1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Mantegazza, Paolo

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MANTEGAZZA, PAOLO (1831–1910), Italian physiologist and anthropologist, was born at Monza on the 31st of October 1831. After spending his student-days at the universities of Pisa and Milan, he gained his M.D. degree at Pavia in 1854. After travelling in Europe, India and America, he practised as a doctor in the Argentine Republic and Paraguay. Returning to Italy in 1858 he was appointed surgeon at Milan Hospital and professor of general pathology at Pavia. In 1870 he was nominated professor of anthropology at the Instituto di Studii Superiori, Florence. Here he founded the first Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology in Italy, and later the Italian Anthropological Society. From 1865 to 1876 he was deputy for Monza in the Italian parliament, subsequently being elected to the senate. He became the object of bitter attacks on the ground of the extent to which he carried the practice of vivisection. His published works include Fisiologia del dolore (1880); Fisiologia dell’ amore (1896); Elementi d’ igiene (1875); Fisonomia e mimica (1883); Le Estasi umane (1887).