1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Schultze, Max Johann Sigismund
SCHULTZE, MAX JOHANN SIGISMUND (1825-1874), German microscopic anatomist, was born at Freiburg in Breisgau (Baden) on the 25th of March 1825. He studied medicine at Greifswald and Berlin, and was appointed extraordinary professor at Halle in 1854 and five years later ordinary professor of anatomy and histology and director of the Anatomical Institute at Bonn. He died at Bonn on the 16th of January 1874. He founded, in 1865, and edited the important Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie, to which he contributed many papers, and he advanced the subject generally, by refining on its technical methods. His works included Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (1851), Über den Organismus der Polythalamien (1854), Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Landplanarien (1857), Zur Kenntnis der elektrischen Organe der Fische (1858) and Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina (1866). His name is especially known for his work on the cell theory. Uniting F. Dujardin's conception of animal sarcode with H. von Mom's of vegetable protoplasma, he pointed out their identity, and included them under the common name of protoplasm, defining the cell as “a nucleated mass of protoplasm with or without a cell-wall” (Das Protoplasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen; ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Zelle, 1863).