1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th Earl of
SANDWICH, JOHN MONTAGU, 4th Earl of (1718–1792), was born on the 3rd of November 1718 and succeeded his grandfather, Edward, the 3rd earl, in the earldom in 1729. Educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he spent some time in travelling, and on his return to England in 1739 he took his seat in the House of Lords as a follower of the duke of Bedford. He was soon appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty under Bedford and a colonel in the army. In 1746 he was sent as plenipotentiary to the congress at Breda, and he continued to take part in the negotiations for peace until the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded in 1748. In February 1748 he became first lord of the admiralty, retaining this post until he was dismissed by the king in June 1751. In August 17 S3 Sandwich became one of the principal secretaries of state, and while filling this office he took a leading part in the prosecution of John Wilkes. He had been associated with Wilkes in the notorious fraternity of Medmenham, and his attitude now in turning against the former companion of his pleasures made him very unpopular, and, from a line in the Beggar'.v Opera, he was known henceforward as “Jemmy Twitcher.” He was postmaster-general in 1768, secretary of state in 1770, and again first lord -of the admiralty from 1771 to 1782. For corruption and incapacity Sandwich's administration is unique in the history of the British navy. Oltices were bought, stores were stolen and, worst of all, ships, unseaworthy and inadequately equipped, were sent to fight the battles of their country. The first lord became very unpopular in this connexion also, and his retirement in March 1782 was hailed with joy. Sandwich married Dorothy, daughter of Charles, ISI Viscount Fane, by whom he had a son John (1743-1814), who became the 5th earl. He had also several children by the singer Margaret, or Martha, Ray, of whom Basil Montagu (1770-1851), writer, jurist and philanthropist, was one. The murder of Miss Ray by a rejected suitor in April 1779 increased the earl's unpopularity, which was already great, and the stigmas of the prosecution of Wilkes and the corrupt administration of the navy clung to him to the last. He died on the 30th of April 1792. The Sandwich Islands (see HAWAII) were named after him by Captain Cook. His Voyage round the Mediterranean in the Years 1738 and 1739 was published posthumously in 1799, with a very flattering memoir by the Rev. J. Cooke; the Life, Adventures, I ntrigues and Amours of the celebrated Jemmy Tw-itcher (1770), which is extremely rare, tells a very different tale. See also the various collections of letters, memoirs and papers of the time, including Horace Walpole's Letters and Memoirs and the Bedford Correspondence.