Yorke, Philip (1757-1834) (DNB00)

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YORKE, PHILIP, third Earl of Hardwicke (1757–1834), eldest son of Lord-chancellor Yorke [see Yorke, Charles], by his first wife, Catherine, daughter of Dr. Freman, was born on 31 May 1757. He was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, where he received the degree of M.A. in 1776, and that of LL.D. in 1811. He was also in 1806 elected high steward of the university. He represented Cambridgeshire in parliament from his return on 14 Sept. 1780 until his accession to the peerage as third earl of Hardwicke on the death, 16 May 1790, of his uncle, the second earl [see Yorke, Philip, second Earl of Hardwicke]. In politics he at first followed Fox, but rallied to the government in 1794, and was lord-lieutenant of Ireland under both Addington (March 1801–May 1804) and Pitt, whose death dissolved his administration before Hardwicke's successor-designate, Lord Powis, had been sworn in [see Clive, Edward, Earl of Powis]. On the formation of the administration of ‘All the Talents’ he was replaced by the sixth Duke of Bedford (February 1806). During his six years' vice-royalty he did much to allay the irritation caused by the union, and became himself a convert to catholic emancipation, to which cause he steadfastly adhered until its triumph in 1829. To the parliamentary Reform Bill of 1831 he gave a qualified support. He died on 18 Nov. 1834, and was buried in the family vault at Wimpole. Hardwicke was K.G. (elected on 25 Nov. 1803, installed by proxy, having received the insignia at Dublin, on 23 April 1805). He was also F.R.S. and F.S.A., a trustee of the British Museum, and from 1790 lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire. A few of Hardwicke's letters are printed in Lord Colchester's ‘Diary’ (1861). Others remain in manuscript (see Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. pp. 344 et seq. and Addit. MSS. 33109–11 and 33114).

Hardwicke married, on 24 July 1782, Elizabeth, third daughter of James Lindsay, fifth earl of Balcarres, by whom he left only female issue. The title accordingly devolved upon his nephew, Charles Philip Yorke, who is separately noticed.

[Harris's Life of Lord-chancellor Hardwicke; Grad. Cant.; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iv. 497; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Official Return of Members of Parliament; Parl. Hist. vols. xxiv–xxxi.; Hansard's Parl. Debates, vol. vii. et seq., new ser. xx. 1529, 3rd ser. iii. 326; Political Memoranda of Francis, fifth Duke of Leeds (Camden Soc.); Fox's Memorials and Correspondence, ed. Russell; Private Papers of William Wilberforce, ed. Wilberforce, p. 112; Stanhope's Life of William Pitt; Pellew's Life of Sidmouth, i. 351, 481; Buckingham's Court and Cabinets of George III, iii. 144, 354, iv. 19; Grey's Life and Opinions of Earl Grey, p. 101; Cornwallis's Correspondence, ed. Ross; Kirkpatrick Sharpe's Correspondence, ed. Allardyce, ii. 77; Gent. Mag. 1835, i. 205; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby.]

J. M. R.