1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Harlingen
HARLINGEN, a seaport in the province of Friesland, Holland, on the Zuider Zee, and the terminus of the railway and canal from Leeuwarden (151 m. E.). It is connected by steam tramway by way of Bolswaard with Sneek. Pop. (1900) 10,448. Harlingen has become the most considerable seaport of Friesland since the construction of the large outer harbour in 1870–1877, and in addition to railway and steamship connexion with Bremen, Amsterdam, and the southern provinces there are regular sailings to Hull and London. Powerful sluices protect the inner harbour from the high tides. The only noteworthy buildings are the town hall (1730–1733), the West church, which consists of a part of the former castle of Harlingen, the Roman Catholic church, the Jewish synagogue and the schools of navigation and of design. The chief trade of Harlingen is the exportation of Frisian produce, namely, butter and cheese, cattle, sheep, fish, potatoes, flax, &c. There is also a considerable import trade in timber, coal, raw cotton, hemp and jute for the Twente factories. The local industries are unimportant, consisting of saw-mills, rope-yards, salt refineries, and sail-cloth and margarine factories.