1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Orleans, Philip I., Duke of

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ORLEANS, PHILIP I., Duke or (1640-1701), son of the French king Louis XIII., was born at St Germain-en-Laye on the 21st of September 1640. In 1661 he was created duke of Orleans, and married Henrietta, sister of Charles II. of England; but the marriage was not a happy one, and the death of the duchess in 1670 was attributed to poison. Subsequently he married Charlotte Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Louis, elector palatine of the Rhine. Having fought with distinction in Flanders in 1667, Monsieur, as Orleans was generally called, returned to military life in 1672, and in 1677 gained a great victory at Cassel and took St Omer. Louis XIV., it was said, was jealous of his brother's success; at all events Orleans never commanded an army again. He died at St Cloud on the 8th of June 1701, leaving a son, Philip, the regent Orleans, and two daughters: Anne Marie (1669-1728), wife of Victor Amadeus II., duke of Savoy; and Elizabeth Charlotte (1676-1744), wife of Leopold, duke of Lorraine. His eldest daughter, Marie Louise (1662-1689), wife of Charles II. of Spain, died before her father. (M. P.*)