1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Pyatigorsk
PYATIGORSK, a town and watering-place of Russian Caucasia, in the province of Terek, 141 m. by rail N.W. of Vladikavkaz. Pop. (1882), 13,670; (1897), 18,638. It owes its origin to its mineral waters, which have long been known to the inhabitants of Caucasia. The sulphur springs, about fifteen in number, come from a great depth, and vary in temperature from 75° to 96° F.; they are used both for drinking and for bathing. The first buildings were erected in 1812, and in 1830 the name of Pyatigorsk (“town of the five mountains”) was given to the new settlement. Its subsequent rapid increase was greatly stimulated by the completion of the railway connexion with Rostov-on-the-Don. The town is charmingly situated on a small plateau, 1680 ft. above sea-level, at the foot of the Beshtau, Mashuk and three other outliers of the Caucasus range, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of the Elbruz are visible to the south. The most noteworthy features are a cathedral, a monument to the poet M. Y. Lermontov (1814–1841), and a hydropathic.