1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de
JOVELLANOS (or Jove Llanos), GASPAR MELCHOR DE (1744–1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijon in Asturias, Spain, on the 5th of January 1744. Selecting law as his profession, he studied at Oviedo, Avila, and Alcala, and in 1767 became criminal judge at Seville. His integrity and ability were rewarded in 1778 by a judgeship in Madrid, and in 1780 by appointment to the council of military orders. In the capital Jovellanos took a good place in the literary and scientific societies; for the society of friends of the country he wrote in 1787 his most valuable work, Informe sobre un proyecto de ley agraria. Involved in the disgrace of his friend, Francois Cabarrus, Jovellanos spent the years 1790 to 1797 in a sort of banishment at Gijon, engaged in literary work and in founding the Asturian institution for agricultural, industrial, social and educational reform throughout his native province. This institution continued his darling project up to the latest hours of his life. Summoned again to public life in 1797, Jovellanos refused the post of ambassador to Russia, but accepted that of minister of grace and justice, under “the prince of the peace,” whose attention had been directed to him by Cabarrus, then a favourite of Godoy. Displeased with Godoy’s policy and conduct Jovellanos combined with his colleague Saavedra to procure his dismissal. Godoy returned to power in I798; Jovellanos was again sent to Gijon, but in 1801 was thrown into prison in Majorca. The revolution of 1808, and the advance of the French into Spain, set him once more at liberty. Joseph Bonaparte, on mounting the Spanish throne, made Jovellanos the most brilliant offers; but the latter, sternly refusing them all, joined the patriotic party, became a member of the central junta, and contributed to reorganize the cortes. This accomplished, the junta at once fell under suspicion, and Jovellanos was involved in its fall. To expose the conduct of the cortes, and to defend the junta and himself were the last labours of his pen. In 1811 he was enthusiastically welcomed to Gijon, but the approach of the French drove him forth again. The vessel in which he sailed was compelled by stress of weather to put in at Vega in Asturias, and there he died on the 27th of November 1811.
The poetical Works of Jovellanos comprise a tragedy El pelayo, the comedy El delincuente honrado, satires, and miscellaneous pieces, including a translation of the first book of Paradise Lost. His prose works, especially those on political and legislative economy, constitute his real title to literary fame. In them depth of thought and clear-sighted sagacity are couched in a certain Ciceroman elegance and classical purity of style. Besides the Ley agraria he wrote Elogios; various political and other essays; and Memorias politicos (1801), suppressed in Spain, and translated into French, 1825. An edition of his complete works was published at Madrid (1831-1832) in 7 vols., and another at Barcelona (1839). See Noticias historic as de Don G. M. de Jovellanos (1812), and Memorias para la vida del Senor … Jovellanos, by ]. A. C. Bermudez (1814).