1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cumberland, Dukes and Earls of

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CUMBERLAND, DUKES AND EARLS OF. The earldom of Cumberland was held by the family of Clifford (q.v.) from 1525 to 1643, when it became extinct by the death of Henry, the 5th earl. The 1st earl of Cumberland was Henry, 11th Lord Clifford (1493–1542), a son of Henry, 10th Lord Clifford (c. 1454–1523). Created an earl by Henry VIII. in 1525, Henry remained loyal during the great rising in the north of England in 1536, and died on the 22nd of April 1542. His son and successor, Henry, the 2nd earl (c. 1517–1570), married Eleanor (d. 1547), a daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and Mary, daughter of King Henry VII.; he had the tastes of a scholar rather than a soldier, and died early in 1570. By his first wife, Eleanor, he left an only daughter Margaret (1540–1596), who married Henry Stanley, 4th earl of Derby, and who in 1557 was regarded by many as the rightful heiress to the English throne. By his second wife he left two sons and a daughter; his elder son George succeeding to the earldom in 1570, and his younger son Francis succeeding his brother in 1605. George, 3rd earl of Cumberland (1558–1605), was born on the 8th of August 1558, and married Margaret (c. 1560–1616), daughter of his guardian, Francis, 2nd earl of Bedford. Although interested in mathematics and geography he passed his early years in dissipation and extravagance; then he took to the sea, commanded the “Bonaventure” against the Spanish Armada, and from this time until his death on the 30th of October 1605 was mainly engaged in fitting out and leading plundering expeditions, some of which, especially the one undertaken in 1589, gained a large amount of booty. The earl left no sons, and his barony was claimed by his only daughter Anne (1590–1676), the wife successively of Richard Sackville, 3rd earl of Dorset, and of Philip Herbert, 4th earl of Pembroke and Montgomery; while his earldom was inherited by his brother Francis (1559–1641). A long law-suit between the new earl and the countess Anne over the possession of the family estates was settled in 1617. The 5th earl was Francis’s only son Henry (1591–1643), who was born on the 28th of February 1591, and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a supporter of Charles I. during his two short wars with the Scots, and also during the Civil War until his death on the 11th of December 1643. He left no sons; his earldom became extinct; his new barony of Clifford, created in 1628, passed to his daughter Elizabeth (1618–1691), wife of Richard Boyle, earl of Cork and Burlington; and the Cumberland estates to his cousin Anne, countess of Dorset and Pembroke.

In 1644 the English title of duke of Cumberland was created in favour of Rupert, son of Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, and nephew of Charles I. Having lapsed on Rupert’s death without legitimate issue in 1682, it was created again in 1689 to give an English title to George, prince of Denmark, who had married the lady who afterwards became Queen Anne. It again became extinct when George died in 1708, but was revived in 1726 in favour of William Augustus, third son of George II. As this duke was never married the title lapsed on his death in 1765, but was revived in the following year in favour of Henry Frederick (1745–1790), son of Frederick, prince of Wales, and brother of George III. Having again become extinct on Henry Frederick’s death, the title of duke of Cumberland was created for the fifth time in favour of Ernest Augustus, who was made duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in 1799. In 1837 Ernest (q.v.) became king of Hanover, and on his death in 1851 the title descended with the kingdom of Hanover to his son King George V. (q.v.), and on George’s death in 1878 to his grandson Ernest Augustus (b. 1845). In 1866 Hanover was annexed by Prussia, but King George died without renouncing his rights. His son Ernest, while maintaining his claim to the kingdom of Hanover, is generally known by his title of duke of Cumberland.