1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Lockhart, Sir William Stephen Alexander
LOCKHART, SIR WILLIAM STEPHEN ALEXANDER (1841–1900), British general, was born in Scotland on the 2nd of September 1841, his father being a Lanarkshire clergyman. He entered the Indian army in 1858, in the Bengal native infantry. He served in the Indian Mutiny, the Bhutan campaign (1864–66), the Abyssinian expedition (1867–68; mentioned in despatches), the Hazara Black Mountain expedition (1868–69; mentioned in despatches). From 1869 to 1879 he acted as deputy-assistant and assistant quartermaster-general in Bengal. In 1877 he was military attaché with the Dutch army in Acheen. He served in the Afghan War of 1878–80, was mentioned in despatches and made a C.B., and from 1880 to 1885 was D.Q.G. in the intelligence branch at headquarters. He commanded a brigade in the Third Burmese War (1886–87), and was made K.C.B., C.S.I., and received the thanks of the government. An attack of fever brought him to England, where he was employed as assistant military secretary for Indian affairs; but in 1890 he returned to India to take command of the Punjab frontier force, and for five years was engaged in various expeditions against the hill tribes. After the Waziristan campaign in 1894–95 he was made K.C.S.I. He became full general in 1896, and in 1897 he was given the command against the Afridis and Mohmands, and conducted the difficult Tirah campaign with great skill. He was made G.C.B., and in 1898 became commander-in-chief in India. He died on the 18th of March 1900. Sir William Lockhart was not only a first-rate soldier, but also had a great gift for dealing with the native tribesmen. Among the latter he had the sobriquet of Amir Sahib, on account of their respect and affection for him.