1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tirard, Pierre Emanuel
TIRARD, PIERRE EMANUEL (1827-1893), French politician, was born of French parents at Geneva on the 27th of September 1827, and, after studying in his native town, became a civil engineer. After five years of government service he resigned to become a jewel merchant. His determined opposition to the empire, culminating in 1869 in a campaign in favour of the radical candidate opposed to Ollivier, was rewarded by his election as mayor of the 11th arrondissement of Paris and as deputy for the Seine. Nominated a member of the Commune, he protested against the tyranny of the central committee, and escaped from Paris to resume his place among the extreme Left in the National Assembly at Versailles. In 1876 he was returned for the first arrondissement of Paris to the Chamber of Deputies, and was re-elected next year. He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet. He held the same portfolio in the first Freycinet ministry (1879-1880) and in the Jules Ferry cabinet (1880-1881). He was minister of commerce in Freycinet's second cabinet (1882), of finance under E. Duclerc (1882-1883), and under A. Fallières (1883), retaining the same office in the second Jules Ferry ministry (1883-1885). When Carnot became president of the Republic in 1887 he asked Tirard to form a ministry. He had to deal with the Wilson scandal which had led to President Grévy's downfall, and with the revisionist agitation of General Boulanger. His refusal to proceed to the revision of the constitution of 1875 led to his defeat on the goth of March 1888. He returned to power next year, and decided to bring Boulanger and his chief supporters before the High Court, but the general's flight effectively settled the question. He also arrested Philip, duke of Orleans, who had visited France in disguise. He resigned office on the 15th of March 1890 on the question of the Franco-Turkish commercial treaty. He replaced M. Rouvier in the Ribot cabinet (1892-1893) as minister of finance, and died in Paris on the 4th of November 1893.