scrambled work, to decrypt an encrypted work, or otherwise to avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate, or impair a technological measure, without the authority of the copyright owner; and
``(B) a technological measure 'effectively controls access to a work' if the measure, in the ordinary course of its operation, requires the application of information, or a process or a treatment, with the authority of the copyright owner, to gain access to the work.
``(b) Additional Violations.—
``(1) No person shall manufacture, import, offer to the public, provide, or otherwise traffic in any technology, product, service, device, component, or part thereof, that—
``(A) is primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner under this title in a work or a portion thereof;
``(B) has only limited commercially significant purpose or use other than to circumvent protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner under this title in a work or a portion thereof; or
``(C) is marketed by that person or another acting in concert with that person with that person's knowledge for use in circumventing protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner under this title in a work or a portion thereof.
``(2) As used in this subsection—
``(A) to 'circumvent protection afforded by a technological measure' means avoiding, bypassing, removing, deactivating, or otherwise impairing a technological measure; and
``(B) a technological measure 'effectively protects a right of a copyright owner under this title' if the measure, in the ordinary course of its operation, prevents, restricts, or otherwise limits the exercise of a right of a copyright owner under this title.
``(c) Other Rights, Etc., Not Affected.
``(1) Nothing in this section shall affect rights, remedies, limitations, or defenses to copyright infringement, including fair use, under this title.
``(2) Nothing in this section shall enlarge or diminish vicarious or contributory liability for copyright infringement in connection with any technology, product, service, device, component, or part thereof.
``(3) Nothing in this section shall require that the design of, or design and selection of parts and components for, a consumer electronics, telecommunications, or computing product provide for a response to any particular technological measure, so long as such part or component, or the product in which such part or component is integrated, does not otherwise fall within the prohibitions of subsection (a)(2) or (b)(1).
``(4) Nothing in this section shall enlarge or diminish any rights of free speech or the press for activities using consumer electronics, telecommunications, or computing products.
``(d) Exemption for Nonprofit Libraries, Archives, and Educational Institutions.—
``(1) A nonprofit library, archives, or educational institution which gains access to a commercially exploited copyrighted work solely in order to make a good faith determination of whether to acquire a copy of that work for the sole purpose of engaging in conduct permitted under this title shall not be in violation of subsection (a)(1)(A). A copy of a work to which access has been gained under this paragraph—
``(A) may not be retained longer than necessary to make such good faith determination; and
``(B) may not be used for any other purpose.
``(2) The exemption made available under paragraph (1) shall only apply with respect to a work when an identical copy of that work is not reasonably available in another form.
``(3) A nonprofit library, archives, or educational institution that willfully for the purpose of commercial advantage or financial gain violates paragraph (1)—
``(A) shall, for the first offense, be subject to the civil remedies under section 1203; and
``(B) shall, for repeated or subsequent offenses, in addition to the civil remedies under section 1203, forfeit the exemption provided under paragraph (1).
``(4) This subsection may not be used as a defense to a claim under subsection (a)(2) or (b), nor may this subsection permit a nonprofit library, archives, or educational institution to manufacture, import, offer to the public, provide, or otherwise traffic in any technology, product, service, component, or part thereof, which circumvents a technological measure.
``(5) In order for a library or archives to qualify for the exemption under this subsection, the collections of that library or archives shall be—
``(A) open to the public; or
``(B) available not only to researchers affiliated with the library or archives or with the institution of which it is a part, but also to other persons doing research in a specialized field.
``(e) Law Enforcement, Intelligence, and Other Government Activities.—
``This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, information security, or intelligence activity of an officer, agent, or employee of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or a person acting pursuant to a contract with the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State. For purposes of this subsection, the term 'information security' means activities carried out in order to identify and address the vulnerabilities of a government computer, computer system, or computer network.
``(f) Reverse Engineering.—
``(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(1)(A), a person who has lawfully obtained the right to use a copy of a computer program may circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a particular portion of that program for the sole purpose of identifying and analyzing those elements of the program that are necessary to achieve interoperability of an independently created computer program with other programs, and that have not previously been readily available to the person engaging in the circumvention, to the extent any such acts of identification and analysis do not constitute infringement under this title.
