1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Bahadur Shah I.
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BAHADUR SHAH I., a Mogul emperor of Hindustan, A.D. 1707–1712, the son and successor of Aurangzeb. At the time of the latter’s death his eldest surviving son, Prince Muazim, was governor of Kabul, and in his absence the next brother, Azam Shah, assumed the functions of royalty. Muazim came down from Kabul, and with characteristic magnanimity offered to share the empire with his brother. Azam would not accept the proposal and was defeated and slain on the plains of Agra. Muazim then ascended the throne under the title of Bahadur Shah. He was a man of 64 and died five years later. During his lifetime the empire was already falling to pieces before the inroads of the Sikhs and Mahrattas, and through internal dissensions.