Wikisource:Requested texts/The Invasion of the Crimea
|This work may need to be standardized using Wikisource's style guidelines.
If you'd like to help, please review the help pages.
CONTENTS. TRANSACTIONS WHICH BROUGHT ON THE WAR, CHAPTER I. The' Crimea, 25; Ground for tracing the causes of the war, 27; Europe in 1850, 27; Standing armies, 27; Personal government, 27; Comparison between this system and that of governing through a council, 28; Personal government in Russia, 29 ; In Austria, 29 ; In Prussia, 30 ; Administration of foreign affairs under the Sultan, 30 ; Constitutional system of England in its bearing upon the conduct of foreign affairs, 30; And of France down to the 2nd of December, 1851, 31; Power of Russia, 31; Turkey, 32. CHAPTER II. The Usage wliich tends to protect the weak against the strong, 36 ; Instance of a wrong to which the Usage did not apply, 37 ; Instance in which the Usage was applicable and was disobeyed, 37 ; Instances in which the Usage was faithfully obeyed, 38 ; By Austria, 38 ; By Russia, 38 ; By England, 39 ; The practical working of the Usage, 40 ; Aspect of Europe in reference to the Turkish Empire, 42 ; Policy of Austria, 42 ; Of Prussia, 43 ; Of France, 43 ; Of England, 44 ; Of the lesser states of Europe, 45. CHAPTER III. Holy shrines, 46 ; Contest for the possession of the shrines, 48 ; Patronage of foreign Powers, 48 ; Comparison between the claims of Russia and of France, 48 ; Measures taken by the French President, 49 ; By the Russian Envoy, 50 ; Embarrassment of the Porte, 51 ; Mutual concessions, 51 ; The actual subject of dispute, 51 ; Increased violence of the French Government, 52 ; Afif Bey's mission, 52 ; Deliverance of the key and the star, 53 ; Indignation of Russia, 54 ; Advance of Russian forces, 55. CHAPTER IV. Natural ambition of Russia, 55 ; Its irresolute nature, 58 ; The Emperor Nicholas, 59 ; His policy from 1829 to 1853, 64. CHAPTER V. Troubles in Montenegro, 65 ; Count Leiningen's mission, 65 ; The Czar's plan of sending another mission to the Porte at the same time, 66; Plans of the Emperor Nicholas, 66. CHAPTER VI. Position of Austria in regard to Turkey at the beginning of 1853, 67; Of Prussia, 67 ; Of France, 68 ; Of England, 69 ; Seeming stafe of opinion there, 69 ; Sir Hamilton Seymour, 72 ; His Conversation with the Emperor, 73 ; Reception of the Czar's overtures by the English Government, 76 ; Result of Count Leiningen's mission, 77 ; Its effect upon the plans of the Czar, 77 ; He abandons the idea of going to war, 78. CHAPTER VII. The pain of inaction, 78 ; The Czar's new scheme of action, 79 ; His choice of an ambassador, 80 ; Prince Mentschikoff, 80 ; Mentschikoff at Constantinople, 81; Panic in the Divan, 81; Colonel Rose, 82; The Czar seemingly tranquillized, 82 ; The French fleet suddenly ordered to Salamis, 83 ; The Emperor Nicholas, his concealments, 83 ; Mentschikoff 's demands, 84. CHAPTER VIII. Foreign ' influence,' 86 ; Grounds for foreign interference in Turkey, 86 ; Rivalry between Nicholas and Sir Stratford Canning, 88 ; Sir Stratford Canning, 88 ; Instructed to return to Constantinople, 91 ; His instructions, 92. CHAPTER IX. Lord Stratford's return, 94 ; His plan of resistance to Mentschikoff 's demands, 95 ; Commencement of the struggle between Prince MentschikofF and Lord Stratford, 96. CHAPTER X. State of the dispute respecting the Holy Places, 100; Lord Stratford's measures for settling it, 102 ; He settles it, 104; Terms on which it was settled, 104. CHAPTER XL Peaceful aspect of the negotiation, 105 ; Angry dispatches from St. Petersburg, 105 ; Cause of the change, 105 ; Inferred tenor of the fresh dispatches, 106 ; Mentschikoff s demand for a protectorate of the Greek Church in Turkey, 107 ; Effect of conceding it, 107 ; The negotiations which followed the demand, 108 ; Rage of the Czar on finding himself encountered by Lord Stratford, 110; Its effect upon the negotiation, 111 ; Mentschikoff's difficulty, 111; He is baffled by Lord Stratford, 112; He presses his demand in a new form, 112; Counsels of Lord Stratford, 113; His communications with Prince Mentschikoff, 113 ; His advice to the Turkish ministers, 114; His audience of the Sultan, 116; The disclosure which he had reserved for the Sultan's ear, 117 ; Turkish answer to Mentschikoff's demand, 117; Mentschikoff's angry reply, 117; His private audience of the Sultan, 118; This causes a change of ministry at Constantinople, 118 ; But fails to shake the Sultan, 118; Mentschikoff violently presses his demands, 119 ; The Great Council determine to resist, 119 ; Offers made by the Porte under the advice of Lord Stratford, 119 ; Mentschikoff replies by declaring his mission at an end, 120; The representatives of the four Powers assembled by Lord Stratford?120; Policy involved in this step, 120; Unanimity of the four representatives, 121 ; Their measures, 121 ; Russia's ultimatum, 121 ; Its rejection and final threats of Prince Mentschikoff, 122 ; His departure, 123 ; Effect of the mission upon the credit of Nicholas, 123 ; Position in which Lord Stratford's skill had placed the Porte, 125; Engagements contracted by England, 126 ; Obligations contracted by the act of giving advice, 127 ; England in concert with France becomes engaged to defend the Sultan's dominions, 127 ; The process by • which England became bound, 128 ; Slowness of the English Parliament, 128 ; Powers intrusted to Lord Stratford, 128.