1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Carabobo
CARABOBO, the smallest of the thirteen states of Venezuela, bounded N. by the Caribbean Sea, E. by the state of Aragua, S. by Zamora and W. by Lara. Its area is 2985 sq. m., and its population, according to an official estimate of 1905, is 221,891. The greater part of its surface is mountainous with moderately elevated valleys of great fertility and productiveness, but south of the Cordillera there are extensive grassy plains conterminous with those of Guárico and Zamora, on which large herds of cattle are pastured. The principal products of the state are cattle, hides and cheese from the southern plains, coffee and cereals from the higher valleys, sugar and aguardiente from the lower valleys about Lake Valencia, and cacao, coco-nuts and coco-nut fibre from the coast. Various minerals are also found in its south-west districts, about Nirgua. The capital is Valencia, and its principal towns are Puerto Cabello, Montalbán (estimated pop. in 1904 7500), 30 m. W.S.W. of Valencia; Nirgua (pop. in 1891 8394), an important commercial and mining town 36½ m. S.W. of Valencia, 2500 ft. above sea level; and Ocumare (pop. in 1891 7493), near the coast 18½ m. E. of Puerto Cabello, celebrated for the fine quality of its cacao. Carabobo is best known for the battle fought on the 24th of June 1821 on a plain at the southern exit from the passes through the Cordillera in this state, between the revolutionists under Bolívar and the Spanish forces under La Torre. It was one of the four decisive battles of the war, though the forces engaged were only a part of the two armies and numbered 2400 revolutionists (composed of 1500 mounted llaneros known as the “Apure legion,” and 900 British), and 3000 Spaniards. The day was won by the British, who drove the Spaniards from the field at the point of the bayonet, although at a terrible loss of life. The British legion was afterwards acclaimed by Bolívar as “Salvadores de mi Patria.” The Spanish forces continued the war until near the end of 1823, but their operations were restricted to the districts on the coast.