1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Naudé, Gabriel

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NAUDÉ, GABRIEL (1600–1653), French librarian and scholar, was born in Paris on the 2nd of February 1600. He studied medicine at Paris and Padua, and became physician to Louis XIII. In 1629 he became librarian to Cardinal Bagni at Rome, and on Bagni's death in 1641 librarian to Cardinal Barberini. At the desire of Richelieu he began a wearisome controversy with the Beneditines, denying Gerson's authorship of De Imitatione Christi. Richelieu intended to make Naudé his librarian, and on his death Naudé accepted a similar offer on the part of Mazarin, and for the next ten years devoted himself to bringing together from all parts of Europe the noble assemblage of books known as the Bibliothèque Mazarine. Mazarin's library was sold by the parlement of Paris during the troubles of the Fronde, and Queen Christinia invited Naudé to Stockholm. He was not happy in Sweden, and on Mazarin's appeal that he should re-form his scattered library Naudé returned at once. But his health was broken, and he died on the journey at Abbeville on the 30th of July 1653. The friend of Gui Patin, of Pierre Gassendi and all the liberal thinkers of his time, Naudé was no mere bookworm; his books show traces of the critical spirit which made him a worthy colleague of the humorists and scholars who prepared the way for the better known writers of the "siècle de Louis XIV."

Including works edited by him, a list of ninety-two pieces is given in the Naudaeana. The chief are Le Marfore, ou discours contre les libelles (Paris, 1620), very rare, reprinted 1868; Instruction à la France sur la vérité de l'histoire des Frères de la Roze-Croix (1623, 1624), displaying their impostures; Apologie pour tous les grands personnages faussement soupçonnez de magie (1625, 1652, 1669, 1712), Pythagoras, Socrates, Thomas Aquinas and Solomon are among those defended; Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627, 1644, 1676; translated by J. Evelyn, 1661), full of sound and liberal views on librarianship; Addition à la histoire de Louys XI. (1630), this includes an account of the origin of printing; Bibliographia politica (Venice, 1633, &c.; in French, 1642), a mere essay of no bibliographical value; De studio liberali syntagma (1632, 1654), a practical treatise found in most collections of directions for studies; De studio militari syntagma (1637), esteemed in its day; Considérations politiques sur les coups d'état (Rome [Paris], 1639; first edition rare, augmented by Dumay, 1752), this contains an apology for the massacre of St Bartholomew; Biblioth. Cordesianae Catalogus (1643), classified; Jugement de tout ce qui a été imprimé contre le Card. Mazarin; it is written in the form of a dialogue berween Saint-Ange and Mascurat, and is usually known under the name of the latter.

AUTHORITIES.—L. Jacob, G. Naudaei tumulus (1659); P. Hallé, Elogium Naudaei (1661); Niceron, Mémoires, vol. ix.; L. Jacob, Traicté des plus belles bibliothèques (1644); Gui Patin, Lettres (1846); Naudaeana et Patiniana (1703); Sainte-Beuve, Portraits Litt. vol. ii.; A. Franklin, Histoire de la Bibl. Mazarine (1860).