``(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a)(2) and (b), a person may develop and employ technological means to circumvent a technological measure, or to circumvent protection afforded by a technological measure, in order to enable the identification and analysis under paragraph (1), or for the purpose of enabling interoperability of an independently created computer program with other programs, if such means are necessary to achieve such interoperability, to the extent that doing so does not constitute infringement under this title.
``(3) The information acquired through the acts permitted under paragraph (1), and the means permitted under paragraph (2), may be made available to others if the person referred to in paragraph (1) or (2), as the case may be, provides such information or means solely for the purpose of enabling interoperability of an independently created computer program with other programs, and to the extent that doing so does not constitute infringement under this title or violate applicable law other than this section.
``(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term 'interoperability' means the ability of computer programs to exchange information, and of such programs mutually to use the information which has been exchanged.
``(g) Encryption Research.—
``(1) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection—
``(A) the term 'encryption research' means activities necessary to identify and analyze flaws and vulnerabilities of encryption technologies applied to copyrighted works, if these activities are conducted to advance the state of knowledge in the field of encryption technology or to assist in the development of encryption products; and
``(B) the term 'encryption technology' means the scrambling and descrambling of information using mathematical formulas or algorithms.
``(2) Permissible acts of encryption research.—Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(1)(A), it is not a violation of that subsection for a person to circumvent a technological measure as applied to a copy, phonorecord, performance, or display of a published work in the course of an act of good faith encryption research if—
``(A) the person lawfully obtained the encrypted copy, phonorecord, performance, or display of the published work;
``(B) such act is necessary to conduct such encryption research;
``(C) the person made a good faith effort to obtain authorization before the circumvention; and
``(D) such act does not constitute infringement under this title or a violation of applicable law other than this section, including section 1030 of title 18 and those provisions of title 18 amended by the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986.
``(3) Factors in determining exemption.—In determining whether a person qualifies for the exemption under paragraph (2), the factors to be considered shall include—
``(A) whether the information derived from the encryption research was disseminated, and if so, whether it was disseminated in a manner reasonably calculated to advance the state of knowledge or development of encryption technology, versus whether it was disseminated in a manner that facilitates infringement under this title or a violation of applicable law other than this section, including a violation of privacy or breach of security;
``(B) whether the person is engaged in a legitimate course of study, is employed, or is appropriately trained or experienced, in the field of encryption technology; and
``(C) whether the person provides the copyright owner of the work to which the technological measure is applied with notice of the findings and documentation of the research, and the time when such notice is provided.
``(4) Use of technological means for research activities.— Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(2), it is not a violation of that subsection for a person to—
``(A) develop and employ technological means to circumvent a technological measure for the sole purpose of that person performing the acts of good faith encryption research described in paragraph (2); and
``(B) provide the technological means to another person with whom he or she is working collaboratively for the purpose of conducting the acts of good faith encryption research described in paragraph (2) or for the purpose of having that other person verify his or her acts of good faith encryption research described in paragraph (2).
``(5) Report to congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this chapter, the Register of Copyrights and the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the Department of Commerce shall jointly report to the Congress on the effect this subsection has had on—
``(A) encryption research and the development of encryption technology;
``(B) the adequacy and effectiveness of technological measures designed to protect copyrighted works; and
``(C) protection of copyright owners against the unauthorized access to their encrypted copyrighted works. The report shall include legislative recommendations, if any.
``(h) Exceptions Regarding Minors.—In applying subsection (a) to a component or part, the court may consider the necessity for its intended and actual incorporation in a technology, product, service, or device, which—
``(1) does not itself violate the provisions of this title; and
``(2) has the sole purpose to prevent the access of minors to material on the Internet.
``(i) Protection of Personally Identifying Information.—
`` (1) Circumvention permitted.—Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(1)(A), it is not a violation of that subsection for a person to circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title, if—
``(A) the technological measure, or the work it protects, contains the capability of collecting or disseminating personally identifying information reflecting the online activities of a natural person who seeks to gain access to the work protected;
``(B) in the normal course of its operation, the technological measure, or the work it protects, collects or disseminates personally identifying information about the person who seeks to gain access to the work protected, without providing conspicuous notice of such collection or dissemination to such person, and without providing such person with the capability to prevent or restrict such collection or dissemination;
``(C) the act of circumvention has the sole effect of identifying and disabling the capability described in subparagraph (A), and has no other effect on the ability of any person to gain access to any work; and
``(D) the act of circumvention is carried out solely for the purpose of preventing the collection or dissemination of personally identifying information about a natural person who seeks to gain access to the work protected, and is not in violation of any other law.
