1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Buitenzorg

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BUITENZORG, a hill station in the residency of Batavia, island of Java, Dutch East Indies. It is beautifully situated among the hills at the foot of the Salak volcano, about 860 ft. above sea-level, and has a cool and healthy climate. Buitenzorg is the usual residence of the governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, and is further remarkable on account of its splendid botanical garden and for its popularity as a health resort. The botanic gardens are among the finest in the world; they originally formed a part of the park attached to the palace of the governor-general, and were established in 1817. Under J.S. Teysmann, who became hortulanus in 1830, the collection was extended, and in 1868 was recognized as a government institution with a director. Between this and 1880 a museum, a school of agriculture, and a culture garden were added, and since then library, botanical, chemical, and pharmacological laboratories, and a herbarium have been established. The palace of the governor-general was founded by Governor-General van Imhoff in 1744, and rebuilt after being destroyed by an earthquake in 1834. Buitenzorg is also the seat of the general secretary of the state railway and of the department of mines. Buitenzorg, which is called Bogor by the natives, was once the capital of the princess of Pajajaran. Close by, at Batu Tulis ("inscribed stone"), are some Hindu remains. The district of Buitenzorg (till 1866 an assistant residency) forms the southern part of the residency of Batavia, with an area of 1447 sq. m. It occupies the northern slopes of a range of hills separating it from Preanger, and has a fertile soil. Tea, coffee, cinchona, sugar-cane, rice, nutmegs, cloves and pepper are cultivated.