1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Kwanza
KWANZA (Coanza or Quanza), a river of West Africa, with a course of about 700 m. entirely within the Portuguese territory of Angola. The source lies in about 13° 40′ S., 17° 30′ E. on the Bihe plateau, at an altitude of over 5000 ft. It runs first N.E. and soon attains fairly large dimensions. Just north of 12° it is about 60 yds. wide and 13 to 16 ft. deep. From this point to 10° it flows N.W., receiving many tributaries, especially the Luando from the east. In about 10°, and at intervals during its westerly passage through the outer plateau escarpments, its course is broken by rapids, the river flowing in a well-defined valley flanked by higher ground. The lowest fall is that of Kambamba, or Livingstone, with a drop of 70 ft. Thence to the sea, a distance of some 160 m., it is navigable by small steamers, though very shallow in the dry season. The river enters the sea in 9° 15' S., 13° 20' E., 40 m. S. of Loanda. There is a shifting bar at its mouth, difficult to cross, but the river as a waterway has become of less importance since the fertile district in its middle basin has been served by the railway from Loanda to Ambaca (see ANGOLA).