``(2) Inapplicability to certain technological measures.—This subsection does not apply to a technological measure, or a work it protects, that does not collect or disseminate personally identifying information and that is disclosed to a user as not having or using such capability.
``(j) Security Testing.—
``(1) Definition.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'security testing' means accessing a computer, computer system, or computer network, solely for the purpose of good faith testing, investigating, or correcting, a security flaw or vulnerability, with the authorization of the owner or operator of such computer, computer system, or computer network.
``(2) Permissible acts of security testing.—Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(1)(A), it is not a violation of that subsection for a person to engage in an act of security testing, if such act does not constitute infringement under this title or a violation of applicable law other than this section, including section 1030 of title 18 and those provisions of title 18 amended by the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986.
``(3) Factors in determining exemption.—In determining whether a person qualifies for the exemption under paragraph (2), the factors to be considered shall include—
``(A) whether the information derived from the security testing was used solely to promote the security of the owner or operator of such computer, computer system or computer network, or shared directly with the developer of such computer, computer system, or computer network; and
``(B) whether the information derived from the security testing was used or maintained in a manner that does not facilitate infringement under this title or a violation of applicable law other than this section, including a violation of privacy or breach of security.
``(4) Use of technological means for security testing.—Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a)(2), it is not a violation of that subsection for a person to develop, produce, distribute or employ technological means for the sole purpose of performing the acts of security testing described in subsection (2), provided such technological means does not otherwise violate section (a)(2).
``(k) Certain Analog Devices and Certain Technological Measures.—
``(1) Certain analog devices.—
``(A) Effective 18 months after the date of the enactment of this chapter, no person shall manufacture, import, offer to the public, provide or otherwise traffic in any—
``(i) VHS format analog video cassette recorder unless such recorder conforms to the automatic gain control copy control technology;
``(ii) 8mm format analog video cassette camcorder unless such camcorder conforms to the automatic gain control technology;
``(iii) Beta format analog video cassette recorder, unless such recorder conforms to the automatic gain control copy control technology, except that this requirement shall not apply until there are 1,000 Beta format analog video cassette recorders sold in the United States in any one calendar year after the date of the enactment of this chapter;
``(iv) 8mm format analog video cassette recorder that is not an analog video cassette camcorder, unless such recorder conforms to the automatic gain control copy control technology, except that this requirement shall not apply until there are 20,000 such recorders sold in the United States in any one calendar year after the date of the enactment of this chapter; or
``(v) analog video cassette recorder that records using an NTSC format video input and that is not otherwise covered under clauses (i) through (iv), unless such device conforms to the automatic gain control copy control technology.
``(B) Effective on the date of the enactment of this chapter, no person shall manufacture, import, offer to the public, provide or otherwise traffic in—
``(i) any VHS format analog video cassette recorder or any 8mm format analog video cassette recorder if the design of the model of such recorder has been modified after such date of enactment so that a model of recorder that previously conformed to the automatic gain control copy control technology no longer conforms to such technology; or
``(ii) any VHS format analog video cassette recorder, or any 8mm format analog video cassette recorder that is not an 8mm analog video cassette camcorder, if the design of the model of such recorder has been modified after such date of enactment so that a model of recorder that previously conformed to the four-line colorstripe copy control technology no longer conforms to such technology.
``Manufacturers that have not previously manufactured or sold a VHS format analog video cassette recorder, or an 8mm format analog cassette recorder, shall be required to conform to the four-line colorstripe copy control technology in the initial model of any such recorder manufactured after the date of the enactment of this chapter, and thereafter to continue conforming to the four-line colorstripe copy control technology. For purposes of this subparagraph, an analog video cassette recorder 'conforms to' the four-line colorstripe copy control technology if it records a signal that, when played back by the playback function of that recorder in the normal viewing mode, exhibits, on a reference display device, a display containing distracting visible lines through portions of the viewable picture.
