1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of

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NORMANBY, CONSTANTINE HENRY PHIPPS, 1st Marquess of(1797–1863), British statesman and author, son of Henry, 1st earl of Mulgrave (1755–1831), was born on the 15th of May 1797. The 1st earl (who was created baron in 1794 and earl in 1812), was a distinguished soldier, and Pitt's chief military adviser; and he held the offices of chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1804), secretary for foreign affairs (1805), first lord of the admiralty (1807–1810), and master of the ordnance (1810–1818). In 1792 he inherited the earlier Irish barony of Mulgrave—created in 1767 for his father, Constantine (1722–1775) grandson of Sir Constantine Phipps (1656–1723), the lord chancellor of Ireland—from his elder brother Constantine (1744–1792), a distinguished naval captain. His son, the future marquess, passed through Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, and sat for the family borough of Scarborough as soon as he attained his majority. But, speaking in favour of Catholic emancipation, and dissenting in other points from the family politics, he resigned his seat, and went to live in Italy for some two years. Returning in 1822, he was elected for Higham Ferrers, and made a considerable reputation by political pamphlets and by his speeches in the house. He was returned for Malton at the general election of 1826, becoming a supporter of Canning. He was already known as a writer of romantic tales, The English in Italy (1825); in the same year he made his appearance as a novelist with Matilda, and in 1828 he produced another novel, Yes and No. Succeeding his father as earl of Mulgrave in 1831, he was sent out as governor of Jamaica, and was afterwards appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland (1835–1839). He was created marquess of Normandy in 1838, and held successively the offices of colonial secretary and home secretary in the last years of Lord Melbourne's ministry. From 1846 to 1852 he was ambassador at Paris, and from 1854 to 1858 minister at Florence. The publication in 1857 of a journal kept in Paris during the stormy times of 1848 (A Year of Revolution), brought him into violent controversy with Louis Blanc, and he came into conflict with Lord Palmerston and Mr Gladstone, after his retirement from the public service, on questions of French and Italian policy. He died in London on the 28th of July 1863. He had married in 1818 the daughter of Lord Ravensworth, and was succeeded as 2nd marquess by his son George (1819–1890), a liberal politic an, who became governor of Queensland (1871–1874), New Zealand (1874–1879), and Victoria (1879–1884).