Wikisource:Requested texts/The Invasion of the Crimea

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The Invasion of the Crimea
by Alexander William Kinglake
1868

Chapters[edit]

CONTENTS. TRANSACTIONS WHICH BROUGHT ON THE WAR, CHAPTER I. The' Crimea, 25; Ground for tracing the causes of the war, 27; Europe in 1850, 27; Standing armies, 27; Personal government, 27; Comparison between this system and that of governing through a council, 28; Personal government in Russia, 29 ; In Austria, 29 ; In Prussia, 30 ; Administration of foreign affairs under the Sultan, 30 ; Constitutional system of England in its bearing upon the conduct of foreign affairs, 30; And of France down to the 2nd of December, 1851, 31; Power of Russia, 31; Turkey, 32. CHAPTER II. The Usage wliich tends to protect the weak against the strong, 36 ; Instance of a wrong to which the Usage did not apply, 37 ; Instance in which the Usage was applicable and was disobeyed, 37 ; Instances in which the Usage was faithfully obeyed, 38 ; By Austria, 38 ; By Russia, 38 ; By England, 39 ; The practical working of the Usage, 40 ; Aspect of Europe in reference to the Turkish Empire, 42 ; Policy of Austria, 42 ; Of Prussia, 43 ; Of France, 43 ; Of England, 44 ; Of the lesser states of Europe, 45. CHAPTER III. Holy shrines, 46 ; Contest for the possession of the shrines, 48 ; Patronage of foreign Powers, 48 ; Comparison between the claims of Russia and of France, 48 ; Measures taken by the French President, 49 ; By the Russian Envoy, 50 ; Embarrassment of the Porte, 51 ; Mutual concessions, 51 ; The actual subject of dispute, 51 ; Increased violence of the French Government, 52 ; Afif Bey's mission, 52 ; Deliverance of the key and the star, 53 ; Indignation of Russia, 54 ; Advance of Russian forces, 55. CHAPTER IV. Natural ambition of Russia, 55 ; Its irresolute nature, 58 ; The Emperor Nicholas, 59 ; His policy from 1829 to 1853, 64. CHAPTER V. Troubles in Montenegro, 65 ; Count Leiningen's mission, 65 ; The Czar's plan of sending another mission to the Porte at the same time, 66; Plans of the Emperor Nicholas, 66. CHAPTER VI. Position of Austria in regard to Turkey at the beginning of 1853, 67; Of Prussia, 67 ; Of France, 68 ; Of England, 69 ; Seeming stafe of opinion there, 69 ; Sir Hamilton Seymour, 72 ; His Conversation with the Emperor, 73 ; Reception of the Czar's overtures by the English Government, 76 ; Result of Count Leiningen's mission, 77 ; Its effect upon the plans of the Czar, 77 ; He abandons the idea of going to war, 78. CHAPTER VII. The pain of inaction, 78 ; The Czar's new scheme of action, 79 ; His choice of an ambassador, 80 ; Prince Mentschikoff, 80 ; Mentschikoff at Constantinople, 81; Panic in the Divan, 81; Colonel Rose, 82; The Czar seemingly tranquillized, 82 ; The French fleet suddenly ordered to Salamis, 83 ; The Emperor Nicholas, his concealments, 83 ; Mentschikoff 's demands, 84. CHAPTER VIII. Foreign ' influence,' 86 ; Grounds for foreign interference in Turkey, 86 ; Rivalry between Nicholas and Sir Stratford Canning, 88 ; Sir Stratford Canning, 88 ; Instructed to return to Constantinople, 91 ; His instructions, 92. CHAPTER IX. Lord Stratford's return, 94 ; His plan of resistance to Mentschikoff 's demands, 95 ; Commencement of the struggle between Prince MentschikofF and Lord Stratford, 96. CHAPTER X. State of the dispute respecting the Holy Places, 100; Lord Stratford's measures for settling it, 102 ; He settles it, 104; Terms on which it was settled, 104. CHAPTER XL Peaceful aspect of the negotiation, 105 ; Angry dispatches from St. Petersburg, 105 ; Cause of the change, 105 ; Inferred tenor of the fresh dispatches, 106 ; Mentschikoff s demand for a protectorate of the Greek Church in Turkey, 107 ; Effect of conceding it, 107 ; The negotiations which followed the demand, 108 ; Rage of the Czar on finding himself encountered by Lord Stratford, 110; Its effect upon the negotiation, 111 ; Mentschikoff's difficulty, 111; He is baffled by Lord Stratford, 112; He presses his demand in a new form, 112; Counsels of Lord Stratford, 113; His communications with Prince Mentschikoff, 113 ; His advice to the Turkish ministers, 114; His audience of the Sultan, 116; The disclosure which he had reserved for the Sultan's ear, 117 ; Turkish answer to Mentschikoff's demand, 117; Mentschikoff's angry reply, 117; His private audience of the Sultan, 118; This causes a change of ministry at Constantinople, 118 ; But fails to shake the Sultan, 118; Mentschikoff violently presses his demands, 119 ; The Great Council determine to resist, 119 ; Offers made by the Porte under the advice of Lord Stratford, 119 ; Mentschikoff replies by declaring his mission at an end, 120; The representatives of the four Powers assembled by Lord Stratford?120; Policy involved in this step, 120; Unanimity of the four representatives, 121 ; Their measures, 121 ; Russia's ultimatum, 121 ; Its rejection and final threats of Prince Mentschikoff, 122 ; His departure, 123 ; Effect of the mission upon the credit of Nicholas, 123 ; Position in which Lord Stratford's skill had placed the Porte, 125; Engagements contracted by England, 126 ; Obligations contracted by the act of giving advice, 127 ; England in concert with France becomes engaged to defend the Sultan's dominions, 127 ; The process by • which England became bound, 128 ; Slowness of the English Parliament, 128 ; Powers intrusted to Lord Stratford, 128.