``(2) Certain encoding restrictions.—No person shall apply the automatic gain control copy control technology or colorstripe copy control technology to prevent or limit consumer copying except such copying—
``(A) of a single transmission, or specified group of transmissions, of live events or of audiovisual works for which a member of the public has exercised choice in selecting the transmissions, including the content of the transmissions or the time of receipt of such transmissions, or both, and as to which such member is charged a separate fee for each such transmission or specified group of transmissions;
``(B) from a copy of a transmission of a live event or an audiovisual work if such transmission is provided by a channel or service where payment is made by a member of the public for such channel or service in the form of a subscription fee that entitles the member of the public to receive all of the programming contained in such channel or service;
``(C) from a physical medium containing one or more prerecorded audiovisual works; or
``(D) from a copy of a transmission described in subparagraph (A) or from a copy made from a physical medium described in subparagraph (C).
``In the event that a transmission meets both the conditions set forth in subparagraph (A) and those set forth in subparagraph (B), the transmission shall be treated as a transmission described in subparagraph (A).
``(3) Inapplicability.—This subsection shall not—
``(A) require any analog video cassette camcorder to conform to the automatic gain control copy control technology with respect to any video signal received through a camera lens;
``(B) apply to the manufacture, importation, offer for sale, provision of, or other trafficking in, any professional analog video cassette recorder; or
``(C) apply to the offer for sale or provision of, or other trafficking in, any previously owned analog video cassette recorder, if such recorder was legally manufactured and sold when new and not subsequently modified in violation of paragraph (1)(B).
``(4) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection:
``(A) An 'analog video cassette recorder' means a device that records, or a device that includes a function that records, on electromagnetic tape in an analog format the electronic impulses produced by the video and audio portions of a television program, motion picture, or other form of audiovisual work.
``(B) An 'analog video cassette camcorder' means an analog video cassette recorder that contains a recording function that operates through a camera lens and through a video input that may be connected with a television or other video playback device.
``(C) An analog video cassette recorder 'conforms' to the automatic gain control copy control technology if it—
``(i) detects one or more of the elements of such technology and does not record the motion picture or transmission protected by such technology; or
``(ii) records a signal that, when played back, exhibits a meaningfully distorted or degraded display.
``(D) The term 'professional analog video cassette recorder' means an analog video cassette recorder that is designed, manufactured, marketed, and intended for use by a person who regularly employs such a device for a lawful business or industrial use, including making, performing, displaying, distributing, or transmitting copies of motion pictures on a commercial scale.
``(E) The terms 'VHS format', '8mm format', 'Beta format', 'automatic gain control copy control technology', 'colorstripe copy control technology', 'four-line version of the colorstripe copy control technology', and 'NTSC' have the meanings that are commonly understood in the consumer electronics and motion picture industries as of the date of the enactment of this chapter.
``(5) Violations.—Any violation of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be treated as a violation of subsection (b)(1) of this section. Any violation of paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be deemed an 'act of circumvention' for the purposes of section 1203(c)(3)(A) of this chapter.
``§ 1202. Integrity of copyright management information
``(a) False Copyright Management Information.—No person shall knowingly and with the intent to induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal infringement—
``(1) provide copyright management information that is false, or
``(2) distribute or import for distribution copyright management information that is false.
``(b) Removal or Alteration of Copyright Management Information.—No person shall, without the authority of the copyright owner or the law—
``(1) intentionally remove or alter any copyright management information,
``(2) distribute or import for distribution copyright management information knowing that the copyright management information has been removed or altered without authority of the copyright owner or the law, or
``(3) distribute, import for distribution, or publicly perform works, copies of works, or phonorecords, knowing that copyright management information has been removed or altered without authority of the copyright owner or the law,
``knowing, or, with respect to civil remedies under section 1203, having reasonable grounds to know, that it will induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal an infringement of any right under this title.
``(c) Definition.—As used in this section, the term 'copyright management information' means any of the following information conveyed in connection with copies or phonorecords of a work or performances or displays of a work, including in digital form, except that such term does not include any personally identifying information about a user of a work or of a copy, phonorecord, performance, or display of a work:
``(1) The title and other information identifying the work, including the information set forth on a notice of copyright.
``(2) The name of, and other identifying information about, the author of a work.
``(3) The name of, and other identifying information about, the copyright owner of the work, including the information set forth in a notice of copyright.
``(4) With the exception of public performances of works by radio and television broadcast stations, the name of, and other identifying information about, a performer whose performance is fixed in a work other than an audiovisual work.
