1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Creek or Muskogee Indians

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CREEK or MUSKOGEE (Muscogee) INDIANS (Algonquin maskoki, “creeks,” in reference to the many creeks and rivulets running through their country), a confederacy of North American Indians, who formerly occupied most of Alabama and Georgia. The confederacy seems to have been in existence in 1540, and then included the Muskogee, the ruling tribe, whose language was generally spoken, the Alabama, the Hichiti, Koasati and others of the Muskogean stock, with the Yuchi and the Natchez, a large number of Shawano and the Seminoles of Florida as a branch. The Creeks were agriculturists living in villages of log houses. They were brave fighters, but during the 18th century only had one struggle, of little importance, with the settlers. The Creek War of 1813–14 was, however, serious. The confederacy was completely defeated in three hard-fought battles, and the peace treaty which followed involved the cession to the United States government of most of the Creek country. In the Civil War the Creeks were divided in their allegiance and suffered heavily in the campaigns. The so-called Creek nation is now settled in Oklahoma, but independent government virtually ceased in 1906. In 1904 they numbered some 16,000, some two-thirds being of pure or mixed Creek blood.