``(5) With the exception of public performances of works by radio and television broadcast stations, in the case of an audiovisual work, the name of, and other identifying information about, a writer, performer, or director who is credited in the audiovisual work.
``(6) Terms and conditions for use of the work.
``(7) Identifying numbers or symbols referring to such information or links to such information.
``(8) Such other information as the Register of Copyrights may prescribe by regulation, except that the Register of Copyrights may not require the provision of any information concerning the user of a copyrighted work.
``(d) Law Enforcement, Intelligence, and Other Government Activities.—This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, information security, or intelligence activity of an officer, agent, or employee of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or a person acting pursuant to a contract with the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State. For purposes of this subsection, the term 'information security' means activities carried out in order to identify and address the vulnerabilities of a government computer, computer system, or computer network.
``(e) Limitations on Liability.—
``(1) Analog transmissions.—In the case of an analog transmission, a person who is making transmissions in its capacity as a broadcast station, or as a cable system, or someone who provides programming to such station or system, shall not be liable for a violation of subsection (b) if—
``(A) avoiding the activity that constitutes such violation is not technically feasible or would create an undue financial hardship on such person; and
``(B) such person did not intend, by engaging in such activity, to induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal infringement of a right under this title.
``(2) Digital transmissions.—
``(A) If a digital transmission standard for the placement of copyright management information for a category of works is set in a voluntary, consensus standard-setting process involving a representative cross-section of broadcast stations or cable systems and copyright owners of a category of works that are intended for public performance by such stations or systems, a person identified in paragraph (1) shall not be liable for a violation of subsection (b) with respect to the particular copyright management information addressed by such standard if—
``(i) the placement of such information by someone other than such person is not in accordance with such standard; and
``(ii) the activity that constitutes such violation is not intended to induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal infringement of a right under this title.
``(B) Until a digital transmission standard has been set pursuant to subparagraph (A) with respect to the placement of copyright management information for a category or works, a person identified in paragraph (1) shall not be liable for a violation of subsection (b) with respect to such copyright management information, if the activity that constitutes such violation is not intended to induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal infringement of a right under this title, and if—
``(i) the transmission of such information by such person would result in a perceptible visual or aural degradation of the digital signal; or
``(ii) the transmission of such information by such person would conflict with—
``(I) an applicable government regulation relating to transmission of information in a digital signal;
``(II) an applicable industry-wide standard relating to the transmission of information in a digital signal that was adopted by a voluntary consensus standards body prior to the effective date of this chapter; or
``(III) an applicable industry-wide standard relating to the transmission of information in a digital signal that was adopted in a voluntary, consensus standards-setting process open to participation by a representative cross-section of broadcast stations or cable systems and copyright owners of a category of works that are intended for public performance by such stations or systems.
``(3) Definitions.—As used in this subsection—
``(A) the term 'broadcast station' has the meaning given that term in section 3 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 153); and
``(B) the term 'cable system' has the meaning given that term in section 602 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 522).
``§ 1203. Civil remedies
``(a) Civil Actions.—Any person injured by a violation of section 1201 or 1202 may bring a civil action in an appropriate United States district court for such violation.
``(b) Powers of the Court.—In an action brought under subsection (a), the court—
``(1) may grant temporary and permanent injunctions on such terms as it deems reasonable to prevent or restrain a violation, but in no event shall impose a prior restraint on free speech or the press protected under the 1st amendment to the Constitution;
``(2) at any time while an action is pending, may order the impounding, on such terms as it deems reasonable, of any device or product that is in the custody or control of the alleged violator and that the court has reasonable cause to believe was involved in a violation;
``(3) may award damages under subsection (c);
``(4) in its discretion may allow the recovery of costs by or against any party other than the United States or an officer thereof;
``(5) in its discretion may award reasonable attorney's fees to the prevailing party; and
``(6) may, as part of a final judgment or decree finding a violation, order the remedial modification or the destruction of any device or product involved in the violation that is in the custody or control of the violator or has been impounded under paragraph (2).
``(c) Award of Damages.—
``(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this title, a person committing a violation of section 1201 or 1202 is liable for either—
``(A) the actual damages and any additional profits of the violator, as provided in paragraph (2), or
``(B) statutory damages, as provided in paragraph (3).
``(2) Actual damages.—The court shall award to the complaining party the actual damages suffered by the party as a result of the violation, and any profits of the violator that are attributable to the violation and are not taken into account in computing the actual damages, if the complaining party elects such damages at any time before final judgment is entered.
``(3) Statutory damages.
``(A) At any time before final judgment is entered, a complaining party may elect to recover an award of statutory damages for each violation of section 1201 in the sum of not less than $200 or more than $2,500 per act of circumvention, device, product, component, offer, or performance of service, as the court considers just.
``(B) At any time before final judgment is entered, a complaining party may elect to recover an award of statutory damages for each violation of section 1202 in the sum of not less than $2,500 or more than $25,000.
``(4) Repeated violations.—In any case in which the injured party sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that a person has violated section 1201 or 1202 within 3 years after a final judgment was entered against the person for another such violation, the court may increase the award of damages up to triple the amount that would otherwise be awarded, as the court considers just.
``(5) Innocent violations.—
``(A) In general.—The court in its discretion may reduce or remit the total award of damages in any case in which the violator sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that the violator was not aware and had no reason to believe that its acts constituted a violation.
``(B) Nonprofit library, archives, or educational institutions.—In the case of a nonprofit library, archives, or educational institution, the court shall remit damages in any case in which the library, archives, or educational institution sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that the library, archives, or educational institution was not aware and had no reason to believe that its acts constituted a violation.
``§ 1204. Criminal offenses and penalties
``(a) In General.—Any person who violates section 1201 or 1202 willfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain—
``(1) shall be fined not more than $500,000 or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both, for the first offense; and
``(2) shall be fined not more than $1,000,000 or imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both, for any subsequent offense.
``(b) Limitation for Nonprofit Library, Archives, or Educational Institution.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to a nonprofit library, archives, or educational institution.
``(c)— No criminal proceeding shall be brought under this section unless such proceeding is commenced within 5 years after the cause of action arose.
``§ 1205. Savings clause
``Nothing in this chapter abrogates, diminishes, or weakens the provisions of, nor provides any defense or element of mitigation in a criminal prosecution or civil action under, any Federal or State law that prevents the violation of the privacy of an individual in connection with the individual's use of the Internet.''.
(b) Conforming Amendment.—
The table of chapters for title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding after the item relating to chapter 11 the following:
``12. Copyright Protection and Management Systems ............................... 1201''.

Sec. 104. Evaluation of Impact of Copyright Law and Amendments on Electronic Commerce and Technological Development.[edit]

(a) Evaluation by the Register of Copyrights and the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information.—
The Register of Copyrights and the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the Department of Commerce shall jointly evaluate—
(1) the effects of the amendments made by this title and the development of electronic commerce and associated technology on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, United States Code; and
(2) the relationship between existing and emergent technology and the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, United States Code.
(b) Report to Congress.—
The Register of Copyrights and the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of the Department of Commerce shall, not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, submit to the Congress a joint report on the evaluation conducted under subsection (a), including any legislative recommendations the Register and the Assistant Secretary may have.

Sec. 105. Effective Date.[edit]

(a) In General.—
Except as otherwise provided in this title, this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.
(b) Amendments Relating to Certain International Agreements.—
(1) The following shall take effect upon the entry into force of the WIPO Copyright Treaty with respect to the United States:
(A) Paragraph (5) of the definition of ``international agreement'' contained in section 101 of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(a)(4) of this Act.
(B) The amendment made by section 102(a)(6) of this Act.
(C) Subparagraph (C) of section 104A(h)(1) of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(c)(1) of this Act.
(D) Subparagraph (C) of section 104A(h)(3) of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(c)(2) of this Act.
(2) The following shall take effect upon the entry into force of the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty with respect to the United States:
(A) Paragraph (6) of the definition of ``international agreement'' contained in section 101 of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(a)(4) of this Act.
(B) The amendment made by section 102(a)(7) of this Act.
(C) The amendment made by section 102(b)(2) of this Act.
(D) Subparagraph (D) of section 104A(h)(1) of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(c)(1) of this Act.
(E) Subparagraph (D) of section 104A(h)(3) of title 17, United States Code, as amended by section 102(c)(2) of this Act.
(F) The amendments made by section 102(c)(3) of this Act.

See also[edit]